Topic Editors

1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
2. Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Dr. Hanna Friberg
Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Dr. Florence Mutua
Department of Animal and Human Health, International Livestock Research Institute, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya

Mycotoxins in Animal Feed and in Animal Source Foods in Developing Countries

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 July 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 September 2021)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food and feed security remain a major challenge in developing countries. Worldwide, cereal-based crops are spoiled by toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins. Mycotoxins in animal feeds can have a large impact on the productivity of livestock, and there is a risk that the mycotoxins can be transferred into the animal products, and thus increasing their risk of exposure to humans. This is particularly true for aflatoxins, where, in developing countries, up to 100% of milk samples may be contaminated. In tropical and low-income countries, the burden posed by mycotoxins is relatively higher, and this is worsened by the often lacking regulatory enforcement of standards. This threatens not only human health, but also the development of the livestock sector, an important source of livelihoods for many smallholder farmers. There is limited data on the impact of mycotoxins on livestock production, as well as on the risks to human health, as a result of consuming contaminated livestock products.

This topic welcomes publications which focus on any aspect of mycotoxins in animal feeds, and animal source foods in tropical and developing countries, including papers studying prevalence, risk factors, impact on animal health, and mitigation options.

Dr. Johanna Lindahl
Prof. Dr. Gunther Antonissen
Dr. Hanna Friberg
Dr. Florence Mutua
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • aflatoxins
  • feed safety
  • food safety
  • dairy production, animal health
  • food security
  • mycology

