Topic Editors

Institute of Statistics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300093, Taiwan
Department of Physics, Chuo University, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan

MicroRNA: Mechanisms of Action, Physio-Pathological Implications, and Disease Biomarkers

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Viewed by
114611

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be one of the most widespread non-coding RNAs, contributing to a wide range of biological processes including disease development. Thus, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms by which various miRNAs mediate the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNA functions have been extensively investigated in experiments and clinical studies. The exploration of miRNA disease or diagnosis biomarkers has become a popular research topic in recent years. In addition to investigating miRNA biomarkers and miRNA mechanisms, miRNA-based therapeutics such as treatment targeting miRNAs or miRNA drug discovery present potentially challenging tasks for researchers. Diagnosis using miRNA biomarkers and treatment targeting miRNAs are useful strategies in the development of personalized medicine. Moreover, the sequence of many miRNAs is found to be conserved among different organisms. The exploration of miRNA conservation may be beneficial for developing antivirus therapy for variant viruses such as those of coronavirus. This Special Issue invites submissions of reviews and original papers that cover any innovative miRNA research including the study of microRNA functionality by both biological and computational methods, clinical studies addressing miRNA biomarkers and miRNA evolution, and other related subjects.

Prof. Dr. Hsiuying Wang
Prof. Dr. Y-h. Taguchi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • disease biomarker
  • identification of microRNA target genes
  • experimental methods that investigate miRNA functionality
  • computational methods that investigate miRNA functionality
  • miRNA pathway
  • miRNA conservation

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomolecules
biomolecules
5.5 8.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2700
Cells
cells
6.0 9.0 2012 16.6 Days CHF 2700
Genes
genes
3.5 5.1 2010 16.5 Days CHF 2600
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900
Non-Coding RNA
ncrna
4.3 9.6 2015 16.6 Days CHF 1800

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (45 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 5390 KiB  
Article
miR-205 Regulates the Fusion of Porcine Myoblast by Targeting the Myomaker Gene
by Jideng Ma, Yan Zhu, Xiankun Zhou, Jinwei Zhang, Jing Sun, Zhengjie Li, Long Jin, Keren Long, Lu Lu and Liangpeng Ge
Cells 2023, 12(8), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12081107 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Skeletal muscle formation is an extremely important step in animal growth and development. Recent studies have found that TMEM8c (also known as Myomaker, MYMK), a muscle-specific transmembrane protein, can promote myoblast fusion and plays a key role in the normal development of skeletal [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle formation is an extremely important step in animal growth and development. Recent studies have found that TMEM8c (also known as Myomaker, MYMK), a muscle-specific transmembrane protein, can promote myoblast fusion and plays a key role in the normal development of skeletal muscle. However, the effect of Myomaker on porcine (Sus scrofa) myoblast fusion and the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the role and corresponding regulatory mechanism of the Myomaker gene during skeletal muscle development, cell differentiation, and muscle injury repair in pigs. We obtained the entire 3′ UTR sequence of porcine Myomaker using the 3′ RACE approach and found that miR-205 inhibited porcine myoblast fusion by targeting the 3′ UTR of Myomaker. In addition, based on a constructed porcine acute muscle injury model, we discovered that both the mRNA and protein expression of Myomaker were activated in the injured muscle, while miR-205 expression was significantly inhibited during skeletal muscle regeneration. The negative regulatory relationship between miR-205 and Myomaker was further confirmed in vivo. Taken together, the present study reveals that Myomaker plays a role during porcine myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle regeneration and demonstrates that miR-205 inhibits myoblast fusion through targeted regulation of the expression of Myomaker. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3552 KiB  
Article
Autophagy-Related MicroRNA: Tumor miR-125b and Thyroid Cancers
by Liudmila V. Spirina, Irina V. Kovaleva, Svetlana Yu. Chizhevskaya, Anastasiya V. Chebodaeva and Nataliya V. Tarasenko
Genes 2023, 14(3), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14030685 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Background: Autophagy is a stress response mechanism that causes cellular components to degrade. Its defects were associated with multiple pathologies, including cancers. Thyroid cancer is known to be the most prevalent form of malignant neoplasm among endocrine tumors. The aim of the study [...] Read more.
Background: Autophagy is a stress response mechanism that causes cellular components to degrade. Its defects were associated with multiple pathologies, including cancers. Thyroid cancer is known to be the most prevalent form of malignant neoplasm among endocrine tumors. The aim of the study was to seek and comprehensively explore the role of autophagy related genes and proteins play in thyroid cancers through bioinformatics analysis with their detection in the tissue samples. Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was performed to investigate autophagy related proteins and genes involvement in thyroid cancer progression. The experimental verification was done in cancer samples of one hundred and three patients with thyroid pathology included in the study. The miR-125blevel was detected by PCR in real time. Results and discussion: The bioinformatics analysis verified the miR-125b as a regulatory mechanism in autophagy. Its expression in patients with PTC was reduced by 6.75 times in cancer patients compared to the patients with benign tumors. The BRAFV600E mutations were associated with a decrease in hsa-miR-125b expression by 12.67 times compared to tumors with the wild-type gene. Conclusions: Our findings revealed involvement of the autophagy related proteins in cancer progression. The significant mechanisms of regulation are non-coding RNA sequences implicated in a variety of oncogenic processes. We found that miR-125b is a potential maker in thyroid cancer invasion, BRAV600E mutational status and risk of recurrence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 6331 KiB  
Article
Immunoregulatory Biomarkers of the Remission Phase in Type 1 Diabetes: miR-30d-5p Modulates PD-1 Expression and Regulatory T Cell Expansion
by Laia Gomez-Muñoz, David Perna-Barrull, Marta Murillo, Maria Pilar Armengol, Marta Alcalde, Marti Catala, Silvia Rodriguez-Fernandez, Sergi Sunye, Aina Valls, Jacobo Perez, Raquel Corripio and Marta Vives-Pi
Non-Coding RNA 2023, 9(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna9020017 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
The partial remission (PR) phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an underexplored period characterized by endogenous insulin production and downmodulated autoimmunity. To comprehend the mechanisms behind this transitory phase and develop precision medicine strategies, biomarker discovery and patient stratification are unmet needs. [...] Read more.
The partial remission (PR) phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an underexplored period characterized by endogenous insulin production and downmodulated autoimmunity. To comprehend the mechanisms behind this transitory phase and develop precision medicine strategies, biomarker discovery and patient stratification are unmet needs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression and modulate several biological processes, functioning as biomarkers for many diseases. Here, we identify and validate a unique miRNA signature during PR in pediatric patients with T1D by employing small RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR. These miRNAs were mainly related to the immune system, metabolism, stress, and apoptosis pathways. The implication in autoimmunity of the most dysregulated miRNA, miR-30d-5p, was evaluated in vivo in the non-obese diabetic mouse. MiR-30d-5p inhibition resulted in increased regulatory T cell percentages in the pancreatic lymph nodes together with a higher expression of CD200. In the spleen, a decrease in PD-1+ T lymphocytes and reduced PDCD1 expression were observed. Moreover, miR-30d-5p inhibition led to an increased islet leukocytic infiltrate and changes in both effector and memory T lymphocytes. In conclusion, the miRNA signature found during PR shows new putative biomarkers and highlights the immunomodulatory role of miR-30d-5p, elucidating the processes driving this phase. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 9757 KiB  
Article
Stable Expression of dmiR-283 in the Brain Promises Positive Effects in Endurance Exercise on Sleep–Wake Behavior in Aging Drosophila
by Qiufang Li, Lingxiao Wang, Yurou Cao, Xiaoya Wang, Chao Tang and Lan Zheng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 4180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24044180 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Sleep–wake stability is imbalanced with natural aging, and microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and aging; however, the biological functions of miRNAs in regulating aging-related sleep–wake behavior remain unexplored. This study varied the expression pattern of dmiR-283 in Drosophila and [...] Read more.
Sleep–wake stability is imbalanced with natural aging, and microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and aging; however, the biological functions of miRNAs in regulating aging-related sleep–wake behavior remain unexplored. This study varied the expression pattern of dmiR-283 in Drosophila and the result showed that the aging decline in sleep–wake behavior was caused by the accumulation of brain dmiR-283 expression, whereas the core clock genes cwo and Notch signaling pathway might be suppressed, which regulate the aging process. In addition, to identify exercise intervention programs of Drosophila that promote healthy aging, mir-283SP/+ and Pdf > mir-283SP flies were driven to perform endurance exercise for a duration of 3 weeks starting at 10 and 30 days, respectively. The results showed that exercise starting in youth leads to an enhanced amplitude of sleep–wake rhythms, stable periods, increased activity frequency upon awakening, and the suppression of aging brain dmiR-283 expression in mir-283SP/+ middle-aged flies. Conversely, exercise performed when the brain dmiR-283 reached a certain accumulation level showed ineffective or negative effects. In conclusion, the accumulation of dmiR-283 expression in the brain induced an age-dependent decline in sleep–wake behavior. Endurance exercise commencing in youth counteracts the increase in dmiR-283 in the aging brain, which ameliorates the deterioration of sleep–wake behavior during aging. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4679 KiB  
Article
Hypoxia Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression and Cell Proliferation in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells via the miR-212-3p/MCM2 Axis
by Qixin Shi, Shaohua Li, Qiang Lyu, Shuai Zhang, Yungang Bai and Jin Ma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032788 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Hypoxia impairs blood–brain barrier (BBB) structure and function, causing pathophysiological changes in the context of stroke and high-altitude brain edema. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are major structural and functional elements of the BBB, and their exact role in hypoxia remains unknown. Here, [...] Read more.
