Topic Editors

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
Prof. Dr. Xingyin Liu
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pathogen of Jiangsu Province, Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province Center of Global Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
Prof. Dr. Wenke Feng
Department of Medicine, Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA

Gut Microbiota in Human Health

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 June 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 August 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gut microbiota, together with their bioactive products, have been recognized as key modulators in the development of many diseases. The status of intestinal bacteria, fungi and even viruses is closely associated with organ homeostasis in humans. For example, regarding the “gut-liver axis”, the crosstalk (e.g., enterohepatic circulation of bile acid; microbial product metabolism through the portal vein) between the gut and liver facilitates the interplay between enteric eubiosis and liver diseases. Similarly, recent evidence suggests intestinal microbiota can regulate brain, lung, heart, muscle and joint function either directly or indirectly in different disease contexts. The gut ecosystem is influenced by many endogenic and exogenic factors, including gut and systemic inflammatory conditions, diet and nutritional status, aging, psychological stress, etc. Thus, research exploring the relationships among gut microbiota, nutrition, lifestyle and organ damage is needed. The current Special Issue welcomes basic or clinic studies investigating human physiological or pathological alterations and gut microbiota through human research or preclinical animal models. Reviews are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Peng Chen
Prof. Dr. Xingyin Liu
Prof. Dr. Wenke Feng
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • gut microbiota
  • diseases
  • nutrition
  • lifestyle
  • inflammation

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Gastroenterology Insights
gastroent
2.9 2.7 2009 32.6 Days CHF 1600
Gastrointestinal Disorders
gastrointestdisord
0.7 1.8 2019 21.3 Days CHF 1200
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.5 6.4 2013 15.1 Days CHF 2700
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (35 papers)

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15 pages, 2538 KiB  
Article
Predicting Personalized Diets Based on Microbial Characteristics between Patients with Superficial Gastritis and Atrophic Gastritis
by Xiaoxiang Gao, Pingping Yin, Yilin Ren, Leilei Yu, Fengwei Tian, Jianxin Zhao, Wei Chen, Yuzheng Xue and Qixiao Zhai
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224738 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Background: gastritis is a common stomach disease with a high global incidence and can potentially develop into gastric cancer. The treatment of gastritis focuses on medication or diets based on national guidelines. However, the specific diet that can alleviate gastritis remains largely unknown. [...] Read more.
Background: gastritis is a common stomach disease with a high global incidence and can potentially develop into gastric cancer. The treatment of gastritis focuses on medication or diets based on national guidelines. However, the specific diet that can alleviate gastritis remains largely unknown. Methods: we propose a microbiota-directed dietary strategy that investigates potential food factors using microbial exogenous metabolites. Given the current lack of understanding of the repeatable characteristics of gastric microbiota, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the features of gastric bacteria. Local samples were collected as validation cohorts. Furthermore, RevEcoR was employed to identify bacteria’s exogenous metabolites, and FooDB was used to retrieve foods that can target specific bacteria. Results: Bacteroides, Weissella, Actinomyces, Atopobium, Oribacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Rothia were biomarkers between superficial gastritis (SG) and atrophic gastritis (AG) (AG_N) without H. pylori infection, whereas Bacillus, Actinomyces, Cutibacterium, Helicobacter, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, and Streptococcus were signatures between SG and AG (AG_P) with H. pylori infection. According to the exogenous metabolites, adenosyloobalamin, soybean, common wheat, dates, and barley were regarded as potential candidates for AG_N treatment, while gallate was regarded as a candidate for AG_P treatment. Conclusions: this study firstly profiled the gastric microbiota of AG and SG with or without H. pylori and provided a recommended diet for global AG according to exogenous metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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14 pages, 1841 KiB  
Article
Association of Gut Microbiota with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study
by Chen Li and Peirong Lu
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214646 - 02 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between gut microbiota and both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. Mendelian randomization studies were conducted utilizing the data sourced from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) database for the gut microbiome, AMD, and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between gut microbiota and both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. Mendelian randomization studies were conducted utilizing the data sourced from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) database for the gut microbiome, AMD, and glaucoma. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) estimates were summarized through five Mendelian randomization (MR) methods. We utilized Cochran’s Q statistic to evaluate the heterogeneity of the instrumental variables (IVs). Additionally, we employed a “leave-one-out” approach to verify the stability of our findings. Inverse variance weighted (IVW) suggests that Eubacterium (oxidoreducens group) and Parabacteroides had a protective effect on AMD. Both weighted median and IVW suggest that Lachnospiraceae (NK4A136 group) and Ruminococcaceae (UCG009) had a protective effect on AMD. However, both weighted median and IVW suggest that Dorea had a risk effect on AMD. Similarly, The IVW of Eubacterium (ventriosum group) showed a risk effect on AMD. The weighted median of Eubacterium (nodatum group), Lachnospiraceae (NC2004 group), and Roseburia had a risk effect on glaucoma. IVW suggested that Ruminococcaceae (UCG004) had a risk effect on glaucoma. Reverse MR analysis found a causal link between Eubacterium (nodatum group) and glaucoma. No causal relationships were found between AMD or glaucoma and the other mentioned bacterial groups. No significant heterogeneity or evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was detected. This study found that certain gut bacteria had protective effects on AMD, while others may be risk factors for AMD or glaucoma. Likewise, reverse MR found that glaucoma led to an increased abundance of certain gut bacteria. Further trials are needed to clarify the specific mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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10 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Low Short-Chain-Fatty-Acid-Producing Activity of the Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Hypercholesterolemia and Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Metabolic-Associated (Non-Alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease
by Xinlu Cao, Oksana Zolnikova, Roman Maslennikov, Maria Reshetova, Elena Poluektova, Arina Bogacheva, Maria Zharkova and Vladimir Ivashkin
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(4), 464-473; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5040038 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) activity of the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The level and spectrum of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined via gas–liquid chromatography. Liver fibrosis was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) activity of the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The level and spectrum of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined via gas–liquid chromatography. Liver fibrosis was assessed using the FIB-4 index and elastography. Among 42 non-cirrhotic MAFLD patients, 24 had high fecal SCFA levels (group H) and 18 had low fecal SCFA levels (group L). Patients in group H had lower serum uric acid, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels but a higher BMI than those in group L. All patients in group L and only 37.9% of those in group H were found to have hypercholesterolemia. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, the level of SCFAs was lower than that in patients without hypercholesterolemia. Patients in group H had less liver fibrosis than patients in group L. A total of 50.0% of the patients in group H and 92.3% of those in group L had significant liver fibrosis (≥F2). Patients with significant liver fibrosis had lower levels of fecal SCFAs—particularly acetate and butyrate. The fecal SCFA levels were positively correlated with gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin levels, BMI, and platelet count and were negatively correlated with FIB-4, liver stiffness, serum total, and LDL cholesterol levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 2731 KiB  
Article
Association Analysis of Gut Microbiota and Prognosis of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in Basal Ganglia Region
by Jiayu Shi, Yiting Zhao, Qionglei Chen, Xiaolan Liao, Jiaxin Chen, Huijia Xie, Jiaming Liu, Jing Sun and Songfang Chen
Microorganisms 2023, 11(11), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11112667 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Previous studies have implied the potential impact of gut microbiota on acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but the relationships of gut microbiota with basal ganglia region infarction (BGRI) and the predictive power of gut microbiota in BGRI prognosis is unclear. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Previous studies have implied the potential impact of gut microbiota on acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but the relationships of gut microbiota with basal ganglia region infarction (BGRI) and the predictive power of gut microbiota in BGRI prognosis is unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain characteristic taxa of BGRI patients with different functional outcomes and identify their predictive value. Fecal samples of 65 BGRI patients were collected at admission and analyzed with 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Three-month functional outcomes of BGRI were evaluated using modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and patients with mRS score of 0–1 were assigned to good-BGRI group while others were assigned to poor-BGRI group. We further identified characteristic microbiota using linear discriminant analysis effect size, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive value of differential bacteria. According to the mRS score assessed after 3 months of stroke onset, 22 patients were assigned to poor-BGRI group, while 43 patients were assigned to good-BGRI group. Short chain fatty acids-producing bacteria, Romboutsia and Fusicatenibacter, were characteristic microbiota of the good-BGRI group, while pro-inflammatory taxa, Acetanaerobacterium, were characteristic microbiota of the poor-BGRI group. Furthermore, the differential bacteria showed extensive associations with clinical indices. ROC curves, separately plotted based on Romboutsia and Fusicatenibacter, achieved area under the curve values of 0.7193 and 0.6839, respectively. This study identified the efficient discriminative power of characteristic microbiota in BGRI patients with different outcomes and provided novel insights into the associations of gut microbiota with related risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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17 pages, 2992 KiB  
Article
Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Intake Supports the Gut Microbiota and Attenuates Inflammation during Influenza H1N1 Virus Infection in Mice
by Takahiro Kato, Satoshi Kamiya, Soshi Narasaki, Ayako Sumii, Yasuo M. Tsutsumi, Kyoka Machida, Kanako Hara, Yuna Izumi-Mishima, Rie Tsutsumi and Hiroshi Sakaue
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194252 - 03 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2363
Abstract
Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a soluble dietary fiber that is effective for defecation control. It influences the gut microbiota, by which it is metabolized to yield short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and it was also recently shown to protect against influenza infection [...] Read more.
Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a soluble dietary fiber that is effective for defecation control. It influences the gut microbiota, by which it is metabolized to yield short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and it was also recently shown to protect against influenza infection in humans. We here investigated the effects of PHGG in a mouse model of influenza H1N1 virus infection. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow with or without PHGG (500 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks, infected with H1N1 at 10 weeks of age, and analyzed at 12 weeks of age. Administration of PHGG attenuated the decline in body weight induced by H1N1 infection without affecting food intake. It also ameliorated intestinal atrophy and increased the production of SCFAs including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in the cecum, thereby preventing the inhibitory effect of H1N1 infection on SCFA production. The H1N1-induced increases in the serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin-10 were all inhibited by PHGG intake. In addition, PHGG administration attenuated inflammatory gene expression in the lung and promoted both natural killer cell activity and regulatory T-cell differentiation in the spleen. Our findings suggest that the consumption of PHGG may improve the gut environment and thereby limit the inflammatory response to H1N1 infection. They may thus provide the basis for novel dietary intervention strategies to suppress the excessive inflammation associated with virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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17 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
A Large Genetic Causal Analysis of the Gut Microbiota and Urological Cancers: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study
by Zhaofa Yin, Bohan Liu, Shijian Feng, Yushi He, Cai Tang, Pengan Chen, Xinyi Wang and Kunjie Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184086 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Background: Several observational studies and clinical trials have shown that the gut microbiota is associated with urological cancers. However, the causal relationship between gut microbiota and urological cancers remains to be elucidated due to many confounding factors. Methods: In this study, we used [...] Read more.
Background: Several observational studies and clinical trials have shown that the gut microbiota is associated with urological cancers. However, the causal relationship between gut microbiota and urological cancers remains to be elucidated due to many confounding factors. Methods: In this study, we used two thresholds to identify gut microbiota GWAS from the MiBioGen consortium and obtained data for five urological cancers from the UK biobank and Finngen consortium, respectively. We then performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis with Wald ratio or inverse variance weighted as the main method. We also performed comprehensive sensitivity analyses to verify the robustness of the results. In addition, we performed a reverse MR analysis to examine the direction of causality. Results: Our study found that family Rikenellaceae, genus Allisonella, genus Lachnospiraceae UCG001, genus Oscillibacter, genus Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, genus Eubacterium ruminantium group, genus Ruminococcaceae UCG013, and genus Senegalimassilia were related to bladder cancer; genus Ruminococcus torques group, genus Oscillibacter, genus Barnesiella, genus Butyricicoccus, and genus Ruminococcaceae UCG005 were related to prostate cancer; class Alphaproteobacteria, class Bacilli, family Family XI, genus Coprococcus2, genus Intestinimonas, genus Lachnoclostridium, genus Lactococcus, genus Ruminococcus torques group, and genus Eubacterium brachy group were related to renal cell cancer; family Clostridiaceae 1, family Christensenellaceae, genus Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1, and genus Eubacterium eligens group were related to renal pelvis cancer; family Peptostreptococcaceae, genus Romboutsia, and genus Subdoligranulum were related to testicular cancer. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses proved that our results were reliable. Conclusions: Our study confirms the role of specific gut microbial taxa on urological cancers, explores the mechanism of gut microbiota on urological cancers from a macroscopic level, provides potential targets for the screening and treatment of urological cancers, and is dedicated to providing new ideas for clinical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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12 pages, 1921 KiB  
Article
Ileal Dysbiosis Is Associated with Increased Acoustic Startle in the 22q11.2 Microdeletion Mouse Model of Schizophrenia
by Julianne Ching Yang, Ryan Troutman, Heidi Buri, Arjun Gutta, Jamilla Situ, Ezinne Aja and Jonathan Patrick Jacobs
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163631 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Recent studies involving transplantation of feces from schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their healthy controls into germ-free mice have demonstrated that the gut microbiome plays a critical role in mediating SCZ-linked physiology and behavior. To date, only one animal model (a metabotropic glutamate receptor [...] Read more.
Recent studies involving transplantation of feces from schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their healthy controls into germ-free mice have demonstrated that the gut microbiome plays a critical role in mediating SCZ-linked physiology and behavior. To date, only one animal model (a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 knockout) of SCZ has been reported to recapitulate SCZ-linked gut dysbiosis. Since human 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is associated with increased risk of SCZ, we investigated whether the 22q11.2 microdeletion (“Q22”) mouse model of SCZ exhibits both SCZ-linked behaviors and intestinal dysbiosis. We demonstrated that Q22 mice display increased acoustic startle response and ileal (but not colonic) dysbiosis, which may be due to the role of the ileum as an intestinal region with high immune and neuroimmune activity. We additionally identified a negative correlation between the abundance of a Streptococcus species in the ilea of Q22 mice and their acoustic startle response, providing early evidence of a gut–brain relationship in these mice. Given the translational relevance of this mouse model, our work suggests that Q22 mice could have considerable utility in preclinical research probing the relationship between gut dysbiosis and the gut–brain axis in the pathogenesis of SCZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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14 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Structure and Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Combined with Functional Dyspepsia
by Aleksandra Kovaleva, Elena Poluektova, Roman Maslennikov, Oxana Zolnikova, Oleg Shifrin, Anna Kudryavtseva, George Krasnov, Maria Fedorova, Anna Karchevskaya and Vladimir Ivashkin
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(3), 296-309; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5030024 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Gut dysbiosis presents in many digestive diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of the gut microbiota and its metabolic activity in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome combined with functional dyspepsia (I + D). This study included 60 [...] Read more.
