Topic Editors

Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System & Vibration, Department of Industrial Engineering & Management, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume

Abstract submission deadline
30 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
6251

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Topic Editors are inviting submissions to a Topic on the subject of “Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods”, which is a continuation of the previous successful Topic.

Non-destructive testing is a group of surface and volumetric diagnostic tests, which provide information about the functional properties of the tested object. They allow for the determination of the condition of micro- and macrostructures without any interference in the structure. This basic feature means that the main purpose of non-destructive testing is the detection of material defects and evaluation of tested objects for discontinuity and lack of uniformity. Thanks to NDT, it is possible, e.g., to detect corrosion and erosion defects or cracks.

Non-destructive testing can be carried out at various stages of production, operation, or repair. They are used, respectively, to perform quality control of production and to determine the technical condition of the object. All this means that non-destructive testing finds a wide range of applications in various branches of industry.

The purpose of this Topic is to present both the development of various non-destructive testing methods, as well as examples of applications of this group of tests in various branches of industry. The editors do not limit the scope of the subject to strictly defined methods; the idea is to present the widest possible spectrum of tests and methods used, including visual, penetration, endoscopic, magnetic-powder, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiographic, leakage, acoustic emission, infrared thermographic or strain gauge tests. We invite all scientists and researchers to contribute to this Topic.

Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Peruń
Dr. Tangbin Xia
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • non-destructive testing
  • diagnostic
  • defectoscope
  • visual tests
  • eddy current testing
  • fault diagnosis
  • intelligent prediction

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Designs
designs
- 3.2 2017 16.4 Days CHF 1600 Submit

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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15 pages, 2190 KiB  
Article
Adhesion Testing Device for 3D Printed Objects on Diverse Printing Bed Materials: Design and Evaluation
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020945 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 401
Abstract
The persistent challenge of adhesion in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology is deeply rooted in the mechanical and chemical properties of utilized materials, necessitating the exploration of potential resolutions. This involves adjustments targeting the interplay of printing parameters, the mechanical fortification of print [...] Read more.
The persistent challenge of adhesion in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology is deeply rooted in the mechanical and chemical properties of utilized materials, necessitating the exploration of potential resolutions. This involves adjustments targeting the interplay of printing parameters, the mechanical fortification of print beds, and the integration of more adhesive materials, resonating across user levels, from enthusiasts to complex industrial configurations. An in-depth investigation is outlined in this paper, detailing the plan for a systematically designed device. Engineered for FFF device installation, the device facilitates the detachment of printed models, while precisely recording the detachment process, capturing the maximum force, and its progression over time. The primary objective is fabricating a comprehensive measurement apparatus, created for adhesion assessment. The device is adaptable across diverse FFF machines and print bed typologies, conforming to pre-defined conditions, with key features including compactness, facile manipulability, and capacity for recurrent measurements. This pursuit involves evaluating adhesion levels in prints made from diverse materials on varying print bed compositions, aiming to establish a comprehensive database. This repository facilitates judicious material and bed type selection, emphasizing maximal compatibility. Emphasis is placed on operating within a thermally stable context, a pivotal prerequisite for consistent and reproducible results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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22 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Effect of Combined Non-Wood and Wood Spectra of Biomass Chips on Rapid Prediction of Ultimate Analysis Parameters Using near Infrared Spectroscopy
Energies 2024, 17(2), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020439 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1603
Abstract
The ultimate analysis parameters, including carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) content in biomass, were rarely found to be predicted by non-destructive tests to date. In this research, we developed partial least squares regression (PLSR) models to predict the ultimate [...] Read more.
The ultimate analysis parameters, including carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) content in biomass, were rarely found to be predicted by non-destructive tests to date. In this research, we developed partial least squares regression (PLSR) models to predict the ultimate analysis parameters of chip biomass using near-infrared (NIR) raw spectra of non-wood and wood samples from fast-growing tree and agricultural residue and nine different traditional spectral preprocessing techniques. These techniques include first derivative (sd1), second derivative (sd2), constant offset, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), vector normalization, min-max normalization, mean centering, sd1 + vector normalization, and sd1 + MSC. Additionally, we employed a genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA), multi-preprocessing (MP) 5-range, and MP 3-range to develop a PLSR model for rapid prediction. A dataset consisting of 120 chip biomass samples was utilized for model development in which the samples were non-wood samples of 65–67% and wood samples of 33–35%, and the model performance was evaluated and compared. The selection of the optimum performing model was mainly based on criteria such as the coefficient of determination in the prediction set (R2P), root mean square error of the prediction set (RMSEP), and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD). The optimal model for weight percentage (wt.%) of C was obtained using GA–PLSR, yielding R2P, RMSEP, and RPD values of 0.6954, 1.1252 wt.%, and 1.8, respectively. Similarly, for wt.% of O, the most effective model was obtained using the multi-preprocessing PLSR–5 range method with R2P of 0.7150, RMSEP of 1.3088 wt.%, and RPD of 1.9. For wt.% of N, the optimal model was obtained using the MP PLSR-3 range method, resulting in R2P, RMSEP, and RPD values of 0.6073, 0.1008 wt.%, and 1.6, respectively. However, wt.% of the H model provided R2P, RMSEP, and RPD values of 0.5162, 0.2322 wt.%, and 1.5, respectively. Notably, the limit of quantification (LOQ) values for C, H, and O were lower than the minimum reference values used during model development, indicating a high level of sensitivity. However, the LOQ for N exceeded the minimum reference value, implying the samples to be predicted by the model must be in the range of reference range in the calibration set. By scatter plot analysis, the effect of combined non-wood and wood spectra of biomass chips on rapid prediction of ultimate analysis parameters using NIR spectroscopy was investigated. To include different species in a model, the species have to be not only in the different values of the constituents to make a wider range for a robust model, but also must provide their trend line characteristics in the scatter plot, i.e., correlation coefficient (R), slope, and intercept (same slope and slope approached to 1, and intercept is same (no gap) and approached zero, high R approached to 1). The effect of the R, slope, and intercept to obtain the better-optimized model was studied. The results show that the different species affected the model performance of each parameter prediction in a different manner, and by scatter plot analysis, which of these species were affecting the model negatively and how the model could be improved was indicated. This is the first time the effect has been studied by the principle of a scatter plot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 3250 KiB  
Article
An Aquaphotomics Approach for Investigation of Water-Stress-Induced Changes in Maize Plants
Sensors 2023, 23(24), 9678; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23249678 - 07 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
The productivity of plants is considerably affected by various environmental stresses. Exploring the specific pattern of the near-infrared spectral data acquired non-destructively from plants subjected to stress can contribute to a better understanding of biophysical and biochemical processes in plants. Experiments for investigating [...] Read more.
The productivity of plants is considerably affected by various environmental stresses. Exploring the specific pattern of the near-infrared spectral data acquired non-destructively from plants subjected to stress can contribute to a better understanding of biophysical and biochemical processes in plants. Experiments for investigating NIR spectra of maize plants subjected to water stress were conducted. Two maize lines were used: US corn-belt inbred line B37 and mutant inbred XM 87-136, characterized by very high drought tolerance. After reaching the 4-leaf stage, 10 plants from each line were subjected to water stress, and 10 plants were used as control, kept under a regular water regime. The drought lasted until day 17 and then the plants were recovered by watering for 4 days. A MicroNIR OnSite-W Spectrometer (VIAVI Solutions Inc., Chandler, AZ, USA) was used for in vivo measurement of each maize leaf spectra. PLS models for determining drought days were created and aquagrams were calculated separately for the plants’ second, third, and fourth leaves. Differences in absorption spectra were observed between control, stressed, and recovered maize plants, as well as between different measurement days of stressed plants. Aquagrams were used to visualize the water spectral pattern in maize leaves and how it changes along the drought process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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19 pages, 7411 KiB  
Article
Asphalt Pavement Transverse Cracking Detection Based on Vehicle Dynamic Response
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12527; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212527 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Transverse cracking is thought of as the typical distress of asphalt pavements. A faster detection technique can provide pavement performance information for maintenance administrations. This paper proposes a novel vehicle-vibration-based method for transverse cracking detection. A theoretical model of a vehicle-cracked pavement vibration [...] Read more.
Transverse cracking is thought of as the typical distress of asphalt pavements. A faster detection technique can provide pavement performance information for maintenance administrations. This paper proposes a novel vehicle-vibration-based method for transverse cracking detection. A theoretical model of a vehicle-cracked pavement vibration system was constructed using the d’Alembert principle. A testing system installed with a vibration sensor was put in and applied to a testing road. Then, parameter optimization of the Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was conducted. Transverse cracking and normal sections were processed by the optimized STFT algorithm, generating two ideal indicators. The maximum power spectral density and the relative power spectral density, which were extracted from 3D time–frequency maps, performed well. It was found that the power spectral density caused by transverse cracks was above 100 dB/Hz. The power spectral density at normal sections was below 80 dB/Hz. The distribution of the power spectral density for the cracked sections is more discrete than for normal sections. The classification model based on the above two indicators had an accuracy, true positive rate, and false positive rate of 94.96%, 92.86%, and 4.80%, respectively. The proposed vehicle-vibration-based method is capable of accurately detecting pavement transverse cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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17 pages, 3672 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Detection of Cl Penetration in Portland Cement Mortars via Surface Electrical Resistivity
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227123 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Surface electrical resistivity is a non-destructive technique that is sensitive to the microstructure of hydrated cement paste and the chemical composition of the pore solution in cement-based materials. In this study, a Wenner array was used to measure changes in mortar resistivity due [...] Read more.
Surface electrical resistivity is a non-destructive technique that is sensitive to the microstructure of hydrated cement paste and the chemical composition of the pore solution in cement-based materials. In this study, a Wenner array was used to measure changes in mortar resistivity due to chloride ion diffusion as a function of electrode separation. Specimens were made from four mortar mixtures: 100% Ordinary Portland cement and 60% cement + 40% fly ash at two water/binder ratios of 0.55 and 0.40. The specimens were subjected to unidirectional chloride ion diffusion in a 2.8 M NaCl solution for 175 days. To determine the chloride penetration depth, three methods were used: silver nitrate spraying, chloride concentration profiles via potentiometric titration, and chloride concentration profiles via inversion of the resistivity data using the RES1D software (version 1.00.09 Beta). The results showed a linear relationship between the chloride ion penetration depth obtained via inversion of the surface electrical resistivity data versus the penetration depth from colorimetry and from chloride concentration profiling (both with R2 = 0.8612). Chloride penetration changed the conductivity of the pore solution; therefore, the resistivity decreased when increasing both the chloride concentration and the penetration depth. Inversion of surface resistivity data obtained with a Wenner array permitted non-destructive determination of chloride penetration. However, these results were obtained under laboratory environmental conditions and other scenarios must be addressed for wider applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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15 pages, 17361 KiB  
Article
Lock-In Thermography with Cooling for the Inspection of Composite Materials
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216924 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
This paper presents the development of the lock-in thermography system with an additional cooling system. System feasibility is tested by investigating a square-shaped glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) with artificially made outer flaws. The influence of heating mode and sinusoidal excitation period on the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of the lock-in thermography system with an additional cooling system. System feasibility is tested by investigating a square-shaped glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) with artificially made outer flaws. The influence of heating mode and sinusoidal excitation period on the defect detectability is considered. Thus, the experiment is split into two modes: the sample is solely heated in the first mode or simultaneously heated and cooled in the second. In each mode, the temperature measurement is performed first with a shorter excitation signal period and second with a longer one. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used to assess defect detection quantitatively. The comparative analysis shows that employing a mixed heating–cooling mode improves the SNR compared to the conventional heating mode. The further enhancement of the SNR is obtained by extending the excitation period. The combination of simultaneous heating and cooling with longer periods of the excitation signal allows for the best SNR values for the most detected defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 4203 KiB  
Article
A Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Method for the Detection of Ferrite Tile Defects
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11172; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011172 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 809
Abstract
A through-transmission ultrasonic method is proposed to address limitations in conventional ultrasonic reflection methods for non-destructive testing of ferrite tiles. The method utilizes a dual-probe configuration on both sides of the test piece to measure ultrasonic transmission signals, overcoming issues related to blind [...] Read more.
A through-transmission ultrasonic method is proposed to address limitations in conventional ultrasonic reflection methods for non-destructive testing of ferrite tiles. The method utilizes a dual-probe configuration on both sides of the test piece to measure ultrasonic transmission signals, overcoming issues related to blind zones and orientation limitations in pulse-echo reflection methods. This method demonstrates excellent capabilities for full inspection of internal and external defects in ferrite tiles. Physical field finite element simulations were conducted to analyze detection capabilities and a transmissive testing system is developed based on the simulation results. Experimental validation was performed on artificially manufactured quantified defect samples in aluminum alloy, and the same testing system was applied to evaluate ferrite tile samples. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the system in distinguishing defective (NG) signals from normal defect-free (OK) signals, with a recall rate of at least 95% on samples of various sizes up to 0.1 mm. This research provides insights for quality control and defect detection technology in ferrite tiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 2875 KiB  
Communication
Impedance Variation in a Coaxial Coil Encircling a Metal Tube Adapter
Sensors 2023, 23(19), 8302; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23198302 - 07 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
The impedance change in an induction coil surrounding a metal tube adapter is investigated using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. The conventional TREE method is inapplicable to this problem as a consequence of the numerical overflow of the eigenfunctions of the [...] Read more.
The impedance change in an induction coil surrounding a metal tube adapter is investigated using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. The conventional TREE method is inapplicable to this problem as a consequence of the numerical overflow of the eigenfunctions of the air–metal multi-subdomain regions. The difficulty is surmounted by a normalization procedure for the numerical eigenfunctions obtained from the 1D finite element method (FEM). An efficient algorithm is devised by the Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature rule for integrals involving the numerical eigenfunctions. The numerical results of the TREE and FEM simulation coincide very well in all cases, and the efficiency of the proposed method is also confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Non-Destructive Testing Methods, 2nd Volume)
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