Topic Editors

Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Frailty and Cognitive Impairment Research Group (FROG), Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain

Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals

Abstract submission deadline
closed (28 February 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 April 2023)
Viewed by
38284

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are numerous biological, psychological, and social factors that have more or less prominent impacts on the mental health of older adults. Apart from components derived from the normal processes of aging or the co-occurrence of various medical diseases, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability contribute significantly to a variety of mental or emotional problems at this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, affective, and sleep functions, which can lead to a reduction in the quality of life. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce a patient's overall performance and thus create demanding needs for dependency and a higher level of frailty. Affective disorders can be accentuated by a lack of family support and a marked decrease in social interactions, which can lead to significant isolation with resulting suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea can signficiantly further alter the quality of life of this population. The complexity of these disorders needs the expertise of a multidisciplinary team to provide the best healthcare for these patients. This Special Issue wishes to shed new light on this exciting and insightful field of research from a multidisciplinary perspective. This Special Issue, "Mental health issues and quality of life in older individuals", reflects the interplay between neurological and psychiatric sciences, with other health sciences at the leading edge of this growing research field, which intensively suggest new opportunities for improving the care of older individuals or preventing adverse outcomes. In this Special Issue, the readership will find relevant research carried out by several healthcare professionals and researchers with extensive knowledge on clinical settings, and it is intended to address new issues of interest of specific importance to research and clinical practice.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Dr. Francisco Miguel Martínez-Arnau
Dr. Cristina Buigues
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cognitive function
  • sleep
  • depression
  • quality of life
  • frailty
  • psychiatric disorders
  • gerontology
  • social factors
  • comorbidities
  • biomarkers
  • nursing
  • gender

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diseases
diseases
3.7 - 2013 18.8 Days CHF 1800
Geriatrics
geriatrics
2.3 2.7 2016 22.4 Days CHF 1800
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700
Life
life
3.2 2.7 2011 17.5 Days CHF 2600
Brain Sciences
brainsci
3.3 3.9 2011 15.6 Days CHF 2200

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Published Papers (22 papers)

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10 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
Unawareness of Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Executive Dysfunction on Symptom Recognition
by Gianpaolo Maggi, Carmine Vitale, Alessia Delle Curti, Marianna Amboni and Gabriella Santangelo
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(6), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13060964 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
Altered self-awareness or anosognosia may impact patients’ everyday life by interfering with their safe and independent functioning. Symptom awareness has been linked to executive dysfunctions caused by damage to frontal regions. Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric manifestation of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is [...] Read more.
Altered self-awareness or anosognosia may impact patients’ everyday life by interfering with their safe and independent functioning. Symptom awareness has been linked to executive dysfunctions caused by damage to frontal regions. Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric manifestation of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is considered a consequence of altered functioning of cortico-subcortical circuitries connecting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) with the basal ganglia. Thus, apathetic PD patients may be not be fully aware of their condition due to shared neuropathophysiological mechanisms. The present study aimed to explore the awareness of apathy in PD patients by comparing the self-reported evaluations with their caregivers’ ratings. Moreover, we explored the clinical predictors of possible discrepancies and their consequences on patients’ self-reported evaluation of quality of life (QoL). We found a fair agreement between patients’ self-reports and caregivers’ ratings on apathy scores, with patients reporting less severe apathetic symptoms, especially those related to executive and auto-activation processing, compared to their caregivers’ reports. Executive functioning was found to mediate the relationship between disease stage and awareness of the apathetic state. Awareness of executive apathy impacted patients’ self-reported QoL. Therefore, PD patients might be unaware of their apathetic symptoms, especially those with worse executive functioning, which plays a key role in metacognitive processes such as self-monitoring and error detection. Anosognosia for apathy in PD patients may affect their QoL perception and leads to misleading self-report evaluations that delay diagnosis and treatment. Full article
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7 pages, 500 KiB  
Communication
People with Diabetes Have Poorer Self-Rated Health (SRH) and Diabetes Moderates the Association between Age and SRH