Hypoxia impairs blood–brain barrier (BBB) structure and function, causing pathophysiological changes in the context of stroke and high-altitude brain edema. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are major structural and functional elements of the BBB, and their exact role in hypoxia remains unknown. Here, we first deciphered the molecular events that occur in BMECs under 24 h hypoxia by whole-transcriptome sequencing assay. We found that hypoxia inhibited BMEC cell cycle progression and proliferation and downregulated minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (Mcm2) expression. Mcm2 overexpression attenuated the inhibition of cell cycle progression and proliferation caused by hypoxia. Then, we predicted the upstream miRNAs of MCM2 through TargetScan and miRanDa and selected miR-212-3p, whose expression was significantly increased under hypoxia. Moreover, the miR-212-3p inhibitor attenuated the inhibition of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation caused by hypoxia by regulating MCM2. Taken together, these results suggest that the miR-212-3p/MCM2 axis plays an important role in BMECs under hypoxia and provide a potential target for the treatment of BBB disorder-related cerebrovascular disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6913 KiB  
Article
ame-miR-34 Modulates the Larval Body Weight and Immune Response of Apis mellifera Workers to Ascosphara apis Invasion
by Ying Wu, Yilong Guo, Xiaoxue Fan, Haodong Zhao, Yiqiong Zhang, Sijia Guo, Xin Jing, Zhitan Liu, Peilin Feng, Xiaoyu Liu, Peiyuan Zou, Qiming Li, Zhihao Na, Kuihao Zhang, Dafu Chen and Rui Guo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021214 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
MiRNAs are critical regulators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Ascosphaera apis exclusively infects bee larvae and causes chalkbrood disease. However, the function and mechanism of miRNAs in the bee larval response to A. apis infection is poorly understood. Here, ame-miR-34, a previously [...] Read more.
MiRNAs are critical regulators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Ascosphaera apis exclusively infects bee larvae and causes chalkbrood disease. However, the function and mechanism of miRNAs in the bee larval response to A. apis infection is poorly understood. Here, ame-miR-34, a previously predicted miRNA involved in the response of Apis mellifera larvae to A. apis invasion, was subjected to molecular validation, and overexpression and knockdown were then conducted to explore the regulatory functions of ame-miR-34 in larval body weight and immune response. Stem-loop RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing confirmed the authenticity of ame-miR-34 in the larval gut of A. mellifera. RT-qPCR results demonstrated that compared with that in the uninfected larval guts, the expression level of ame-miR-34 was significantly downregulated (p < 0.001) in the guts of A. apis-infected 4-, 5-, and 6-day-old larvae, indicative of the remarkable suppression of host ame-miR-34 due to A. apis infection. In comparison with the corresponding negative control (NC) groups, the expression level of ame-miR-34 in the larval guts in the mimic-miR-34 group was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001), while that in the inhibitor-miR-34 group was significantly downregulated (p < 0.01). Similarly, effective overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-34 were achieved. In addition, the body weights of 5- and 6-day-old larvae were significantly increased compared with those in the mimic-NC group; the weights of 5-day-old larvae in the inhibitor-miR-34 group were significantly decreased in comparison with those in the inhibitor-NC group, while the weights of 4- and 6-day-old larvae in the inhibitor-miR-34 group were significantly increased, indicating the involvement of ame-miR-34 in modulating larval body weight. Furthermore, the expression levels of both hsp and abct in the guts of A. apis-infected 4-, 5-, and 6-day-old larvae were significantly upregulated after ame-miR-34 overexpression. In contrast, after ame-miR-34 knockdown, the expression levels of the aforementioned two key genes in the A. apis-infected 4-, 5-, and 6-day-old larval guts were significantly downregulated. Together, the results demonstrated that effective overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-34 in both noninfected and A. apis-infected A. mellifera larval guts could be achieved by the feeding method, and ame-miR-34 exerted a regulatory function in the host immune response to A. apis invasion through positive regulation of the expression of hsp and abct. Our findings not only provide a valuable reference for the functional investigation of bee larval miRNAs but also reveal the regulatory role of ame-miR-34 in A. mellifera larval weight and immune response. Additionally, the results of this study may provide a promising molecular target for the treatment of chalkbrood disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
Deciphering the Role of microRNA Mediated Regulation of Coronin 1C in Glioblastoma Development and Metastasis
by Denis Mustafov, Emmanouil Karteris and Maria Braoudaki
Non-Coding RNA 2023, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna9010004 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogenic and malignant brain tumour with a median survival of 15 months. The initial identification of primary glioblastomas is often challenging. Coronin 1C (CORO1C) is a key player in actin rearrangement and cofilin dynamics, as well as [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogenic and malignant brain tumour with a median survival of 15 months. The initial identification of primary glioblastomas is often challenging. Coronin 1C (CORO1C) is a key player in actin rearrangement and cofilin dynamics, as well as enhancing the processes of neurite overgrowth and migration of brain tumour cells. Different bioinformatic databases were accessed to measure CORO1C expression at the mRNA and protein level in normal and malignant brains. CORO1C expression was observed in brain regions which have retained high synaptic plasticity and myelination properties. CORO1C was also expressed mainly within the hippocampus formation, including the Cornu Ammonis (CA) fields: CA1–CA4. Higher expression was also noticed in paediatric GBM in comparison to their adult counterparts. Pediatric cell populations were observed to have an increased log2 expression of CORO1C. Furthermore, 62 miRNAs were found to target the CORO1C gene. Of these, hsa-miR-34a-5p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-136-5p, hsa-miR-206, hsa-miR-128-3p, and hsa-miR-21-5p have shown to act as tumour suppressors or oncomiRs in different neoplasms, including GBM. The elevated expression of CORO1C in high grade metastatic brain malignancies, including GBM, suggests that this protein could have a clinical utility as a biomarker linked to an unfavorable outcome. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1789 KiB  
Review
Emerging Mutual Regulatory Roles between m6A Modification and microRNAs
by Zongqin Mei, Yahao Mou, Nan Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, Zuoshun He and Shiyan Gu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010773 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
N6-metyladenosine (m6A), one of the most common RNA methylation modifications in mammals, has attracted extensive attentions owing to its regulatory roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. As a reversible epigenetic modification on RNAs, m6A [...] Read more.
N6-metyladenosine (m6A), one of the most common RNA methylation modifications in mammals, has attracted extensive attentions owing to its regulatory roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. As a reversible epigenetic modification on RNAs, m6A is dynamically mediated by the functional interplay among the regulatory proteins of methyltransferases, demethylases and methyl-binding proteins. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that m6A modification is associated with the production and function of microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review, we summarize the specific kinds of m6A modification methyltransferases, demethylases and methyl-binding proteins. In particular, we focus on describing the roles of m6A modification and its regulatory proteins in the production and function of miRNAs in a variety of pathological and physiological processes. More importantly, we further discuss the mediating mechanisms of miRNAs in m6A modification and its regulatory proteins during the occurrence and development of various diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5127 KiB  
Article
TRH Regulates the Synthesis and Secretion of Prolactin in Rats with Adenohypophysis through the Differential Expression of miR-126a-5p
by Guo-Kun Zhao, Yi Zheng, Hai-Xiang Guo, Hao-Qi Wang, Zhong-Hao Ji, Tian Wang, Song Yu, Jia-Bao Zhang, Bao Yuan and Wen-Zhi Ren
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415914 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Prolactin (PRL) is an important hormone that is secreted by the pituitary gland and plays an important role in the growth, development and reproduction of organisms. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a common prolactin-releasing factor that regulates the synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In [...] Read more.
Prolactin (PRL) is an important hormone that is secreted by the pituitary gland and plays an important role in the growth, development and reproduction of organisms. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a common prolactin-releasing factor that regulates the synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In recent studies, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play a key role in the regulation of pituitary hormones. However, there is a lack of systematic studies on the regulatory role that TRH plays on the pituitary transcriptome, and the role of miRNAs in the regulation of PRL synthesis and secretion by TRH lacks experimental evidence. In this study, we first investigated the changes in PRL synthesis and secretion in the rat pituitary gland after TRH administration. The results of transcriptomic analysis after TRH treatment showed that 102 genes, including those that encode Nppc, Fgf1, PRL, Cd63, Npw, and Il23a, were upregulated, and 488 genes, including those that encode Lats1, Cacna2d1, Top2a, and Tfap2a, were downregulated. These genes are all involved in the regulation of prolactin expression. The gene expression of miR-126a-5p, which regulates the level of PRL in the pituitary gland, was screened by analysis prediction software and by a dual luciferase reporter system. The data presented in this study demonstrate that TRH can regulate prolactin synthesis and secretion through miR-126a-5p, thereby improving our understanding of the molecular mechanism of TRH-mediated PRL secretion and providing a theoretical basis for the role of miRNAs in regulating the secretion of pituitary hormones. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1279 KiB  
Review
The Versatile Role of miR-21 in Renal Homeostasis and Diseases
by Romain Larrue, Sandy Fellah, Cynthia Van der Hauwaert, Marie-Flore Hennino, Michaël Perrais, Arnaud Lionet, François Glowacki, Nicolas Pottier and Christelle Cauffiez
Cells 2022, 11(21), 3525; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11213525 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA species that control gene expression and confer robustness to biological processes. Over the last two decades, their important roles during kidney development, homeostasis and the treatment of diseases have been established, in particular during the onset and [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA species that control gene expression and confer robustness to biological processes. Over the last two decades, their important roles during kidney development, homeostasis and the treatment of diseases have been established, in particular during the onset and progression of various forms of acute and chronic renal disorders. In recent years, miR-21, one of the best-characterized miRNAs to date, has received much attention in renal physiology in particular given its high degree of conservation and expression in kidneys, as well as its potent pathogenic role in various debilitating renal diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge on miR-21’s involvement in both renal homeostasis and diseases, in particular its double-edged-sword role in acute versus chronic kidney injuries. Finally, we also discuss the potential of miR-21 as a biomarker and therapeutic target in renal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MicroRNA: Mechanisms of Action, Physio-Pathological Implications, and Disease Biomarkers)
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Microenvironment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 3534 KiB  
Review
miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p and miR-218-5p Synergistic or Additive Effects on Cellular Processes That Modulate Cervical Cancer Progression? A Molecular Balance That Needs Attention
by Manuel Joaquín Romero-López, Hilda Jiménez-Wences, Merlin Itsel Cruz-De la Rosa, Ilce Valeria Román-Fernández and Gloria Fernández-Tilapa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113551 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
In cervical cancer (CC), miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p, and miR-218-5p have been found to act as tumor suppressors by regulating cellular processes related to progression and metastasis. The objective of the present review is to provide an update on the experimental evidence about the role [...] Read more.
In cervical cancer (CC), miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p, and miR-218-5p have been found to act as tumor suppressors by regulating cellular processes related to progression and metastasis. The objective of the present review is to provide an update on the experimental evidence about the role of miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p, and miR-218-5p in the regulation of CC progression. Additionally, we present the results of a bioinformatic analysis that suggest that these miRNAs have a somewhat redundant role in the same cellular processes that may result in a synergistic effect to promote CC progression. The results indicate that specific and common target genes for miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p, and miR-218-5p regulate proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, all processes that are related to CC maintenance and progression. Furthermore, several target genes may regulate cancer-related signaling pathways. We found that a total of 271 proteins encoded by the target mRNAs of miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p, or miR-218-5p interact to regulate the cellular processes previously mentioned, and some of these proteins are regulated by HPV-16 E7. Taken together, information analysis indicates that miR-23b-3p, miR-124-3p, and miR-218-5p may potentiate their effects to modulate the cellular processes related to the progression and maintenance of CC with and without HPV-16 involvement. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 14210 KiB  
Article
Key Genes Associated with Pyroptosis in Gout and Construction of a miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network
by Bing Bai, Yezhou Liu, Azierguli Abudukerimu, Tingting Tian, Meiting Liang, Rui Li and Yuping Sun
Cells 2022, 11(20), 3269; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11203269 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze key hub genes related to pyroptosis in gout and construct a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network using bioinformatic tools to elucidate the pathogenesis of gout and offer novel ideas to develop targeted therapeutic strategies for gout. Methods: The GSE160170 dataset [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze key hub genes related to pyroptosis in gout and construct a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network using bioinformatic tools to elucidate the pathogenesis of gout and offer novel ideas to develop targeted therapeutic strategies for gout. Methods: The GSE160170 dataset was downloaded from the GEO database. The expression data extracted from the dataset were used to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which intersected with pyroptosis-related genes. These DEGs were analyzed via Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses, and a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to identify pyroptosis-related hub DEGs. The relationship between upstream miRNAs and the hub genes was analyzed, miRNA-mRNA networks belonging to gout disease were constructed and samples from patients with gout were used for experimental verification. The CTDbase tool was used to analyze the identified hub genes and construct a molecular docking model. Results: A total of 943 DEGs (380 upregulated and 563 downregulated) were identified by analyzing the data of patients with early-stage gout and healthy control individuals in the GSE160170 dataset. DEGs and pyroptosis-related genes were intersected to obtain 17 pyroptosis-related DEGs associated with gout; of which, 12 were upregulated, and five were downregulated. The results of GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the DEGs were enriched in inflammatory and immune signaling pathways. Additionally, the DEGs were found to regulate inflammatory responses and were associated with apoptosis. TNF, IL-1β, NLRP3, CXCL8, PTGS2, NFE2L2, CASP8, and CD274 were identified as key hub genes in the PPI network, and a miRNA-mRNA network was constructed, which had 16 edges. Experimental validation revealed that PTGS2 and NFE2L2 were significantly upregulated, and CASP8 and CD274 were significantly downregulated in gout. In addition, miR-128-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-155-5p, and miR-20a-5p (associated with the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network) were significantly downregulated in gout. Five potential therapeutic drugs with stable PTGS2 binding were selected to develop a molecular docking model. Conclusion: A miRNA-mRNA potential regulatory network was constructed based on pyroptosis-related DEGs associated with gout. miR-16-5p, miR-128-3p, miR-20a-5p, and miR-155-5p can potentially influence pyroptosis and the occurrence and development of gout by affecting the expression of the PTGS2, CASP8, NFE2L2, and CD274 genes. Screening of celecoxib and resveratrol and other targeted drugs with stable binding. The findings of this study offer valuable insights into the regulatory mechanisms of gout and may help to identify Biomarkers and develop targeted therapeutic strategies for gout. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3679 KiB  
Article
Confounding Factors Impacting microRNA Expression in Human Saliva: Methodological and Biological Considerations
by Rhea Sullivan, Austin Montgomery, Anna Scipioni, Pooja Jhaveri, Adam T. Schmidt and Steven D. Hicks
Genes 2022, 13(10), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13101874 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
There is growing interest in saliva microRNAs (miRNAs) as non-invasive biomarkers for human disease. Such an approach requires understanding how differences in experimental design affect miRNA expression. Variations in technical methodologies, coupled with inter-individual variability may reduce study reproducibility and generalizability. Another barrier [...] Read more.
There is growing interest in saliva microRNAs (miRNAs) as non-invasive biomarkers for human disease. Such an approach requires understanding how differences in experimental design affect miRNA expression. Variations in technical methodologies, coupled with inter-individual variability may reduce study reproducibility and generalizability. Another barrier facing salivary miRNA biomarker research is a lack of recognized “control miRNAs”. In one of the largest studies of human salivary miRNA to date (922 healthy individuals), we utilized 1225 saliva samples to quantify variability in miRNA expression resulting from aligner selection (Bowtie1 vs. Bowtie2), saliva collection method (expectorated vs. swabbed), RNA stabilizer (presence vs. absence), and individual biological factors (sex, age, body mass index, exercise, caloric intake). Differential expression analyses revealed that absence of RNA stabilizer introduced the greatest variability, followed by differences in methods of collection and aligner. Biological factors generally affected a smaller number of miRNAs. We also reported coefficients of variations for 643 miRNAs consistently present in saliva, highlighting several salivary miRNAs to serve as reference genes. Thus, the results of this analysis can be used by researchers to optimize parameters of salivary miRNA measurement, exclude miRNAs confounded by numerous biologic factors, and identify appropriate miRNA controls. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2470 KiB  
Article
miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p Regulate the Spermatogenesis of Bactrocera dorsalis by Targeting the orb2 Gene
by Summar Sohail, Kaleem Tariq, Muhammad Sajid, Muhammad Waqar Ali, Wei Peng and Hongyu Zhang
Genes 2022, 13(10), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13101861 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Bactrocera dorsalis is considered a major threat to horticultural crops. It has evolved resistance against insecticides. It is believed that development of new methods is highly desirable to control this destructive agricultural pest. Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential tool to [...] Read more.
Bactrocera dorsalis is considered a major threat to horticultural crops. It has evolved resistance against insecticides. It is believed that development of new methods is highly desirable to control this destructive agricultural pest. Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential tool to control this insect pest by reducing their reproductive ability. Here we report that orb2 has high expression in the testis of B. dorsalis which is the target of miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p and plays a critical role in the spermatogenesis. Dual luciferase reporter assay using HEKT293 cells demonstrates that orb2 gene is downregulated by miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p and is a common target of these miRNAs. Dietary treatment of adult male flies separately and in combination of agomir-125-3p (Ago-125-3p) and agomir-276b-3p (Ago-276b-3p) significantly downregulated the mRNA of orb2. The combined treatments of agomirs suppressed the level of mRNA of orb2 significantly more than any single treatment. Altered expression of miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p significantly decreased the total and live spermatozoa in the testis which ultimately caused reduction in male fertility. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-125-3p, miR-276b-3p, and orb2 dsRNA are the novel agents that could be used in a genetic-based sterile insect technique (SIT) to control the B. dorsalis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Reduced miR-146a-5p Is a Biomarker of Infant Respiratory Diseases Contributing to Immune Dysregulation in Small Airway Epithelial Cells
by José M. Rodrigo-Muñoz, Marta Gil-Martínez, Clara Lorente-Sorolla, Beatriz Sastre, María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Inmaculada Casas and Victoria del Pozo
Cells 2022, 11(17), 2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11172746 - 02 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis, and those with wheezing episodes, are highly important during infancy due to their potential chronicity. Immune response dysregulation is critical in perpetuating lung damage. Epigenetic modifications including microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional regulation are among the factors involved in alleviating [...] Read more.
Respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis, and those with wheezing episodes, are highly important during infancy due to their potential chronicity. Immune response dysregulation is critical in perpetuating lung damage. Epigenetic modifications including microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional regulation are among the factors involved in alleviating inflammation. We evaluated the expression of miR-146a-5p, a previously described negative regulator of immunity, in infants with respiratory diseases, in order to study epigenetic regulation of the immune response. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was obtained from infants with bronchiolitis (ongoing and post-disease) or with wheezing episodes in addition to healthy controls. Virus presence was determined by nested PCR, while miRNA and gene expression were studied in cells from NPAs using qPCR. Healthy small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were used as an in vitro model. We observe a reduction in miR-146a-5p expression in infants with either of the two diseases compared to controls, suggesting the potential of this miRNA as a disease biomarker. Post-bronchiolitis, miR-146a-5p expression increases, though without reaching levels of healthy controls. MiR-146a-5p expression correlates inversely with the immune-related gene PTGS2, while its expression correlates directly with TSLP. When heathy donor SAECs are stimulated by poly:IC, we observe an increase in miR-146a-5p, with wounds having a synergistic effect. In conclusion, infants with respiratory diseases present reduced miR-146a-5p expression, possibly affecting immune dysregulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1666 KiB  
Article
Circulating microRNAs in Hidradenitis Suppurativa
by Bruna De Felice, Concetta Montanino, Marta Mallardo, Graziella Babino, Edi Mattera, Giovanni Ragozzino, Giuseppe Argenziano, Aurora Daniele and Ersilia Nigro
Genes 2022, 13(9), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13091544 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a pathology characterized by chronic inflammation and skin lesions. The molecular basis of the inflammatory network remains unclear; however, since microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the modulation of inflammation, the composition of a micro-transcriptome RNA library using the blood [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a pathology characterized by chronic inflammation and skin lesions. The molecular basis of the inflammatory network remains unclear; however, since microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the modulation of inflammation, the composition of a micro-transcriptome RNA library using the blood of HS patients was analysed here. The total miRNA expression profiles of miRNAs from HS patients was assayed by real-time qPCR. Here, compared to healthy controls, miR-24-1-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR26a-5p, miR-206, miR338-3p, and miR-338-5p expression was found significantly different in HS. Knowing the significance of the miRNA mechanism in inflammatory and immune progression, we suggest that miRNA profiles found in HS patients can be significant in understanding the pathogenesis modality and establishing efficient biomarkers for HS early diagnosis. In particular, miR-338-5p was closely related to HS invasiveness and production of cytokines and was atypically overexpressed. miR-338-5p may represent a good promise as a non-invasive clinical biomarker for HS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4805 KiB  
Review
miR-218: A Stress-Responsive Epigenetic Modifier
by Grant Schell, Bhaskar Roy, Kevin Prall and Yogesh Dwivedi
Non-Coding RNA 2022, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna8040055 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3414
Abstract
Understanding the epigenetic role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been a critical development in the field of neuropsychiatry and in understanding their underlying pathophysiology. Abnormalities in miRNA expression are often seen as key to the pathogenesis of many stress-associated mental disorders, including major depressive [...] Read more.
Understanding the epigenetic role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been a critical development in the field of neuropsychiatry and in understanding their underlying pathophysiology. Abnormalities in miRNA expression are often seen as key to the pathogenesis of many stress-associated mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent advances in omics biology have further contributed to this understanding and expanded the role of miRNAs in networking a diverse array of molecular pathways, which are essentially related to the stress adaptivity of a healthy brain. Studies have highlighted the role of many such miRNAs in causing maladaptive changes in the brain’s stress axis. One such miRNA is miR-218, which is debated as a critical candidate for increased stress susceptibility. miR-218 is expressed throughout the brain, notably in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is expressed at various levels through life stages, as seen by adolescent and adult animal models. Until now, a minimal number of studies have been conducted on human subjects to understand its role in stress-related abnormalities in brain circuits. However, several studies, including animal and cell-culture models, have been used to understand the impact of miR-218 on stress response and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. So far, expression changes in this miRNA have been found to regulate signaling pathways such as glucocorticoid signaling, serotonergic signaling, and glutamatergic signaling. Recently, the developmental role of miR-218 has generated interest, given its increasing expression from adolescence to adulthood and targeting the Netrin-1/DCC signaling pathway. Since miR-218 expression affects neuronal development and plasticity, it is expected that a change in miR-218 expression levels over the course of development may negatively impact the process and make individuals stress-susceptible in adulthood. In this review, we describe the role of miR-218 in stress-induced neuropsychiatric conditions with an emphasis on stress-related disorders. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4136 KiB  
Article
Smad8 Is Increased in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Suppresses miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b
by Michael A. Lopez, Ying Si, Xianzhen Hu, Valentyna Williams, Fuad Qushair, Jackson Carlyle, Lyndsy Alesce, Michael Conklin, Shawn Gilbert, Marcas M. Bamman, Matthew S. Alexander and Peter H. King
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147515 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease characterized by skeletal muscle instability, progressive muscle wasting, and fibrosis. A major driver of DMD pathology stems from aberrant upregulation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. In this report, we investigated the major [...] Read more.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease characterized by skeletal muscle instability, progressive muscle wasting, and fibrosis. A major driver of DMD pathology stems from aberrant upregulation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. In this report, we investigated the major transducers of TGFβ signaling, i.e., receptor Smads (R-Smads), in DMD patient skeletal muscle and observed a 48-fold increase in Smad8 mRNA. Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5 mRNA were only minimally increased. A similar pattern was observed in the muscle from the mdx5cv mouse. Western blot analysis showed upregulation of phosphorylated Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 compared to total Smad indicating activation of this pathway. In parallel, we observed a profound diminishment of muscle-enriched microRNAs (myomiRs): miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b. The pattern of Smad8 induction and myomiR suppression was recapitulated in C2C12 muscle cells after stimulation with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), a signaling factor that we found upregulated in DMD muscle. Silencing Smad8 in C2C12 myoblasts derepressed myomiRs and promoted myoblast differentiation; there was also a concomitant upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors (myogenin and myocyte enhancer factor 2D) and suppression of a pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6). Our data suggest that Smad8 is a negative regulator of miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b in muscle cells and that the BMP4-Smad8 axis is a driver of dystrophic pathology in DMD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 8123 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Key miRNAs and Genes Associated with the Regulation of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Network-Based Approach
by Zoya Shafat, Mohd Murshad Ahmed, Fahad N. Almajhdi, Tajamul Hussain, Shama Parveen and Anwar Ahmed
Genes 2022, 13(7), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13071174 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-associated deaths across the world in both men and women. Lung cancer consists of two major clinicopathological categories, i.e., small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lack of diagnosis of NSCLC at [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-associated deaths across the world in both men and women. Lung cancer consists of two major clinicopathological categories, i.e., small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lack of diagnosis of NSCLC at an early stage in addition to poor prognosis results in ineffective treatment, thus, biomarkers for appropriate diagnosis and exact prognosis of NSCLC need urgent attention. The proposed study aimed to reveal essential microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC that probably could act as potential biomarkers. The NSCLC-associated expression datasets revealed 12 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs). MiRNA-mRNA network identified key miRNAs and their associated genes, for which functional enrichment analysis was applied. Further, survival and validation analysis for key genes was performed and consequently transcription factors (TFs) were predicted. We obtained twelve miRNAs as common DEMs after assessment of all datasets. Further, four key miRNAs and nine key genes were extracted from significant modules based on the centrality approach. The key genes and miRNAs reported in our study might provide some information for potential biomarkers profitable to increased prognosis and diagnosis of lung cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Host miRNAs on Prognosis in COVID-19: miRNA-155 May Promote Severity via Targeting Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) Gene
by Asuman Gedikbasi, Gokhan Adas, Nilgun Isiksacan, Kadriye Kart Yasar, Esra Canbolat Unlu, Rabia Yilmaz, Gulsum Oya Hergunsel and Zafer Cukurova
Genes 2022, 13(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13071146 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
The epigenetic features contribute to variations in host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the relative expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients. The miRNA profiles were [...] Read more.
The epigenetic features contribute to variations in host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the relative expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients. The miRNA profiles were monitored during the different stages of the disease course using reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression levels of the selected 11 miRNAs were measured in the blood samples collected from 73 patients (moderate, n = 37; severe, n = 25; critically ill, n = 11, a total of 219 longitudinal samples) on hospitalization day and days 7 and 21. Expression changes were expressed as “fold change” compared to healthy controls (n = 10). Our study found that several miRNAs differed according to disease severity, with the miR-155-5p the most strongly upregulated (p = 0.0001). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the expression of miR-155-5p and its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). The relative expression of miR-155-5p was significantly increased and SOCS1 was significantly decreased with the disease progression (r = −0.805 p = 0.0001, r = −0.940 p = 0.0001, r = −0.933 p = 0.0001 for admission, day 7, and day 21, respectively). The overexpression of miR-155-5p has significantly increased inflammatory cytokine production and promoted COVID-19 progression. We speculated that microRNA-155 facilitates immune inflammation via targeting SOCS1, thus establishing its association with disease prognosis. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1912 KiB  
Article
miR-218-5p/RUNX2 Axis Positively Regulates Proliferation and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer
by Merlin Itsel Cruz-De la Rosa, Hilda Jiménez-Wences, Judit Alarcón-Millán, Manuel Joaquín Romero-López, Carlos Alberto Castañón-Sánchez, Eric Genaro Salmerón-Bárcenas and Gloria Fernández-Tilapa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 6993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23136993 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
The overexpression of miR-218-5p in cervical cancer (CC) cell lines decreases migration, invasion and proliferation. The objective was to identify target genes of miR-218-5p and the signaling pathways and cellular processes that they regulate. The relationship between the expression of miR-218-5p and RUNX2 [...] Read more.
The overexpression of miR-218-5p in cervical cancer (CC) cell lines decreases migration, invasion and proliferation. The objective was to identify target genes of miR-218-5p and the signaling pathways and cellular processes that they regulate. The relationship between the expression of miR-218-5p and RUNX2 and overall survival in CC as well as the effect of the exogenous overexpression of miR-218-5p on the level of RUNX2 were analyzed. The target gene prediction of miR-218-5p was performed in TargetScan, miRTarBase and miRDB. Predicted target genes were subjected to gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The miR-218-5p mimetic was transfected into C-33A and CaSki cells, and the miR-218-5p and RUNX2 levels were determined by RT–qPCR. Of the 118 predicted targets for miR-218-5p, 86 are involved in protein binding, and 10, including RUNX2, are involved in the upregulation of proliferation. Low miR-218-5p expression and a high level of RUNX2 are related to poor prognosis in CC. miR-218-5p overexpression is related to decreased RUNX2 expression in C-33A and CaSki cells. miR-218-5p may regulate RUNX2, and both molecules may be prognostic markers in CC. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3196 KiB  
Review
The Role of MicroRNA in the Regulation of Tumor Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition
by Jing Feng, Shaofan Hu, Keli Liu, Guiyin Sun and Yiguo Zhang
Cells 2022, 11(13), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11131981 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Consistently, the high metastasis of cancer cells is the bottleneck in the process of tumor treatment. In this process of metastasis, a pivotal role is executed by epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation was first proposed to occur during embryonic development. Later, its [...] Read more.
Consistently, the high metastasis of cancer cells is the bottleneck in the process of tumor treatment. In this process of metastasis, a pivotal role is executed by epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation was first proposed to occur during embryonic development. Later, its important role in explaining embryonic developmental processes was widely reported. Recently, EMT and its intermediate state were also identified as crucial drivers in tumor progression with the gradual deepening of research. To gain insights into the potential mechanism, increasing attention has been focused on the EMT-related transcription factors. Correspondingly, miRNAs target transcription factors to control the EMT process of tumor cells in different types of cancers, while there are still many exciting and challenging questions about the phenomenon of microRNA regulation of cancer EMT. We describe the relevant mechanisms of miRNAs regulating EMT, and trace the regulatory roles and functions of major EMT-related transcription factors, including Snail, Twist, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox (ZEB), and other families. In addition, on the basis of the complex regulatory network, we hope that the exploration of the regulatory relationship of non-transcription factors will provide a better understanding of EMT and cancer metastasis. The identification of the mechanism leading to the activation of EMT programs during diverse disease processes also provides a new protocol for the plasticity of distinct cellular phenotypes and possible therapeutic interventions. Here, we summarize the recent progress in this direction, with a promising path for further insight into this fast-moving field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
MDSCMF: Matrix Decomposition and Similarity-Constrained Matrix Factorization for miRNA–Disease Association Prediction
by Jiancheng Ni, Lei Li, Yutian Wang, Cunmei Ji and Chunhou Zheng
Genes 2022, 13(6), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13061021 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are related to a number of complicated biological processes, and numerous studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are closely associated with many human diseases. In this study, we present a matrix decomposition and similarity-constrained matrix factorization (MDSCMF) [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are related to a number of complicated biological processes, and numerous studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are closely associated with many human diseases. In this study, we present a matrix decomposition and similarity-constrained matrix factorization (MDSCMF) to predict potential miRNA–disease associations. First of all, we utilized a matrix decomposition (MD) algorithm to get rid of outliers from the miRNA–disease association matrix. Then, miRNA similarity was determined by utilizing similarity kernel fusion (SKF) to integrate miRNA function similarity and Gaussian interaction profile (GIP) kernel similarity, and disease similarity was determined by utilizing SKF to integrate disease semantic similarity and GIP kernel similarity. Furthermore, we added L2 regularization terms and similarity constraint terms to non-negative matrix factorization to form a similarity-constrained matrix factorization (SCMF) algorithm, which was applied to make prediction. MDSCMF achieved AUC values of 0.9488, 0.9540, and 0.8672 based on fivefold cross-validation (5-CV), global leave-one-out cross-validation (global LOOCV), and local leave-one-out cross-validation (local LOOCV), respectively. Case studies on three common human diseases were also implemented to demonstrate the prediction ability of MDSCMF. All experimental results confirmed that MDSCMF was effective in predicting underlying associations between miRNAs and diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2964 KiB  
Article
MAPK1 Is Regulated by LOC102188416/miR-143-3p Axis in Dairy Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells
by Yue Zhang, Jie Zhou, Shuang Liu and Zhibin Ji
Genes 2022, 13(6), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13061013 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
MicroRNA-143-3p (miR-143-3p) is one of the miRNAs involved in the growth of goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). In this study, Illumina/Solexa sequencing was performed to establish the lncRNA database in Laoshan dairy goats. Using the lncRNA database, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by [...] Read more.
MicroRNA-143-3p (miR-143-3p) is one of the miRNAs involved in the growth of goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). In this study, Illumina/Solexa sequencing was performed to establish the lncRNA database in Laoshan dairy goats. Using the lncRNA database, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by miR-143-3p were screened. In total, 4899 lncRNAs were identified, with 173 lncRNAs being differentially expressed in all three replicates. The target genes of the differentially expressed lncRNAs were annotated in GO terms and KEGG pathways. Among the differentially expressed lncRNAs, lncRNA LOC102188416 was predicted to sponge miR-143-3p and share MAPK1 as a common target gene with miR-143-3p, which was validated by dual luciferase reporter assay system and qRT-PCR. The miR-143-3p mimic significantly lowered the relative luciferase activity of psiCHECK2-LOC102188416 wildtype vector but not mutated vector, suggesting that lncRNA LOC102188416 might be a sponge of miR-143-3p, which was verified by the promotion role of lncRNA LOC102188416 siRNA (siR-LOC102188416) in the expression of miR-143-3p. It was shown that the expression of MAPK1 was downregulated by either miR-143-3p mimic or siR-LOC102188416, indicating that miR-143-3p and lncRNA LOC102188416 had a coregulatory effect on MAPK1 expression. The co-transfection of miR-143-3p inhibitor with siR-LOC102188416 reversed the decrease of MAPK1 expression regulated by siR-LOC102188416 alone, strengthening the existence of lncRNA LOC102188416/miR-143-3p/MAPK1 axis in GMECs of Laoshan dairy goats. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
Upregulation of miR-33 Exacerbates Heat-Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Granulosa Cell and Follicular Atresia of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by Targeting TGFβ1I1
by Jun Qiang, Fan-Yi Tao, Qi-Si Lu, Jie He and Pao Xu
Genes 2022, 13(6), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13061009 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
High temperature affects egg quality and increases follicular atresia in teleosts. The present study aimed to explore the regulated mechanism of ovary syndrome of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to heat stress. To this end, we conducted histological and biochemical analyses [...] Read more.
High temperature affects egg quality and increases follicular atresia in teleosts. The present study aimed to explore the regulated mechanism of ovary syndrome of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to heat stress. To this end, we conducted histological and biochemical analyses and integrated miRNA-target gene analyses. The histochemical analyses confirmed that heat stress promoted the apoptosis of granulosa cell and therefore resulted in increased follicular atresia in the ovary. Heat stress led to the differential expression of multiple miRNAs (miR-27e, -27b-3p, -33, -34a -133a-5p, and -301b-5p). In a luciferase activity assay, miR-33 bound to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the TGFβ1I1 (transforming growth factor-β1-induced transcript 1) gene and inhibited its expression. A TGFβ1I1 gene signal was detected in the granulosa cells of Nile tilapia by immunohistochemical analysis. Up-regulation of the miR-33 of tilapia at 6 d and 12 d exposed to heat (34.5 °C ± 0.5 °C) had significant down-regulation of the TGFβ1I1 expression of the gene and protein in tilapia ovaries. An miRNA-target gene integrated analysis revealed that miR-33 and TGFβ1I1 function in an apoptosis-related signal pathway. The signal transduction of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members VEGFA and its receptor (KDR) in the heat-stressed group decreased significantly compared with the control group. Transcript-levels of the Bax and Caspase-3 as apoptotic promotors were activated and Bcl-2 and Caspase-8 as apoptotic inhibitors were suppressed in the heat-stressed tilapia. These results suggest that heat stress increases the expression of miR-33, which targets TGFβ1I1 and inhibits its expression, resulting in decreased levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and 17β-estradiol and increased apoptosis by suppressing VEGF signaling, eventually inducing follicular atresia. In conclusion, our results show that the miR-33/TGFβ1I1 axis of Nile tilapia is involved in the follicular development of broodstock, and can suppress VEGF signaling to accelerate follicular atresia. Our findings demonstrate the suppressive role of miR-33 during oocyte development in Nile tilapia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3424 KiB  
Article
Expression Profiles of Circulating MicroRNAs in XELOX-Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer
by Yeongdon Ju, Young Mi Seol, Jungho Kim, Hyunwoo Jin, Go-Eun Choi and Aelee Jang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(11), 6041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116041 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer deaths around the world. Chemotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for cancer patients, and has remarkably enhanced survival rates. However, it has many side effects. [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer deaths around the world. Chemotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for cancer patients, and has remarkably enhanced survival rates. However, it has many side effects. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been intensively studied as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. However, definitive biomarkers in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the factors significant for neurological adverse events in GC patients receiving XELOX (oxaliplatin and capecitabine) chemotherapy. The results show that XELOX chemotherapy induces changes in the expression of hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-885-5p, and hsa-miR-378f. Validation by qRT-PCR demonstrated that hsa-miR-378f was significantly downregulated in CIPN. Hsa-miR-378f was identified as showing a statistically significant correlation in GC patients receiving XELOX chemotherapy according to the analysis of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs. Furthermore, 34 potential target genes were predicted using a web-based database for miRNA target prognostication and functional annotations. The identified genes are related to the peptidyl-serine phosphorylation and regulation of alternative mRNA splicing with enrichment in the gastric cancer, neurotrophin, MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways. Collectively, these results provide information useful for developing promising strategies for the treatment of XELOX-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Exosomal miRNA Profile in Small-for-Gestational-Age Children: A Potential Biomarker for Catch-Up Growth
by Hwal Rim Jeong, Jae-A Han, Heeji Kim, Hye Jin Lee, Young Suk Shim, Min Jae Kang, Jong Seo Yoon, Seongho Ryu and Il Tae Hwang
Genes 2022, 13(6), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13060938 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Objective: The mechanism underlying postnatal growth failure and catch-up growth in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children is poorly understood. This study investigated the exosomal miRNA signature associated with catch-up growth in SGA children. Methods: In total, 16 SGA and 10 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) children [...] Read more.
Objective: The mechanism underlying postnatal growth failure and catch-up growth in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children is poorly understood. This study investigated the exosomal miRNA signature associated with catch-up growth in SGA children. Methods: In total, 16 SGA and 10 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) children were included. Serum exosomal miRNA was analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Exosomal miRNA was profiled for five SGA children with catch-up growth (SGA-CU), six SGA children without CU growth (SGA-nCU), and five AGA children. Results: Exosomal miRNA profiles were clustered into three clear groups. The exosomal miRNA expression profiles of the SGA-nCU group differed from those of the SGA-CU and AGA groups. In all, 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed between SGA-nCU and AGA, 19 between SGA-nCU and SGA-CU, and only 6 between SGA-CU and AGA. In both SGA-nCU and SGA-CU, miR-874-3p was upregulated and miR-6126 was downregulated. Therefore, these two miRNAs could serve as biomarkers for SGA. Compared with SGA-CU and AGA, miR-30c-5p, miR-363-3p, miR-29a-3p, and miR-29c-3p were upregulated in SGA-nCU, while miR-629-5p and miR-23a-5p were downregulated. These six miRNAs could be associated with growth failure in SGA-nCU children. Conclusions: SGA children without CU have a distinct exosomal miRNA expression profile compared with AGA and SGA children with CU. Exosomal miRNAs could serve as novel biomarkers for CU. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2974 KiB  
Review
Potential of the miR-200 Family as a Target for Developing Anti-Cancer Therapeutics
by Hyein Jo, Kyeonghee Shim and Dooil Jeoung
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(11), 5881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23115881 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (18–24 nucleotides) that play significant roles in cell proliferation, development, invasion, cancer development, cancer progression, and anti-cancer drug resistance. miRNAs target multiple genes and play diverse roles. miRNAs can bind to the 3′UTR of target genes and [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (18–24 nucleotides) that play significant roles in cell proliferation, development, invasion, cancer development, cancer progression, and anti-cancer drug resistance. miRNAs target multiple genes and play diverse roles. miRNAs can bind to the 3′UTR of target genes and inhibit translation or promote the degradation of target genes. miR-200 family miRNAs mostly act as tumor suppressors and are commonly decreased in cancer. The miR-200 family has been reported as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker. This review discusses the clinical value of the miR-200 family, focusing on the role of the miR-200 family in the development of cancer and anti-cancer drug resistance. This review also provides an overview of the factors that regulate the expression of the miR-200 family, targets of miR-200 family miRNAs, and the mechanism of anti-cancer drug resistance regulated by the miR-200 family. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Extracellular Vesicular Transmission of miR-423-5p from HepG2 Cells Inhibits the Differentiation of Hepatic Stellate Cells
by Michal Safran, Rula Masoud, Maya Sultan, Irena Tachlytski, Chofit Chai Gadot, Ron Pery, Nora Balint-Lahat, Orit Pappo, Nahum Buzaglo and Ziv Ben-Ari
Cells 2022, 11(10), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11101715 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
Liver fibrosis (LF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of extracellular matrix in the liver and their activation is a central event in LF development. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intercellular communication agents, [...] Read more.
Liver fibrosis (LF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of extracellular matrix in the liver and their activation is a central event in LF development. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intercellular communication agents, which play important roles in physiological processes in chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the crosstalk between hepatocytes and HSCs mediated by hepatocyte-secreted EVs. EVs were purified from primary mouse hepatocytes, HepG2 cell lines, under normal or stressed conditions. The effect of EVs on primary HSCs (pHSCs) differentiation was evaluated by measuring of differentiation markers. In addition, their impact on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis mouse model was evaluated. The results demonstrated that HepG2-EVs regulate HSC differentiation and that under stress conditions, promoted pHSCs differentiation into the myofibroblast phenotype. The evaluation of miRNA sequences in the HepG2 secreted EVs demonstrated high levels of miR-423-5p. The examination of EV cargo following stress conditions identified a significant reduction of miR-423-5p in HepG2-EVs relative to HepG2-EVs under normal conditions. In addition, pHSCs transfected with miR-423-5p mimic and exhibit lower mRNA levels of alpha smooth muscle actin and Collagen type 1 alpha, and the mRNA expression level of genes targeted the family with sequence-similarity-3 (FAM3) and Monoacylglycerol lipase (Mgll). This study strengthened the hypothesis that EVs are involved in LF and that their cargo changes in stress conditions. In addition, miR-423-5p was shown to be involved in HSCs differentiation and hence, fibrosis development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3955 KiB  
Article
Identification of the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA Prognostic Regulatory Network in Lung Adenocarcinoma
by Yan Ma and Heng Zou
Genes 2022, 13(5), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13050885 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Background: Numerous studies have identified that circular RNAs (circRNAs) can serve as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to regulate tumor progression. However, there are still a large number of circRNAs to be deciphered. Objective: The purpose of this study was to reveal novel circRNAs [...] Read more.
Background: Numerous studies have identified that circular RNAs (circRNAs) can serve as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to regulate tumor progression. However, there are still a large number of circRNAs to be deciphered. Objective: The purpose of this study was to reveal novel circRNAs and their potential role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: To unveil LUAD-related circRNAs, microRNA (miRNAs), and messenger RNA (mRNA) and elucidate their possible molecular mechanisms, we employed a strategy combining extensive data mining and bioinformatics methods. According to the results of bioinformatics workflow analysis, a novel circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed. Results: Ten circRNAs with different expressions were acquired from four Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray datasets. Seven Prognostic-related differential miRNAs of LUAD were gained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Simultaneously, the miRNA reaction components corresponding to the ten circRNAs were predicted. Two circRNA–miRNA interactions including two circRNAs (hsa_circ_0008234 and hsa_circ_0002360) and two miRNAs (hsa-miR-490-3p and hsa-miR-1293) were identified above. Then, target genes of the two miRNAs and differently expressed genes (DEGs) from TCGA on LUAD were collected. Three hub-genes (ADCY9, NMUR1, SYT1) were determined according to prognosis in patients with LUAD ulteriorly. Conclusions: hsa_circ_0008234/hsa-miR-490-3p/SYT1 and hsa_circ_0002360/hsa-miR-1293/ (ADCY9, NMUR1) networks were established, and identified molecules may be involved in pathogenesis and prognosis in patients with LUAD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7796 KiB  
Article
Exploring Relevant mRNAs and miRNAs in Injured Urethral Tissues of Rats with High-Throughput Sequencing
by Han Lin, Shiyong Guo, Song Li, Jihong Shen, Jianfeng He, Yun Zheng and Zhenhua Gao
Genes 2022, 13(5), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13050824 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Acute urethral injuries caused by urethral endoscopy and other mechanical injuries are the main reasons for secondary infection and late urethral stricture. However, there are no studies to explore the transcriptomic changes in urethral injury and the molecular mechanism of urethral injury, which [...] Read more.
Acute urethral injuries caused by urethral endoscopy and other mechanical injuries are the main reasons for secondary infection and late urethral stricture. However, there are no studies to explore the transcriptomic changes in urethral injury and the molecular mechanism of urethral injury, which is important for the treatment and cure of urethral injury. Therefore, we used RNA-seq and sRNA-seq profiles from normal and injured urethral tissues to identify and characterize differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs. In total, we found 166 differentially expressed mRNAs, of which 69 were upregulated, and 97 were downregulated in injured urethral tissues. The differentially expressed mRNAs were mainly involved in the positive regulation of epithelial cell differentiation, focal adhesion, cell adhesion molecules, protein activation cascade, complement activation, complement and coagulation cascades, and chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. Additionally, we found six upregulated and four downregulated miRNAs, respectively, in the injured urethral tissues. Notably, their target genes were involved in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding, PI3k-Akt signaling pathway, and Notch signaling pathway. In summary, our results suggest that the cell damage response induced by mechanical injury activates the pathological immune response in a variety of ways in injured urethral tissues. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5826 KiB  
Article
Deoxyelephantopin Induces Apoptosis and Enhances Chemosensitivity of Colon Cancer via miR-205/Bcl2 Axis
by Haoyan Ji, Kui Zhang, Guangzhao Pan, Changhong Li, Chongyang Li, Xin Hu, Liqun Yang and Hongjuan Cui
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095051 - 02 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the major causes of cancer death in humans. Despite recent advances in the management of CC, the prognosis is still poor and a new strategy for effective therapy is imperative. Deoxyelephantopin (DET), extracted from an important medicinal [...] Read more.
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the major causes of cancer death in humans. Despite recent advances in the management of CC, the prognosis is still poor and a new strategy for effective therapy is imperative. Deoxyelephantopin (DET), extracted from an important medicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber L., has been reported to exhibit excellent anti-inflammatory and -cancer activities, while the detailed anti-cancer mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we found that DET showed a significant CC inhibiting effect in vitro and in vivo without obvious organ toxicity. Mechanistically, DET inhibited CC cells and tumor growth by inducing G2/M phase arrest and subsequent apoptosis. DET-mediated cell cycle arrest was caused by severe DNA damage, and DET decreased the Bcl2 expression level in a dose-dependent manner to promote CC cell apoptosis, whereas restoring Bcl2 expression reduced apoptosis to a certain extent. Moreover, we identified a microRNA complementary to the 3′-UTR of Bcl2, miR-205, that responded to the DET treatment. An inhibitor of miR-205 could recover Bcl2 expression and promoted the survival of CC cells upon DET treatment. To further examine the potential value of the drug, we evaluated the combinative effects of DET and 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) through Jin’s formula and revealed that DET acted synergistically with 5FU, resulting in enhancing the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of CC to 5FU. Our results consolidate DET as a potent drug for the treatment of CC when it is used alone or combined with 5FU, and elucidate the importance of the miR-205-Bcl2 axis in DET treatment. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 4523 KiB  
Article
Construction of a ceRNA Network and Comprehensive Analysis of lncRNA in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Lin Wang, Jun Zhao, Cancan Zhu, Ke Yang, Ling Zhu and Yong Liu
Genes 2022, 13(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13050785 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
To explore the RNA biomolecular marker associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis, we constructed a regulatory network of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), which provides favorable conditions for the early diagnosis, prognostic monitoring, and personalized treatment of HCC. In this study, the differentially expressed [...] Read more.
To explore the RNA biomolecular marker associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis, we constructed a regulatory network of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), which provides favorable conditions for the early diagnosis, prognostic monitoring, and personalized treatment of HCC. In this study, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of patients with HCC were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. We identified 574 upregulated genes and 274 downregulated genes relevant to HCC occurrence (p < 0.05). Subsequently, we constructed the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using these DEGs and identified the hub genes from the PPI. We then determined the expression and prognostic values of the hub genes from the GEPIA and Kaplan–Meier plotter databases. After the upstream microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were respectively identified by miRTarBase and miRNet, we validated the expression of the key miRNAs in the serum using qPCR experiments. Moreover, we identified a two-lncRNA (LINC01184 and ADORA2A-AS1) signature from the upstream lncRNA that effectively predicted overall survival and had promotive effects for HCC. To verify the clinical significance of the signature, we validated the expression of the lncRNA in HCC tissues. Finally, we discovered and identified four mRNAs, four miRNAs, and five lncRNAs associated with the prognosis of HCC and constructed a new ceRNA regulatory network, which will be beneficial for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5003 KiB  
Review
Structural and Pharmacological Network Analysis of miRNAs Involved in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review
by Oscar Salvador Barrera-Vázquez, Juan Carlos Gomez-Verjan, Ricardo Ramírez-Aldana, Paola García-dela Torre and Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094663 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2659
Abstract
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is among the main causes of mortality worldwide. A rapid and opportune diagnosis is crucial to improve a patient’s outcomes; despite the current advanced image technologies for diagnosis, their implementation is challenging. MicroRNAs have been recognized as useful as [...] Read more.
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is among the main causes of mortality worldwide. A rapid and opportune diagnosis is crucial to improve a patient’s outcomes; despite the current advanced image technologies for diagnosis, their implementation is challenging. MicroRNAs have been recognized as useful as biomarkers since they are specific and stable for characterization of AIS. However, there is still a lack of consensus over the primary miRNAs implicated in AIS. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature covering from 2015–2021 regarding miRNAs expression during AIS and built structural networks to analyze and identify the most common miRNAs expressed during AIS and shared pathways, genes, and compounds that seem to influence their expression. We identified two sets of miRNAs: on one side, a set that was independent of geographical location and tissue (miR-124, miR-107, miR-221, miR-223, miR-140, miR-151a, miR-181a, miR-320b, and miR-484); and on the other side, a set that was connected (hubs) in biological networks (miR-27b-3p, miR-26b-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-570-3p, miR-19a-3p, miR-101-3p and miR-25-3p), which altered FOXO3, FOXO4, and EP300 genes. Interestingly, such genes are involved in cell death, FOXO-mediated transcription, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Finally, our pharmacological network analysis depicted a set of toxicants and drugs related to AIS for the first time. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
Identification and Validation of miR-222-3p and miR-409-3p as Plasma Biomarkers in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Sharing Validated Target Genes Involved in Metabolic Homeostasis
by Tiziana Filardi, Giuseppina Catanzaro, Giuseppina Emanuela Grieco, Elena Splendiani, Sofia Trocchianesi, Carmela Santangelo, Roberto Brunelli, Elisa Guarino, Guido Sebastiani, Francesco Dotta, Susanna Morano and Elisabetta Ferretti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084276 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes both maternal and fetal adverse outcomes. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in GDM suggests their involvement in GDM pathogenesis and complications. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) of endosomal origin, released via exocytosis into the extracellular compartment. Through EVs, [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes both maternal and fetal adverse outcomes. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in GDM suggests their involvement in GDM pathogenesis and complications. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) of endosomal origin, released via exocytosis into the extracellular compartment. Through EVs, miRNAs are delivered in distant target cells and are able to affect gene expression. In this study, miRNA expression was analyzed to find new miRNAs that could improve GDM classification and molecular characterization. MiRNA were profiled in total plasma and EVs in GDM patients and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) women. Samples were collected at third trimester of gestation from two diabetes centers. MiRNA expression was profiled in a discovery cohort using the multiplexed NanoString nCounter Human v3 miRNA. Validation analysis was performed in a second independent cohort using RT-qPCR. A set of miRNAs resulted to be differentially expressed (DE) in total plasma and EVs in GDM. Among them, total plasma miR-222-3p and miR-409-3p were validated in the independent cohort. MiR-222-3p levels correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p < 0.001) and birth weight (p = 0.012), whereas miR-409-3p expression correlated with FPG (p < 0.001) and inversely with gestational age (p = 0.001). The major validated target genes of the deregulated miRNAs were consistently linked to type 2 diabetes and GDM pathophysiology. MiR-222-3p and miR-409-3p are two circulating biomarkers that could improve GDM classification power and act in the context of the molecular events leading to the metabolic alterations observed in GDM. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2764 KiB  
Article
MicroRNA-like snoRNA-Derived RNAs (sdRNAs) Promote Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
by Alexander B. Coley, Ashlyn N. Stahly, Mohan V. Kasukurthi, Addison A. Barchie, Sam B. Hutcheson, Dominika Houserova, Yulong Huang, Brianna C. Watters, Valeria M. King, Meghan A. Dean, Justin T. Roberts, Jeffrey D. DeMeis, Krisha V. Amin, Cameron H. McInnis, Noel L. Godang, Ryan M. Wright, David F. Haider, Neha B. Piracha, Cana L. Brown, Zohaib M. Ijaz, Shengyu Li, Yaguang Xi, Oliver G. McDonald, Jingshan Huang and Glen M. Borchertadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Cells 2022, 11(8), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11081302 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3481
Abstract
We have identified 38 specifically excised, differentially expressed snoRNA fragments (sdRNAs) in TCGA prostate cancer (PCa) patient samples as compared to normal prostate controls. SnoRNA-derived fragments sdRNA-D19b and -A24 emerged among the most differentially expressed and were selected for further experimentation. We found [...] Read more.
We have identified 38 specifically excised, differentially expressed snoRNA fragments (sdRNAs) in TCGA prostate cancer (PCa) patient samples as compared to normal prostate controls. SnoRNA-derived fragments sdRNA-D19b and -A24 emerged among the most differentially expressed and were selected for further experimentation. We found that the overexpression of either sdRNA significantly increased PC3 (a well-established model of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)) cell proliferation, and that sdRNA-D19b overexpression also markedly increased the rate of PC3 cell migration. In addition, both sdRNAs provided drug-specific resistances with sdRNA-D19b levels correlating with paclitaxel resistance and sdRNA-24A conferring dasatinib resistance. In silico and in vitro analyses revealed that two established PCa tumor suppressor genes, CD44 and CDK12, represent targets for sdRNA-D19b and sdRNA-A24, respectively. This outlines a biologically coherent mechanism by which sdRNAs downregulate tumor suppressors in AR-PCa to enhance proliferative and metastatic capabilities and to encourage chemotherapeutic resistance. Aggressive proliferation, rampant metastasis, and recalcitrance to chemotherapy are core characteristics of CRPC that synergize to produce a pathology that ranks second in cancer-related deaths for men. This study defines sdRNA-D19b and -A24 as contributors to AR-PCa, potentially providing novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets of use in PCa clinical intervention. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 677 KiB  
Review
Emerging Evidence of Noncoding RNAs in Bleb Scarring after Glaucoma Filtration Surgery
by Sabrina Yu, Alex L. C. Tam, Robert Campbell and Neil Renwick
Cells 2022, 11(8), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11081301 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Purpose: To conduct a narrative review of research articles on the potential anti- and pro-fibrotic mechanisms of noncoding RNAs following glaucoma filtration surgery. Methods: Keyword searches of PubMed, and Medline databases were conducted for articles discussing post-glaucoma filtration surgeries and noncoding RNA. Additional [...] Read more.
Purpose: To conduct a narrative review of research articles on the potential anti- and pro-fibrotic mechanisms of noncoding RNAs following glaucoma filtration surgery. Methods: Keyword searches of PubMed, and Medline databases were conducted for articles discussing post-glaucoma filtration surgeries and noncoding RNA. Additional manual searches of reference lists of primary articles were performed. Results: Fifteen primary research articles were identified. Four of the included papers used microarrays and qRT-PCR to identify up- or down-regulated microRNA (miRNA, miR) profiles and direct further study, with the remainder focusing on miRNAs or long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) based on previous work in other organs or disease processes. The results of the reviewed papers identified miR-26a, -29b, -139, -155, and -200a as having anti-fibrotic effects. In contrast, miRs-200b and -216b may play pro-fibrotic roles in filtration surgery fibrosis. lncRNAs including H19, NR003923, and 00028 have demonstrated pro-fibrotic effects. Conclusions: Noncoding RNAs including miRNAs and lncRNAs are emerging and promising therapeutic targets in the prevention of post-glaucoma filtration surgery fibrosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1579 KiB  
Review
Sequence Requirements for miR-424-5p Regulating and Function in Cancers
by Jiangying Xuan, Yingxia Liu, Xiaoping Zeng and Hongmei Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 4037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23074037 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
MiRNAs (microRNAs) are the most abundant family of small noncoding RNAs in mammalian cells. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs are crucial regulators of individual development and cell homeostasis by controlling various biological processes. Therefore, miRNA dysfunction can lead to human diseases, especially in [...] Read more.
MiRNAs (microRNAs) are the most abundant family of small noncoding RNAs in mammalian cells. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs are crucial regulators of individual development and cell homeostasis by controlling various biological processes. Therefore, miRNA dysfunction can lead to human diseases, especially in cancers with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. MiRNAs play different roles in these processes. In recent years, studies have found that miR-424-5p is closely related to the occurrence, development, prognosis and treatment of tumors. This review discusses how miR-424-5p plays a role in different kinds of cancers from different stages of tumors, including its roles in (i) promoting or inhibiting tumorigenesis, (ii) regulating tumor development in the tumor microenvironment and (iii) participating in cancer chemotherapy. This review provides a deep discussion of the latest findings on miR-424-5p and its importance in cancer, as well as a mechanistic analysis of the role of miR-424-5p in various tissues through target gene verification and pathway analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2214 KiB  
Review
Circulating microRNAs in Medicine
by Tetiana Pozniak, Dzmitry Shcharbin and Maria Bryszewska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073996 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3602
Abstract
Circulating microRNAs (c-microRNAs, c-miRNAs), which are present in almost all biological fluids, are promising sensitive biomarkers for various diseases (oncological and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative pathologies, etc.), and their signatures accurately reflect the state of the body. Studies of the expression of microRNA markers [...] Read more.
Circulating microRNAs (c-microRNAs, c-miRNAs), which are present in almost all biological fluids, are promising sensitive biomarkers for various diseases (oncological and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative pathologies, etc.), and their signatures accurately reflect the state of the body. Studies of the expression of microRNA markers show that they can enable a wide range of diseases to be diagnosed before clinical symptoms are manifested, and they can help to assess a patient’s response to therapy in order to correct and personalize treatments. This review discusses the latest trends in the uses of miRNAs for diagnosing and treating various diseases, viral and non-viral. It is concluded that exogenous microRNAs can be used as high-precision therapeutic agents for these purposes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1137 KiB  
Review
The World of Oral Cancer and Its Risk Factors Viewed from the Aspect of MicroRNA Expression Patterns
by Ovidiu Aghiorghiesei, Oana Zanoaga, Andreea Nutu, Cornelia Braicu, Radu Septimiu Campian, Ondine Lucaciu and Ioana Berindan Neagoe
Genes 2022, 13(4), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13040594 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7335
Abstract
Oral cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with a reported 5-year survival rate of around 50% after treatment. Epigenetic modifications are considered to have a key role in oral carcinogenesis due to histone modifications, aberrant DNA methylation, and altered [...] Read more.