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400
Dairy
dairy
- 2.4 2020 24.6 Days CHF 1200
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900
Toxins
toxins
4.2 7.5 2009 18.4 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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13 pages, 1450 KiB  
Brief Report
AFM1 Secretion and Efficacy of NovasilTM Clay in Kenyan Dairy Cows
by Maureen Kuboka, Lucy Njue, Florence Mutua, Delia Grace and Johanna Lindahl
Dairy 2022, 3(2), 220-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3020018 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk has been widely reported in Kenya, with levels freqently exceeding national and international thresholds. Exposure to aflatoxin increases the risk of hepatic cancers and can also have other negative health impacts in children such as [...] Read more.
The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk has been widely reported in Kenya, with levels freqently exceeding national and international thresholds. Exposure to aflatoxin increases the risk of hepatic cancers and can also have other negative health impacts in children such as growth impairment and immunosuppression. Anti-mycotoxin agents (AMAs) included in contaminated feeds can greatly reduce the amount of AFM1 released in milk. A 45-day trial was designed to assess secretion of AFM1 in milk from individual cows fed commercial Kenyan dairy feed, as well as the efficacy of Novasil™ Plus in reducing the levels. A four-by-four Latin square cross-over design was used for the experiment. Four cows were fed on naturally contaminated with AFB1 feed, with levels ranging from 19 to 47 µg/kg, and either no binder or inclusion of binder at the rate of 0.6 or 1.2%. Milk samples were collected each day and analyzed for AFM1. The results showed that AFM1 levels in the milk varied between the cows, even when fed similar levels of contaminated feed. On average, inclusion of 0.6% binder into the diet resulted in 34% decline in milk AFM1 levels, while 1.2% binder dose resulted in a decline of 45%. Significant reduction in AFM1 secretion was observed in all experimental units (p < 0.005), though only minimal reduction was recorded in one of the units (Cow 4) compared to the other three. This trial shows novel data on aflatoxin exposure and excretion in Kenyan dairy cows in a field setting where AFB1 level is uncontrolled. We demonstrate significant reduction in AFM1 secretion in milk using AMA, though AFM1 levels were still above the recommended EC standard of 50 ŋg/kg. This study suggests that AMAs alone cannot be relied on to reduce AFM1 in milk to safe levels. Training and good feeding practices are recommended in addition to use of AMAs. Full article
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17 pages, 4488 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fermentation Quality and Mycotoxins Concentrations of Corn Silage Infested with Mycotoxigenic Fungi
by Jinyang Li, Wenbo Wang, Sifan Chen, Tao Shao, Xuxiong Tao and Xianjun Yuan
Toxins 2021, 13(10), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100699 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on fermentation quality, mycotoxin concentrations, and microbial communities of whole-crop corn silages infested with mycotoxigenic fungi. Cultured spores (106 cfu/mL) of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum were sprayed [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on fermentation quality, mycotoxin concentrations, and microbial communities of whole-crop corn silages infested with mycotoxigenic fungi. Cultured spores (106 cfu/mL) of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum were sprayed (5 mL) on corn forage on 27 July and 10 August 2018. On 21 August 2018, sprayed (FI; 3 plots) and unsprayed (NFI; 3 plots) corn forage were harvested at the 1/2 kernel milk line stage, followed by chopping and ensiling without inoculants (CON), or with Lactobacillus buchneri (LB, 1 × 106 cfu/g FW), Lactobacillus plantarum (LT, 1 × 106 cfu/g FW), or L. buchneri + L. plantarum (BT: both L. buchneri and L. plantarum applied at 0.5 × 106 cfu/g FW). After 90 d of ensiling, FI silages had a higher (p < 0.05) pH value and higher acetic acid (ACA), ethanol, and ammonia nitrogen (ammonia N) concentrations, but lower (p < 0.05) lactic acid (LA) concentrations than NFI silage. The inoculants decreased pH and increased LA concentration and LA/ACA compared with CON. The aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was only detected in FI fresh corn and silages; ensiling decreased (p < 0.05) AFB1 concentration compared with fresh corn, and LB and BT decreased AFB1 concentration compared with CON. The zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) concentrations were similar (p < 0.05) for NFI silages, while ZEN concentration in BT was the lowest (p < 0.05) among all FI silages; DON and FB1 concentrations in LB, LT, and BT silages were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of CON in FI silages. The fungal infestation increased the bacterial and fungal diversity of silages compared with NFI silages. The FI silages had a higher relative abundance (RA) of Lactobacillus, Weissella, Wickerhamomyces, Pichia, and Epicoccum than the corresponding NFI silages. The RA of Aspergillus and Fusarium markedly decreased after 90 d of ensiling, and the inoculation expanded this trend irrespective of fungal infestation. The Penicillium in FI silages survived after 90 d of ensiling, while the inoculants decreased the RA of Penicillium. Inoculants mitigate the adverse effects of fungal infestation on corn silage quality by changing the bacterial and fungal communities. Full article
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6 pages, 570 KiB  
Communication
Short Communication: Quantification of the Effect of Mycotoxin Binders on the Bioavailability of Fat-Soluble Vitamins In Vitro
by Abdelhacib Kihal, María Ercilda Rodríguez-Prado, Carles Cristofol and Sergio Calsamiglia
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082251 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of six mycotoxin binders (MTBs) to adsorb vitamins A, D and E in an in vitro system that simulates gastric and intestinal digestion. Experiment 1 evaluated the recovery rate of vitamins A, D [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of six mycotoxin binders (MTBs) to adsorb vitamins A, D and E in an in vitro system that simulates gastric and intestinal digestion. Experiment 1 evaluated the recovery rate of vitamins A, D and E in the incubation conditions. In Experiment 2, the main factors were the MTB (bentonite, clinoptilolite, sepiolite, montmorillonite, active carbon and yeast cell walls), vitamins (A, D and E) and incubation type (vitamins incubated separately or together). The recovery was high for vitamin D (83%) and E (93%), but low for vitamin A (23%), for which no further analyses were conducted. When incubated separately, vitamin D was only adsorbed by yeast cell wall (20.2%). Vitamin E adsorption was highest with bentonite (54.5%) and montmorillonite (46.3%) and lowest with sepiolite (16.6%) and active carbon (18.5%). When incubated together, vitamin D was not adsorbed by any MTB. Vitamin E adsorption was highest in bentonite (61.8%) and montmorillonite (50.7%) and lowest in sepiolite (15.4%). Results indicate that the bioavailability of vitamin E, but not that of vitamin D, may be reduced in the presence of MTBs. Full article
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31 pages, 1620 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Conventional Methods and Electrochemical Aptasensors for Mycotoxin Detection
by Jing Yi Ong, Andrew Pike and Ling Ling Tan
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071437 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
The presence of mycotoxins in foodstuffs and feedstuffs is a serious concern for human health. The detection of mycotoxins is therefore necessary as a preventive action to avoid the harmful contamination of foodstuffs and animal feed. In comparison with the considerable expense of [...] Read more.
The presence of mycotoxins in foodstuffs and feedstuffs is a serious concern for human health. The detection of mycotoxins is therefore necessary as a preventive action to avoid the harmful contamination of foodstuffs and animal feed. In comparison with the considerable expense of treating contaminated foodstuffs, early detection is a cost-effective way to ensure food safety. The high affinity of bio-recognition molecules to mycotoxins has led to the development of affinity columns for sample pre-treatment and the development of biosensors for the quantitative analysis of mycotoxins. Aptamers are a very attractive class of biological receptors that are currently in great demand for the development of new biosensors. In this review, the improvement in the materials and methodology, and the working principles and performance of both conventional and recently developed methods are discussed. The key features and applications of the fundamental recognition elements, such as antibodies and aptamers are addressed. Recent advances in aptasensors that are based on different electrochemical (EC) transducers are reviewed in detail, especially from the perspective of the diagnostic mechanism; in addition, a brief introduction of some commercially available mycotoxin detection kits is provided. Full article
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14 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Reduction of the Adverse Impacts of Fungal Mycotoxin on Proximate Composition of Feed and Growth Performance in Broilers by Combined Adsorbents
by Anthony Christian Mgbeahuruike, Toochukwu Eleazar Ejiofor, Michael Ushie Ashang, Chiamaka Ojiako, Christian C. Obasi, Chuka Ezema, Obianuju Okoroafor, Mulunda Mwanza, Magnus Karlsson and Kennedy F. Chah
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060430 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
Synergistic interaction of adsorbents in reducing the adverse impacts of mycotoxin on performance and proximate composition of broiler feeds was investigated. Fungal growth was induced by sprinkling water on the feed. S. cerevisiae + bentonite, kaolin + bentonite or S. cerevisiea + kaolin [...] Read more.
Synergistic interaction of adsorbents in reducing the adverse impacts of mycotoxin on performance and proximate composition of broiler feeds was investigated. Fungal growth was induced by sprinkling water on the feed. S. cerevisiae + bentonite, kaolin + bentonite or S. cerevisiea + kaolin adsorbent combinations (1.5 g/kg feed) were added and the feeds were stored in black polythene bags. An untreated group was kept as a positive control while fresh uncontaminated feed was used as a negative control. Mycotoxins were extracted from the feeds and quantified using reverse phase HPLC. Proximate composition, nutrient digestibility of the feeds, feed intake and weight gain of the broilers were measured. Deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration in the contaminated/untreated feed was 347 µg/kg while aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was 34 µg/kg. Addition of bentonite and kaolin in the contaminated feed reduced AFB1 and DON to significantly lower levels. Feed intake and weight gain were low in the broilers fed the contaminated feed. The carbohydrate level was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 62.31 to 40.10%, crude protein digestibility dropped from 80.67 to 49.03% in the fresh feed and contaminated feed respectively. Addition of the adsorbents (S. cerevisiae and bentonite) significantly (p < 0.05) improved these parameters. Full article
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