Gut dysbiosis presents in many digestive diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of the gut microbiota and its metabolic activity in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome combined with functional dyspepsia (I + D). This study included 60 patients with I + D and 20 healthy controls. Gut microbiota composition was studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) spectrum was determined via gas–liquid chromatography. Patients with I + D had an increase in the abundance of Holdemanella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Erysipelotrichales, Prevotellaceae, Agathobacter, Slackia, Lactococcus, Pseudomonadaceae, Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Erysipelatoclostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and other taxa in addition to a decrease in the abundance of Frisingicoccus, Ralstonia, Burkholderiaceae, Hungatella, Eisenbergiella, Parabacteroides, Peptostreptococcaceae, Merdibacter, Bilophila, Rikenellaceae, Tannerellaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Flavonifractor in comparison to controls. Patients with I + D showed significantly higher total SCFA content in feces; increased absolute content of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and isoacids; and a significant negative shift in the anaerobic index. The relative levels of the main SCFAs and isoacids in the patient group did not differ significantly from those in the control group. The fecal acetate and isoacid levels correlated with the severity of diarrhea. The fecal butyrate level correlated with the severity of flatulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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19 pages, 4164 KiB  
Review
The Interplay between Medical Plants and Gut Microbiota in Cancer
by Santino Caserta, Claudia Genovese, Nicola Cicero, Valeria Toscano, Sebastiano Gangemi and Alessandro Allegra
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3327; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153327 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
The gut microbiota is a dynamic community of bacteria distributed in the gastroenteric tract and changes in response to diseases, diet, use of antibiotics and probiotics, hygiene status, and other environmental factors. Dysbiosis, a disruption of the normal crosstalk between the host and [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a dynamic community of bacteria distributed in the gastroenteric tract and changes in response to diseases, diet, use of antibiotics and probiotics, hygiene status, and other environmental factors. Dysbiosis, a disruption of the normal crosstalk between the host and the microbes, is associated with obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, is linked to a reduction of anti-inflammatory bacteria like Lactobacillus and Roseburia, and to an increase in the growth of proinflammatory species like Ruminococcus gnavus and Bacteroidetes. Some plants possess anticancer properties and various studies have reported that some of these are also able to modulate the gut microbiota. The aim of this work is to evaluate the crucial relationship between medical plants and gut microbiota and the consequences on the onset and progression of cancer. In vivo studies about hematological malignancies showed that beta-glucans tie to endogenous antibeta glucan antibodies and to iC3b, an opsonic fragment of the central complement protein C3, leading to phagocytosis of antibody-targeted neoplastic cells and potentiation of the cytotoxic activity of the innate immune system if administered together with monoclonal antibodies. In conclusion, this review suggests the potential use of medical plants to improve gut dysbiosis and assist in the treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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31 pages, 2531 KiB  
Review
Microbial-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Role in Neurological Disease: Anthranilic Acid and Anthranilic Acid Derivatives
by Claire Shaw, Matthias Hess and Bart C. Weimer
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071825 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
The gut microbiome provides the host access to otherwise indigestible nutrients, which are often further metabolized by the microbiome into bioactive components. The gut microbiome can also shift the balance of host-produced compounds, which may alter host health. One precursor to bioactive metabolites [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome provides the host access to otherwise indigestible nutrients, which are often further metabolized by the microbiome into bioactive components. The gut microbiome can also shift the balance of host-produced compounds, which may alter host health. One precursor to bioactive metabolites is the essential aromatic amino acid tryptophan. Tryptophan is mostly shunted into the kynurenine pathway but is also the primary metabolite for serotonin production and the bacterial indole pathway. Balance between tryptophan-derived bioactive metabolites is crucial for neurological homeostasis and metabolic imbalance can trigger or exacerbate neurological diseases. Alzheimer’s, depression, and schizophrenia have been linked to diverging levels of tryptophan-derived anthranilic, kynurenic, and quinolinic acid. Anthranilic acid from collective microbiome metabolism plays a complex but important role in systemic host health. Although anthranilic acid and its metabolic products are of great importance for host–microbe interaction in neurological health, literature examining the mechanistic relationships between microbial production, host regulation, and neurological diseases is scarce and at times conflicting. This narrative review provides an overview of the current understanding of anthranilic acid’s role in neurological health and disease, with particular focus on the contribution of the gut microbiome, the gut–brain axis, and the involvement of the three major tryptophan pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 1794 KiB  
Article
Role of Gut Microbiota in Overweight Susceptibility in an Adult Population in Italy
by Cristina Politi, Marco Mobrici, Rosa Maria Parlongo, Belinda Spoto, Giovanni Tripepi, Patrizia Pizzini, Sebastiano Cutrupi, Daniele Franco, Renato Tino, Giuseppe Farruggio, Chiara Failla, Flavia Marino, Giovanni Pioggia and Alessandra Testa
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132834 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Although the gut microbiota is known to affect body weight, its relationship with overweight/obesity is unclear. Our aim was to characterize microbiota composition in a cohort from the southernmost area of Italy. We investigated whether an altered gut microbiota could play an etiological [...] Read more.
Although the gut microbiota is known to affect body weight, its relationship with overweight/obesity is unclear. Our aim was to characterize microbiota composition in a cohort from the southernmost area of Italy. We investigated whether an altered gut microbiota could play an etiological role in the pathogenesis of overweight/obesity. A total of 163 healthy adults were enrolled. Microbiome analysis was performed via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found significant phylum variations between overweight (N = 88) and normal-weight (N = 75) subjects. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were higher in overweight participants (p = 0.004; p = 0.03), and Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia were lower (p = 0.02; p = 0.008) compared to normal-weight participants. Additionally, Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium (genus level) were significantly lower in the overweight group, as well as Akkermansia muciniphila at the species level. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio), an index of dysbiosis, was found to be inversely associated with BMI in linear and logistic regression models (p = 0.001; p = 0.005). The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders. This cross-sectional study contributes to defining the gut microbiota composition in an adult population living in southern Italy. It confirms the relationship between overweight susceptibility and the dysbiosis status, highlighting the possible etiological role of the F/B ratio in disease susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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16 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LPJZ-658 Supplementation on the Production, Meat Quality, Intestinal Morphology, and Cecal Microbiota of Broilers Chickens
by Liming Liu, Letian Li, Chunhua Li, Haiyang Wang, Xiufeng Zhang, Qingdan Ren, Heping Zhang, Ningyi Jin, Chang Li and Cuiqing Zhao
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061549 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of L. plantarum LPJZ-658 on the production, meat quality, intestinal morphology, and cecal microbiota of broilers. White-feathered broilers (1 day old, n = 600) were randomly assigned to two groups and raised for six weeks. The [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of L. plantarum LPJZ-658 on the production, meat quality, intestinal morphology, and cecal microbiota of broilers. White-feathered broilers (1 day old, n = 600) were randomly assigned to two groups and raised for six weeks. The individuals in the LPJZ-658 group were supplemented with 2.6 × 109 cfu/g LPJZ-658. The growth performance, meat quality, intestinal epithelium morphology, and cecal microbiota were observed. The results showed that the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of broilers in the LPJZ-658 group were significantly improved. In addition, the LPJZ-658 groups had a higher thigh muscle (TM) yield, TM color, TMpH24h, breast muscle (BM) pH24h, and BM color24h, while the BM cooking loss was significantly lower than the CON group. Moreover, supplementation with LPJZ-658 increased ileum and cecum length, duodenum and ileum villus height, and ileum villus height/crypt depth ratio. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed the dietary LPJZ-658 supplementation modulated the diversity and composition of cecal microflora. At the phylum level, the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobiota, and Acidobacteriota were significantly higher. In addition, LPJZ-658 substantially decreased the genus relative abundances of Streptococcus, Veillonella, Neisseria, and Haemophilus compared with the CON group and facilitated the growth and colonization of beneficial cecal bacteria, such as OBacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Bacillus, and Akkermansia. It was concluded that LPJZ-658 supplementation significantly increased growth production, improved meat quality and intestinal status, and modulated the intestinal microbiota in the broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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25 pages, 27777 KiB  
Article
Physalis alkekengi L. Calyx Extract Alleviates Glycolipid Metabolic Disturbance and Inflammation by Modulating Gut Microbiota, Fecal Metabolites, and Glycolipid Metabolism Gene Expression in Obese Mice
by Lin Li, Xiaolong Wang, Ying Zhou, Na Yan, Han Gao, Xiaojie Sun and Chunjing Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112507 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Physalis alkekengi L. calyx (PC) extract can relieve insulin resistance and has glycemic and anti-inflammatory effects; however, the potential mechanisms related to gut microbiota and metabolites remain elusive. This study aimed to understand how PC regulates gut microbiota and metabolites to exert anti-obesogenic [...] Read more.
Physalis alkekengi L. calyx (PC) extract can relieve insulin resistance and has glycemic and anti-inflammatory effects; however, the potential mechanisms related to gut microbiota and metabolites remain elusive. This study aimed to understand how PC regulates gut microbiota and metabolites to exert anti-obesogenic effects and relieve insulin resistance. In this study, a high-fat high-fructose (HFHF)-diet-induced obesity C57BL/6J male mice model with glycolipid metabolism dysfunction was established, which was supplemented with the aqueous extract of PC daily for 10 weeks. The results showed that the PC supplementation could effectively cure the abnormal lipid metabolism and maintain glucose metabolism homeostasis by regulating the expression of adipose metabolic genes and glucose metabolism genes in the liver, thereby effectively alleviating the inflammatory response. PC treatment also increased the contents of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyric acid. PC extract could restore the HFHF-disrupted diversity of gut microbiota by significantly increasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and decreasing those of Romboutsia, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1. The negative effects of the HFHF diet were ameliorated by PC by regulating multiple metabolic pathways, such as lipid metabolism (linoleic acid metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism) and amino acid metabolism (histidine and tryptophan metabolism). Correlation analysis showed that among the obesity parameters, gut microbiota and metabolites are directly and closely related. To sum up, this study suggested that PC treatment exhibited therapeutic effects by regulating the gut microbiota, fecal metabolites, and gene expression in the liver to improve glucose metabolism, modulate adiposity, and reduce inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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18 pages, 623 KiB  
Conference Report
Methods in Nutrition & Gut Microbiome Research: An American Society for Nutrition Satellite Session [13 October 2022]
by Riley L. Hughes, Cara L. Frankenfeld, Daryl M. Gohl, Curtis Huttenhower, Scott A. Jackson, Doris Vandeputte, Emily Vogtmann, Sarah S. Comstock and Mary E. Kable
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112451 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 3410
Abstract
The microbial cells colonizing the human body form an ecosystem that is integral to the regulation and maintenance of human health. Elucidation of specific associations between the human microbiome and health outcomes is facilitating the development of microbiome-targeted recommendations and treatments (e.g., fecal [...] Read more.
The microbial cells colonizing the human body form an ecosystem that is integral to the regulation and maintenance of human health. Elucidation of specific associations between the human microbiome and health outcomes is facilitating the development of microbiome-targeted recommendations and treatments (e.g., fecal microbiota transplant; pre-, pro-, and post-biotics) to help prevent and treat disease. However, the potential of such recommendations and treatments to improve human health has yet to be fully realized. Technological advances have led to the development and proliferation of a wide range of tools and methods to collect, store, sequence, and analyze microbiome samples. However, differences in methodology at each step in these analytic processes can lead to variability in results due to the unique biases and limitations of each component. This technical variability hampers the detection and validation of associations with small to medium effect sizes. Therefore, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) Nutritional Microbiology Group Engaging Members (GEM), sponsored by the Institute for the Advancement of Food and Nutrition Sciences (IAFNS), hosted a satellite session on methods in nutrition and gut microbiome research to review currently available methods for microbiome research, best practices, as well as tools and standards to aid in comparability of methods and results. This manuscript summarizes the topics and research discussed at the session. Consideration of the guidelines and principles reviewed in this session will increase the accuracy, precision, and comparability of microbiome research and ultimately the understanding of the associations between the human microbiome and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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17 pages, 5412 KiB  
Article
FGF21 Depletion Attenuates Colitis through Intestinal Epithelial IL-22-STAT3 Activation in Mice
by Liming Liu, Fengyuan Li, Tuo Shao, Lihua Zhang, Jiyeon Lee, Gerald Dryden, Craig J. McClain, Cuiqing Zhao and Wenke Feng
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092086 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a glucose and lipid metabolic regulator. Recent research revealed that FGF21 was also induced by inflammatory stimuli. Its role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been investigated. In this study, an experimental IBD model was established [...] Read more.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a glucose and lipid metabolic regulator. Recent research revealed that FGF21 was also induced by inflammatory stimuli. Its role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been investigated. In this study, an experimental IBD model was established in FGF21 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by adding 2.5% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to their drinking water for 7 days. The severity of the colitis and the inflammation of the mouse colon tissues were analyzed. In WT mice, acute DSS treatment induced an elevation in plasma FGF21 and a significant loss of body weight in a time-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the loss of body weight and the severity of the colitis induced by DSS treatment in WT mice were significantly attenuated in FGF21 KO mice. Colon and circulating pro-inflammatory factors were significantly lower in the FGF21 KO mice compared to the WT mice. As shown by BrdU staining, the FGF21 KO mice demonstrated increased colonic epithelial cell proliferation. DSS treatment reduced intestinal Paneth cell and goblet cell numbers in the WT mice, and this effect was attenuated in the FGF21 KO mice. Mechanistically, FGF21 deficiency significantly increased the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells and increased the expression of IL-22. Further study showed that the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-2/3 (SOCS 2/3), a known feedback inhibitor of STAT3, was significantly inhibited in the DSS-treated FGF2 KO mice compared to the WT mice. We conclude that FGF21 deficiency attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis, which is likely mediated by enhancing the activation of the IL-22-STAT3 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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14 pages, 4217 KiB  
Article
Effects of Simulated In Vitro Digestion on the Structural Characteristics, Inhibitory Activity on α-Glucosidase, and Fermentation Behaviours of a Polysaccharide from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge
by Juncheng Chen, Meijuan Lan, Xia Zhang, Wenjuan Jiao, Zhiyi Chen, Lin Li and Bing Li
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081965 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the simulated saliva–gastrointestinal digestion of AABP-2B on its structural features, inhibitory α-glucosidase activity, and human gut microbiota. The salivary–gastrointestinal digestion results show that there is no significant change in the molecular weight [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the simulated saliva–gastrointestinal digestion of AABP-2B on its structural features, inhibitory α-glucosidase activity, and human gut microbiota. The salivary–gastrointestinal digestion results show that there is no significant change in the molecular weight of AABP-2B, and no free monosaccharides are released. This indicates that, under a simulated digestive condition, AABP-2B is not degraded and can be further utilized by gut microbiota. AABP-2B still possessed good inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase after salivary–gastrointestinal digestion, which may be attributed to the largely unchanged structural characteristics of AABP-2B after simulated digestion. Furthermore, in vitro fecal fermentation with AABP-2B after salivary–gastrointestinal digestion showed that AABP-2B modulated the gut microbiota structure and increased the relative proportions of Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, and Megasphaera. AABP-2B can also modify the intestinal flora composition by inhibiting pathogen growth. Moreover, the AABP-2B group resulted in a significant increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) content during fermentation. These findings demonstrate that AABP-2B can be used as a prebiotic or functional food to promote gut health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 2568 KiB  
Article
Boosting HSA Vaccination with Jujube Powder Modulating Gut Microbiota Favorable for Arginine Metabolism
by Huiren Zhuang, Zhenghuan Yang, Tianhao Chen, Nan Jing, Yalin Zhou, Guoqiang Jiang, Yi Wang, Zhao Wang and Zheng Liu
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081955 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Whereas vaccination is established as one of the most effective and available methods against seasonal flu and holds high potential for many infectious diseases, immune response may differ among individuals and regions. In this study we examined the effects of gut microbiota on [...] Read more.