by Weixi Kang and Antonio Malvaso
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020073 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Diabetes is a severe chronic condition that is related to decreased physical functioning. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how a brief report on health such as self-rated health (SRH) could be used to track changes in health status and service [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a severe chronic condition that is related to decreased physical functioning. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how a brief report on health such as self-rated health (SRH) could be used to track changes in health status and service needs in people with diabetes. The current research aims to investigate how SRH is affected by diabetes and how diabetes could moderate the association between age and SRH. By analyzing data from 47,507 participants, with 2869 of them clinically diagnosed with diabetes, the current study found that people with diabetes had significantly poorer SRH than people without diabetes after controlling for demographic covariates (t(2868) = −45.73, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (−0.92, −0.85), Cohen’s d = −0.85). In addition, diabetes was a significant moderator of the relationship between age and SRH (b = 0.01, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (0.01, 0.01)). Specifically, age was more strongly related to SRH in people without diabetes (b = −0.015, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (−0.016, −0.015)) than in people with diabetes (b = −0.007, p < 0.001, 95% C.I. (−0.010, −0.004)). Health professionals should aim to improve SRH in people with diabetes given that SRH is related to various outcomes. Full article
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14 pages, 887 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Frailty Criteria, Cognitive Function, Depressive and Insomnia Symptoms in Men with Localized and Advanced Prostate Cancer under Androgen Deprivation Therapy
by Mayra Alejandra Mafla-España, María Dolores Torregrosa, Manel Beamud-Cortés, Lorena Bermell-Marco, José Rubio-Briones and Omar Cauli
Healthcare 2023, 11(9), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11091266 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is considered one of the most important medical problems in the male population, with a very high incidence after the age of 65. Frailty represents one of the most critical issues facing healthcare due to its inherent relationship with [...] Read more.
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is considered one of the most important medical problems in the male population, with a very high incidence after the age of 65. Frailty represents one of the most critical issues facing healthcare due to its inherent relationship with poor healthcare outcomes. The physical phenotype of frailty syndrome based on Fried criteria has been associated with poor outcomes, morbidity, and premature mortality. To date, there are few studies that have analyzed frailty syndrome in patients with localized and advanced (mPCa) disease under androgen-deprivation therapy. Objective: Our goal was to assess whether there are differences in frailty criteria between mPCa and localized PCa. We also evaluated the role of other geriatric variables such as depressive and insomnia symptoms, which are frequently reported in cancer patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, frailty syndrome was evaluated in both groups, as well as its possible relationship with cognitive functions, depressive and insomnia symptoms, and other clinical variables related to PCa and its treatment. Frailty was defined on Fried’s criteria: low lean mass, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, low activity level, and slow walking speed; prefrailty was defined as having one or two of those criteria and frailty as having three or more, depressive symptoms were defined by the Yesavage scale, cognitive functions with the Mini-Mental examination test, and insomnia symptoms by the Athens scale and self-reported health status. Results: The prevalence of prefrailty/frailty was slightly higher in mPCa compared to localized PCa (81.5% versus 72.3%, respectively), however by analyzing each of the frailty criteria, two of them were significantly reduced in mPCa compared to localized PCa patients, e.g., gait speed (p = 0.001) and muscle strength (p = 0.04). The reduced gait speed and muscle strength in mPCa were not due to the increased age in mPCa group, or to an increase in comorbidities or shorter time under androgen-deprivation therapy. The symptoms of insomnia were significantly higher in mPCa patients compared to those with localized PCa (p < 0.05) whereas cognitive functions or depressive symptoms were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with mPCa under androgen-deprivation therapy display higher alterations in gait speed and muscular strength and insomnia symptoms, thus interventions should be aimed to reduce these alterations in order to limit adverse outcomes related to them and to improve quality of life in these patients. Full article
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10 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Prior Mental Health on Persistent Physical Symptoms after Exposure to a Chemical Disaster
by Young-Sun Min, Soo-Young Kim, Sun-Kyeong Choi and Yeon-Soon Ahn
Healthcare 2023, 11(7), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11071004 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
A styrene monomer (SM) oil vapor leak occurred at a chemical plant in Seosan, South Korea on 17 May 2019. A bad odor developed, and many residents complained of various symptoms and visited nearby medical institutions. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics [...] Read more.
A styrene monomer (SM) oil vapor leak occurred at a chemical plant in Seosan, South Korea on 17 May 2019. A bad odor developed, and many residents complained of various symptoms and visited nearby medical institutions. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients treated at local hospitals and clinics for symptoms related to SM exposure, and identified factors affecting symptom persistence in any organ. Data were collected by the main Seosan office, and 1201 (33.0%) subjects agreed to participate in this study. We used the Assessment of Chemical Exposure toolkit of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether mental health symptoms prior to the accident were risk factors for symptom persistence. The strongest risk factor for persistence of at least one symptom in any organ was a preexisting mental health symptom (odds ratio [OR] = 5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.57–11.65). Persistent symptoms of the nervous (OR = 1.54), musculoskeletal (OR = 1.92), and gastrointestinal (OR = 1.45) systems were observed. Prior mental health symptoms are risk factors for persistent physical symptoms after a chemical disaster. After a disaster, management of individuals with preaccident mental symptoms or disease is needed. Full article
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10 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
“Geriatric Proximity” Intervention in COVID-19 Context: Contribution to Reducing Loneliness and Improving Affectivity
by Bruno Morgado, Cesar Fonseca, Anabela Afonso, Pedro Amaro, Manuel Lopes and Lara Guedes de Pinho
Geriatrics 2023, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8020039 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
(1) Background: The pandemic context has limited the social and family contacts of institutionalized older adults, and intervention is urgently needed. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the implementation of a “Geriatric Proximity” intervention on the functioning, satisfaction [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The pandemic context has limited the social and family contacts of institutionalized older adults, and intervention is urgently needed. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the implementation of a “Geriatric Proximity” intervention on the functioning, satisfaction with social support, affective experience, and feelings of loneliness of institutionalized older adults in the times of the pandemic. (2) Methods: This is a pilot study. An experimental group (subject to the “Geriatric Proximity” intervention) and a control group were constituted. Four assessment instruments were applied to both groups: the satisfaction with social support scale; the elderly nursing core set; the positive and negative affect schedule; and the UCLA loneliness scale. (3) Results: The control group shows no differences between the three measurement instants, while the experimental group shows between first and third measurements (all p < 0.05). We observed a reduction in the scores of loneliness scale, negative affect, and cognition functioning and an increase in satisfaction with social support and positive affect. (4) Conclusions: The intervention “Geriatric Proximity” showed a positive contribution by decreasing loneliness and increasing affectivity, satisfaction with social support, and cognitive function during the pandemic period. Full article
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13 pages, 778 KiB  
Article
Factors Related to Nutritional Status of Single Older Residents in Semi-Mountainous Rural Regions of Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Ai Nakai and Ikuharu Morioka
Geriatrics 2023, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8020034 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Japan’s notably high aging rate presents the risk of malnutrition. This study aimed to clarify the nutritional status and factors related to the nutritional status of single older residents in a semi-mountainous rural region of Japan. Using a cross-sectional study design, surveys were [...] Read more.
Japan’s notably high aging rate presents the risk of malnutrition. This study aimed to clarify the nutritional status and factors related to the nutritional status of single older residents in a semi-mountainous rural region of Japan. Using a cross-sectional study design, surveys were administered to older adults in the semi-mountainous rural region in the area of Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Factors associated with a risk of malnutrition were identified using binomial logistic regression analysis. In addition, nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). Among 53 participants, the MNA-SF score was 12.1 ± 1.5 (mean ± standard deviation), and 71.7% had a normal nutritional status. We observed that participation in local residents’ association gatherings (odds ratio [OR]: 7.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–47.01) and risk of depression/anxiety (OR: 12.77, 95% CI: 1.99–81.94) were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition, whereas social interaction with friends (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.02–0.76) were associated with a decreased risk. The nutritional status was normal overall. Community health workers should share information on the health of residents and promote social events to enable older residents living alone to continue leading healthy lifestyles. Full article
11 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Link between Suspected Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Impairment within Pharmaceutical Care in Adults over 75 Years of Age
by Zuzana Macekova, Tomas Fazekas, Michaela Krivosova, Jozef Dragasek, Viera Zufkova, Jan Klimas and Miroslava Snopkova
Healthcare 2023, 11(5), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11050718 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cognitive impairment (CI) is increasing with age. MetS reduces overall cognition, and CI predicts an increased risk of drug-related problems. We investigated the impact of suspected MetS (sMetS) on cognition in an aging population receiving pharmaceutical [...] Read more.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cognitive impairment (CI) is increasing with age. MetS reduces overall cognition, and CI predicts an increased risk of drug-related problems. We investigated the impact of suspected MetS (sMetS) on cognition in an aging population receiving pharmaceutical care in a different state of old age (60–74 vs. 75+ years). Presence or absence of sMetS (sMetS+ or sMetS−) was assessed according to criteria modified for the European population. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, being ≤24 points, was used to identify CI. We found a lower MoCA score (18.4 ± 6.0) and a higher rate of CI (85%) in the 75+ group when compared to younger old subjects (23.6 ± 4.3; 51%; p < 0.001). In the age group of 75+, a higher occurrence, of MoCA ≤ 24 points, was in sMetS+ (97%) as compared to sMetS− (80% p < 0.05). In the age group of 60–74 years, a MoCA score of ≤24 points was identified in 63% of sMetS+ when compared to 49% of sMetS− (NS). Conclusively, we found a higher prevalence of sMetS, the number of sMetS components and lower cognitive performance in subjects aged 75+. This age, the occurrence of sMetS and lower education can predict CI. Full article
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12 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Health Satisfaction in Spanish Physically Active Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study
by Ana Isabel Agustí, Javier Guillem-Saiz, Jesús González-Moreno, María Cantero-García, Igor Cigarroa and María Antonia Parra-Rizo
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010027 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Studies that analyze the predictors of satisfaction with the health of the elderly are scarce. That is the reason why the objective of this study is to analyze whether the physical-psychological state, sports practice, and the use of socio-health resources are factors that [...] Read more.
Studies that analyze the predictors of satisfaction with the health of the elderly are scarce. That is the reason why the objective of this study is to analyze whether the physical-psychological state, sports practice, and the use of socio-health resources are factors that predict satisfaction with health status in physically active elderly people. The Physical Activity and Quality of Life questionnaires were applied to a sample of 397 elderly people in this cross-sectional observational study. The data have been analyzed using Student’s t-test chi-square test, Cohen’s d, Phi Coefficient and Cramer’s V. The results have shown that the lack of physical illnesses (OR = 3.920; p < 0.001) and psychological problems (OR = 1.940; p = 0.032), practicing a high level of physical activity (OR = 2.049; p = 0.001), having high scores in functional skills (OR = 8.059; p < 0.001) and using little social and health services (OR = 2.595; p < 0.001) are all predictors of being highly satisfied with one’s health. In conclusion, predictors associated with high health satisfaction of active older people have been found, such as functional abilities, the existence of physical illness, psychological problems, level of physical activity, frequency of use of health and social services and satisfaction with health and social services; but it is not associated with gender or age of participants. Full article
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21 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Inhibitory Control in Older Adults: A Biofeedback Study
by Doriana Tinello, Mika Tarvainen, Sascha Zuber and Matthias Kliegel
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13020335 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Multidomain interventions based on bio-/neurofeedback have proven useful in improving executive functions. The present study aimed to explore the potential efficacy and feasibility of an intervention that combined Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRV-BF) and Near Infrared Hemoencephalography Neurofeedback (nirHEG-NF) on inhibitory control (IC) [...] Read more.
Multidomain interventions based on bio-/neurofeedback have proven useful in improving executive functions. The present study aimed to explore the potential efficacy and feasibility of an intervention that combined Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRV-BF) and Near Infrared Hemoencephalography Neurofeedback (nirHEG-NF) on inhibitory control (IC) of healthy older adults. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to two groups: the biofeedback group (received a 10-week combined intervention of HRV-BF and nirHEG-NF) and the active control group (received a similar protocol without real-time biofeedback). Besides cognitive outcomes, the study examined pre- and post-changes in autonomic regulation and prefrontal blood oxygenation at rest and during training. Results revealed training-induced inhibitory control gains in one of the two interference tasks, whereas no effect was found on response inhibition. After the intervention, HRV increased in participants with the lowest levels of HRV at baseline. Although older adults increased blood oxygenation during training, no significant pre- and post-changes were found in blood flow oxygenation. These findings not only suggest that HRV-BF and nirHEG-NF potentially improve performance in certain subcomponents of inhibition (i.e., interference vs. response inhibition), but it may also be beneficial for parasympathetic activity in participants with low HRV and for increasing blood flow oxygenation on prefrontal areas during training. Full article
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12 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Talking about Meaning and Loss with Relatives of Persons with Dementia: An Ethnographic Study in a Nursing Home
by Caroline Couprie and Jenny T. van der Steen
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010023 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Advance care planning (ACP) can help prepare for future losses and decisions to be taken. However, relatives of persons with dementia may wait for healthcare professionals to initiate ACP conversations which may not adequately address their individual information needs. To evaluate inducing and [...] Read more.
Advance care planning (ACP) can help prepare for future losses and decisions to be taken. However, relatives of persons with dementia may wait for healthcare professionals to initiate ACP conversations which may not adequately address their individual information needs. To evaluate inducing and enhancing conversations about meaning and loss, we conducted an ethnographic study on nurse-led ACP conversations using a question prompt list (QPL) on six dementia wards of a nursing home in the Netherlands from January to September 2021. Staff received training in using the QPL, with information and sample questions to inspire relatives to ask their questions, in particular on meaning and loss. Thematic analysis was applied to transcribed interviews and memos of observations. Nursing staff in particular was concerned about having to be available to answer questions continuously. Relatives used the study as an opportunity to get in touch with professionals, and they saw the QPL as an acknowledgement of their needs. There was a mismatch in that staff wished to discuss care goals and complete a care plan, but the relatives wanted to (first) address practical matters. A QPL can be helpful to conversations about meaning and loss, but nursing staff need dedicated time and substantial training. Joint agenda setting before the conversation may help resolve a mismatch in the preferred topics and timing of conversations. Full article
9 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Institutionalized Patients with Parkinson’s Disease in Taiwan: A Nationwide Observational Study
by Yang-Pei Chang, Ching-Fang Chien, Sun-Wung Hsieh, Ling-Chun Huang, Chung-Fen Lin, Chih-Cheng Hsu and Yuan-Han Yang
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020258 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) are known to be frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD) with great impacts on the quality of life, but reports about the prevalence in institutions are few. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for NPSs in [...] Read more.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) are known to be frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD) with great impacts on the quality of life, but reports about the prevalence in institutions are few. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for NPSs in institutionalized patients with PD in Taiwan. The National Health Research Institute executed a cross-sectional, community-based, observational study on residential long-term care service institutions. The diagnosis of PD was determined by physicians with the estimated Hoehn and Yahr stage of PD according to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. A total of 370 patients with PD (80.1 ± 9.94 years old, 55.1% females) were included, and 139 (37.6%) had more than one NPS in the prior 3 months. The top three NPSs were nighttime behavior (65 (17.6%)), depression (53 (14.3%)), and fear/anxiety (49 (13.2%)). There were no differences between those with NPS and those without NPS in terms of age, gender, education, Mini-Mental State Examination, or Hoehn and Yahr stage. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that genitourinary disease (odds ratio (OR) = 3.13; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.77–5.51) and psychiatric disorders (OR = 5.18; 95%CI = 3.09–8.69) may be associated with increased risk of NPSs. Increased physical restraint was observed in residents with advanced PD. Genitourinary disease and psychiatric disorders appear to increase the risk of NPSs in institutionalized residents with PD. Full article
16 pages, 452 KiB  
Review
Multi-Component Interventions in Older Adults Having Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD)—A Review Article
by Madhuchhanda Mohanty and Prakash Kumar
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010004 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is one of those significant concerns faced by older individuals. Though it is predominantly self-reported, it is not an event that should be overlooked, considering its significant association with cognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and so [...] Read more.
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is one of those significant concerns faced by older individuals. Though it is predominantly self-reported, it is not an event that should be overlooked, considering its significant association with cognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and so on. This makes it imperative to find ways to manage the event to enhance the cognitive performance of older adults and/or suppress the rate at which cognitive decline results in impairment. While multiple interventions have been used for SCD, multi-component non-pharmacological interventions are beginning to gain more attention among researchers. This is due to how such interventions have effectively contributed to improved cognitive performance across different outcome domains. Against this backdrop, this literature review has been conducted to explore the different multi-component non-pharmacological interventions utilized in managing SCD. Papers from databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and EBSCO were retrieved, with relevant data being extracted on the subject matter to address the objective of this review. Full article
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19 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
Communication Ecology Model of Successful Aging in Indonesian Context
by Irwansyah Irwansyah
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010003 - 26 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2133
Abstract
The communication ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA) as a part of aging studies from a communication perspective was replicated in the Indonesian context. The CEMSA provided a specific perspective from communication scholars about the successful aging process. The study of CEMSA has [...] Read more.
The communication ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA) as a part of aging studies from a communication perspective was replicated in the Indonesian context. The CEMSA provided a specific perspective from communication scholars about the successful aging process. The study of CEMSA has grown significantly to demonstrate the importance of the interactive-communication process to propagate and enhance aging studies. However, there has been no specific aging study from a communication perspective, especially from communication scholars in the Indonesian context. This study applied all concepts, variables, measurements, and analyses from the replicated study. The result showed that seven domains of communication about aging may be relevant to predict successful aging from a negative effect and positive effect, and efficacy toward aging. The model showed that the uncertainty and combination of a negative and positive effect in seven domains of communication about aging could construct the efficacy and success of the aging process. The model with seven domains of communication about aging could be proved while the data were gathered not by self-report. Full article
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11 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Future Time Perspective, Priority of Social Goals, and Friend Networks in Old Age: Evidence for Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Using Subjective Age Gap
by Moonjo Bae, Sesong Jeon and Katie Walker
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010022 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Several studies have focused on population aging, with a focus on the relationship between age and the main concepts of the socioemotional selectivity theory, but many do not report consistent results. Therefore, this study sought to better understand how the socioemotional selective theory [...] Read more.
Several studies have focused on population aging, with a focus on the relationship between age and the main concepts of the socioemotional selectivity theory, but many do not report consistent results. Therefore, this study sought to better understand how the socioemotional selective theory informs our understanding of the elderly in Korea. More specifically, it aimed at observing how age groups differ in regards to future time perspective, social goals, and friend networks. Data were collected from 271 elderly people (M = 72.98 years old, SD = 5.63) using questionnaires. The statistical program SPSS 25.0 was used to perform descriptive statistical analyses, reliability analyses, and ANOVAs. The findings indicated that the Korean elderly participants perceived their subjective age to be younger than their chronological age. Furthermore, if they perceived their subjective age to be older than their chronological age, they were more likely to report that their network of friends was smaller than they desired. Lastly, depending on their age, the Korean elderly participants reported different priorities of the goals they wished to pursue. These results could help researchers, clinical practitioners, and policymakers to better understand the unique differences in the Korean elderly. Full article
13 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
What Quality-of-Life Dimensions Are Most Important to Older Adults from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds Receiving Aged Care Services? An Exploratory Study
by Claire Hutchinson, Jenny Cleland, Ruth Walker and Julie Ratcliffe
Geriatrics 2022, 7(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7060144 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
There is little research on what aspects of quality of life (QoL) are most important to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) older adults. This study aimed to identify what QoL dimensions were most important to CALD older adults receiving aged care services, and [...] Read more.
There is little research on what aspects of quality of life (QoL) are most important to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) older adults. This study aimed to identify what QoL dimensions were most important to CALD older adults receiving aged care services, and therefore, how relevant a new six dimensions QoL instrument developed for use in aged care is to this population. A three-stage, mixed-methods study was undertaken. Stage 1: n = 3 focus groups with aged care providers. Stage 2: n = 30 semi-structured interviews with Italian-born older adults in ethno-specific residential aged care. Stage 3: survey of n = 63 older adults from mixed CALD backgrounds receiving community aged care services. Overall, older adults asserted the importance of the six dimensions of the new QoL instrument. The importance of ‘identity’ and ‘purpose and meaning’ were identified via the focus groups; however, the community-based CALD older adults identified these aspects of quality of life as more important than older Italians in residential care. Being in ethno-specific residential aged care where needs relating to language, food, and religion were met and they continued to live with others from their community may have meant that the meeting of cultural needs was more taken for granted. Full article
18 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
Healthy Lifestyle Behavior, Goal Setting, and Personality among Older Adults: A Synthesis of Literature Reviews and Interviews
by Ming Yu Claudia Wong, Kai-ling Ou and Pak Kwong Chung
Geriatrics 2022, 7(6), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7060131 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Background: Despite the well-known health benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle, older adults’ self-determination, goals, and motivation, as well as other personality factors, are known to influence their healthy lifestyle behaviors, yet these interactions have rarely been discussed. Method: The literature that investigated [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the well-known health benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle, older adults’ self-determination, goals, and motivation, as well as other personality factors, are known to influence their healthy lifestyle behaviors, yet these interactions have rarely been discussed. Method: The literature that investigated and discussed the interaction of personality, goals, and healthy lifestyle behaviors among older adults was reviewed. In addition, interview responses from older adults regarding their experiences in participating in a real-life physical activity intervention and its relationship with their personality traits and goal setting were synthesized using content analysis. Results: The current review highlights the relationship between healthy living practices, goal setting, and personalities, and it is backed up and expanded upon by interviews with participants. People with different personality types are likely to have diverse views on HLBs. Individuals who are more conscientiousness or extraverted are more likely to adopt HLBs than those who are not. Discussion: It is suggested that a meta-analysis should be conducted on the relationship between personality, goal setting, and physical exercise or other specific HLBs. In addition, future research should focus on various types of HLB therapies that take into account personality and goal setting. Full article
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9 pages, 905 KiB  
Article
Relative Handgrip Strength Mediates the Relationship between Hemoglobin and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Korean Adults
by Jeonghyeon Kim, Inhwan Lee, Munku Song and Hyunsik Kang
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112215 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Background: Little is known regarding how anemia and handgrip strength influence the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older populations. This population-based study aimed to examine whether handgrip strength mediates the association between anemia and HRQoL in a representative sample of 6892 Korean [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known regarding how anemia and handgrip strength influence the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older populations. This population-based study aimed to examine whether handgrip strength mediates the association between anemia and HRQoL in a representative sample of 6892 Korean adults aged ≥ 65 years (3753 females). Methods: HRQoL was assessed with the EuroQol-5 dimension. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and handgrip strength was measured with a digital hand dynamometer. Results: Individuals with anemia were at increased risk for a lower HRQoL (odds ratio, OR = 1.285, p = 0.002) even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, income, marital status, education, physical activity, and multimorbidity compared with individuals without anemia (OR = 1). Individuals with weak handgrip strength were also at increased risk for a lower HRQoL (OR = 1.429, p < 0.001) even after adjustment for all the covariates compared with individuals with normal handgrip strength (OR = 1). Mediation analysis with a bootstrapping procedure showed that relative handgrip strength mediated the relationship between hemoglobin and HRQoL (95% confidence interval, CI 0.0192 to 0.0289) even after adjustment for all covariates, with 42.0% of the total effect of hemoglobin on HRQoL explained. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that the impact of anemia on HRQoL is partially mediated by weak handgrip strength, implying the clinical importance of having or maintaining adequate hemoglobin and handgrip strength via healthy lifestyle choices to maintain a high HRQoL later in life. Full article
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13 pages, 839 KiB  
Review
Utility of Chinese Versions of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination: A Narrative Review
by Ling-Xiao Cao, Gang Wang, Qi-Hao Guo, Wei Zhang, Thomas Bak and Yue Huang
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10102052 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening tool that has developed through three stages: ACE, ACE-Revised (ACE-R), and ACE-Ⅲ. In addition, mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) and ACE mobile are the additional versions that is derived from ACE-III. ACE and its related versions [...] Read more.
Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening tool that has developed through three stages: ACE, ACE-Revised (ACE-R), and ACE-Ⅲ. In addition, mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) and ACE mobile are the additional versions that is derived from ACE-III. ACE and its related versions show better performance than Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting mild cognitive impairment in different neurological disorders. It has been translated into numerous languages, including Chinese. Through reviewing the history, validity, and comparison with other cognitive tests of Chinese versions of ACE, it aims to facilitate the clinical and scientific use, further development, improvement, and validation of Chinese versions of ACE in various neurological disorders and ultimately promote early identification and management of cognitive impairment in China. Full article
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16 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Digital Health Interventions in Depression Care—A Survey on Acceptance from the Perspective of Patients, Their Relatives and Health Professionals
by Jessica Hafner, Simone Schönfeld, Pinar Tokgöz, Katharina Choroschun, Arndt Schlubach and Christoph Dockweiler
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10102019 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Digital health interventions may contribute to closing the treatment gap for depression by reaching large populations at relatively low costs. This article presents the results of a broad, multisided German survey in 2020 on the acceptance and use of digital health interventions in [...] Read more.
Digital health interventions may contribute to closing the treatment gap for depression by reaching large populations at relatively low costs. This article presents the results of a broad, multisided German survey in 2020 on the acceptance and use of digital health interventions in depression care from the perspective of patients, their relatives, and health professionals. A total of 97 patients and relatives and 229 health professionals participated. Survey participants reported openness towards the use of digital health interventions in depression care but little knowledge and experience in the field. Digital health interventions appear to be a promising opportunity for reducing depressive symptoms and shortening waiting time for depression treatment, especially in rural areas. Providing information and technical competencies may increase awareness and knowledge about digital health interventions and the benefits of depression care. Full article
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14 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Physical Activity in a Diverse Older Population
by Ruth M. Tappen, David Newman, Sareen S. Gropper, Cassandre Horne and Edgar R. Vieira
Geriatrics 2022, 7(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7050111 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3210
Abstract
Physical activity is important for healthy aging, but few older adults achieve the goal of 150 min per week of moderate activity. The purpose of this study was to employ a robust statistical approach in the analysis of the factors related to physical [...] Read more.
Physical activity is important for healthy aging, but few older adults achieve the goal of 150 min per week of moderate activity. The purpose of this study was to employ a robust statistical approach in the analysis of the factors related to physical activity in a diverse sample of older adults. A secondary analysis of factors associated with calculated MET-h/week was conducted in a sample of 601 African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, European Americans, and Hispanic Americans age 59 to 96 living independently in the community. Age, education, social network, pain, and depression were the five variables that accounted for a statistically significant proportion of unique variance in the model. The strongest correlation to total MET-h/week was with depression. Directionality of the relationship between these variables and physical activity is complex: while pain and depression can reduce physical activity, activity may also help to reduce pain and depression. Additionally, of note is that many of these factors may be modified, calling for the design and testing of individual, group, and community level interventions to increase physical activity in the older population. Full article
9 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Number of Chronic Medical Conditions and Quality of Life of Ethnic Minority Older Adults
by Sharon Cobb, Babak Najand, Tara Gravidez, Berlin Navarro, Alondra Herreraramos and Mohsen Bazargan
Geriatrics 2022, 7(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7050106 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Background: The Blacks’ mental health paradox is defined as disproportionately better mental health among Black individuals compared to White individuals, despite their higher exposure to a wide range of adversities. However, the existing literature on this phenomenon is mainly limited to studies that [...] Read more.
Background: The Blacks’ mental health paradox is defined as disproportionately better mental health among Black individuals compared to White individuals, despite their higher exposure to a wide range of adversities. However, the existing literature on this phenomenon is mainly limited to studies that have compared Black and White individuals. There has been little research on this phenomenon among ethnic groups other than Whites. Objectives: This study tested the Blacks’ mental health paradox with consideration of Latinx individuals as the control group. Methods: This cross-sectional study collected demographic data, socioeconomic status, chronic medical conditions, and mental and physical quality of life of 724 older Black and Latinx adults residing in low socioeconomic areas of south Los Angeles. Linear regressions were used for data analysis with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as dependent variables and the number of chronic medical conditions as the independent variable. Results: Overall, a higher number of chronic medical conditions was associated with lower mental and physical quality of life. A statistically significant interaction was found between race/ethnicity and the effect of the number of chronic medical conditions on mental HRQoL, which was indicative of Blacks’ mental health paradox. Conclusion: Older Black adults with a higher number of chronic medical conditions report better mental health compared to their Latinx peers with the same number of chronic medical conditions. Thus, Blacks’ mental health paradox can be seen when Black and Latinx populations are compared. Replication of such a paradox provides additional support for the relative mental health advantage of Black people compared to other ethnic groups. Full article
12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life in Post-COVID-19 Patients after Hospitalization
by Olivera Mitrović-Ajtić, Dejana Stanisavljević, Sanja Miljatović, Teodora Dragojević, Emilija Živković, Miloš Šabanović and Vladan P. Čokić
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091666 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on people’s quality of life (QoL), which is affected by social and economic changes as well as by mental and physical health. The aim of this study was to determine QoL in post-COVID-19 patients who [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on people’s quality of life (QoL), which is affected by social and economic changes as well as by mental and physical health. The aim of this study was to determine QoL in post-COVID-19 patients who had required hospitalization, and to identify relevant sociodemographic data. We used questionnaires which considered demographic and socioeconomic data, health and vaccination status, the pandemic situation, and EQ-5D scoring. The interactions of all data and the scores of EQ-5D were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the five dimensions of EQ-5D. In this single-hospital-cohort study, the average times elapsed since initial diagnosis and hospital admission were 2.5 (76.3 ± 18.1 days) and 5 months (155.4 ± 33.9 days), respectively. Post-COVID-19 females were 3–5 times more likely to be affected in terms of anxiety/depression, and in negative impact upon their usual activities, at 5 months after diagnosis. At the same time, reductions in mobility were 3–4 times more likely in elderly post-COVID-19 patients, whose levels of pain and discomfort increased. Single patients, those with low incomes, and those with severe clinical outcomes were 2–4 times more likely to experience a reduction in their usual activities, while the presence of co-morbidities and lower levels of education were associated with increased pain and discomfort. Aging-induced pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were significantly exacerbated in elderly patients with widespread vaccination. Our study revealed effects of demographic and socioeconomic factors upon lower QoL in post-COVID-19 patients in four dimensions of EQ-5D: mobility, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression, 5 months after first diagnosis and hospitalization. Full article
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