Topic Editors

Department of Dental Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
Prof. Dr. Chukuka Samuel Enwemeka
College of Health and Human Services, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA
European Master in Oral Laser Applications (EMDOLA), University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium

Medical and Dental Care, Photobiomodulation and Photomedicine

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
19979

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research in medical and dental fields is in continuous progress. The aim of our topic is to open the door for all studies in medical and dental fields.

Furthermore, the use of photobiomodulation (PBM) with low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes was stated in the early 1960s for different therapeutic purposes. Since that date, considerable advances have been noticed in this medical field. Different lights at different wavelengths are employed because of the difference in tissue penetration depth and tissue absorption. The literature shows important therapeutic applications in the reduction in inflammation, pain relief, acceleration of tissue regeneration, replacement of acupuncture needles, muscle relax, treatment of numerous neurological and psychological conditions, cellular anti-apoptotic effect, cellular antioxidant responses, increase in tissue immunity, in crease of tissue blood flow, increase in cell metabolism, etc. The photobiomodulation parameters and dosimetry (irradiance, quantity of energy delivered, duration, and frequency of the treatments) are in continuous improvement and adaptation, aiming to allow reproducibility and predictability of treatment outcomes. The aim of our topic is to collect clinical applications of PBM and to update the knowledge on dosimetry and PBM parameters in order to disseminate and to promote the use of PBM in the medical and dental fields.

Looking forward to receiving your manuscripts.

Prof. Dr. Samir Nammour
Topic Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Dr. Chukuka Samuel Enwemeka
Prof. Dr. Aldo Brugnera Junior
Topic Associate Editor-in-Chief

Keywords

  • dental hygiene
  • dental therapy
  • dental nursing
  • dental professional practice
  • dental technology
  • materials science
  • dental traumatology
  • dentistry special topics
  • endodontics
  • esthetic dentistry
  • general dentistry
  • gerodontology
  • implant dentistry
  • restorative dentistry
  • dental trauma
  • dental therapy
  • oral diagnosis
  • oral medicine
  • orthodontics
  • sedation dentistry
  • photobiomodulation (PBM)
  • photomedicine
  • photodentistry
  • laser surgery
  • optical diagnostics
  • PBM and therapy
  • PBM and treatment
  • antimicrobial phototherapy
  • photointeraction—matters
  • photointeraction—tissue
  • PBM and prevention
  • PBM and conservative dentistry
  • PBM and conservative medicine
  • PBM and chemistry
  • PBM and biochemistry
  • PBM and cellular physiology
  • PBM and cell

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Dentistry Journal
dentistry
2.6 4.0 2013 27.8 Days CHF 2000 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Life
life
3.2 2.7 2011 17.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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11 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Rh-BMP2: Effect on Gingival Healing Acceleration and Proliferation of Human Epithelial Cells
by Mansour Chantiri, Samir Nammour, Sami El Toum and Toni Zeinoun
Life 2024, 14(4), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14040459 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 527
Abstract
This study aims to histologically and immunohistochemically evaluate the effect recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rh-BMP2) injected in gingival tissue has on the acceleration of the epithelial migration from the wound edges and epithelial cell proliferation after implant surgery. Material and Methods: The [...] Read more.
This study aims to histologically and immunohistochemically evaluate the effect recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rh-BMP2) injected in gingival tissue has on the acceleration of the epithelial migration from the wound edges and epithelial cell proliferation after implant surgery. Material and Methods: The study includes 20 patients who underwent bilateral implant surgeries in the premolar-molar region of the mandible, followed by guided bone regeneration. Each patient received an implant in both locations, but rh-BMP2 was only on the right side. At 9 days from the surgery, a gingival biopsy was performed 3 mm distally to the last implant. In total, 20 samples were collected from the left side (control group #1) and 20 from right (test group #1). This was repeated at a 4-month interval during healing abutment placements. Tissues were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and then immunohistochemically for the expression of Ki-67 and further histological examination. Result: Complete closure of the epithelium with new cell formation was observed in the 55% test group and 20% control group after 9 days. At 4 months, although 100% samples of all groups had complete epithelial closure, the test group showed that the epithelial cells were more organized and mature due to the increased number of blood vessels. The average number of new epithelial cells was 17.15 ± 7.545 and 16.12 ± 7.683 cells per mm in test group, respectively, at 9 days and 4 months and 10.99 ± 5.660 and 10.95 ± 5.768 in control groups. Conclusion: Evident from histological observations, rh-BMP-2 can accelerate the closure of gingival wounds, the healing process of epithelial gingival tissue, and the formation of epithelial cells in patients undergoing dental implant treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a Photobiomodulation Protocol to Improve the Cell Viability, Proliferation and Protein Expression in Osteoblasts and Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts for Accelerated Orthodontic Treatment
by Aline Gonçalves, Francisca Monteiro, Sofia Oliveira, Inês Costa, Susana O. Catarino, Óscar Carvalho, Jorge Padrão, Andrea Zille, Teresa Pinho and Filipe S. Silva
Biomedicines 2024, 12(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12010180 - 14 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Numerous pieces of evidence have supported the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation (PBM) to modulate bone remodeling on mechanically stimulated teeth, proving PBM’s ability to be used as a coadjuvant treatment to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, there are still uncertainty and discourse [...] Read more.
Numerous pieces of evidence have supported the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation (PBM) to modulate bone remodeling on mechanically stimulated teeth, proving PBM’s ability to be used as a coadjuvant treatment to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, there are still uncertainty and discourse around the optimal PBM protocols, which hampers its optimal and consolidated clinical applicability. Given the differential expression and metabolic patterns exhibited in the tension and compression sides of orthodontically stressed teeth, it is plausible that different types of irradiation may be applied to each side of the teeth. In this sense, this study aimed to design and implement an optimization protocol to find the most appropriate PBM parameters to stimulate specific bone turnover processes. To this end, three levels of wavelength (655, 810 and 940 nm), two power densities (5 and 10 mW/cm2) and two regimens of single and multiple sessions within three consecutive days were tested. The biological response of osteoblasts and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts was addressed by monitoring the PBM’s impact on the cellular metabolic activity, as well as on key bone remodeling mediators, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANK-L), each day. The results suggest that daily irradiation of 655 nm delivered at 10 mW/cm2, as well as 810 and 940 nm light at 5 mW/cm2, lead to an increase in ALP and OPG, potentiating bone formation. In addition, irradiation of 810 nm at 5 mW/cm2 delivered for two consecutive days and suspended by the third day promotes a downregulation of OPG expression and a slight non-significant increase in RANK-L expression, being suitable to stimulate bone resorption. Future studies in animal models may clarify the impact of PBM on bone formation and resorption mediators for longer periods and address the possibility of testing different stimulation periodicities. The present in vitro study offers valuable insights into the effectiveness of specific PBM protocols to promote osteogenic and osteoclastogenesis responses and therefore its potential to stimulate bone formation on the tension side and bone resorption on the compression side of orthodontically stressed teeth. Full article
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13 pages, 2092 KiB  
Article
Effect of rh-BMP-2 in the Initiation of Neovascularization in Human Gingival Tissue: A Split-Mouth Clinical Study
by Mansour Chantiri, Samir Nammour, Sami El Toum and Toni Zeinoun
Life 2023, 13(12), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13122298 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect on the initiation of new blood vessel formation of rh-BMP-2 administration in the human gingival tissue during bone regeneration surgery. Material and Methods: The randomized controlled clinical trial included twenty patients with bilateral [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect on the initiation of new blood vessel formation of rh-BMP-2 administration in the human gingival tissue during bone regeneration surgery. Material and Methods: The randomized controlled clinical trial included twenty patients with bilateral partial edentulous of the mandibular premolar and molar region. Each patient received one implants on each side. Only one side received a 0.25 µg injection of rhBMP-2 into the gingival flap and grafted material during guided bone regeneration (GBR) for dental implantation. And the other side received GBR without injection. Three samples were collected from each patient as follows: one from the anterior area of the mandible (control group #1) collected at the time of all implant surgeries, and the two other samples during the placement of healing abutments at 4 months of follow-up, from treated side with rh-BMP-2 (test group) and untreated ones (control group #2). A total of 60 gingival samples were collected. Samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and immunohistochemistry was performed with a vascular endothelial growth factor marker. The number of new vessels in each sample was counted. Result: Statistical analyses showed a significantly higher number of new vessels in the gingival tissue of the test group. Conclusions: Rh-BMP-2 injections into the gingival flap significantly improved new blood vessel formation. Full article
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10 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Photodynamic Therapy with Tolonium Chloride and a Diode Laser (635 nm) in the Non-Surgical Management of Periodontitis: A Clinical Study
by Marwan El Mobadder, Samir Nammour and Kinga Grzech-Leśniak
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165270 - 13 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using tolonium chloride and a 635 nm diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontitis treatment, specifically scaling and root planing (SRP) alone. A total of 32 patients with a pocket probing [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using tolonium chloride and a 635 nm diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontitis treatment, specifically scaling and root planing (SRP) alone. A total of 32 patients with a pocket probing depth > 5 mm were included in the study. Among them, 16 patients underwent SRP alone (control group), and the remaining 16 patients received SRP along with PDT (study group). The PDT procedure utilized a 635 nm diode laser (Smart M, Lasotronix, Poland) and tolonium chloride. Clinical periodontal parameters, such as the plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival recession (GR), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL), were assessed before treatment (T0) and at 3 months after treatment (T3). At T3, both groups demonstrated a significant reduction in the PI, BOP, PD, and CAL compared to T0. The SRP + PDT group displayed a significant reduction in PPD (3.79 mm ± 0.35) compared to the SRP alone group (4.85 mm ± 0.42) at T3. Furthermore, the SRP + PDT group exhibited a significant reduction in CAL (5.01 ± 0.81) compared to the SRP group (5.99 ± 1.08) at T3. Within the study’s limitations, it was concluded that PDT, with tolonium chloride and a 635 nm diode laser, significantly contributed to the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. Full article
16 pages, 718 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy as Antiseptic Measure for Oral Cavity and Pharynx: A Systematic Review
by Diana Sologova, Marina Petukhova, Polina Podoplelova, Dinislam Davletshin, Anna Firsova, Andrey Grishin, Mikhail Grin, Nikita Suvorov, Yuriy Vasil’ev, Sergey Dydykin, Elena Rysanova, Victoria Shchelkova, Svetlana Tarasenko and Ekaterina Diachkova
Dent. J. 2023, 11(8), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11080192 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Background: The complex traditional treatment of inflammation diseases in oral cavity includes the prescription of antibiotic and antiseptic therapy. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy as a part of management of inflammatory diseases in oral cavity; Methods: The [...] Read more.
Background: The complex traditional treatment of inflammation diseases in oral cavity includes the prescription of antibiotic and antiseptic therapy. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy as a part of management of inflammatory diseases in oral cavity; Methods: The study is presented in accordance with the preferred reporting points for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). This systematic review was conducted using electronic databases such as Medline PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. All the studies in this systematic review, were randomized, the risk of bias 2 (ROB 2) were assessed; Results: Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 10 randomized clinical trials, published up to 2023 investigating the application of photodynamic therapy as a part of management of inflammatory diseases in oral cavity. The diode laser was used in the oral cavity in the zone of inflammatory process (gingivitis, mucositis, periimplantitis, marginal periodontitis, abscess, periostitis, osteomyelitis etc.) in nine studies or in the zone before surgical procedures in one study; Conclusion: Based on the results of clinical studies, it can be stated that photodynamic therapy shows good results for operations performed in the oral cavity and pharynx. Full article
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10 pages, 1687 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Laser Intensity at the Peripheral Nerve and Inhibitory Effect of Percutaneous Photobiomodulation on Neuronal Firing in a Rat Spinal Dorsal Horn
by Daisuke Uta, Naoya Ishibashi, Yuki Kawase, Shinichi Tao, Masahito Sawahata and Toshiaki Kume
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155126 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Photobiomodulation is an effective treatment for pain. We previously reported that the direct laser irradiation of the exposed sciatic nerve inhibited firing in the rat spinal dorsal horn evoked by mechanical stimulation, corresponding to the noxious stimulus. However, percutaneous laser irradiation is used [...] Read more.
Photobiomodulation is an effective treatment for pain. We previously reported that the direct laser irradiation of the exposed sciatic nerve inhibited firing in the rat spinal dorsal horn evoked by mechanical stimulation, corresponding to the noxious stimulus. However, percutaneous laser irradiation is used in clinical practice, and it is unclear whether it can inhibit the firing of the dorsal horn. In this study, we investigated whether the percutaneous laser irradiation of the sciatic nerve inhibits firing. Electrodes were inserted into the lamina II of the dorsal horn, and mechanical stimulation was applied using von Frey filaments (vFFs) with both pre and post laser irradiation. Our findings show that percutaneous laser irradiation inhibited 26.0 g vFF-evoked firing, which corresponded to the noxious stimulus, but did not inhibit 0.6 g and 8.0 g vFF-evoked firing. The post- (15 min after) and pre-irradiation firing ratios were almost the same as those for direct and percutaneous irradiation. A photodiode sensor implanted in the sciatic nerve showed that the power density reaching the sciatic nerve percutaneously was attenuated to approximately 10% of that on the skin. The relationship between the laser intensity reaching the nerve and its effect could be potentially useful for a more appropriate setting of laser conditions in clinical practice. Full article
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8 pages, 2803 KiB  
Case Report
Human Histological Analysis of Early Bone Response to Immediately Loaded Narrow Dental Implants with Biphasic Calcium Phosphate® Grid-Blasted Surface Treatment: A Case Report
by Tárcio Hiroshi Ishimine Skiba, Eduardo C. Kalil, Adriano Piattelli and Jamil Awad Shibli
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070177 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Implant surface topography using bioactive material provides faster bone-to-implant healing. This histological report described the analysis of human bone tissue around an immediately loaded implant, with BPC® (Biphasic Calcium Phosphate) grit-blasted surface treatment, after two months of healing. Two temporary mini-implants (2.8 [...] Read more.
Implant surface topography using bioactive material provides faster bone-to-implant healing. This histological report described the analysis of human bone tissue around an immediately loaded implant, with BPC® (Biphasic Calcium Phosphate) grit-blasted surface treatment, after two months of healing. Two temporary mini-implants (2.8 × 10 mm) with BPC® grit-blasting surfaces were placed and immediately loaded to retain a complete interim denture. After a 60-day healing period, one mini-implant was removed for histologic analysis. The ground section showed the whole implant surrounded by healthy peri-implant tissues. Implant surface presented a close contact with newly formed bone, showing some areas of osteoblasts secreting mineral matrix. The ground section depicted a bone contact of 60.3 + 8.5%. The BPC® grit-blasted surface was biocompatible and enabled the osseointegration process after a short-term period. Full article
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14 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Success Rate of Direct Pulp Capping with Conventional Procedures Using Ca (OH)2 and Bioactive Tricalcium Silicate Paste vs. Laser-Assisted Procedures (Diode 980 nm, CO2, and Er: YAG)
by Samir Nammour, Marwan El Mobadder, Melanie Namour, Saad Houeis, Daniel Heysselaer, Paul Nahas, Carmen D. Todea, Jacek Matys, Kinga Grzech-Leśniak, Aneta Olszewska, Wassim El Mobadder, Ilaria Giovannacci, Markus Laky, Amaury Namour and Sabine Geerts
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070834 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Direct pulp capping (DPC) is reliable in pulp exposure management. Objective: This study aimed to assess the success rate of DPC materials and different laser protocols. The included procedures were CO2 laser (n = 1147), Er: YAG laser (n = [...] Read more.
Direct pulp capping (DPC) is reliable in pulp exposure management. Objective: This study aimed to assess the success rate of DPC materials and different laser protocols. The included procedures were CO2 laser (n = 1147), Er: YAG laser (n = 69), and 980 nm diode laser (n = 124), on the one hand, and Ca (OH)2 (n = 376) and bioactive tricalcium silicate paste, on the other (n = 279). Materials and methods: Data from 1995 DPC cases were included. For laser groups, irradiation was used to coagulate the pulp exposure followed by Ca (OH)2 placement. Data with follow-up at 12, 24, and 36 months post-treatment were included. The irradiation parameters for the CO2 laser were as follows: energy density per pulse of 141 J/cm², 1 W power, 0.3 mm beam diameter, 100 ms pulse duration, and 1 Hz, and a series of five pulses maximum were delivered during 5 s. For the 980 diode lasers: 1.5 W power, continuous wave (CW), 400 μm fiber diameter, contact mode, 190.98 W/cm2 power density, and total delivered energy density of 2387 J/cm2. For the Er: YAG laser: 0.5 W output power, 9.95 J/cm2 energy density, a beam diameter of 0.8 mm, 300 µsec pulse duration, 10 Hz, non-contact mode, irradiation with air without water spray, and an average irradiation time of 8–10 s. Results: At the 3-year follow-up, the success percentages were as follows: CO2 (88.01%) > Ca (OH)2 (75.72%) > diode (70.01%) > Er: YAG (54.55%) > bioactive tricalcium silicate paste (51.1%). The timing of permanent filling (immediate or delayed), patient age, size of pulp exposure, tooth type, and exposure etiology significantly affected the success rate. Patients aged ≤ 35 years presented higher success (70.91%) compared to those ≥ 36 years (61.2%). Immediate permanent fillings increase the success rate (71.41%) compared to delayed permanent fillings (65.93%). Exposure in molars and premolars significantly lowers the success rate (60.3%) compared to canines and incisors (72.1%). Idiopathic pulp exposure presented higher success (72.58%) compared to caries-related causes (63.7%). Conclusion: The highest success rate was in the CO2 laser group followed by the diode and Ca (OH)2, Er: YAG, and bioactive tricalcium silicate material (biodentine) groups. The age factor, filling timing, size of exposure, tooth type, and exposure etiology can significantly affect the success rate of DPC. Full article
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23 pages, 1685 KiB  
Review
Effects of Photobiomodulation Using Low-Level Laser Therapy on Alveolar Bone Repair
by Renata Gonçalves Rando, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Paula Cristina Cola and Rogerio Leone Buchaim
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070734 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Alveolar bone repair is a complex and extremely important process, so that functions such as the mastication, occlusion and osseointegration of implants can be properly reestablished. Therefore, in order to optimize this process, many procedures have been used, such as grafting with biomaterials [...] Read more.
Alveolar bone repair is a complex and extremely important process, so that functions such as the mastication, occlusion and osseointegration of implants can be properly reestablished. Therefore, in order to optimize this process, many procedures have been used, such as grafting with biomaterials and the application of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Another method that has been studied is the use of photobiomodulation (PBM) with the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), which, through the absorption of photons by the tissue, triggers photochemical mechanisms in the cells so that they start to act in the search for homeostasis of the affected region. Therefore, the objective of this review was to analyze the use of LLLT as a possible auxiliary tool in the alveolar bone repair process. A search was carried out in scientific databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane) regarding the following descriptors: “low-level laser therapy AND alveolar bone repair” and “photobiomodulation AND alveolar bone repair”. Eighteen studies were selected for detailed analysis, after excluding duplicates and articles that did not meet predetermined inclusion or non-inclusion criteria. According to the studies, it has been seen that LLLT promotes the acceleration of alveolar repair due to the stimulation of ATP production, activation of transcription and growth factors, attenuation of the inflammatory process and induction of angiogenesis. These factors depend on the laser application protocol, and the Gallium Aluminum Arsenide—GaAlAs laser, with a wavelength of 830 nm, was the most used and, when applications of different energy densities were compared, the highest dosages showed themselves to be more efficient. Thus, it was possible to conclude that PBM with LLLT has beneficial effects on the alveolar bone repair process due to its ability to reduce pain, the inflammatory process, induce vascular sprouting and, consequently, accelerate the formation of a new bone matrix, favoring the maintenance or increase in height and/or thickness of the alveolar bone ridge. Full article
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9 pages, 1489 KiB  
Case Report
Management of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Photobiomodulation and Minimal Surgical Intervention
by Marwan El Mobadder, Zuzanna Grzech-Lesniak, Wassim El Mobadder, Mohamad Rifai, Maher Ghandour and Samir Nammour
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050127 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a relatively common pathology occurring in around 5% of patients taking bisphosphate and other antiresorptive or anti-angiogenic medications. Despite the efforts, as of today there is still no consensus on its management. In this case report, [...] Read more.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a relatively common pathology occurring in around 5% of patients taking bisphosphate and other antiresorptive or anti-angiogenic medications. Despite the efforts, as of today there is still no consensus on its management. In this case report, the successful management of stage II MRONJ was performed for an eighty-three-year-old female patient suffering from pain and alteration in her normal oral functions (swallowing and phonation). The treatment consisted of three sessions of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM), followed by minimal surgical intervention and three other sessions of PBM. PBM was applied on the sites of osteonecrosis with the follow parameters: 4 J/cm2; a power of 50 mW; 8 mm applicator diameter; a continuous contact mode. Irradiation was performed on three points, including the vestibular, occlusal and lingual parts of each of the bone exposure areas. Each point was irradiated for 40 s, and, in total, nine points were made per session, and nine sessions were conducted. To assess the pain, a visual analogue scale was used in which zero represented no pain at all and ten represented the greatest pain. At the first session and before any intervention, the patient stated that her pain was 8 out of 10. At the end of the treatment, a significant reduction in VAS was noted (2/10) and, clinically, a healing of the soft tissue in the previously exposed bone was observed. This case report suggests that the combination of PBM with surgical intervention is promising in the management of MRONJ. Full article
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11 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Pre-Chemotherapy Dental Screening: Is There Additional Diagnostic Value for a Panoramic Radiograph?
by Judith A. E. M. Zecha, Alexa M. G. A. Laheij, Judith E. Raber-Durlacher, Anneke M. Westermann, Jan de Lange and Ludwig E. Smeele
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050122 - 04 May 2023
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Background: The oral cavity is a potential source of infectious complications in patients treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy (CT). Pre-chemotherapy oral examination to identify foci of infection is recommended, but it is unclear whether this should include panoramic radiography. The present study aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: The oral cavity is a potential source of infectious complications in patients treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy (CT). Pre-chemotherapy oral examination to identify foci of infection is recommended, but it is unclear whether this should include panoramic radiography. The present study aimed to evaluate the additional diagnostic merit of panoramic radiography as part of pre-CT oral screening. Methods: Patients with solid tumors scheduled to receive a myelosuppressive CT were eligible. The foci definition followed the guidelines of the Dutch Association of Maxillofacial Surgery. Oral foci assessed by clinical evaluation and panoramic radiography were compared. Results: In 33 out of 93 patients (35.5%), one or more foci were identified by clinical examination, whereas in 49.5% of patients, panoramic radiography showed pathology. In 19 patients, an oral focus was missed by clinical examination only, whereas in 11 patients, panoramic radiography indicated periodontal bone loss, but advanced periodontitis was not substantiated by clinical examination. Conclusions: Panoramic radiographs complement clinical examinations and have additional diagnostic value. Nevertheless, the additional merit seems small, and the clinical relevance may vary depending on the anticipated risk of developing oral complications and the need for detailed diagnosis and rigorous elimination of oral foci prior to the start of cancer therapy. Full article
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11 pages, 14150 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Periodontal Cementum Ablation Depth during Root Planing by an Er:YAG Laser at Different Energy Densities: An Ex Vivo Study
by Paul Nahas, Saad Houeis, Remi Chamboredon, Daniel Heysselaer, Toni Zeinoun and Samir Nammour
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050116 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Introduction: An important and non-adapted delivered energy of Er:YAG laser can eliminate the total thickness of root cementum during root planing. Conversely, the preservation of a partial layer of cementum covering the roots is vital for any periodontal ligament regeneration. Thus, the assessment [...] Read more.
Introduction: An important and non-adapted delivered energy of Er:YAG laser can eliminate the total thickness of root cementum during root planing. Conversely, the preservation of a partial layer of cementum covering the roots is vital for any periodontal ligament regeneration. Thus, the assessment of the cementum ablation depth produced by each energy density of Er:YAG laser is essential before considering its use for the periodontal planing and treatment of the cementum and root surfaces. Aim of the study: Assessment of the cementum ablation depth at different energy densities of the Er:YAG laser is the aim of this study. Materials and methods: A total of 48 human caries free molars were collected and used in this study. Areas to be irradiated were delimited by two longitudinal grooves (0.5 mm depth). Roots were divided randomly into four groups (4 × n = 12). An Er:YAG laser (2.94 µm) was used with a side-firing tip (R600T) with a 600 µm diameter and a frequency of 20 Hz combined with a cooling system of air 6 mL/min and water 4 mL/min. We used a super short pulse mode (SSP: pulse duration: 50 μs). We used a single irradiation passage backward from apex to cervical parts at 1 mm/s with a slight contact and at an angle of 15° to 30° between the tip and the root surface. Different energies were selected: 30 mJ, 40 mJ, 50 mJ, and 60 mJ. Results: Microscopic observations showed that the average of the ablation depth increased with the increase of the delivered energy from 30 mJ to 60 mJ. Mean values of the ablation depths were respectively as follows: 43.75 ± 4.89 µm for the energy of 30 mJ, 50.05 ± 3.72 µm for 40 mJ, 65.56 ± 10.35 µm for 50 mJ, and 74.80 ± 15.23 µm for 60 mJ. A statistically significant difference existed between the ablation depth of all groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, the depth of cementum debridement is related to the level of the delivered energy. The lowest energy levels (30 mJ and 40 mJ) can ablate the root cementum surface for a variable depth from 43.75 ± 4.89 μm to 50.05 ± 3.72 μm. Full article
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15 pages, 2685 KiB  
Article
Effect of Photobiomodulation Combined with Physiotherapy on Functional Performance in Children with Myelomeningo-Cele-Randomized, Blind, Clinical Trial
by Tamiris Silva, Daysi da Cruz Tobelem, Tainá Caroline Dos Santos Malavazzi, Juliana Fernandes Barreto de Mendonça, Lucas Andreo, Maria Cristina Chavantes, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Karina Helga Leal Turcio, Andréa Oliver Gomes, Alessandro Melo Deana, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Lara Jansiski Motta, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Aldo Brugnera, Samir Nammour and Sandra Kalil Bussadori
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(8), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12082920 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the electrical activity of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles during the sit-to-stand task and functional mobility after a neurofunctional physiotherapy protocol associated with PBM. Methods: Twenty-five children were randomly allocated to either Active [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the electrical activity of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles during the sit-to-stand task and functional mobility after a neurofunctional physiotherapy protocol associated with PBM. Methods: Twenty-five children were randomly allocated to either Active PBM + physiotherapy (n = 13) or PBM sham + physiotherapy (n = 12). PBM was carried out with a LED device (850 nm, 25 J, 50 s per point and 200 mW) at four points over the area with absence of a spiny process. Both groups completed a twelve-week supervised program with two weekly 45–60 min sessions. Pre-training and post-training assessments involved the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Muscle activity was assessed using portable electromyography (BTS Engineering) and the electrodes were positioned on the lateral gastrocnemius, anterior tibialis, and rectus femoris muscles. The RMS data were recorded and analyzed. Results: After 24 sessions of the treatment protocol, improvements were found in the PEDI score. The participants presented greater independence in performing the tasks, requiring less assistance from their caregivers. More significant electrical activity was found in the three muscles evaluated between the rest period and execution of the sit-to-stand tasks, both in the more compromised or less compromised lower limbs. Conclusion: Neurofunctional physiotherapy with or without PBM improved functional mobility and electrical muscle activity in children with myelomeningocele. Full article
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12 pages, 2143 KiB  
Article
Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence Helps to Indicate Fungal Contamination of Aquatic Environments and to Differentiate Filamentous Fungi
by Elena Fedoseeva, Svetlana Patsaeva, Devard Stom and Vera Terekhova
Photonics 2022, 9(10), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9100692 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Fungal contamination of aquatic environments can lead to an adverse impact on the environment and human health. (1) The search for fast, inexpensive and appropriate methods for detection of fungi is very moving rapidly due to their significant impact on ecosystem functions and [...] Read more.
Fungal contamination of aquatic environments can lead to an adverse impact on the environment and human health. (1) The search for fast, inexpensive and appropriate methods for detection of fungi is very moving rapidly due to their significant impact on ecosystem functions and human health. (2) We focused on examination of fluorescence proxies able to distinguish chromophoric matter occurring in different fungi. Spectroscopic studies were performed on five strains of filamentous fungi: Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Aspergillus terreus. (3) The results showed that most of the fungal autofluorescence was emitted by amino acids, melanin-like compounds, NAD(P)H and flavins. The spectra of five fungal species cultivated as planktonic or surface-associated forms turned out to be different. Protein fluorescence can be used to detect general microbial contamination. Presence of excitation wavelength dependent mode and the “blue shift” of fluorescence (emission bands 400–500 nm) can be suggested as specific feature of fluorescence of fungal melanin-containing samples. (4) The determination based on fluorescence spectra obtained at a certain excitation/emission wavelengths pair and at whole excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled to principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms as a tool of improving detection capabilities can be suggested to enable fast and inexpensive monitoring of fungal contamination of aquatic environments. Full article
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