Whereas vaccination is established as one of the most effective and available methods against seasonal flu and holds high potential for many infectious diseases, immune response may differ among individuals and regions. In this study we examined the effects of gut microbiota on vaccination with human serum albumin (HSA) as the model vaccine in C57BL/6J mice. We observed that a two-week antibiotic cocktail (ABX) treatment hampered HSA-specific IgG1 in serum, whereas fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) restored the gut microbiota impaired by the ABX treatment and consequently increased the proportions of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), plasma cells in the peripheral blood, and HSA-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) in the serum. A week of daily application of jujube powder (800 mg/kg) to ABX-treated mice achieved a significantly higher HSA-specific IgG1 concentration in the serum compared with the ABX treatment group. Of particular note was that the administration of the jujube powder did not increase the myeloid cells, indicating a different mechanism of vaccination compared with FMT. More interestingly, daily pre-administration of jujube powder (800 mg/kg) to healthy mice one week ahead of vaccination boosted their immune response, as evidenced by the proportion of macrophages in the MLNs, B cells in the spleen, plasma cells and memory B cells in the peripheral blood, and HSA-specific IgG1 concentration in the serum. The 16S rRNA sequencing of gut microbiota revealed that the administration of jujube powder increased the abundance of Coriobacteriaceae associated with the metabolism of amino acids. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis suggested the altered microbiota is more favorable for arginine and proline metabolism, which may promote macrophages in the MLNs. These results indicate a high potential for boosting vaccination by manipulating gut microbiota with natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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30 pages, 3705 KiB  
Review
A Bibliometric Analysis on the Research Trend of Exercise and the Gut Microbiome
by Ruiyi Deng, Mopei Wang, Yahan Song and Yanyan Shi
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040903 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
This article aims to provide an overview of research hotspots and trends in exercise and the gut microbiome, a field which has recently gained increasing attention. The relevant publications on exercise and the gut microbiome were identified from the Web of Science Core [...] Read more.
This article aims to provide an overview of research hotspots and trends in exercise and the gut microbiome, a field which has recently gained increasing attention. The relevant publications on exercise and the gut microbiome were identified from the Web of Science Core Collection database. The publication types were limited to articles and reviews. VOSviewer 1.6.18 (Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands) and the R package “bibliometrix” (R Foundation: Vienna, Austria) were used to conduct a bibliometric analysis. A total of 327 eligible publications were eventually identified, including 245 original articles and 82 reviews. A time trend analysis showed that the number of publications rapidly increased after 2014. The leading countries/regions in this field were the USA, China, and Europe. Most of the active institutions were from Europe and the USA. Keyword analysis showed that the relationship between disease, the gut microbiome, and exercise occurs throughout the development of this field of research. The interactions between the gut microbiota, exercise, status of the host’s internal environment, and probiotics, are important facets as well. The research topic evolution presents a trend of multidisciplinary and multi-perspective comprehensive analysis. Exercise might become an effective intervention for disease treatment by regulating the gut microbiome. The innovation of exercise-centered lifestyle intervention therapy may become a significant trend in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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21 pages, 33617 KiB  
Article
Role of Dietary Defatted Rice Bran in the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in AOM/DSS-Induced Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer Rat Model
by Laleewan Tajasuwan, Aikkarach Kettawan, Thanaporn Rungruang, Kansuda Wunjuntuk and Pinidphon Prombutara
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061528 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a by-product of rice bran derived after the oil extraction. DRB contains several bioactive compounds, including dietary fiber and phytochemicals. The supplementation with DRB manifests chemopreventive effects in terms of anti-chronic inflammation, anti-cell proliferation, and anti-tumorigenesis in the [...] Read more.
Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a by-product of rice bran derived after the oil extraction. DRB contains several bioactive compounds, including dietary fiber and phytochemicals. The supplementation with DRB manifests chemopreventive effects in terms of anti-chronic inflammation, anti-cell proliferation, and anti-tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) model in rats. However, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. Herein, we investigated the effect of DRB on gut microbiota and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, colonic goblet cell loss, and mucus layer thickness in the AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated CRC rat model. The results suggested that DRB enhanced the production of beneficial bacteria (Alloprevotella, Prevotellaceae UCG-001, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Butyricicoccus) and lessened the production of harmful bacteria (Turicibacter, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Escherichia–Shigella, Citrobacter) present in colonic feces, mucosa, and tumors. In addition, DRB also assisted the cecal SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) production. Furthermore, DRB restored goblet cell loss and improved the thickness of the mucus layer in colonic tissue. These findings suggested that DRB could be used as a prebiotic supplement to modulate gut microbiota dysbiosis, which decreases the risks of CRC, therefore encouraging further research on the utilization of DRB in various nutritional health products to promote the health-beneficial bacteria in the colon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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18 pages, 4502 KiB  
Article
Probiotics Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Sleep Restriction
by Yadong Zheng, Luyan Zhang, Laura Bonfili, Luisa de Vivo, Anna Maria Eleuteri and Michele Bellesi
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061518 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7334
Abstract
Background: Insufficient sleep is a serious public health problem in modern society. It leads to increased risk of chronic diseases, and it has been frequently associated with cellular oxidative damage and widespread low-grade inflammation. Probiotics have been attracting increasing interest recently for their [...] Read more.
Background: Insufficient sleep is a serious public health problem in modern society. It leads to increased risk of chronic diseases, and it has been frequently associated with cellular oxidative damage and widespread low-grade inflammation. Probiotics have been attracting increasing interest recently for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we tested the ability of probiotics to contrast oxidative stress and inflammation induced by sleep loss. Methods: We administered a multi-strain probiotic formulation (SLAB51) or water to normal sleeping mice and to mice exposed to 7 days of chronic sleep restriction (CSR). We quantified protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation as well as levels of gut–brain axis hormones and pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain and plasma. Furthermore, we carried out an evaluation of microglia morphology and density in the mouse cerebral cortex. Results: We found that CSR induced oxidative stress and inflammation and altered gut–brain axis hormones. SLAB51 oral administration boosted the antioxidant capacity of the brain, thus limiting the oxidative damage provoked by loss of sleep. Moreover, it positively regulated gut–brain axis hormones and reduced peripheral and brain inflammation induced by CSR. Conclusions: Probiotic supplementation can be a possible strategy to counteract oxidative stress and inflammation promoted by sleep loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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10 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiota in Patients with Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Graft Surgery
by Yang Wang, Yuanchen He, Rui Li, Hui Jiang, Dengshun Tao, Keyan Zhao, Zongtao Yin, Jian Zhang and Huishan Wang
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(4), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041493 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Background: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between gut microbiota and POAF. Methods: Fecal samples were collected before surgery from 45 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with POAF and 90 matched patients without POAF (1:2). 16S rRNA sequencing was used to detect the microbiome profiles of 45 POAF patients and 89 matched patients (one sample in the no-POAF group was deleted owing to low quality after sequencing). Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D level was measured by ELISA. Results: Compared to the patients without POAF, gut microbiota composition was remarkably changed in the patients with POAF, with an increase in Lachnospira, Acinetobacter, Veillonella and Aeromonas, and a decrease in Escherichia–Shigella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Brevundimonas and Citrobacter. Furthermore, plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were decreased in POAF patients and negatively correlated with an abundance of Lachnospira. Conclusions: The gut microbiota composition between patients with and without POAF is significantly different, implying that gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of POAF. Further studies are needed to fully clarify the role of gut microbiota in the initiation of AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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11 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide Levels Are Associated with Poor Kidney Function in People with Type 2 Diabetes
by Nora A. Kalagi, Rohith N. Thota, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Khalid A. Alburikan and Manohar L. Garg
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040812 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Previous studies have linked elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels to poor renal function. The relationship between TMAO and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still unclear. We investigated the association between plasma TMAO levels and CKD in patients [...] Read more.
Previous studies have linked elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels to poor renal function. The relationship between TMAO and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still unclear. We investigated the association between plasma TMAO levels and CKD in patients with T2D. A cross-sectional study of 133 patients with T2D with or without CKD has been conducted. Blood biomarkers of kidney function, diabetes, and inflammation were assessed in the study participants. Plasma TMAO levels were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. People with T2D and CKD exhibited significantly higher plasma TMAO levels [10.16 (5.86–17.45) µmol/L] than those without CKD [4.69 (2.62–7.76) µmol/L] (p = 0.002). Participants in the highest quartile of TMAO levels (>8.38 µmol/L) presented relatively elevated serum creatinine levels and a higher number of people with CKD than those in the lower quartiles. TMAO levels were significantly correlated with kidney function biomarkers, including estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. The association between TMAO and CKD was evident (p < 0.0001) and remained significant after adjusting for risk factors of kidney disease, including age, gender, body mass index, duration of diabetes, and smoking. These findings suggest the association between plasma TMAO and CKD in patients with T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 2505 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Iron Deficiency on the Gut Microbiota in Women of Childbearing Age
by Hoonhee Seo, Seug Yun Yoon, Asad ul-Haq, Sujin Jo, Sukyung Kim, Md Abdur Rahim, Hyun-A Park, Fatemeh Ghorbanian, Min Jung Kim, Min-Young Lee, Kyoung Ha Kim, Namsu Lee, Jong-Ho Won and Ho-Yeon Song
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030691 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3338
Abstract
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent and common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is a global health problem with significant risk, particularly among women of reproductive age. Oral iron supplementation is the most widely used and cost-effective treatment for iron deficiency and [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent and common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is a global health problem with significant risk, particularly among women of reproductive age. Oral iron supplementation is the most widely used and cost-effective treatment for iron deficiency and IDA. However, there are limitations regarding side effects such as enteritis, treatment compliance, and bioavailability. Intestinal microbiome characteristic research has been recently conducted to overcome these issues, but more is needed. Against this background, a metagenomics study on the 16S gene in the feces of young women vulnerable to IDA was conducted. As a result of analyzing 16 normal subjects and 15 IDA patients, significant differences in bacterial community distribution were identified. In particular, a significant decrease in Faecalibacterium was characteristic in IDA patients compared with normal subjects. Furthermore, in the case of patients who recovered from IDA following iron supplementation treatment, it was confirmed that Faecalibacterium significantly recovered to normal levels. However, no significance in beta diversity was seen compared with before treatment. There were also no differences in the beta diversity results between the recovered and normal subjects. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis during the disease state was considered to be restored as IDA improved. Although the results were derived from a limited number of subjects and additional research is needed, the results of this study are expected to be the basis for developing treatment and prevention strategies based on host–microbiome crosstalk in IDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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21 pages, 664 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Gut Microbiota in Urban Thai Individuals Reveals Enterotype-Specific Signature
by Jiramaetha Sinsuebchuea, Prasobsook Paenkaew, Montree Wutthiin, Thatchawanon Nantanaranon, Kiattiyot Laeman, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Songsak Wattanachaisaereekul, Sudarat Dulsawat, Montira Nopharatana, Namol Vorapreeda, Sakarindr Bhumiratana, Supapon Cheevadhanarak and Sawannee Sutheeworapong
Microorganisms 2023, 11(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11010136 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Gut microbiota play vital roles in human health, utilizing indigestible nutrients, producing essential substances, regulating the immune system, and inhibiting pathogen growth. Gut microbial profiles are dependent on populations, geographical locations, and long-term dietary patterns resulting in individual uniqueness. Gut microbiota can be [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota play vital roles in human health, utilizing indigestible nutrients, producing essential substances, regulating the immune system, and inhibiting pathogen growth. Gut microbial profiles are dependent on populations, geographical locations, and long-term dietary patterns resulting in individual uniqueness. Gut microbiota can be classified into enterotypes based on their patterns. Understanding gut enterotype enables us to interpret the capability in macronutrient digestion, essential substance production, and microbial co-occurrence. However, there is still no detailed characterization of gut microbiota enterotype in urban Thai people. In this study, we characterized the gut microbiota of urban Thai individuals by amplicon sequencing and classified their profiles into enterotypes, including Prevotella (EnP) and Bacteroides (EnB) enterotypes. Enterotypes were associated with lifestyle, dietary habits, bacterial diversity, differential taxa, and microbial pathways. Microbe–microbe interactions have been studied via co-occurrence networks. EnP had lower α-diversities than those in EnB. A correlation analysis revealed that the Prevotella genus, the predominant taxa of EnP, has a negative correlation with α-diversities. Microbial function enrichment analysis revealed that the biosynthesis pathways of B vitamins and fatty acids were significantly enriched in EnP and EnB, respectively. Interestingly, Ruminococcaceae, resistant starch degraders, were the hubs of both enterotypes, and strongly correlated with microbial diversity, suggesting that traditional Thai food, consisting of rice and vegetables, might be the important drivers contributing to the gut microbiota uniqueness in urban Thai individuals. Overall findings revealed the biological uniqueness of gut enterotype in urban Thai people, which will be advantageous for developing gut microbiome-based diagnostic tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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18 pages, 3662 KiB  
Article
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum-Mediated Bile Acid Metabolism to Prevent Rheumatoid Arthritis via the Gut–Joint Axis
by Qing Zhao, Huan Ren, Nian Yang, Xuyang Xia, Qifeng Chen, Dingding Zhou, Zhaoqian Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Yao Chen, Weihua Huang, Honghao Zhou, Heng Xu and Wei Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020255 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4008
Abstract
Early intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is critical for optimal treatment, but initiation of pharmacotherapy to prevent damage remains unsatisfactory currently. Manipulation of the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites can be effective in protecting against RA. Thus, probiotics can be utilized to explore [...] Read more.
Early intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is critical for optimal treatment, but initiation of pharmacotherapy to prevent damage remains unsatisfactory currently. Manipulation of the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites can be effective in protecting against RA. Thus, probiotics can be utilized to explore new strategies for preventing joint damage. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolites and mechanisms by which Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum affects RA. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and UPLC-MS/MS assays, we focused on bile acid (BA) metabolism. In a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model, B. pseudocatenulatum prevented joint damage by protecting the intestinal barrier and reshaped gut microbial composition, thereby elevating bile salt hydrolase (BSH) enzyme activity and increasing the levels of unconjugated secondary BAs to suppress aberrant T-helper 1/17-type immune responses; however, these benefits were eliminated by the Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) antagonist SBI-115. The results suggested that a single bacterium, B. pseudocatenulatum, can prevent RA, indicating that prophylactic administration of probiotics may be an effective therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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22 pages, 1115 KiB  
Review
Show Me What You Have Inside—The Complex Interplay between SIBO and Multiple Medical Conditions—A Systematic Review
by Natalia Sroka, Alicja Rydzewska-Rosołowska, Katarzyna Kakareko, Mariusz Rosołowski, Irena Głowińska and Tomasz Hryszko
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010090 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6380
Abstract
The microbiota, as a complex of microorganisms in a particular ecosystem, is part of the wider term—microbiome, which is defined as the set of all genetic content in the microbial community. Imbalanced gut microbiota has a great impact on the homeostasis of the [...] Read more.
The microbiota, as a complex of microorganisms in a particular ecosystem, is part of the wider term—microbiome, which is defined as the set of all genetic content in the microbial community. Imbalanced gut microbiota has a great impact on the homeostasis of the organism. Dysbiosis, as a disturbance in bacterial balance, might trigger or exacerbate the course of different pathologies. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a disorder characterized by differences in quantity, quality, and location of the small intestine microbiota. SIBO underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGD) as well as may alter the presentation of chronic diseases such as heart failure, diabetes, etc. In recent years there has been growing interest in the influence of SIBO and its impact on the whole human body as well as individual systems. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the co-existence of SIBO with different medical conditions. The PubMed database was searched up to July 2022 and we found 580 original studies; inclusion and exclusion criteria let us identify 112 eligible articles, which are quoted in this paper. The present SIBO diagnostic methods could be divided into two groups—invasive, the gold standard—small intestine aspirate culture, and non-invasive, breath tests (BT). Over the years scientists have explored SIBO and its associations with other diseases. Its role has been confirmed not only in gastroenterology but also in cardiology, endocrinology, neurology, rheumatology, and nephrology. Antibiotic therapy could reduce SIBO occurrence resulting not only in the relief of FGD symptoms but also manifestations of comorbid diseases. Although more research is needed, the link between SIBO and other diseases is an important pathway for scientists to follow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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18 pages, 464 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Human and Animal Evidence on the Role of Buckwheat Consumption on Gastrointestinal Health
by Ezra Valido, Jivko Stoyanov, Frida Gorreja, Stevan Stojic, Christa Niehot, Jessica Kiefte-de Jong, Erand Llanaj, Taulant Muka and Marija Glisic
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2936
Abstract
Background: Buckwheat is a commonly cultivated crop with growing evidence that it is beneficial to gastrointestinal (GI) health. This systematic review summarizes the role of buckwheat in modifying GI health outcomes and microbiomes. Methods: Four medical databases and Google Scholar were systematically searched. [...] Read more.
Background: Buckwheat is a commonly cultivated crop with growing evidence that it is beneficial to gastrointestinal (GI) health. This systematic review summarizes the role of buckwheat in modifying GI health outcomes and microbiomes. Methods: Four medical databases and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Clinical trials, observational studies, animal in vivo, and in vitro studies with human and animal GI-derived samples were included. Results: There were 32 studies (one randomized controlled trial [RCT], one non-randomized trial, 3 observational, 9 in vitro, and 18 animal in vivo studies) included. In preclinical studies, buckwheat extracts were observed to have cytotoxic potential against human-derived GI cancer cell lines. Animals fed with buckwheat had lower GI mucosal inflammation, higher alpha diversity in the GI microbiome, and higher levels of fecal short-chain fatty acids. Human evidence studies and clinical trials were limited and predominantly of moderate risk of bias. The majority of in vitro studies with GI-derived samples and in vivo studies were reliable without restrictions in study design. Conclusion: In vivo and in vitro studies show that buckwheat may have potential GI benefits due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; however, human evidence remains limited, and its impact on health in humans remains to be elucidated in future trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 551 KiB  
Review
The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Psychiatric Disorders
by Ioana-Maria Andrioaie, Alexandru Duhaniuc, Eduard Vasile Nastase, Luminița Smaranda Iancu, Cătălina Luncă, Felicia Trofin, Dana-Teodora Anton-Păduraru and Olivia-Simona Dorneanu
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122436 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3506
Abstract
The role of the gut microbiome in mental health has been of great interest in the past years, with several breakthroughs happening in the last decade. Its implications in several psychiatric disorders, namely anxiety, depression, autism and schizophrenia, are highlighted. In this review [...] Read more.
The role of the gut microbiome in mental health has been of great interest in the past years, with several breakthroughs happening in the last decade. Its implications in several psychiatric disorders, namely anxiety, depression, autism and schizophrenia, are highlighted. In this review were included relevant studies on rodents, as well as human studies. There seems to be a connection between the gut microbiome and these pathologies, the link being emphasized both in rodents and humans. The results obtained in murine models align with the results acquired from patients; however, fewer studies regarding anxiety were conducted on humans. The process of sequencing and analyzing the microbiome has been conducted in humans for several other pathologies mentioned above. Additionally, the possible beneficial role of probiotics and postbiotics administered as an aid to the psychiatric medication was analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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11 pages, 840 KiB  
Article
Virulence Factors in Colorectal Cancer Metagenomes and Association of Microbial Siderophores with Advanced Stages
by Nour El Houda Mathlouthi, Aicha Kriaa, Leila Ammar Keskes, Moez Rhimi and Radhouane Gdoura
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122365 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health challenge, featuring a multifactorial etiology and complex host–environment interactions. Recently, increasing evidence has pointed to the role of the gut microbiota in CRC development and progression. To explore the role of gut microbes in CRC, [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health challenge, featuring a multifactorial etiology and complex host–environment interactions. Recently, increasing evidence has pointed to the role of the gut microbiota in CRC development and progression. To explore the role of gut microbes in CRC, we retrieved metagenomic data from 156 stools from the European Nucleotide Archive database and mapped them against the VFDB database for virulence factors (VFs). GO annotations of VFs and KEGG pathways were then performed to predict the microbial functions and define functional pathways enriched in the tumor-associated microbiota. Interestingly, 306 VFs were detected in the metagenomic data. We revealed the enrichment of adenomas with VFs involved in cell adhesion, whereas in the early stages of CRC they were enriched in both adhesins and isochorismatase. Advanced stages of CRC were enriched with microbial siderophores, especially enterobactin, which was significantly associated with isochorismate synthase. We highlighted higher abundances of porins and transporters involved in antibiotic resistance and the development of biofilm in advanced stages of CRC. Most VFs detected in CRC, particularly in advanced stages, were shown to be included in siderophore biosynthesis pathways. This enrichment of predicted VFs supports the key role of the gut microbiota in the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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12 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Lactobacillus Plantarum PCS26 Supplementation on the Treatment and Recurrence of Urinary Tract Infections in Children—A Pilot Study
by Katarina Meštrović Popovič, Petra Povalej Bržan, Tomaž Langerholc and Nataša Marčun Varda
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 7008; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11237008 - 27 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are frequent bacterial infections in childhood. Considering the known beneficial effects of probiotics in the gastrointestinal field, they could also help to alleviate UTIs. In our clinical pilot study, we sought to verify the positive effects of the specific [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are frequent bacterial infections in childhood. Considering the known beneficial effects of probiotics in the gastrointestinal field, they could also help to alleviate UTIs. In our clinical pilot study, we sought to verify the positive effects of the specific probiotic strain on the course and prevention of UTI in children. Thirty children with UTIs were enrolled and sequentially sampled into two groups (placebo/control and probiotic/test) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical pilot study. We chose Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 26 (Lp26) derived from local Slovenian cheese in Pathogen Combat Project, which showed a good in vitro antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Several parameters were followed to look for differences between both groups in the acute phase of the UTI and after 6 months of taking probiotic or placebo supplementation. Our results showed no statistically significant differences between both groups; however, two children in the placebo group suffered a recurrence of febrile UTI within 6 months of the follow-up period, while there were no recurrences of UTI in the probiotic group. In the test group, the number of febrile days after the initiation of antibiotics with probiotics was shorter, although not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.084). According to our results, probiotics might be helpful in alleviating UTI symptoms and in UTI prevention. Further research with a larger sample size is warranted. Additionally, basic scientific studies for the selection of proper immunobiotic strains of probiotics should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 3435 KiB  
Article
Multi-Time-Point Fecal Sampling in Human and Mouse Reveals the Formation of New Homeostasis in Gut Microbiota after Bowel Cleansing
by Mingyang Li, Weike Qian, Leilei Yu, Fengwei Tian, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yuzheng Xue and Qixiao Zhai
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122317 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most commonly used bowel cleansing methods. Although the safety of PEG for bowel cleansing has been proven, its impact on intestinal microbiota has not been clearly explained, especially in terms of the dynamic changes in intestinal [...] Read more.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most commonly used bowel cleansing methods. Although the safety of PEG for bowel cleansing has been proven, its impact on intestinal microbiota has not been clearly explained, especially in terms of the dynamic changes in intestinal microbiota after PEG bowel cleansing, and there are no consistent results. In this study, stool samples were collected from 12 participants at six time points before and after bowel cleansing. We obtained data on the microbiota of these samples using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. The data revealed that the structure and composition of the microbiota changed greatly approximately 7 d after intestinal cleansing. The analysis of the dynamic changes in the microbiota showed that the change was most significant at day 3, but the internal structure of the microbiota was similar to that before bowel cleansing. A comparison of the most significantly changed microbiota at different time points before and after bowel cleansing revealed four bacteria: Bacteroides, Roseburia, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. We also established a humanized mouse model to simulate human bowel cleansing using PEG. The results showed that the mouse model achieved similar effects to human bowel cleansing, but its recovery speed was one stage earlier than that of humans. These findings suggest that the intestinal microbiota after bowel cleansing initially underwent a short-term change and then actively returned to its initial status. The results on key bacteria and establishment of mouse models can provide a reference for subsequent research on bowel cleansing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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21 pages, 1654 KiB  
Review
Microbiome–Gut Dissociation in the Neonate: Autism-Related Developmental Brain Disease and the Origin of the Placebo Effect
by David Smith, Sohan Jheeta, Hannya V. Fuentes, Bernadette Street and Miryam Palacios-Pérez
Gastrointest. Disord. 2022, 4(4), 291-311; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord4040028 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
While the importance of the intestinal microbiome has been realised for a number of years, the significance of the phrase microbiota–gut–brain axis is only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Our recent work has focused on the microbiome as if it were a [...] Read more.
While the importance of the intestinal microbiome has been realised for a number of years, the significance of the phrase microbiota–gut–brain axis is only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Our recent work has focused on the microbiome as if it were a single entity, modifying the expression of the genetic inheritance of the individual by the generation of interkingdom signalling molecules, semiochemicals, such as dopamine. In our view, the purpose of the microbiome is to convey information about the microbial environment of the mother so as to calibrate the immune system of the new-born, giving it the ability to distinguish harmful pathogens from the harmless antigens of pollen, for example, or to help distinguish self from non-self. In turn, this requires the partition of nutrition between the adult and its microbiome to ensure that both entities remain viable until the process of reproduction. Accordingly, the failure of a degraded microbiome to interact with the developing gut of the neonate leads to failure of this partition in the adult: to low faecal energy excretion, excessive fat storage, and concomitant problems with the immune system. Similarly, a weakened gut–brain axis distorts interoceptive input to the brain, increasing the risk of psychiatric diseases such as autism. These effects account for David Barker’s 1990 suggestion of “the fetal and infant origins of adult disease”, including schizophrenia, and David Strachan’s 1989 observation of childhood immune system diseases, such as hay fever and asthma. The industrialisation of modern life is increasing the intensity and scale of these physical and psychiatric diseases and it seems likely that subclinical heavy metal poisoning of the microbiome contributes to these problems. Finally, the recent observation of Harald Brüssow, that reported intestinal bacterial composition does not adequately reflect the patterns of disease, would be accounted for if microbial eukaryotes were the key determinant of microbiome effectiveness. In this view, the relative success of “probiotic” bacteria is due to their temporary immune system activation of the gut–brain axis, in turn suggesting a potential mechanism for the placebo effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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13 pages, 1184 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota, the Potential Biological Medicine for Prevention, Intervention and Drug Sensitization to Fight Diseases
by Haijie Wu, Xiaoguang Chen, Sen Zhang and Jiaxin Li
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4220; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204220 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4623
Abstract
As the largest “immune organ” of human beings, the gut microbiota is symbiotic and mutually beneficial with the human host, playing multiple physiological functions. Studies have long shown that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with almost all human diseases, mainly including type [...] Read more.
As the largest “immune organ” of human beings, the gut microbiota is symbiotic and mutually beneficial with the human host, playing multiple physiological functions. Studies have long shown that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with almost all human diseases, mainly including type II diabetes, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, autism spectrum disorder, and kidney diseases. As a novel and potential biological medicine for disease prevention, intervention and drug sensitization, the gut microbiota has attracted more and more attention recently. Although the gut microbiota is a comprehensive microbial community, several star bacteria have emerged as possible tools to fight against various diseases. This review aims to elucidate the relevance of gut microbiota dysbiosis with disease occurrence and progression, and mainly summarizes four well-known genera with therapeutic and sensitizing potential, Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Parabacteroides, thoroughly elucidate their potential value as biological drugs to treat diverse disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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18 pages, 1793 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy and Safety of Polaprezinc-Based Therapy versus the Standard Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Abdelrahman Mahmoud, Mohamed Abuelazm, Ali Ashraf Salah Ahmed, Hassan Abdalshafy, Basel Abdelazeem and James Robert Brašić
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194126 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most prevalent etiology of gastritis worldwide. H. pylori management depends mainly on antibiotics, especially the triple therapy formed of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and proton pump inhibitors. Lately, many antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged, leading to a decrease [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most prevalent etiology of gastritis worldwide. H. pylori management depends mainly on antibiotics, especially the triple therapy formed of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and proton pump inhibitors. Lately, many antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged, leading to a decrease in the eradication rates of H. pylori. Polaprezinc (PZN), a mucosal protective zinc-L-carnosine complex, may be a non-antibiotic agent to treat H. pylori without the risk of resistance. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a PZN-based regimen for the eradication of H. pylori. This study used a systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from WOS, SCOPUS, EMBASE, PubMed, and Google Scholar until 25 July 2022. We used the odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes presented with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We registered our protocol in PROSPERO with ID: CRD42022349231. We included 3 trials with a total of 396 participants who were randomized to either PZN plus triple therapy (n = 199) or triple therapy alone (control) (n = 197). Pooled OR found a statistical difference favoring the PZN arm in the intention to treat and per protocol H. pylori eradication rates (OR: 2.01 with 95% CI [1.27, 3.21], p = 0.003) and (OR: 2.65 with 95% CI [1.55, 4.54], p = 0.0004), respectively. We found no statistical difference between the two groups regarding the total adverse events (OR: 1.06 with 95% CI [0.55, 2.06], p = 0.85). PZN, when added to the triple therapy, yielded a better effect concerning the eradication rates of H. pylori with no difference in adverse event rates, and thus can be considered a valuable adjuvant for the management of H. pylori. However, the evidence is still scarce, and larger trials are needed to confirm or refute our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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15 pages, 3031 KiB  
Article
Prevention of Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Mice and Alteration of 5-Hydroxytryotamine Signaling by Ligilactobacillus salivarius Li01
by Bo Qiu, Lian Zhu, Shuobo Zhang, Shengyi Han, Yiqiu Fei, Furong Ba, Björn Berglund, Lanjuan Li and Mingfei Yao
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194083 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4271
Abstract
Although Ligilactobacillus salivarius Li01 (Li01) has shown much promise in preventing multiple gastrointestinal diseases, the potential of the probiotic in alleviating constipation and the related mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Li01 were evaluated in a loperamide-induced constipation mouse model. [...] Read more.
Although Ligilactobacillus salivarius Li01 (Li01) has shown much promise in preventing multiple gastrointestinal diseases, the potential of the probiotic in alleviating constipation and the related mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Li01 were evaluated in a loperamide-induced constipation mouse model. The results demonstrated that Li01 intervention can relieve constipation symptoms by improving water content, quantity, and morphology of feces and act as an intestinal barrier structure protector. Furthermore, Li01 can modulate gut motility (gastrointestinal transit rate), the fluid transit-associated expression of aquaporins, and the serum parameters vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and somatostatin. Constipation significantly increased the levels of 5-hydroxytryotamine (5-HT) in serum (p < 0.01) and decreased the levels in the intestine (p < 0.001). Due to its function of elevating the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, this was reversed after Li01 treatment. Li01 also promoted the expression of 5-HT receptor 3 and 4, indicating that the 5-HT signaling pathway may play a critical role in the mechanism by which Li01 alleviate constipation symptoms. Additionally, Li01 significantly altered the gut microbiota composition by enhancing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and increasing the abundance of Rikenellaceae_RC9 genera. Based on the above results, Li01 may have the potential to effectively alleviate constipation by regulating the 5-HT pathway and alteration of the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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