Oral cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with a reported 5-year survival rate of around 50% after treatment. Epigenetic modifications are considered to have a key role in oral carcinogenesis due to histone modifications, aberrant DNA methylation, and altered expression of miRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have a key role in cancer development by regulating signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis. MiRNA deregulation identified in oral cancer has led to the idea of using them as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In recent years, a key role has been observed for risk factors in preventing and treating this malignancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge about the altered mechanisms of oral cancer due to risk factors and the role of miRNAs in these mechanisms. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1179 KiB  
Review
Are miRNAs Dynamic Biomarkers in Keratoconus? A Review of the Literature
by Spela Stunf Pukl
Genes 2022, 13(4), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13040588 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
Aim: A review of miRNA (microRNA) profiling studies in keratoconus. Methods: Literature search strategy—PubMed central database, using miRNA or microRNA and keratoconus as keywords. Results: Eleven experimental or clinical studies on humans regarding miRNA and keratoconus, published in English between 2009 and 2020 [...] Read more.
Aim: A review of miRNA (microRNA) profiling studies in keratoconus. Methods: Literature search strategy—PubMed central database, using miRNA or microRNA and keratoconus as keywords. Results: Eleven experimental or clinical studies on humans regarding miRNA and keratoconus, published in English between 2009 and 2020 were retrieved. Conclusion: The publications regarding the role of miRNAs in keratoconus are scarce and diverse but provide some valuable information about potential new mechanisms of keratoconus development and progression. The cornea expresses almost 300 different miRNAs, 18 of which are specific, and miR-184 is by far the most abundant, with expression restricted to central basal and suprabasal epithelial cells. Mutations in the seed region of MIR184 were proved to be rare and nonspecific in patients with isolated keratoconus. Overall, in keratoconus, a total of 29 miRNAs were upregulated, and 11 were downregulated. It appeared that miR-143-3p, miR-182-5p, and miR-92a-3p were highly expressed, while the miRNAs connected to cell–cell junction, cell division, and motor activity were downregulated. In less advanced forms, altered expression of four miRNAs—miR-151a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-185-5p—was proved in the cone epithelium; in contrast, in advanced keratoconus, the expression of miR-151a-3p and miR-194-5p remained altered, changes in the expression of miR-195 and miR-185 were not reported, and the expression of miR-138-5p, miR-146b-5p, miR-28-5p, and miR-181a-2-3p was also altered in the corneal epithelium. Keratoconus is a dynamic process of corneal stromal thinning that might result from a dynamic miRNA expression in the corneal epithelium exposed to environmental and behavioral factors causing repetitive traumas. Further experimental studies are needed to prove this hypothesis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1892 KiB  
Article
Mechanisms of Action of Extracorporeal Photopheresis in the Control of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS): Involvement of Circulating miRNAs
by Sara Bozzini, Claudia Del Fante, Monica Morosini, Hatice Oya Berezhinskiy, Sophia Auner, Elena Cattaneo, Matteo Della Zoppa, Laura Pandolfi, Rosalia Cacciatore, Cesare Perotti, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Peter Jaksch, Alberto Benazzo and Federica Meloni
Cells 2022, 11(7), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11071117 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Clinical evidence suggests an improvement or stabilization of lung function in a fraction of patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) treated by extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP); however, few studies have explored the epigenetic and molecular regulation of this therapy. The aim of present study [...] Read more.
Clinical evidence suggests an improvement or stabilization of lung function in a fraction of patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) treated by extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP); however, few studies have explored the epigenetic and molecular regulation of this therapy. The aim of present study was to evaluate whether a specific set of miRNAs were significantly regulated by ECP. Total RNA was isolated from serum of patients with established BOS grade 1–2 prior to the start and after 6 months of ECP treatment. We observed a significant downregulation of circulating hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-146a-5p and hsa-miR-31-5p in BOS patients at the start of ECP when compared to healthy subjects. In responders, increased miR-155-5p and decreased miR-23b-3p expression levels at 6 months were found. SMAD4 mRNA was found to be a common target of these two miRNAs in prediction pathways analysis, and a significant downregulation was found at 6 months in PBMCs of a subgroup of ECP-treated patients. According to previous evidence, the upregulation of miR-155 might be correlated with a pro-tolerogenic modulation of the immune system. Our analysis also suggests that SMAD4 might be a possible target for miR-155-5p. Further longitudinal studies are needed to address the possible role of miR-155 and its downstream targets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
miR-152-3p Represses the Proliferation of the Thymic Epithelial Cells by Targeting Smad2
by Ying Li, Xintong Wang, Qingru Wu, Fenfen Liu, Lin Yang, Bishuang Gong, Kaizhao Zhang, Yongjiang Ma and Yugu Li
Genes 2022, 13(4), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13040576 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control the proliferation of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) for thymic involution. Previous studies have shown that expression levels of miR-152-3p were significantly increased in the thymus and TECs during the involution of the mouse thymus. However, the possible function and potential [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control the proliferation of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) for thymic involution. Previous studies have shown that expression levels of miR-152-3p were significantly increased in the thymus and TECs during the involution of the mouse thymus. However, the possible function and potential molecular mechanism of miR-152-3p remains unclear. This study identified that the overexpression of miR-152-3p can inhibit, while the inhibition of miR-152-3p can promote, the proliferation of murine medullary thymic epithelial cell line 1 (MTEC1) cells. Moreover, miR-152-3p expression was quantitatively analyzed to negatively regulate Smad2, and the Smad2 gene was found to be a direct target of miR-152-3p, using the luciferase reporter assay. Importantly, silencing Smad2 was found to block the G1 phase of cells and inhibit the cell cycle, which was consistent with the overexpression of miR-152-3p. Furthermore, co-transfection studies of siRNA–Smad2 (siSmad2) and the miR-152-3p mimic further established that miR-152-3p inhibited the proliferation of MTEC1 cells by targeting Smad2 and reducing the expression of Smad2. Taken together, this study proved miR-152-3p to be an important molecule that regulates the proliferation of TECs and therefore provides a new reference for delaying thymus involution and thymus regeneration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Suicide and Changes in Expression of Neuronal miRNA Predicted by an Algorithm Search through miRNA Databases
by Alja Videtič Paska, Urban Alič, Tomaž Zupanc and Katarina Kouter
Genes 2022, 13(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13040562 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Suicide is multifactorial and polygenic phenotype, affected by environmental and genetic factors. Among epigenetic mechanisms, miRNAs have been studied, but so far no very concise results exist. To overcome limitations of candidate miRNA and whole genome sequencing approaches, we created an in silico [...] Read more.
Suicide is multifactorial and polygenic phenotype, affected by environmental and genetic factors. Among epigenetic mechanisms, miRNAs have been studied, but so far no very concise results exist. To overcome limitations of candidate miRNA and whole genome sequencing approaches, we created an in silico analysis algorithm that would help select the best suitable miRNAs that target the most interesting genes associated with suicidality. We used databases/web algorithms DIANA microT, miRDB, miRmap, miRWalk, and TargetScan and candidate genes SLC6A4, HTR1A, BDNF, NR3C1, ZNF714, and NRIP3. Based on a prediction algorithm, we have chosen miRNAs that are targeting regulation of the genes listed, and are at the same time being expressed in the brain. The highest ranking scores were obtained for hsa-miR-4516, hsa-miR-3135b, hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-129-5p, hsa-miR-27b-3p, hsa-miR-381-3p, hsa-miR-4286. Expression of these miRNAs was tested in the brain tissue of 40 suicide completers and controls, and hsa-miR-4516 and hsa-miR-381-3p showed a trend for statistical significance. We also checked the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs, and for NR3C1 expression was lower in suicide completers compared to controls, which is in accordance with the available literature results. To determine the miRNAs that are most suitable for further suicidality research, more studies, combining in silico analysis and wet lab experiments, should be performed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1756 KiB  
Article
miRNA Expression Profiling in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for HIV Infection: Validation of Differentially Expressed miRNA and Bioinformatic Analysis
by Elena Bresciani, Nicola Squillace, Valentina Orsini, Roberta Piolini, Laura Rizzi, Laura Molteni, Ramona Meanti, Alessandro Soria, Giuseppe Lapadula, Alessandra Bandera, Andrea Gori, Paolo Bonfanti, Robert John Omeljaniuk, Vittorio Locatelli and Antonio Torsello
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073486 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
Combined AntiRetroviral Treatments (cARTs) used for HIV infection may result in varied metabolic complications, which in some cases, may be related to patient genetic factors, particularly microRNAs. The use of monozygotic twins, differing only for HIV infection, presents a unique and powerful model [...] Read more.
Combined AntiRetroviral Treatments (cARTs) used for HIV infection may result in varied metabolic complications, which in some cases, may be related to patient genetic factors, particularly microRNAs. The use of monozygotic twins, differing only for HIV infection, presents a unique and powerful model for the controlled analysis of potential alterations of miRNAs regulation consequent to cART treatment. Profiling of 2578 mature miRNA in the subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue and plasma of monozygotic twins was investigated by the GeneChip® miRNA 4.1 array. Real-time PCR and ddPCR experiments were performed in order to validate differentially expressed miRNAs. Target genes of deregulated miRNAs were predicted by the miRDB database (prediction score > 70) and enrichment analysis was carried out with g:Profiler. Processes in SC adipose tissue most greatly affected by miRNA up-regulation included (i) macromolecular metabolic processes, (ii) regulation of neurogenesis, and (iii) protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, KEGG analysis revealed miRNA up-regulation involvement in (i) insulin signaling pathways, (ii) neurotrophin signaling pathways, and (iii) pancreatic cancer. By contrast, miRNA up-regulation in plasma was involved in (i) melanoma, (ii) p53 signaling pathways, and (iii) focal adhesion. Our findings suggest a mechanism that may increase the predisposition of HIV+ patients to insulin resistance and cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop