Topic Editors

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Domenico Montesano, 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy

Biological Activity of Plant Extracts

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 May 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 July 2023)
Viewed by
53712

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of plants for their beneficial effects dates back to the first steps in human history, as shown by Ebers Papyrus. The knowledge of their healing properties has been transmitted over the centuries within and among human communities. Phytochemicals’ secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, or volatile oils are responsible for their biological activities. However, a number of studies report that the activity of plant extracts as the mixture of bioactive constituents produces synergistic effects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms responsible for synergistic of metabolites on the different activities have not been explained yet due to the complex nature of plant extracts. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect original research articles, as well as review articles, addressing recent advances in the extraction, chemical characterization, and potential biological activities of medicinal plants. The in vitro and in vivo biological activities shown by plant extracts will also be considered.

Dr. Carmen Formisano
Prof. Dr. Vincenzo De Feo
Dr. Laura De Martino
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • phytochemistry
  • antimicrobial activity
  • plant extracts
  • essential oils
  • synergism

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Antioxidants
antioxidants
7.0 8.8 2012 13.9 Days CHF 2900
BioChem
biochem
- - 2021 54 Days CHF 1000
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700
Plants
plants
4.5 5.4 2012 15.3 Days CHF 2700

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (24 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Polyphenol Composition by HPLC-DAD-(ESI-)MS/MS and Bioactivities of Extracts from Grape Agri-Food Wastes
by Jonata M. Ueda, Karoline Ribeiro Griebler, Tiane C. Finimundy, Daniele B. Rodrigues, Lavínia Veríssimo, Tânia C. S. P. Pires, João Gonçalves, Isabel P. Fernandes, Eliana Pereira, Lillian Barros, Sandrina A. Heleno and Ricardo C. Calhelha
Molecules 2023, 28(21), 7368; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28217368 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Background: Grape agri-food wastes, such as skin, seeds, and other discarded by-products, contain phytochemical compounds that offer potential health benefits. Methods: This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition and bioactivities of different extracts obtained from grape marc and seeds, with the goal [...] Read more.
Background: Grape agri-food wastes, such as skin, seeds, and other discarded by-products, contain phytochemical compounds that offer potential health benefits. Methods: This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition and bioactivities of different extracts obtained from grape marc and seeds, with the goal of exploring their potential for application as natural food additives. Results: Regardless of the extraction method used (dynamic maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)), all extracts exhibited relatively high concentrations of phenolic compounds. The chemical characterization of the extracts revealed the presence of specific compounds and chemical groups associated with each extraction methodology. Moreover, the extracts displayed satisfactory antioxidant activities, especially in inhibiting lipoperoxidation as assessed by the TBARS assay. Additionally, the extracts demonstrated effective inhibition against different strains of bacteria and fungi known as food contaminants. Taken together, these findings indicate that those extracts have the potential to be tested as natural antioxidants and preservatives with sustainable origins in food and beverage systems. Among the extraction methods evaluated, traditional maceration and UAE provided extracts with the highest antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Conclusions: Our results suggest the opportunity to explore grape marc and seeds discarded by the winery industry in Portugal as natural sources of bioactive compounds, which could be employed as functional food ingredients or technological additives. The valorization of grape biowastes offers a promising strategy to reduce waste and harness their potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 6504 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Variability of Volatile Components in Calypogeia integristipula
by Rafał Wawrzyniak, Małgorzata Guzowska, Wiesław Wasiak, Beata Jasiewicz, Alina Bączkiewicz and Katarzyna Buczkowska
Molecules 2023, 28(21), 7276; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28217276 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Liverworts contain a large number of biologically active compounds that are synthesised and stored in their oil bodies. However, knowledge about the chemical composition of individual species is still incomplete. The subject of the study was Calypogeia integristipula, a species representing leafy [...] Read more.
Liverworts contain a large number of biologically active compounds that are synthesised and stored in their oil bodies. However, knowledge about the chemical composition of individual species is still incomplete. The subject of the study was Calypogeia integristipula, a species representing leafy liverworts. Plant material for chemotaxonomic studies was collected from various locations in Poland. The chemical composition was determined in 74 samples collected from the natural environment in 2021 and 2022 in three growing seasons: spring, summer and autumn, and for comparison with samples originating from in vitro culture. The plants were classified as Calypogeia integristipula on the basis of morphological characteristics, oil bodies, and DNA markers. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the biological material were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The samples were then analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 79 compounds were detected, of which 44 compounds were identified. The remaining compounds were described using the MS fragmentation spectrum. Cyclical changes in the composition of compounds associated with the growing season of Calypogeia integristipula were observed. Moreover, samples from in vitro culture and samples taken from the natural environment were shown to differ in the composition of chemical compounds. In terms of quantity, among the volatile compounds, compounds belonging to the sesquiterpene group (46.54–71.19%) and sesqiuterpenoid (8.12–22.11%) dominate. A smaller number of compounds belong to aromatic compounds (2.30–10.96%), monoterpenes (0.01–0.07%), monoterpenoids (0.02–0.33%), and aliphatic hydrocarbons (1.11–6.12%). The dominant compounds in the analysed liverworts were: anastreptene (15.27–31.14%); bicyclogermacrene (6.99–18.09%), 4,5,9,10-dehydro-isolongifolene (2.00–8.72%), palustrol (4.95–9.94%), spathulenol (0.44–5.11%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

0 pages, 2758 KiB  
Article
Dendritogenic Potential of the Ethanol Extract from Lippia alba Leaves in Rat Cortical Neurons
by María Marcela Velásquez, María Claudia Lattig, Luis Carlos Chitiva, Geison M. Costa, Jhon Jairo Sutachan and Sonia Luz Albarracin
Molecules 2023, 28(18), 6666; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28186666 - 16 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
A reduced dendritic complexity, especially in regions such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, has been linked to the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, in which synaptic plasticity and functions such as emotional and cognitive processing are compromised. For this reason, the [...] Read more.
A reduced dendritic complexity, especially in regions such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, has been linked to the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, in which synaptic plasticity and functions such as emotional and cognitive processing are compromised. For this reason, the identification of new therapeutic strategies would be enriched by the search for metabolites that promote structural plasticity. The present study evaluated the dendritogenic potential of the ethanol extract of Lippia alba, an aromatic plant rich in flavonoids and terpenes, which has been widely used in traditional medicine for its presumed analgesic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant potential. An in vitro model of rat cortical neurons was used to determine the kinetics of the plant’s effect at different time intervals. Changes in morphological parameters of the neurons were determined, as well as the dendritic complexity, by Sholl analysis. The extract promotes the outgrowth of dendritic branching in a rapid and sustained fashion, without being cytotoxic to the cells. We found that this effect could be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, which is involved in mechanisms of neuronal plasticity, differentiation, and survival. The evidence presented in this study provides a basis for further research that, through in vivo models, can delve into the plant’s therapeutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 2338 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Effects and Antioxidant Activity of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oil in Beef Stored under Different Packaging Conditions
by Dirce Moura, Joana Vilela, Sónia Saraiva, Filipe Monteiro-Silva, José M. M. M. De Almeida and Cristina Saraiva
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183390 - 10 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effects of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) essential oil (EO) on pathogenic (E. coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900; Listeria monocytogenes ATCC BAA-679) and spoilage microbiota in beef and determine its minimum inhibitory concentration [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effects of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) essential oil (EO) on pathogenic (E. coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900; Listeria monocytogenes ATCC BAA-679) and spoilage microbiota in beef and determine its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antioxidant activity. The behavior of LAB, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and fungi, as well as total mesophilic (TM) and total psychotropic (TP) counts, in beef samples, was analyzed during storage at 2 and 8 °C in two different packaging systems (aerobiosis and vacuum). Leaves of myrtle were dried, its EO was extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and the chemical composition was determined using chromatographical techniques. The major compounds obtained were myrtenyl acetate (15.5%), β-linalool (12.3%), 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol; 9.9%), geranyl acetate (7.4%), limonene (6.2%), α-pinene (4.4%), linalyl o-aminobenzoate (5.8%), α-terpineol (2.7%), and myrtenol (1.2%). Myrtle EO presented a MIC of 25 µL/mL for E. coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC BAA-679, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150 and 50µL/mL for Pseudomonas spp. The samples packed in aerobiosis had higher counts of deteriorative microorganisms than samples packed under vacuum, and samples with myrtle EO presented the lowest microbial contents, indicating good antimicrobial activity in beef samples. Myrtle EO is a viable natural alternative to eliminate or reduce the pathogenic and deteriorative microorganisms of meat, preventing their growth and enhancing meat safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2881 KiB  
Review
The Research Progress of Bioactive Peptides Derived from Traditional Natural Products in China
by Yanyan Zhang, Lianghong Liu, Min Zhang, Shani Li, Jini Wu, Qiuju Sun, Shengjun Ma and Wei Cai
Molecules 2023, 28(17), 6421; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28176421 - 3 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Traditional natural products in China have a long history and a vast pharmacological repertoire that has garnered significant attention due to their safety and efficacy in disease prevention and treatment. Among the bioactive components of traditional natural products in China, bioactive peptides (BPs) [...] Read more.
Traditional natural products in China have a long history and a vast pharmacological repertoire that has garnered significant attention due to their safety and efficacy in disease prevention and treatment. Among the bioactive components of traditional natural products in China, bioactive peptides (BPs) are specific protein fragments that have beneficial effects on human health. Despite many of the traditional natural products in China ingredients being rich in protein, BPs have not received sufficient attention as a critical factor influencing overall therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current methodologies for the preparation, isolation, and identification of BPs from traditional natural products in China and to classify the functions of discovered BPs. Insights from this review are expected to facilitate the development of targeted drugs and functional foods derived from traditional natural products in China in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 857 KiB  
Article
Chromogenic Assay Is More Efficient in Identifying α-Amylase Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanin-Rich Samples When Compared to the 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid (DNS) Assay
by Sadia Zulfiqar, Federica Blando, Caroline Orfila, Lisa J. Marshall and Christine Boesch
Molecules 2023, 28(17), 6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28176399 - 1 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1512
Abstract
The inhibition of carbohydrate digestion by plant bioactive compounds is a potential dietary strategy to counteract type 2 diabetes. Indeed, inhibition of α-amylase, a key enzyme that carries out the bulk of starch digestion, has been demonstrated for a range of bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
The inhibition of carbohydrate digestion by plant bioactive compounds is a potential dietary strategy to counteract type 2 diabetes. Indeed, inhibition of α-amylase, a key enzyme that carries out the bulk of starch digestion, has been demonstrated for a range of bioactive compounds including anthocyanins; however, sample pigmentation often interferes with measurements, affecting colorimetric assay outcomes. Therefore, the present study compared the performance of a direct chromogenic assay, using 2-chloro-4 nitrophenyl α-D-maltotrioside (CNPG3) as a substrate, with the commonly used 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay. The direct chromogenic assay demonstrated a 5–10-fold higher sensitivity to determine α-amylase inhibition in various samples, including acarbose as a reference, pure anthocyanins, and anthocyanin-rich samples. The IC50 values of acarbose presented as 37.6 μg/mL and 3.72 μg/mL for the DNS assay and the direct chromogenic assay, respectively, whereas purified anthocyanins from blackcurrant showed IC50 values of 227.4 µg/mL and 35.0 µg/mL. The direct chromogenic assay is easy to perform, fast, reproducible, and suitable for high-throughput screening of pigmented α-amylase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 3302 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activity of Wild and Cultivated Rosmarinus officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extracts
by Rosaria Francolino, Mara Martino, Lucia Caputo, Giuseppe Amato, Giuseppina Chianese, Ernesto Gargiulo, Carmen Formisano, Benedetta Romano, Giuseppe Ercolano, Angela Ianaro, Laura De Martino and Vincenzo De Feo
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081633 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an aromatic evergreen plant from the Lamiaceae family. The purpose of this study was to compare the chemical profile and bioactivities of hydroalcoholic extracts derived from wild and cultivated R. officinalis. The chemical composition of the extracts was [...] Read more.
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an aromatic evergreen plant from the Lamiaceae family. The purpose of this study was to compare the chemical profile and bioactivities of hydroalcoholic extracts derived from wild and cultivated R. officinalis. The chemical composition of the extracts was evaluated via LC–MS analysis, which revealed the presence of a wide range of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, phenolic and terpenes. Both extracts showed a similar interesting antioxidant activity, probably related to their content of phenol and flavonoids. The analysis of anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and anti-α-amylase activities showed analogous inhibition, except for AChE, in which the wild type was more active than the cultivated one. Finally, in vitro studies were performed using the J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line, to characterize the anti-inflammatory and the antioxidant effects of the extracts. As expected, pretreatment with the extracts significantly reduced the production proinflammatory cytokines and ROS through modulation of the nitric oxide pathway and the mitochondrial activity. Importantly, it is observed that the anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts was explicated through the inhibition of NF-kB and its downstream mediator COX-2. Collectively, these results demonstrated that these extracts could represent a starting point for developing novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammation-based diseases. Moreover, since no significant changes were observed in terms of composition and activity, both wild and cultivated R. officinalis extracts can be recommended for food and pharmaceutical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 5429 KiB  
Article
Use of Algerian Type Ras El-Hanout Spices Mixture with Marination to Increase the Sensorial Quality, Shelf Life, and Safety of Whole Rabbit Carcasses under Low-O2 Modified Atmosphere Packaging
by Djamel Djenane, Yamina Ben Miri and Agustín Ariño
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2931; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152931 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of combined treatments with Ras El-Hanout spices mixture and marinade solution containing extra virgin olive oil, onion, garlic, and concentrated lemon juice on sensorial quality, shelf life, and safety of whole rabbit carcasses under low-O2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of combined treatments with Ras El-Hanout spices mixture and marinade solution containing extra virgin olive oil, onion, garlic, and concentrated lemon juice on sensorial quality, shelf life, and safety of whole rabbit carcasses under low-O2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The values of pH, water holding capacity, shear force, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total volatile basic nitrogen, color (CIE L*a*b*), sensorial tests, and spoilage microorganisms were determined in rabbit meat at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days during a retail display at 7 ± 1 °C. The results indicated that the marination process using the Ras El-Hanout blend of spices improved the water-holding capacity of meat maintaining optimum pH values. This combined treatment delayed the growth of major spoilage microorganisms, lipid oxidation, protein degradation, and undesirable color changes compared to unmarinated samples from the fifth to the twentieth day of retail exposure. The shelf life of rabbit carcasses under low-O2 MAP could be extended to 20 days of retail display, while rabbit carcasses under aerobic display presented a shorter shelf life of 5 to 10 days. Instrumental and sensorial tests showed that low-O2 MAP enhanced the tenderness of whole rabbit carcasses, with those marinated with Ras El-Hanout being the most positively perceived by the panelists. Marination also inhibited the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, thus increasing the microbiological safety of the packaged product. The overall results indicated that low-O2 MAP combined with the Ras El-Hanout spice blend and marinade solution may represent a promising strategy for retail establishments to improve the quality, shelf life, and safety of rabbit carcasses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 3631 KiB  
Article
The Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) Cladodes and Callus Extracts: A Study Combined with LC-MS Metabolic Profiling, In-Silico, and In-Vitro Analyses
by Dong-Geon Nam, Hee-Sun Yang, Ui-Jin Bae, Eunmi Park, Ae-Jin Choi and Jeong-Sook Choe
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071329 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3816
Abstract
Opuntia ficus-indica (OF) phytochemicals have received considerable attention because of their health benefits. However, the structure-activity relationship between saponin and flavonoid antioxidant compounds among secondary metabolites has rarely been reported. In a molecular docking study, selected compounds from both Opuntia ficus-indica callus (OFC) [...] Read more.
Opuntia ficus-indica (OF) phytochemicals have received considerable attention because of their health benefits. However, the structure-activity relationship between saponin and flavonoid antioxidant compounds among secondary metabolites has rarely been reported. In a molecular docking study, selected compounds from both Opuntia ficus-indica callus (OFC) and OF ethanol extract were found to be involved in Toll-like receptor 4 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. High affinity was specific for MAPK, and it was proposed to inhibit the oxidative and inflammatory responses with poricoic acid H (−8.3 Kcal/mol) and rutin (−9.0 Kcal/mol). The pro-inflammatory cytokine factors at a concentration of 200 μg/mL were LPS-stimulated TNF-α (OFC 72.33 ng/mL, OF 66.78 ng/mL) and IL-1β (OFC 49.10 pg/mL, OF 34.45 pg/mL), both of which significantly decreased OF (p < 0.01, p < 0.001). Taken together, increased NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in cells pretreated with OFC and the OF extract (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that OFC and OF have important potential as natural antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents in health-promoting foods and medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 6717 KiB  
Article
Comparative Virucidal Activities of Essential Oils and Alcohol-Based Solutions against Enveloped Virus Surrogates: In Vitro and In Silico Analyses
by Valentina Parra-Acevedo, Raquel E. Ocazionez, Elena E. Stashenko, Lina Silva-Trujillo and Paola Rondón-Villarreal
Molecules 2023, 28(10), 4156; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28104156 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
The large-scale use of alcohol (OH)-based disinfectants to control pathogenic viruses is of great concern because of their side effects on humans and harmful impact on the environment. There is an urgent need to develop safe and environmentally friendly disinfectants. Essential oils (EOs) [...] Read more.
The large-scale use of alcohol (OH)-based disinfectants to control pathogenic viruses is of great concern because of their side effects on humans and harmful impact on the environment. There is an urgent need to develop safe and environmentally friendly disinfectants. Essential oils (EOs) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA, and many exhibit strong antiviral efficacy against pathogenic human enveloped viruses. The present study investigated the virucidal disinfectant activity of solutions containing EO and OH against DENV-2 and CHIKV, which were used as surrogate viruses for human pathogenic enveloped viruses. The quantitative suspension test was used. A solution containing 12% EO + 10% OH reduced > 4.0 log10 TCID50 (100% reduction) of both viruses within 1 min of exposure. In addition, solutions containing 12% EO and 3% EO without OH reduced > 4.0 log10 TCID50 of both viruses after 10 min and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The binding affinities of 42 EO compounds and viral envelope proteins were investigated through docking analyses. Sesquiterpene showed the highest binding affinities (from −6.7 to −8.0 kcal/mol) with DENV-2 E and CHIKV E1-E2-E3 proteins. The data provide a first step toward defining the potential of EOs as disinfectants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Evaluations of Andrographolide-Rich Fractions of Andrographis paniculata with Enhanced Potential Antioxidant, Anticancer, Antihypertensive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
by Sya’ban Putra Adiguna, Jonathan Ardhianto Panggabean, Respati Tri Swasono, Siti Irma Rahmawati, Fauzia Izzati, Asep Bayu, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra, Carmen Formisano and Chianese Giuseppina
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061220 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3929
Abstract
Andrographis paniculata is widely used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. It has been classified as a safe and non-toxic medicine by traditional Chinese medicine. The investigation of the biological activities of A. paniculata is still focused on the crude extract and [...] Read more.
Andrographis paniculata is widely used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. It has been classified as a safe and non-toxic medicine by traditional Chinese medicine. The investigation of the biological activities of A. paniculata is still focused on the crude extract and isolation of its main active compound, andrographolide, and its derivatives. However, the use of andrographolide alone has been shown to exacerbate unwanted effects. This highlights the importance of developing a fraction of A. paniculata with enhanced efficacy as an herbal-based medicine. In this study, the extraction and fractionation of A. paniculata, followed by quantitative analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a DAD detector, were established to quantify the andrographolide and its derivative in each fraction. Biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory activities, were evaluated to study their correlations with the quantification of active substances of A. paniculata extract and its fractions. The 50% methanolic fraction of A. paniculata exhibited the best cytotoxic activities against CACO-2 cells, as well as the best anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive activities compared to other extracts. The 50% methanolic fraction also displayed the highest quantification of its main active compound, andrographolide, and its derivatives, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, and andrograpanin, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2800 KiB  
Article
In Vitro α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Green Seaweed Halimeda tuna Extract from the Coast of Lhok Bubon, Aceh
by Mohamad Gazali, Odi Jolanda, Amir Husni, Nurjanah, Fadzilah Adibah Abd Majid, Zuriat and Rina Syafitri
Plants 2023, 12(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020393 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
Seaweed belongs to marine biota and contains nutrients and secondary metabolites beneficial for health. This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of extracts and fractions of green seaweed Halimeda tuna. The H. tuna sample was extracted with the maceration method using [...] Read more.
Seaweed belongs to marine biota and contains nutrients and secondary metabolites beneficial for health. This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of extracts and fractions of green seaweed Halimeda tuna. The H. tuna sample was extracted with the maceration method using methanol and then partitioned using ethyl acetate and water to obtain ethyl acetate and water fractions. The methanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and water fraction of H. tuna were tested for their inhibitory activity against α-amilase and α-glucosidase. The methanol extract and the fractions with the highest inhibitory activity were phytochemically tested and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 0.88 ± 0.20 mg/mL) inhibited α-amylase relatively similar to acarbose (IC50 = 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/mL). The methanol extract (IC50 = 0.05 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 0.01 ± 0.00 mg/mL) demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase than acarbose (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.13 mg/mL). Phytochemical testing showed that the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction contained secondary metabolites: alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and phenol hydroquinone. The compounds in methanol extract predicted to have inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were Docosanol, Neophytadiene, Stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-ol,acetate,(3.beta.,5.alpha.,22E), Octadecanoic acid,2-oxo-,methyl ester, and phytol, while those in the ethyl acetate fraction were n-Nonadecane, Phytol, Butyl ester, 14-.Beta.-H-pregna, Octadecenoic acid, and Oleic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Screening and Identification of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds from Erdong Gao via Multiple-Target-Cell Extraction Coupled with HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and Their Structure–Activity Relationship
by Mengyu Li, Hui Luo, Zhen Huang, Jin Qi and Boyang Yu
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010295 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
Erdong Gao (EDG), consisting equally of roots of Asparagi Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix, is a well-known traditional Chinese formulation that has been used to treat cough and throat pain for centuries. However, the bioactive components in EDG remain to be elucidated. In this [...] Read more.
Erdong Gao (EDG), consisting equally of roots of Asparagi Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix, is a well-known traditional Chinese formulation that has been used to treat cough and throat pain for centuries. However, the bioactive components in EDG remain to be elucidated. In this study, a rapid and effective method involving live cell bio-specific extraction and HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was established to rapidly screen and identify the anti-inflammatory compounds of an EDG extract. One hundred and twenty-four components were identified in EDG extract using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. After co-incubation with 16HBE, HPAEpiCs and HUVECs, which have been validated as the key target cells for pulmonary diseases, sixteen components were demonstrated to exhibit an affinity for binding to them. Furthermore, fifteen components were subsequently verified to exert anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 16HBE, HPAEpiCs and HUVECs via inhibiting the release of TNF-α and IL-6, indicating that nine steroidal saponins may possess potential for the treatment of lung-related diseases. Taken together, our study provides evidence that live cell biospecific extraction combined with the HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technique was an efficient method for rapid screening potential bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines and the structure activity relationship of steroidal saponins in EDG was summarized for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2922 KiB  
Article
Effect of Brown Algae and Lichen Extracts on the SCOBY Microbiome and Kombucha Properties
by Darya A. Golovkina, Elena V. Zhurishkina, Olga N. Ayrapetyan, Artem E. Komissarov, Anastasiya S. Krylova, Elizaveta N. Vinogradova, Stepan V. Toshchakov, Filipp K. Ermilov, Artak M. Barsegyan, Anna A. Kulminskaya and Irina M. Lapina
Foods 2023, 12(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010047 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Kombucha tea was made by the fermentation of SCOBY culture of green tea broth with the addition of Fucus vesiculosus algae extract, Cetraria islandica lichen extract and their mixture. Kombucha was also made without the herbal supplements as a control. After 11 days [...] Read more.
Kombucha tea was made by the fermentation of SCOBY culture of green tea broth with the addition of Fucus vesiculosus algae extract, Cetraria islandica lichen extract and their mixture. Kombucha was also made without the herbal supplements as a control. After 11 days of fermentation, in addition to the yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis and the bacteria Komagataeibacter rhaeticus and Komagataeibacter hansenii contained in all of the samples, the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii and bacteria Komagataeibacter cocois were detected in the samples with the herbal extracts. In all of the kombucha with herbal additives, the total fraction of yeast was decreased as compared to the control. The total content of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity of the beverages with and without the addition of herbal extracts were comparable. The kombucha made with the algae extract showed an increased content of sucrose and organic acids, while the fructose and glucose content in the samples with algae and the mixture of extracts were lower than in the other samples. The samples with the algae extract had the highest organoleptic indicators “aroma”, “clarity” and “acidity”, while the control samples had slightly higher indicators of “taste” and “aftertaste”. The results of this study indicate the potential of algae and lichens as functional supplements for obtaining non-alcoholic fermented beverages with additional nutraceutical value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6727 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of Green Gold Nanoparticles and Tannin-Based Derivatives
by Elisângela Gomes De Lima Oliveira, Simone Araújo Vieira, Fernando Antônio Gomes Da Silva, Jr., Mateus Matiuzzi Da Costa, Anderson S. L. Gomes and Helinando P. De Oliveira
BioChem 2022, 2(4), 269-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/biochem2040019 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
The development of composites with antibacterial activity represents an important strategy to avoid side effects such as increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In particular, the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles avoids the use of hazardous chemical compounds and introduces the intrinsic beneficial properties [...] Read more.
The development of composites with antibacterial activity represents an important strategy to avoid side effects such as increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In particular, the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles avoids the use of hazardous chemical compounds and introduces the intrinsic beneficial properties of plant-derived compounds. Herein, the reduction of gold salt into metal nanoparticles was provided by the action of a cationic polymer derived from tannin (Tanfloc®). Comparative activity of antibacterial agents (pure Tanfloc and Au NPs—Tanfloc) at different concentrations were evaluated in terms of the antibiofilm activity, kill-time assays and inhibition haloes confirming the antibacterial activity of the Tanfloc that is reinforced by the incorporation of reduced gold nanoparticles, resulting in the complete elimination of S. aureus from an initial concentration of 108 CFU/mL after 120 min of reaction of Au NPs + Tanfloc solution in association with strong inhibition of the biofilm formation attributed to the Tanfloc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3675 KiB  
Article
Effects of Piper betle L. Extract and Allelochemical Eugenol on Rice and Associated Weeds Germination and Seedling Growth
by Chonnanit Choopayak, Kodchakorn Aranyakanon, Nuttamon Prompakdee, Pranee Nangngam, Anupan Kongbangkerd and Kumrop Ratanasut
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233384 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Natural herbicide is considered as a sustainable approach for weed management in agriculture. Here, allelopathic activities of Piper betle L. extract (BE) and known allelochemical eugenol (EU) were studied against rice and associated weeds in terms of germination and seedling growth. Five plant [...] Read more.
Natural herbicide is considered as a sustainable approach for weed management in agriculture. Here, allelopathic activities of Piper betle L. extract (BE) and known allelochemical eugenol (EU) were studied against rice and associated weeds in terms of germination and seedling growth. Five plant species including a rice crop (Oryza sativa L.); a dicot weed, false daisy (Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.); and three monocot weeds, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.), swollen fingergrass (Chloris barbata Sw.), and weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Roshev.) were studied. The paper-based results demonstrated that BE and EU had inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth. The IC50 values of BE and EU for seed germination were ranked from swollen fingergrass, to false daisy, barnyard grass, rice, and weedy rice, respectively. The ratio of root to shoot length of the seedlings indicated that the roots were more affected by the treatments than the shoots. In addition, the gel-based results showed the reduction of the rice seedling root system, especially on lateral root length and the numbers upon the treatments. Taken together, BE had an allelopathic activity similar to that of EU. Interestingly, the major paddy weed, barnyard grass, was more sensitive to BE than rice, underlining BE as a natural herbicide in rice agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2407 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiling, Antiproliferative and Antimigratory Capacity of Haberlea rhodopensis Extracts in an In Vitro Platform of Various Human Cancer Cell Lines
by Katerina Spyridopoulou, Sotiris Kyriakou, Angeliki Nomikou, Angelos Roupas, Antreas Ermogenous, Katerina Karamanoli, Daniela Moyankova, Dimitar Djilianov, Alex Galanis, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis and Aglaia Pappa
Antioxidants 2022, 11(12), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122305 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Haberlea rhodopensis is a Balkan endemic plant that belongs to the Gesneriaceae family, and is believed to have medicinal use and health-promoting properties. This study aimed to (i) prepare aqueous (HAE) and ethanolic (HEE) extracts from the leaves of H. rhodopensis [...] Read more.
Haberlea rhodopensis is a Balkan endemic plant that belongs to the Gesneriaceae family, and is believed to have medicinal use and health-promoting properties. This study aimed to (i) prepare aqueous (HAE) and ethanolic (HEE) extracts from the leaves of H. rhodopensis from in vitro propagated plants, (ii) screen for their potential antiproliferative and antimigratory activities, and (iii) chemically characterize both HAE and HEE by identifying compounds which may contribute to their observed bioactivity thereby further supporting their potential use in biomedical applications. The antiproliferative activity of both extracts was assessed against six human cancer cell lines by employing the sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. HEE was found to be more potent in inhibiting cancer cell growth as compared to HAE. Therefore, HEE’s antimigratory effects were further studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma (A459) cell lines as they were among the most sensitive ones to its antiproliferative activity. HEE was found to exert significant antimigratory concentration-dependent effects in both cell lines assessed with the wound healing assay. Chemical characterization by UPLC-MS/MS analysis identified that HEE contains higher levels of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, pigments (chlorophyll–/-b, lycopene, and β-carotene), monoterpenoids, and condensed tannins compared to HAE, while HAE, contains higher levels of soluble protein and sugars. Furthermore, HEE demonstrated remarkable antioxidant activity evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS●+) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. We have obtained comprehensive results highlighting the potential of HEE as a source of bioactive compounds with anticancer properties. Future studies should aim at identifying the chemical constituents responsible for the bioactivities observed, and focus on investigating HEE’s effects, in in vivo preclinical cancer models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 1039 KiB  
Article
Insecticidal Activities and GC-MS Analysis of the Selected Family Members of Meliaceae Used Traditionally as Insecticides
by Kolwane Calphonia Shilaluke and Annah Ntsamaeeng Moteetee
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3046; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223046 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The environmental and health risks associated with synthetic pesticides have increased the demand for botanical insecticides as safer and biodegradable alternatives to control insect pests in agriculture. Hence in this study, five Meliaceae species were evaluated for their insecticidal activities against the Spodoptera [...] Read more.
The environmental and health risks associated with synthetic pesticides have increased the demand for botanical insecticides as safer and biodegradable alternatives to control insect pests in agriculture. Hence in this study, five Meliaceae species were evaluated for their insecticidal activities against the Spodoptera frugiperda and the Plutella xylostella larvae, as well as their chemical constituents. Repellence, feeding deterrence, and topical application bioassays were employed to evaluate their insecticidal activities. GC-MS analysis was performed to identify chemical compounds present in each plant. The repellence bioassay indicated that Melia azedarach extracts exhibited the highest repellence percentage against S. frugiperda (95%) and P. xylostella (90%). The feeding deterrence bioassay showed that M. azedarach and Trichilia dregeana extracts displayed excellent antifeeding activity against the S. frugiperda (deterrent coefficient, 83.95) and P. xylostella (deterrent coefficient, 112.25), respectively. The topical application bioassay demonstrated that Ekebergia capensis extracts had the highest larval mortality against S. frugiperda (LD50 0.14 mg/kg). Conversely, M. azedarach extracts showed the highest larval mortality against P. xylostella (LD50 0.14 mg/kg). GC-MS analysis revealed that all plant extracts had compounds belonging to the two noteworthy groups (phenols and terpenes), which possess insecticidal properties. Overall, this study lends scientific credence to the folkloric use of Meliaceae species as potential biocontrol agents against insect pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4263 KiB  
Article
Polygalaxanthone III, an Active Ingredient in Polygala japonica Houtt., Repaired Malassezia-Stimulated Skin Injury via STAT3 Phosphorylated Activation
by Xiaobin Yang, Bei Xiong, Zhuolei Yuan, Hui Liao, Xiaowei Liu, Yinan Wu, Shu Zhang and Qi Xiang
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7520; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217520 - 3 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Malassezia is a genus of commensal and lipid-dependent yeasts in human skin which also have a pathogenic lifestyle associated with several common skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Symptoms include red, itchy, and inflamed skin. We studied the growth characteristics and [...] Read more.
Malassezia is a genus of commensal and lipid-dependent yeasts in human skin which also have a pathogenic lifestyle associated with several common skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Symptoms include red, itchy, and inflamed skin. We studied the growth characteristics and biochemical analyses of M. furfur which showed that the protein contents were greater in extracts taken at 24 h. These were then used to infect C57BL/6 mice, resulting in skin rupture. Polygalaxanthone III (POL), a more effective anti-inflammatory ingredient in Polygala japonica Houtt., was applied externally to the ulceration and successfully healed the wounds quickly. POL could not inhibit Malassezia activity as tested by the inhibition zone test, but affected the formation of lipid droplets in HaCaT cells. The wound-healing molecular mechanisms may be involved in the STAT3 pathway according to the Western blot results of skin tissues. Malassezia’s role in skin health is far from certain, and there is no clear solution, so understanding the development of Malassezia-associated skin diseases in general and seeking solutions are very important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1344 KiB  
Article
Extraction, Characterization, and Chitosan Microencapsulation of Bioactive Compounds from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabis indica L., and Mitragyna speiosa K.
by Srisan Phupaboon, Maharach Matra, Ronnachai Prommachart, Pajaree Totakul, Chanadol Supapong and Metha Wanapat
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112103 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
The objective of the research was to investigate the bioactive compounds of herbal plant leaves by microencapsulation technique for future application as a feed additive. In this experiment, three herbal plant leaves, namely Cannabis sativa L., Cannabis indica L., and Mitragyna speiosa K., [...] Read more.
The objective of the research was to investigate the bioactive compounds of herbal plant leaves by microencapsulation technique for future application as a feed additive. In this experiment, three herbal plant leaves, namely Cannabis sativa L., Cannabis indica L., and Mitragyna speiosa K., were comparatively investigated using different methods to extract their bioactive compounds. Two methods were used to extract the bioactive compounds: microwave extraction (water-heating transferred) and maceration extraction (methanol extracted). The results obtained using microwave extraction revealed that the total polyphenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher and stronger, respectively, than those produced by the maceration extraction method (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the spray-drying technique was employed to enhance the extracted compounds by encapsulation with chitosan through ionic gelation properties. The physical characteristics of chitosan-encapsulated substrates were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and were as microparticle size (1.45 to 11.0 µm). The encapsulation efficiency of the bioactive compounds was found to be 99.7, 82.3, and 54.6% for microencapsulated M. speiosa, C. indica, and C. sativa, respectively. Therefore, microwave treatment prior to chitosan encapsulation of leaf extracts resulted in increased recovery of bioactive compound encroachment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1359 KiB  
Article
Antifeeding and Oviposition Deterrent Effect of Ludwigia spp. (Onagraceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
by Eliana Aparecida Ferreira, Eduardo Carvalho Faca, Silvana Aparecida de Souza, Claudemir Antonio Garcia Fioratti, Juliana Rosa Carrijo Mauad, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Munir Mauad and Rosilda Mara Mussury
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192656 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Plants produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds with insecticidal properties, such as secondary metabolites capable of interfering with the nutrition and reproduction of pest species such as Plutella xylostella. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Plants produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds with insecticidal properties, such as secondary metabolites capable of interfering with the nutrition and reproduction of pest species such as Plutella xylostella. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ludwigia spp. (Onagraceae) on the feeding and oviposition of P. xylostella. Choice bioassays were performed using aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The aqueous extract of L. tomentosa resulted in an approximately 81% reduction in larval feeding compared to that in the control, with an antifeedant index (AI) of 52%. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of L. nervosa acted by stimulating larval feeding. The oviposition was significantly reduced in the kale leaves treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ludwigia spp. The aqueous extracts promoted an average 90% reduction in oviposition when compared to that in the control, and an oviposition deterrent index (ODI) above 61% was classified as an oviposition deterrent. In addition, ethanolic extracts affected 81% of oviposition, with an ODI above 41%. Bioassays should be performed to clarify the use of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of L. nervosa as they acted as phagostimulants in the feeding tests and as deterrents in the oviposition tests. The phenolic compounds—flavonoids, condensed tannins, and alkaloids—were more abundant in L. nervosa, L. tomentosa, L. sericea, and L. longifolia. The extracts of L. longifolia and L. tomentosa showed the best results, interfering with the host choice for feeding and oviposition in P. xylostella and representing an alternative for the control of diamondback moths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7458 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Properties and In Vitro Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Flower of Clitoria ternatea L.
by Chao Li, Wei Tang, Shanglong Chen, Juping He, Xiaojing Li, Xucheng Zhu, Haimei Li and Yao Peng
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6336; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196336 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Phenolic compounds from the flower of Clitoria ternatea L. (PCFCTL) were extracted using a high-speed shearing extraction technique and purified by AB-8 macroporous resins, and the phytochemical composition of the purified phenolic compounds from the flower of Clitoria ternatea L. (PPCFCTL) was then [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds from the flower of Clitoria ternatea L. (PCFCTL) were extracted using a high-speed shearing extraction technique and purified by AB-8 macroporous resins, and the phytochemical composition of the purified phenolic compounds from the flower of Clitoria ternatea L. (PPCFCTL) was then analyzed. Subsequently, its bioactivities including antioxidant properties, enzyme inhibitory activities, and antiproliferative activities against several tumor cell lines were evaluated. Results indicated that the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and phenolic acids in PPCFCTL were increased by 3.29, 4.11, 2.74, 2.43, and 2.96-fold, respectively, compared with those before being purified by AB-8 macroporous resins. The results showed PPCFCTL have significant antioxidant ability (measured by reducing power, RP, and ferric reducing antioxidant power method, FRAP) and good DPPH, ABTS+, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. They can also significantly inhibit lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase. In addition, morphological changes of HeLa, HepG2, and NCI-H460 tumor cells demonstrated the superior antitumor performance of PPCFCTL. However, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was relatively weak. These findings suggest that PPCFCTL have important potential as natural antioxidant, antilipidemic, anti-glycemic and antineoplastic agents in health-promoting foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2349 KiB  
Article
Green Extraction of Annatto Seed Oily Extract and Its Use as a Pharmaceutical Material for the Production of Lipid Nanoparticles
by Sônia do Socorro do C. Oliveira, Edmilson dos S. Sarmento, Victor H. Marinho, Rayanne R. Pereira, Luis P. Fonseca and Irlon M. Ferreira
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165187 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
This work developd nanomaterials formulated from annatto seed oily extract (ASE), myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid), and their fatty acid esters. The annatto seed oily extract was obtained using only soybean oil (ASE + SO) and Brazil nut oil (ASE + BNO). The UV/VIS [...] Read more.
This work developd nanomaterials formulated from annatto seed oily extract (ASE), myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid), and their fatty acid esters. The annatto seed oily extract was obtained using only soybean oil (ASE + SO) and Brazil nut oil (ASE + BNO). The UV/VIS analysis of the oily extracts showed three characteristic peaks of the bixin molecule at 430, 456 and 486 nm. The lipid nanoparticles obtained using myristic acid and ASE + BNO or only BNO showed better results than the oil soybean extract, i.e., the particle size was <200 nm, PDI value was in the range of 0.2–0.3, and had no visual physical instability as they kept stable for 28 days at 4 °C. Lipid nanoemulsions were also produced with esters of myristic acid and ASE + BNO. These fatty acid esters significantly influenced the particle size of nanoemulsions. For instance, methyl tetradecanoate led to the smallest particle size nanoemulsions (124 nm), homogeneous size distribution, and high physical stability under 4 and 32 °C for 28 days. This work demonstrates that the chemical composition of vegetable oils and myristic acid esters, the storage temperature, the chain length of fatty acid esters (FAE), and their use as co-lipids improve the physical stability of lipid nanoemulsions and nanoparticles from annatto seed oily extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 4978 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Morinda citrifolia Activities through Pinoresinol and α-EG Related Gene Expression
by Runglawan Sudmoon, Sanit Kaewdaungdee, Unchaleeporn Ameamsri, Tawatchai Tanee, Pornnarong Siripiyasing, Warin Wonok and Arunrat Chaveerach
Plants 2022, 11(15), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11151985 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
α-EG is a unique substance that was first found in the leaves and fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Mc) growing in Thailand using GC-MS at 52.33% and 54.12%. It was then concentrated and its abundance quantified, along with that of pinoresinol, via GC, compared [...] Read more.
α-EG is a unique substance that was first found in the leaves and fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Mc) growing in Thailand using GC-MS at 52.33% and 54.12%. It was then concentrated and its abundance quantified, along with that of pinoresinol, via GC, compared to the standards in leaves, ufp, rfp, rawfs, and seeds. α-EG and pinoresinol, which have collagen stimulating, skin whitening, and an inhibitory effect on wrinkle formation, were found in different concentrations and amounts. Three different concentrations of the five Mc part extracts were tested on NHDF for gene expression related to the aforementioned activities, COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1, FGF1 and FGF7 by qRT-PCR. The results showed various expression levels, both stimulatory and inhibitory, with different concentrations of plant parts and genes. Similar results were revealed when the experiments were performed with Morus alba (Ma), which was found to contain 20.48 g protein p/100 g leaves at concentrations of 3.11 mg/mL. The studied Mc parts seem to have advantages based on the stated objectives, gene type and level of activity of each plant part. Rawfs and leaves supplemented with Ma samples were selected for toxicity tests with PBMCs. The lack of both cell and DNA toxicity from the rawfs indicated that they can be used safely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop