Topic Editors

Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1‐1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305‐0044, Ibaraki, Japan
CNRS, ISCR UMR 6226, University of Rennes 1, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes, France
Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes, France

Nanoarchitectonics with Molecular and Materials Science: Functional Materials for Energy, Environment, Bio and Others

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are delighted to announce a call for submissions to a Topic of “Nanoarchitectonics with Molecular and Materials Science: Functional Materials for Energy, Environment, Bio and Others”. As a post-nanotechnology concept, nanoarchitectonics has been proposed to create functional materials using atoms, molecules, and nanomaterials as components (Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1621). The nanoarchitectonics concept couples nanotechnology with various research fields, including materials science, supramolecular chemistry, and bio-related sciences, to logically create functional materials from nanoscale units. Because the nanoarchitectonics concept has conceptual generality, it can be applied to a wide range of research fields, including material synthesis, structural fabrications, sensing, catalysts, environmental remediation, energy production and storages, device fabrications, and biological/biomedical treatments. By including this emerging terminology, nanoarchitectonics, in paper titles and/or keywords, re-consideration of these subjects would promote discovery of novel insights within interdisciplinary research fields.

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Ariga
Dr. Fabien Grasset
Dr. Yann Molard
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • nanoarchitectonics
  • supramolecular chemistry
  • functional materials
  • synthesis
  • fabrications
  • sensing
  • catalyst
  • environment
  • energy
  • biological

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900
Journal of Functional Biomaterials
jfb
4.8 5.0 2010 13.3 Days CHF 2700
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Nanoenergy Advances
nanoenergyadv
- - 2021 31 Days CHF 1000
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (29 papers)

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16 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Medium Bandgap Polymers for Efficient Non-Fullerene Polymer Solar Cells—An In-Depth Study of Structural Diversity of Polymer Structure
by Shimiao Zhang, Dong Hwan Son, Rahmatia Fitri Binti Nasrun, Sabrina Aufar Salma, Hongsuk Suh and Joo Hyun Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010522 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
A series of medium bandgap polymer donors, named poly(1-(5-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-5-((4,5-dihexylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione) (IND-T-BDTF), poly(1-(5-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-5-((4,5-dihexylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)-3-(4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione (IND-HT-BDTF), and poly(1-(5-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-6-octylthieno [3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-((4,5-dihexylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)-3-(6-octylthieno [3,2- [...] Read more.
A series of medium bandgap polymer donors, named poly(1-(5-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-5-((4,5-dihexylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione) (IND-T-BDTF), poly(1-(5-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-5-((4,5-dihexylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)-3-(4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione (IND-HT-BDTF), and poly(1-(5-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-6-octylthieno [3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-((4,5-dihexylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)-3-(6-octylthieno [3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)-4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione (IND-OTT-BDTF), are developed for non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) polymer solar cells (PSCs). Three polymers consist of donor-acceptor building block, where the electron-donating fluorinated benzodithiophene (BDTF) unit is linked to the electron-accepting 4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione (IND) derivative via thiophene (T) or thieno [3,2-b]thiopene (TT) bridges. The absorption range of the polymer donors based on IND in this study shows 400~800 nm, which complimenting the absorption of Y6BO (600~1000 nm). The PSC’s performances are also significantly impacted by the π-bridges. NFAs inverted type PSCs based on polymer donors and Y6BO acceptor are fabricated. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on IND-OTT-BDTF reaches up to 11.69% among all polymers with a short circuit current of 26.37 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.79 V, and a fill factor of 56.2%, respectively. This study provides fundamental information on the invention of new polymer donors for NFA-based PSCs. Full article
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12 pages, 4468 KiB  
Article
Effect of Silicon Carbide Coating on Osteoblast Mineralization of Anodized Titanium Surfaces
by Patricia dos Santos Calderon, Fernanda Regina Godoy Rocha, Xinyi Xia, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Ana Luisa de Barros Pascoal, Chan-Wen Chiu, Fan Ren, Steve Ghivizzani and Josephine F. Esquivel-Upshaw
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040247 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the titanium nanotube diameter and the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) coating on the proliferation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on titanium nanostructured surfaces. Anodized titanium sheets with nanotube diameters of 50 and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the titanium nanotube diameter and the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) coating on the proliferation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on titanium nanostructured surfaces. Anodized titanium sheets with nanotube diameters of 50 and 100 nm were used. The following four groups were tested in the study: (1) non-coated 50 nm nanotubes; (2) SiC-coated 50 nm titanium nanotubes; (3) non-coated 100 nm nanotubes and (4) SiC-coated 100 nm nanotubes. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of pre-osteoblasts were evaluated using a CellTiter-BlueCell Viability assay after 1, 2, and 3 days. After 3 days, cells attached to the surface were observed by SEM. Pre-osteoblast mineralization was determined using Alizarin-Red staining solution after 21 days of cultivation. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal–Wallis test at a p-value of 0.05. The results evidenced biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity of both 50 and 100 nm diameter coated and non-coated surfaces after 1, 2 and 3 days. The statistical analysis indicates a statistically significant higher cell growth at 3 days (p < 0.05). SEM images after 3 days demonstrated flattened-shaped cells without any noticeable difference in the phenotypes between different diameters or surface treatments. After 21 days of induced osteogenic differentiation, the statistical analysis indicates significantly higher osteoblast calcification on coated groups of both diameters when compared with non-coated groups (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we can conclude that the titanium nanotube diameter did not play any role on cell viability or mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on SiC-coated or non-coated titanium nanotube sheets. The SiC coating demonstrated biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity and contributed to an increase in osteoblast mineralization on titanium nanostructured surfaces when compared to non-coated groups. Full article
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19 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
Intracellular Biotransformation of Ultrasmall Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Effect in Cultured Human Cells and in Drosophila Larvae In Vivo
by Alonso Rodríguez Pescador, Lucía Gutiérrez Romero, Elisa Blanco-González, María Montes-Bayón and L. María Sierra
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158788 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
A systematic investigation on the cellular uptake, intracellular dissolution, and in vitro biological effects of ultra-small (<10 nm) iron hydroxide adipate/tartrate coated nanoparticles (FeAT-NPs) was carried out in intestinal Caco-2, hepatic HepG2 and ovarian A2780 cells, and the nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficient [...] Read more.
A systematic investigation on the cellular uptake, intracellular dissolution, and in vitro biological effects of ultra-small (<10 nm) iron hydroxide adipate/tartrate coated nanoparticles (FeAT-NPs) was carried out in intestinal Caco-2, hepatic HepG2 and ovarian A2780 cells, and the nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficient GM04312 fibroblasts. Quantitative evaluation of the nanoparticles uptake, as well as their transformation within the cell cytosol, was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), alone or in combination with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained results revealed that FeAT-NPs are effectively taken up in a cell type-dependent manner with a minimum dissolution after 3 h. These results correlated with no effects on cell proliferation and minor effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production for all the cell lines under study. Moreover, the comet assay results revealed significant DNA damage only in GM04312 cells. In vivo genotoxicity was further studied in larvae from Drosophila melanogaster, using the eye-SMART test. The obtained results showed that FeAT-NPs were genotoxic only with the two highest tested concentrations (2 and 5 mmol·L−1 of Fe) in surface treatments. These data altogether show that these nanoparticles represent a safe alternative for anemia management, with high uptake level and controlled iron release. Full article
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31 pages, 100873 KiB  
Review
Molecule-to-Material-to-Bio Nanoarchitectonics with Biomedical Fullerene Nanoparticles
by Xuechen Shen, Jingwen Song, Kohsaku Kawakami and Katsuhiko Ariga
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155404 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Nanoarchitectonics integrates nanotechnology with various other fields, with the goal of creating functional material systems from nanoscale units such as atoms, molecules, and nanomaterials. The concept bears strong similarities to the processes and functions seen in biological systems. Therefore, it is natural for [...] Read more.
Nanoarchitectonics integrates nanotechnology with various other fields, with the goal of creating functional material systems from nanoscale units such as atoms, molecules, and nanomaterials. The concept bears strong similarities to the processes and functions seen in biological systems. Therefore, it is natural for materials designed through nanoarchitectonics to truly shine in bio-related applications. In this review, we present an overview of recent work exemplifying how nanoarchitectonics relates to biology and how it is being applied in biomedical research. First, we present nanoscale interactions being studied in basic biology and how they parallel nanoarchitectonics concepts. Then, we overview the state-of-the-art in biomedical applications pursuant to the nanoarchitectonics framework. On this basis, we take a deep dive into a particular building-block material frequently seen in nanoarchitectonics approaches: fullerene. We take a closer look at recent research on fullerene nanoparticles, paying special attention to biomedical applications in biosensing, gene delivery, and radical scavenging. With these subjects, we aim to illustrate the power of nanomaterials and biomimetic nanoarchitectonics when applied to bio-related applications, and we offer some considerations for future perspectives. Full article
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18 pages, 2152 KiB  
Article
Strategies for Controlling the Spatial Orientation of Single Molecules Tethered on DNA Origami Templates Physisorbed on Glass Substrates: Intercalation and Stretching
by Keitel Cervantes-Salguero, Austin Biaggne, John M. Youngsman, Brett M. Ward, Young C. Kim, Lan Li, John A. Hall, William B. Knowlton, Elton Graugnard and Wan Kuang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147690 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
Nanoarchitectural control of matter is crucial for next-generation technologies. DNA origami templates are harnessed to accurately position single molecules; however, direct single molecule evidence is lacking regarding how well DNA origami can control the orientation of such molecules in three-dimensional space, as well [...] Read more.
Nanoarchitectural control of matter is crucial for next-generation technologies. DNA origami templates are harnessed to accurately position single molecules; however, direct single molecule evidence is lacking regarding how well DNA origami can control the orientation of such molecules in three-dimensional space, as well as the factors affecting control. Here, we present two strategies for controlling the polar (θ) and in-plane azimuthal (ϕ) angular orientations of cyanine Cy5 single molecules tethered on rationally-designed DNA origami templates that are physically adsorbed (physisorbed) on glass substrates. By using dipolar imaging to evaluate Cy5′s orientation and super-resolution microscopy, the absolute spatial orientation of Cy5 is calculated relative to the DNA template. The sequence-dependent partial intercalation of Cy5 is discovered and supported theoretically using density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations, and it is harnessed as our first strategy to achieve θ control for a full revolution with dispersion as small as ±4.5°. In our second strategy, ϕ control is achieved by mechanically stretching the Cy5 from its two tethers, being the dispersion ±10.3° for full stretching. These results can in principle be applied to any single molecule, expanding in this way the capabilities of DNA as a functional templating material for single-molecule orientation control. The experimental and modeling insights provided herein will help engineer similar self-assembling molecular systems based on polymers, such as RNA and proteins. Full article
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15 pages, 5267 KiB  
Article
Hafnium Oxide Nanostructured Thin Films: Electrophoretic Deposition Process and DUV Photolithography Patterning
by Vanessa Proust, Quentin Kirscher, Thi Kim Ngan Nguyen, Lisa Obringer, Kento Ishii, Ludivine Rault, Valérie Demange, David Berthebaud, Naoki Ohashi, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Dominique Berling, Olivier Soppera and Fabien Grasset
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(14), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12142334 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
In the frame of the nanoarchitectonic concept, the objective of this study was to develop simple and easy methods to ensure the preparation of polymorphic HfO2 thin film materials (<200 nm) having the best balance of patterning potential, reproducibility and stability to [...] Read more.
In the frame of the nanoarchitectonic concept, the objective of this study was to develop simple and easy methods to ensure the preparation of polymorphic HfO2 thin film materials (<200 nm) having the best balance of patterning potential, reproducibility and stability to be used in optical, sensing or electronic fields. The nanostructured HfO2 thin films with micropatterns or continuous morphologies were synthesized by two different methods, i.e., the micropatterning of sol-gel solutions by deep ultraviolet (DUV) photolithography or the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of HfO2 nanoparticles (HfO2-NPs). Amorphous and monoclinic HfO2 micropatterned nanostructured thin films (HfO2-DUV) were prepared by using a sol-gel solution precursor (HfO2-SG) and spin-coating process following by DUV photolithography, whereas continuous and dense monoclinic HfO2 nanostructured thin films (HfO2-EPD) were prepared by the direct EPD of HfO2-NPs. The HfO2-NPs were prepared by a hydrothermal route and studied through the changing aging temperature, pH and reaction time parameters to produce nanocrystalline particles. Subsequently, based on the colloidal stability study, suspensions of the monoclinic HfO2-NPs with morphologies near spherical, spindle- and rice-like shapes were used to prepare HfO2-EPD thin films on conductive indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. Morphology, composition and crystallinity of the HfO2-NPs and thin films were investigated by powder and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The EPD and DUV photolithography performances were explored and, in this study, it was clearly demonstrated that these two complementary methods are suitable, simple and effective processes to prepare controllable and tunable HfO2 nanostructures as with homogeneous, dense or micropatterned structures. Full article
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18 pages, 3136 KiB  
Review
The Rise of Polymeric Microneedles: Recent Developments, Advances, Challenges, and Applications with Regard to Transdermal Drug Delivery
by Aswani Kumar Gera and Rajesh Kumar Burra
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13020081 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
The current scenario of the quest for microneedles (MNs) with biodegradability and biocompatibility properties is a potential research area of interest. Microneedles are considered to be robust, can penetrate the skin’s deep-seated layers, and are easy to manufacture, and their applications from the [...] Read more.
The current scenario of the quest for microneedles (MNs) with biodegradability and biocompatibility properties is a potential research area of interest. Microneedles are considered to be robust, can penetrate the skin’s deep-seated layers, and are easy to manufacture, and their applications from the clinical perspective are still ongoing with standard escalation. This review paper focuses on some of the pivotal variants of polymeric microneedles which are specifically dissolvable and swell-based MNs. It further explores the drug dissolution kinetics and insertion behavior mechanisms with an emphasis on the need for mathematical modeling of MNs. This review further evaluates the multifarious fabrication methods, with an update on the advances in the fabrication of polymeric MNs, the choice of materials used for the fabrication, the challenges in polymeric MN fabrication, and the prospects of polymeric MNs with applications pertinent to healthcare, by exclusively focusing on the procurable literature over the last decade. Full article
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16 pages, 6918 KiB  
Article
Polarization Independent Metamaterial Absorber with Anti-Reflection Coating Nanoarchitectonics for Visible and Infrared Window Applications
by Ahmad Musa, Mohammad Lutful Hakim, Touhidul Alam, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Ahmed S. Alshammari, Kamarulzaman Mat, M. Salaheldeen M., Sami H. A. Almalki and Md. Shabiul Islam
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103733 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
The visible and infrared wavelengths are the most frequently used electromagnetic (EM) waves in the frequency spectrum; able to penetrate the atmosphere and reach Earth’s surface. These wavelengths have attracted much attention in solar energy harvesting; thermography; and infrared imaging applications for the [...] Read more.
The visible and infrared wavelengths are the most frequently used electromagnetic (EM) waves in the frequency spectrum; able to penetrate the atmosphere and reach Earth’s surface. These wavelengths have attracted much attention in solar energy harvesting; thermography; and infrared imaging applications for the detection of electrical failures; faults; or thermal leakage hot spots and inspection of tapped live energized components. This paper presents a numerical analysis of a compact cubic cross-shaped four-layer metamaterial absorber (MA) structure by using a simple metal-dielectric-metal-dielectric configuration for wideband visible and infrared applications. The proposed MA achieved above 80% absorption in both visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum from 350 to 1250 nm wavelength with an overall unit cell size of 0.57λ × 0.57λ × 0.59λ. The SiO2 based anti-reflection coating of sandwiched tungsten facilitates to achieve the wide high absorption bandwidth. The perceptible novelty of the proposed metamaterial is to achieve an average absorptivity of 95.3% for both visible and infrared wavelengths with a maximum absorptivity of 98% from 400 nm to 900 nm. Furthermore, the proposed structure provides polarization insensitivity with a higher oblique incidence angle tolerance up to 45°. Full article
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15 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Novel All-Nitrogen Molecular Crystals Composed of Tetragonal N4 Molecules
by Suna Pang and Feng Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105503 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
A computational study promises insight into molecular crystals consisting of the tetrahedral form of N4 molecules (Td-N4). Here, our efforts are focused on theoretically predicting the existence of the molecular crystals consisting of Td-N4 molecules. On the basis of [...] Read more.
A computational study promises insight into molecular crystals consisting of the tetrahedral form of N4 molecules (Td-N4). Here, our efforts are focused on theoretically predicting the existence of the molecular crystals consisting of Td-N4 molecules. On the basis of the first principles of Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics under constant temperature and pressure, and geometry optimizations under hydrostatic pressures without any constrained parameters, molecular crystals consisting of Td-N4 molecules were confirmed to be dynamically and thermally metastable. Our analysis shows that, with high detonation performance and high stability, these Td-N4 molecular crystals can indeed be potential candidates as high-energy density explosives. Full article
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8 pages, 5562 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics of Carbon Nanostructures: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate @ Sodium Chloride System
by Qi Chen and Haichao Li
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101652 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes, nano carbon spheres, layered carbon nanostructures) were prepared from a sodium dodecyl sulfonate @ sodium chloride system. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate was used as a carbon source. A sodium chloride crystal in the carbonization procedure was used to separate ordered [...] Read more.
Carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes, nano carbon spheres, layered carbon nanostructures) were prepared from a sodium dodecyl sulfonate @ sodium chloride system. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate was used as a carbon source. A sodium chloride crystal in the carbonization procedure was used to separate ordered aggregates of sodium dodecyl sulfonate. The results show that different carbon nanostructures were prepared at low concentrations (1CMC~5CMC) by controlling the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfonate, such as nano carbon spheres and carbon nanotubes, and that layered carbon nanostructures were formed at high concentrations (10CMC). The prepared carbon nanostructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and Raman spectrometry. The results of this experiment show that the surfactant @ salt system is a potential method for the preparation of carbon nanostructures. Full article
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28 pages, 7070 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics for Biodegradable Superabsorbent Based on Carboxymethyl Starch and Chitosan Cross-Linked with Vanillin
by Elżbieta Czarnecka, Jacek Nowaczyk, Mirosława Prochoń and Anna Masek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105386 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
Due to the growing demand for sustainable hygiene products (that will exhibit biodegradability and compostability properties), the challenge of developing a superabsorbent polymer that absorbs significant amounts of liquid has been raised so that it can be used in the hygiene sector in [...] Read more.
Due to the growing demand for sustainable hygiene products (that will exhibit biodegradability and compostability properties), the challenge of developing a superabsorbent polymer that absorbs significant amounts of liquid has been raised so that it can be used in the hygiene sector in the future. The work covers the study of the swelling and dehydration kinetics of hydrogels formed by grafting polymerization of carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and chitosan (Ch). Vanillin (Van) was used as the crosslinking agent. The swelling and dehydration kinetics of the polymers were measured in various solutes including deionized water buffers with pH from 1 to 12 and in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at 298 and 311 K. The surface morphology and texture properties of the analyzed hydrogels were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of this structure on swelling and dehydration is discussed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses confirmed the interaction between the carboxymethyl starch carbonyl groups and the chitosan amino groups in the resulting hydrogels. Additionally, spectroscopic analyses confirmed the formation of acetal crosslink bridges including vanillin molecules. The chemical dynamics studies revealed that new hydrogel dehydration kinetics strongly depend on the vanillin content. The main significance of the study concerns the positive results of the survey for the new superabsorbent polymer material, coupling high fluid absorbance with biodegradability. The studies on biodegradability indicated that resulting materials show good environmental degradability characteristics and can be considered true biodegradable superabsorbent polymers. Full article
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18 pages, 8752 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics for Ultrathin Gold Films Deposited on Collagen Fabric by High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
by Sheng-Yang Huang, Ping-Yen Hsieh, Chi-Jen Chung, Chia-Man Chou and Ju-Liang He
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101627 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles conjugated with collagen molecules and fibers have been proven to improve structure strength, water and enzyme degradation resistance, cell attachment, cell proliferation, and skin wound healing. In this study, high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) was used to deposit ultrathin gold films [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles conjugated with collagen molecules and fibers have been proven to improve structure strength, water and enzyme degradation resistance, cell attachment, cell proliferation, and skin wound healing. In this study, high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) was used to deposit ultrathin gold films (UTGF) and discontinuous island structures on type I collagen substrates. A long turn-off time of duty cycle and low chamber temperature of HiPIMS maintained substrate morphology. Increasing the deposition time from 6 s to 30 s elevated the substrate surface coverage by UTGF up to 91.79%, as observed by a field emission scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffractometry analysis revealed signature low and wide peaks for Au (111). The important surface functional groups and signature peaks of collagen substrate remained unchanged according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results. Multi-peak curve fitting of the Amide I spectrum revealed the non-changed protein secondary structure of type I collagen, which mainly consists of α-helix. Atomic force microscopy observation showed that the roughness average value shifted from 1.74 to 4.17 nm by increasing the deposition time from 13 s to 77 s. The uneven surface of collagen substrate made quantification of thin film thickness by AFM difficult. Instead, UTGF thickness was measured using simultaneously deposited glass specimens placed in an HiPIMS chamber with collagen substrates. Film thickness was 3.99 and 10.37 nm at deposition times of 13 and 77 s, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed preserved substrate elements on the surface. Surface water contact angle measurement revealed the same temporary hydrophobic behavior before water absorption via exposed collagen substrates, regardless of deposition time. In conclusion, HiPIMS is an effective method to deposit UTGF on biomedical materials such as collagen without damaging valuable substrates. The composition of two materials could be further used for biomedical purposes with preserved functions of UTGF and collagen. Full article
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14 pages, 6535 KiB  
Article
Microorganism-Templated Nanoarchitectonics of Hollow TiO2-SiO2 Microspheres with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Methyl Orange
by Shenglan Liao, Liqin Lin, Jiale Huang, Xiaolian Jing, Shiping Chen and Qingbiao Li
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(9), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12091606 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
In this study, hollow SiO2 microspheres were synthesized by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) according to the Stober process, in which Pichia pastoris GS 115 cells were served as biological templates. The influence of the preprocessing method, the TEOS concentration, the [...] Read more.
In this study, hollow SiO2 microspheres were synthesized by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) according to the Stober process, in which Pichia pastoris GS 115 cells were served as biological templates. The influence of the preprocessing method, the TEOS concentration, the ratio of water to ethanol, and the aging time on the morphology of microspheres was investigated and the optimal conditions were identified. Based on this, TiO2-SiO2 microspheres were prepared by the hydrothermal process. The structures and physicochemical properties of TiO2-SiO2 photocatalysts were systematically characterized and discussed. The photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) at room temperature under Xe arc lamp acting as simulated sunlight was explored. The result showed that the as-prepared TiO2-SiO2 microspheres exhibited a good photocatalytic performance. Full article
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10 pages, 4000 KiB  
Article
Salt-Templated Nanoarchitectonics of CoSe2-NC Nanosheets as an Efficient Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalyst for Water Splitting
by Hong Cao, Hailong Li, Linhao Liu, Kangning Xue, Xinkai Niu, Juan Hou and Long Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095239 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Recently, the extensive research of efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts (oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)) on water splitting has drawn increasing attention. Herein, a salt-template strategy is prepared to synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets encapsulated with dispersed CoSe2 nanoparticles (CoSe2 [...] Read more.
Recently, the extensive research of efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts (oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)) on water splitting has drawn increasing attention. Herein, a salt-template strategy is prepared to synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets encapsulated with dispersed CoSe2 nanoparticles (CoSe2-NC NSs), while the thickness of CoSe2-NC NSs is only about 3.6 nm. Profiting from the ultrathin morphology, large surface area, and promising electrical conductivity, the CoSe2-NC NSs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic of 10 mA·cm−2 current density at small overpotentials of 247 mV for OER and 75 mV for HER. Not only does the nitrogen-doped carbon matrix effectively avoid self-aggregation of CoSe2 nanoparticles, but it also prevents the corrosion of CoSe2 from electrolytes and shows favorable durability after long-term stability tests. Furthermore, an overall water-splitting system delivers a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at a voltage of 1.54 V with resultants being both the cathode and anode catalyst in alkaline solutions. This work provides a new way to synthesize efficient and nonprecious bifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting. Full article
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17 pages, 3401 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Hyperthermia Nanoarchitectonics via Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stabilised by Oleic Acid: Anti-Tumour Efficiency and Safety Evaluation in Animals with Transplanted Carcinoma
by Oleg A. Kulikov, Mikhail N. Zharkov, Valentin P. Ageev, Denis E. Yakobson, Vasilisa I. Shlyapkina, Andrey V. Zaborovskiy, Vera I. Inchina, Larisa A. Balykova, Alexander M. Tishin, Gleb B. Sukhorukov and Nikolay A. Pyataev
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084234 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2550
Abstract
In this study, we developed iron oxide nanoparticles stabilised with oleic acid/sodium oleate that could exert therapeutic effects for curing tumours via magnetic hyperthermia. A suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was produced and characterised. The toxicity of the synthesised composition was examined in [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed iron oxide nanoparticles stabilised with oleic acid/sodium oleate that could exert therapeutic effects for curing tumours via magnetic hyperthermia. A suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was produced and characterised. The toxicity of the synthesised composition was examined in vivo and found to be negligible. Histological examination showed a low local irritant effect and no effect on the morphology of the internal organs. The efficiency of magnetic hyperthermia for the treatment of transplanted Walker 256 carcinoma was evaluated. The tumour was infiltrated with the synthesised particles and then treated with an alternating magnetic field. The survival rate was 85% in the studied therapy group of seven animals, while in the control group (without treatment), all animals died. The physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of the synthesised fluid and the therapeutic results, as seen in the in vivo experiments, provide insights into therapeutic hyperthermia using injected magnetite nanoparticles. Full article
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14 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
TiO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion in Block-Copolymer Aqueous Solutions: Nanoarchitectonics for Self-Assembly and Aggregation
by Valeria Conti Nibali, Giovanna D’Angelo, Antonella Arena, Carmine Ciofi, Graziella Scandurra and Caterina Branca
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13020039 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Achieving homogenous dispersion of nanoparticles inside a polymeric matrix is a great challenge for numerous applications. In the present study, we aim at understanding the role of different factors on the dispersion properties of TiO2 in pluronic F-127 mixtures. The mixtures were [...] Read more.
Achieving homogenous dispersion of nanoparticles inside a polymeric matrix is a great challenge for numerous applications. In the present study, we aim at understanding the role of different factors on the dispersion properties of TiO2 in pluronic F-127 mixtures. The mixtures were prepared with different pH and guest/host ratios and investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, infrared spectroscopy and electrical conductivity. Depending on the preparation conditions, different amounts of TiO2 were loaded within the copolymer as quantitatively determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The different content of nanoparticles has direct implications on the gelation and micellization of pluronic analyzed by dynamic light scattering. The information derived on the self-assembly behavior was interpreted in relation to the infrared and conductivity measurements results. Together, these results shed light on the most favorable conditions for improving the nanoparticle dispersion inside the copolymer matrix and suggest a possible strategy to design functional nanoparticle-polymer systems. Full article
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13 pages, 4504 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensor Nanoarchitectonics for Sensitive Detection of Uric Acid in Human Whole Blood Based on Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode Equipped with Vertically-Ordered Mesoporous Silica-Nanochannel Film
by Kai Ma, Luoxing Yang, Jun Liu and Jiyang Liu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071157 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) bear great potential in the detection of biomarker in clinical samples with low sample consumption. However, modification of electrode surfaces to improve the anti-interference ability and sensitivity is highly desirable for direct electroanalysis of whole blood samples. Here, a [...] Read more.
Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) bear great potential in the detection of biomarker in clinical samples with low sample consumption. However, modification of electrode surfaces to improve the anti-interference ability and sensitivity is highly desirable for direct electroanalysis of whole blood samples. Here, a reliable and miniaturized electrochemical sensor is demonstrated based on SPCE equipped with vertically-ordered mesoporous silica-nanochannel film (VMSF). To achieve stable binding of VMSF and improve the electrocatalytic performance, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) is applied as a conductive adhesion layer, that is in situ reduced from GO nanosheets during fast growth (less than 10 s) of amino groups modified VMSF (NH2-VMSF) using electrochemically assisted self-assembly (EASA). In comparison with bare SPCE, NH2-VMSF/ErGO/SPCE exhibits decreased oxidation potential of uric acid (UA) by 147 mV owing to significant electrocatalytic ability of ErGO. The dual signal amplification based on electrocatalysis of ErGO and enrichment of nanochannels leads to enhanced peak current by 3.9 times. Thus, the developed NH2-VMSF/ErGO/SPCE sensor enables sensitive detection of UA in the range from 0.5 μM to 180 μM with a low limit of detection (LOD, 129 nM, S/N = 3). Owing to good anti-fouling ability and high selectivity of the sensor, direct and rapid detection of UA in human whole blood is realized with very low sample consumption (50 μL). Full article
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13 pages, 16974 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Biopolyol-Based Waterborne Polyurethane Modified through Complexation with Chitosan
by Soon-Mo Choi, Sunhee Lee and Eun-Joo Shin
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071143 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
In this study, a series of castor oil-based anionic waterborne polyurethane (CWPU) systems, which it has been suggested may be suitable for use as green elastomers with diverse applications in films and coatings, was prepared by modified with O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CS) as not [...] Read more.
In this study, a series of castor oil-based anionic waterborne polyurethane (CWPU) systems, which it has been suggested may be suitable for use as green elastomers with diverse applications in films and coatings, was prepared by modified with O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CS) as not only a reinforcing filler, but a chain-extender of polyurethane prepolymer to enhance the properties of polyurethanes. Moreover, not only was the system obtained with castor oil-based polyol in the absence of a catalyst, but it was maintained with low viscosity by using acetone instead of toxic methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) during the synthesis process. The sizes, zeta potential, chemical formation, and morphology of the CWPU-CS composites had been investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the results show that the modification allows to enhance storage/loss modulus, tensile properties, thermal stability at high temperature, and biocompatibility of CWPU and CWPU/CS nanocomposites according to various contents of CS. Full article
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18 pages, 5451 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics of Illite-Based Materials: Effect of Metal Oxides Intercalation on the Mechanical Properties
by Jiwei Jia, Daoyong Wu, Yu Ren and Jiyu Lin
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(6), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12060997 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Clay minerals inevitably interact with colloidal oxides (mainly iron and aluminum oxides) in the evolution of natural geomaterials. However, the interaction between the clay minerals and the colloidal oxides affecting the stability and the strength of geotechnical materials remains poorly understood. In the [...] Read more.
Clay minerals inevitably interact with colloidal oxides (mainly iron and aluminum oxides) in the evolution of natural geomaterials. However, the interaction between the clay minerals and the colloidal oxides affecting the stability and the strength of geotechnical materials remains poorly understood. In the present work, the interaction between the clay minerals and the colloidal oxides was investigated by reaction molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties of illite-based materials. It was found that the metal atoms of the intercalated amorphous iron and aluminum oxides interact with oxygen atoms of the silica tetrahedron at the interface generating chemical bonds to enhance the strength of the illite-based materials considerably. The deformation and failure processes of the hybrid illite-based structures illustrated that the Al–O bonds were more favorable to the mechanical properties’ improvement of the hybrid system compared with Fe–O bonds. Moreover, the anisotropy of illite was greatly improved with metal oxide intercalation. This study provides new insight into the mechanical properties’ improvement of clay-based materials through metal oxides intercalation. Full article
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13 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
New Core-Shell Nanostructures for FRET Studies: Synthesis, Characterization, and Quantitative Analysis
by Anna Synak, Elżbieta Adamska, Leszek Kułak, Beata Grobelna, Paweł Niedziałkowski and Piotr Bojarski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063182 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of new core-shell material designed for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of core-shell nanostructures with a large number of two kinds of fluorophores bound to the shell are presented. As [...] Read more.
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of new core-shell material designed for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of core-shell nanostructures with a large number of two kinds of fluorophores bound to the shell are presented. As fluorophores, strongly fluorescent rhodamine 101 and rhodamine 110 chloride were selected. The dyes exhibit significant spectral overlap between acceptor absorption and donor emission spectra, which enables effective FRET. Core-shell nanoparticles strongly differing in the ratio of donors to acceptor numbers were prepared. This leads to two different interesting cases: typical single-step FRET or multistep energy migration preceding FRET. The single-step FRET model that was designed and presented by some of us recently for core-shell nanoparticles is herein experimentally verified. Very good agreement between the analytical expression for donor fluorescence intensity decay and experimental data was obtained, which confirmed the correctness of the model. Multistep energy migration between donors preceding the final transfer to the acceptor can also be successfully described. In this case, however, experimental data are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations, as there is no respective analytical expression. Excellent agreement in this more general case evidences the usefulness of this numerical method in the design and prediction of the properties of the synthesized core-shell nanoparticles labelled with multiple and chemically different fluorophores. Full article
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14 pages, 5211 KiB  
Article
Wide-Oblique-Incident-Angle Stable Polarization-Insensitive Ultra-Wideband Metamaterial Perfect Absorber for Visible Optical Wavelength Applications
by Mohammad Lutful Hakim, Touhidul Alam, Md. Shabiul Islam, M. Salaheldeen M., Sami H. A. Almalki, Mohd Hafiz Baharuddin, Haitham Alsaif and Mohammad Tariqul Islam
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062201 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Metamaterial absorbers are very attractive due to their significant absorption behavior at optical wavelengths, which can be implemented for energy harvesting, plasmonic sensors, imaging, optical modulators, photovoltaic detectors, etc. This paper presents a numerical study of an ultra-wide-band double square ring (DSR) metamaterial [...] Read more.
Metamaterial absorbers are very attractive due to their significant absorption behavior at optical wavelengths, which can be implemented for energy harvesting, plasmonic sensors, imaging, optical modulators, photovoltaic detectors, etc. This paper presents a numerical study of an ultra-wide-band double square ring (DSR) metamaterial absorber (MMA) for the complete visible optical wavelength region, which is designed with a three-layer (tungsten-silicon dioxide-tungsten) substrate material. Due to the symmetricity, a polarization-insensitive absorption is obtained for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes by simulation. An absorption above 92.2% and an average absorption of 97% are achieved in the visible optical wavelength region. A peak absorption of 99.99% is achieved at 521.83 nm. A wide range of oblique incident angle stabilities is found for stable absorption properties. A similar absorption is found for different banding angles, which may occur due to external forces during the installation of the absorber. The absorption is calculated by the interference theory (IT) model, and the polarization conversion ratio (PCR) is also validated to verify the perfect MMA. The electric field and magnetic field of the structure analysis are performed to understand the absorption property of the MMA. The presented MMA may be used in various applications such as solar cells, light detection, the biomedical field, sensors, and imaging. Full article
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13 pages, 4807 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanorod Substrate for Rat Fetal Neural Stem Cell Differentiation into Oligodendrocytes
by Krishna Deo Sharma, Karrer M. Alghazali, Rabab N. Hamzah, Sahitya Chetan Pandanaboina, Zeid A. Nima Alsudani, Malek Muhi, Fumiya Watanabe, Guo-Lei Zhou, Alexandru S. Biris and Jennifer Yanhua Xie
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(6), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12060929 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have been proposed to promote stem cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined a particular type of AuNR in supporting the differentiation of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocytes (ODCs). AuNRs were synthesized [...] Read more.
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have been proposed to promote stem cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined a particular type of AuNR in supporting the differentiation of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocytes (ODCs). AuNRs were synthesized according to the seed-mediated method resulting in nanorods with an aspect ratio of around 3 (~12 nm diameter, 36 nm length) and plasmon resonance at 520 and 780 nm, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. A layer-by-layer approach was used to fabricate the AuNR substrate on the functionalized glass coverslips. NSCs were propagated for 10 days using fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth-factor-supplemented culture media, and differentiated on an AuNR or poly-D-lysine (PDL)-coated surface using differentiation media containing triiodothyronine for three weeks. Results showed that NSCs survived better and differentiated faster on the AuNRs compared to the PDL surface. By week 1, almost all cells had differentiated on the AuNR substrate, whereas only ~60% differentiated on the PDL surface, with similar percentages of ODCs and astrocytes. This study indicates that functionalized AuNR substrate does promote NSC differentiation and could be a viable tool for tissue engineering to support the differentiation of stem cells. Full article
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17 pages, 3872 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics of Ni/CeO2 Catalysts: The Effect of Pretreatment on the Low-Temperature Steam Reforming of Glycerol
by Yunzhu Wang, Songshan Zhu, Sufang He, Jichang Lu, Jiangping Liu, Huihui Lu, Di Song and Yongming Luo
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050816 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
CeO2 nanosphere-supported nickel catalysts were prepared by the wetness impregnation method and employed for hydrogen production from glycerol steam reforming. The dried catalyst precursors were either reduced by H2 after thermal calcination or reduced by H2 directly without calcination. The [...] Read more.
CeO2 nanosphere-supported nickel catalysts were prepared by the wetness impregnation method and employed for hydrogen production from glycerol steam reforming. The dried catalyst precursors were either reduced by H2 after thermal calcination or reduced by H2 directly without calcination. The catalysts that were reduced by H2 without calcination achieved a 95% glycerol conversion at a reaction temperature of only 475 °C, and the catalytic stability was up to 35 h. However, the reaction temperature required of catalysts reduced by H2 with calcination was 500 °C, and the catalysts was rapidly inactivated after 25 h of reaction. A series of physicochemical characterization revealed that direct H2 reduction without calcination enhanced the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Thus, the nickel dispersion was improved, the nickel nanoparticle size was reduced, and the reduction of nickel was increased. Moreover, the high concentration of oxygen vacancy not only contributed to the increase of H2 yield, but also effectively reduced the amount of carbon deposition. The increased active nickel surface area and oxygen vacancies synergistically resulted in the superior catalytic performance for the catalyst that was directly reduced by H2 without calcination. The simple, direct hydrogen reduction method remarkably boosts catalytic performance. This strategy can be extended to other supports with redox properties and applied to heterogeneous catalytic reactions involving resistance to sintering and carbon deposition. Full article
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12 pages, 4497 KiB  
Article
Composite Nanoarchitectonics with CoS2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Graphene Sheets for an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Tongjun Li, Hongyu Dong, Zhenpu Shi, Hongyun Yue, Yanhong Yin, Xiangnan Li, Huishuang Zhang, Xianli Wu, Baojun Li and Shuting Yang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040724 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Cobalt sulfides are attractive as intriguing candidates for anodes in Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their unique chemical and physical properties. In this work, CoS2@rGO (CSG) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. TEM showed that CoS2 nanoparticles have an average [...] Read more.
Cobalt sulfides are attractive as intriguing candidates for anodes in Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their unique chemical and physical properties. In this work, CoS2@rGO (CSG) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. TEM showed that CoS2 nanoparticles have an average particle size of 40 nm and were uniformly embedded in the surface of rGO. The battery electrode was prepared with this nanocomposite material and the charge and discharge performance was tested. The specific capacity, rate, and cycle stability of the battery were systematically analyzed. In situ XRD was used to study the electrochemical transformation mechanism of the material. The test results shows that the first discharge specific capacity of this nanocomposite reaches 1176.1 mAhg−1, and the specific capacity retention rate is 61.5% after 100 cycles, which was 47.5% higher than that of the pure CoS2 nanomaterial. When the rate changes from 5.0 C to 0.2 C, the charge-discharge specific capacity of the nanocomposite material can almost be restored to the initial capacity. The above results show that the CSG nanocomposites as a lithium-ion battery anode electrode has a high reversible specific capacity, better rate performance, and excellent cycle performance. Full article
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12 pages, 2648 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics of Electrically Activable Phosphonium Self-Assembled Monolayers to Efficiently Kill and Tackle Bacterial Infections on Demand
by Serena Carrara, Florent Rouvier, Sanjana Auditto, Frédéric Brunel, Charlotte Jeanneau, Michel Camplo, Michelle Sergent, Imad About, Jean-Michel Bolla and Jean-Manuel Raimundo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042183 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Prosthetic implants are widely used in dentistry and orthopedics and, as a result, infections can occur which cause their removal. Therefore, it is essential to propose methods of eradicating the bacteria that remain on the prosthesis during treatment. For this purpose, it is [...] Read more.
Prosthetic implants are widely used in dentistry and orthopedics and, as a result, infections can occur which cause their removal. Therefore, it is essential to propose methods of eradicating the bacteria that remain on the prosthesis during treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop surfaces whose antibacterial activity can be controlled. Herein, we designed innovative and smart phosphonium self-assembled monolayer (SAM) interfaces that can be electrically activated on demand for controlling bacterial contaminations on solid surfaces. Upon electroactivation with a low potential (0.2 V for 60 min., conditions determined through a DOE), a successful stamping out of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains was obtained with SAM-modified titanium surfaces, effectively killing 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% Klebsiellapneumoniae. More importantly, no toxicity towards eukaryotic cells was observed which further enhances the biocompatible character of these novel surfaces for further implementation. Full article
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9 pages, 2678 KiB  
Article
Effect of L-Ascorbic Acid Solution Concentration on the Thermoelectric Properties of Silver Selenide Flexible Films Prepared by Vacuum-Assisted Filtration
by Yanjun Zhang, Yaxin Zhao, Rui Guo, Zengxing Zhang, Dan Liu and Chenyang Xue
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040624 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Currently, there are several thermoelectric materials, such as Ag2Te, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3, that have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. However, the toxicity and rarity of most of these materials make them unsuitable for [...] Read more.
Currently, there are several thermoelectric materials, such as Ag2Te, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3, that have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. However, the toxicity and rarity of most of these materials make them unsuitable for practical applications. In contrast, silver selenide (Ag2Se) is an abundant and environment-friendly thermoelectric material. This study provides a facile synthetic approach for preparing high-performance, low-cost, and flexible Ag2Se thermoelectric films. Ag2Se nanomaterials were prepared based on the chemical template method, and the reaction solution concentration was varied to systematically investigate the effects of reaction solution concentration on the characterization and thermoelectric properties of Ag2Se nanomaterials. For convenience of testing, the flexible Ag2Se films were prepared on porous nylon membranes using vacuum-assisted filtration. The prepared thermoelectric films were tested using an X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, Seebeck coefficient tester, and Hall tester. The film prepared from the solution with the lowest concentration (18.0 mM) demonstrated the best thermoelectric performance, with a maximum power factor of 382.18 μW∙m−1∙K−2 at ~400 K. Additionally, a cold-pressing treatment could effectively enhance the electrical conductivity of the film, without damaging the substrate, as the conductivity of the film remained at 90% of the original value after 1500 bending cycles. Full article
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13 pages, 3007 KiB  
Article
Micro/Nanoarchitectonics of 3D Printed Scaffolds with Excellent Biocompatibility Prepared Using Femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization for Tissue Engineering Applications
by Yanping Yuan, Lei Chen, Ziyuan Shi and Jimin Chen
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030391 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
The fabrication of high-precision scaffolds with excellent biocompatibility for tissue engineering has become a research hotspot. Two-photon polymerization (TPP) can break the optical diffraction limit and is used to fabricate high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. In this study, the biological properties, and machinability of [...] Read more.
The fabrication of high-precision scaffolds with excellent biocompatibility for tissue engineering has become a research hotspot. Two-photon polymerization (TPP) can break the optical diffraction limit and is used to fabricate high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. In this study, the biological properties, and machinability of photosensitive gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel solutions are investigated, and the biocompatibility of 3D scaffolds using a photosensitive GelMA hydrogel solution fabricated by TPP is also evaluated. The biological properties of photosensitive GelMA hydrogel solutions are evaluated by analyzing their cytotoxicity, swelling ratio, and degradation ratio. The experimental results indicate that: (1) photosensitive GelMA hydrogel solutions with remarkable biological properties and processability are suitable for cell attachment. (2) a micro/nano 3D printed scaffold with good biocompatibility is fabricated using a laser scanning speed of 150 μm/s, laser power of 7.8 mW, layer distance of 150 nm and a photosensitive GelMA hydrogel solution with a concentration of 12% (w/v). Micro/nano additive manufacturing will have broad application prospects in the tissue engineering field. Full article
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17 pages, 32516 KiB  
Article
Immunomodulatory Properties and Osteogenic Activity of Polyetheretherketone Coated with Titanate Nanonetwork Structures
by Yuanyuan Yang, Honghao Zhang, Satoshi Komasa, Tetsuji Kusumoto, Shinsuke Kuwamoto, Tohru Okunishi, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Yoshiya Hashimoto, Tohru Sekino and Joji Okazaki
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020612 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a potential substitute for conventional metallic biomedical implants owing to its superior mechanical and chemical properties, as well as biocompatibility. However, its inherent bio-inertness and poor osseointegration limit its use in clinical applications. Herein, thin titanium films were deposited on [...] Read more.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a potential substitute for conventional metallic biomedical implants owing to its superior mechanical and chemical properties, as well as biocompatibility. However, its inherent bio-inertness and poor osseointegration limit its use in clinical applications. Herein, thin titanium films were deposited on the PEEK substrate by plasma sputtering, and porous nanonetwork structures were incorporated on the PEEK surface by alkali treatment (PEEK-TNS). Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the PEEK surface were analyzed to establish the interactions with cell behaviors. The osteoimmunomodulatory properties were evaluated using macrophage cells and osteoblast lineage cells. The functionalized nanostructured surface of PEEK-TNS effectively promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation, suppressed inflammatory responses, and induced macrophages to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. Compared with PEEK, PEEK-TNS provided a more beneficial osteoimmune environment, including increased levels of osteogenic, angiogenic, and fibrogenic gene expression, and balanced osteoclast activities. Furthermore, the crosstalk between macrophages and osteoblast cells showed that PEEK-TNS could provide favorable osteoimmunodulatory environment for bone regeneration. PEEK-TNS exhibited high osteogenic activity, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenic factor production, and the osteogenesis/osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression of osteoblasts. The study establishes that the fabrication of titanate nanonetwork structures on PEEK surfaces could extract an adequate immune response and favorable osteogenesis for functional bone regeneration. Furthermore, it indicates the potential of PEEK-TNS in implant applications. Full article
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14 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
Nanoarchitectonics for High Adsorption Capacity Carboxymethyl Cellulose Nanofibrils-Based Adsorbents for Efficient Cu2+ Removal
by Rongrong Si, Yehong Chen, Daiqi Wang, Dongmei Yu, Qijun Ding, Ronggang Li and Chaojun Wu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010160 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
In the present study, carboxymethyl cellulose nanofibrils (CMCNFs) with different carboxyl content (0.99–2.01 mmol/g) were prepared via controlling the ratio of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) and sodium hydroxide to Eucalyptus bleached pulp (EBP). CMCFs-PEI aerogels were obtained using the crosslinking reaction of polyethyleneimine (PEI) [...] Read more.
In the present study, carboxymethyl cellulose nanofibrils (CMCNFs) with different carboxyl content (0.99–2.01 mmol/g) were prepared via controlling the ratio of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) and sodium hydroxide to Eucalyptus bleached pulp (EBP). CMCFs-PEI aerogels were obtained using the crosslinking reaction of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and CMCNFs with the aid of glutaraldehyde (GA). The effects of pH, contact time, temperature, and initial Cu2+ concentration on the Cu2+ removal performance of CMCNFs-PEI aerogels was highlighted. Experimental data showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of CMCNF30-PEI for Cu2+ was 380.03 ± 23 mg/g, and the adsorption results were consistent with Langmuir isotherm (R2 > 0.99). The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity was 616.48 mg/g. After being treated with 0.05 M EDTA solution, the aerogel retained an 85% removal performance after three adsorption–desorption cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results demonstrated that complexation was the main Cu2+ adsorption mechanism. The excellent Cu2+ adsorption capacity of CMCNFs-PEI aerogels provided another avenue for the utilization of cellulose nanofibrils in the wastewater treatment field. Full article
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