Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Athanassios P. Kyritsis
Neurosurgical Institute, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45500 Ioannina, Greece
Dr. George Alexiou
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Ioannina, 45500 Ioannina, Greece

Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 August 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gliomas are common aggressive primary brain tumors in adults. Most of them are highly resistant to any therapeutic intervention. Surgical resection, even gross total, which consists in the removal of all visible tumor, is rarely curative because of its infiltrative nature and presence of microscopic tumor even several centimeters away of the imaged tumor. Radiotherapy and chemotherapies also have a palliative role in their management. It is imperative that new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are devised for their effective management. Such possible therapies may include agents that attack predominantly tumor-specific metabolic pathways, tumor cell receptors, or any other certain characteristic of tumor cells. However, employment of such specific therapies in gliomas may not be enough in clinic if each one is used alone, even if they seem to possess high-activity in vitro or in animal models. The reasons for this are multiple, including the presence of the blood–brain barrier that allows only small and lipid-soluble molecules to enter the brain and the infiltrative and diffuse nature of gliomas. One other, not very well addressed characteristic of gliomas, especially in the most aggressive glioblastomas, is the presence within the same tumor of malignant cells with different genetic abnormalities from their neighbor cells due to different genetic clones. Thus, even if there is one such effective treatment against one or two clones in the tumor that can effectively eradicate these cells, it may only allow the predominance and growth of the other existing, most aggressive, and genetically different clones. For effective therapy, prior to any treatment, surgery or biopsy and detailed characterization of the glioma clones within the tumor should be performed. Consequently, radiotherapy may be used except if therapeutic agents have been developed addressing the abovementioned different glioma clones, which may be given either simultaneously or sequentially. For all these reasons, including the fact that effective therapy for glioma may only come with multimodality treatment, we decided to compile a series of papers that will explore various novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods that may be used for eventual treatment of these highly malignant and therapy-evading tumors. Because various potentially therapeutic methods and drugs will be explored, this thematic collection will encompass several scientific journals, aiming to maximize the influence of the collection through interdisciplinary approaches.

Prof. Dr. Athanassios P. Kyritsis
Dr. George Alexiou
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • glioma
  • genetic abnormality
  • diagnosis
  • surgery
  • radiotherapy
  • molecular therapy
  • biological therapy
  • chemotherapy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Cancers
cancers
5.2 7.4 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600
Neurology International
neurolint
3.0 2.2 2009 23.3 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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14 pages, 1989 KiB  
Article
The C250T Mutation of TERTp Might Grant a Better Prognosis to Glioblastoma by Exerting Less Biological Effect on Telomeres and Chromosomes Than the C228T Mutation
by Teresa Gorria, Carme Crous, Estela Pineda, Ainhoa Hernandez, Marta Domenech, Carolina Sanz, Pedro Jares, Ana María Muñoz-Mármol, Oriol Arpí-Llucía, Bárbara Melendez, Marta Gut, Anna Esteve, Anna Esteve-Codina, Genis Parra, Francesc Alameda, Cristina Carrato, Iban Aldecoa, Mar Mallo, Nuria de la Iglesia and Carmen Balana
Cancers 2024, 16(4), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16040735 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine how TERTp mutations impact glioblastoma prognosis. Materials and Methods: TERTp mutations were assessed in a retrospective cohort of 258 uniformly treated glioblastoma patients. RNA-sequencing and whole exome sequencing results were available in a subset of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine how TERTp mutations impact glioblastoma prognosis. Materials and Methods: TERTp mutations were assessed in a retrospective cohort of 258 uniformly treated glioblastoma patients. RNA-sequencing and whole exome sequencing results were available in a subset of patients. Results: Overall, there were no differences in outcomes between patients with mutated TERTp-wt or TERTp. However, we found significant differences according to the type of TERTp mutation. Progression-free survival (mPFS) was 9.1 months for those with the C250T mutation and 7 months for those with either the C228T mutation or TERTp-wt (p = 0.016). Overall survival (mOS) was 21.9 and 15 months, respectively (p = 0.026). This differential effect was more pronounced in patients with MGMTp methylation (mPFS: p = 0.008; mOS: p = 0.021). Multivariate analysis identified the C250T mutation as an independent prognostic factor for longer mOS (HR 0.69; p = 0.044). We found no differences according to TERTp mutation status in molecular alterations common in glioblastoma, nor in copy number variants in genes related to alternative lengthening of telomeres. Nevertheless, in the gene enrichment analysis adjusted for MGMTp methylation status, some Reactome gene sets were differentially enriched, suggesting that the C250T mutation may exert a lesser effect on telomeres or chromosomes. Conclusions: In our series, patients exhibiting the C250T mutation had a more favorable prognosis compared to those with either TERPp-wt or TERTp C228T mutations. Additionally, our findings suggest a reduced involvement of the C250T mutation in the underlying biological mechanisms related to telomeres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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14 pages, 321 KiB  
Review
Optic Pathway Gliomas in Pediatric Population—Current Approach in Diagnosis and Management: Literature Review
by Monika Modrzejewska, Joanna Olejnik-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka Roszyk, Elwira Szychot, Tomasz Dariusz Konczak, Marcin Szemitko and Jarosław Władysław Peregud-Pogorzelski
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6709; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216709 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
In this paper, the authors present a clinical picture of the diagnosis and current treatment regimens of optic pathway glioma in the pediatric population, with an emphasis on the role of an ophthalmic diagnosis in the differentiation and monitoring of lesions. Glioma is [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors present a clinical picture of the diagnosis and current treatment regimens of optic pathway glioma in the pediatric population, with an emphasis on the role of an ophthalmic diagnosis in the differentiation and monitoring of lesions. Glioma is the most common optic nerve tumor in children. Material: Articles in PubMed, Scholar and Website were reviewed, taking into account current standards of management related to sporadic or NF1-related optic glioma, epidemiology, location, course of the disease, clinical manifestations, histological types of the tumor, genetic predisposition, diagnostic ophthalmic tests currently applicable in therapeutic monitoring of the tumor, neurological diagnosis, therapeutic management and prognosis. The importance of current screening recommendations, in line with standards, was emphasized. Results: Glioma occurs in children most often in the first decade of life. Initially, they may be asymptomatic, and clinically ophthalmic changes are associated with the organ of vision or with systemic changes. Gliomas associated with the NF1 mutation have a better prognosis for sporadic gliomas. Diagnosis includes radiological imaging methods/MRI/ophthalmology/OCT and visual acuity log MAR assessment. The basis of treatment is clinical observation. In the case of disease progression, surgical treatment, chemotherapy and targeted therapy are used. Conclusion: Further research into novel techniques for detecting gliomas would allow for early monitoring of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
21 pages, 3444 KiB  
Article
αV-Integrin-Dependent Inhibition of Glioblastoma Cell Migration, Invasion and Vasculogenic Mimicry by the uPAcyclin Decapeptide
by Paola Franco, Iolanda Camerino, Francesco Merlino, Margherita D’Angelo, Amelia Cimmino, Alfonso Carotenuto, Luca Colucci-D’Amato and Maria Patrizia Stoppelli
Cancers 2023, 15(19), 4775; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15194775 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Among the deadliest human cancers is glioblastoma (GBM) for which new treatment approaches are urgently needed. Here, the effects of the cyclic decapeptide, uPAcyclin, are investigated using the U87-MG, U251-MG, and U138-MG human GBM and C6 rat cell models. All GBM cells express [...] Read more.
Among the deadliest human cancers is glioblastoma (GBM) for which new treatment approaches are urgently needed. Here, the effects of the cyclic decapeptide, uPAcyclin, are investigated using the U87-MG, U251-MG, and U138-MG human GBM and C6 rat cell models. All GBM cells express the αV-integrin subunit, the target of uPAcyclin, and bind specifically to nanomolar concentrations of the decapeptide. Although peptide exposure affects neither viability nor cell proliferation rate, nanomolar concentrations of uPAcyclin markedly inhibit the directional migration and matrix invasion of all GBM cells, in a concentration- and αV-dependent manner. Moreover, wound healing rate closure of U87-MG and C6 rat glioma cells is reduced by 50% and time-lapse videomicroscopy studies show that the formation of vascular-like structures by U87-MG in three-dimensional matrix cultures is markedly inhibited by uPAcyclin. A strong reduction in the branching point numbers of the U87-MG, C6, and U251-MG cell lines undergoing vasculogenic mimicry, in the presence of nanomolar peptide concentrations, was observed. Lysates from matrix-recovered uPAcyclin-exposed cells exhibit a reduced expression of VE-cadherin, a prominent factor in the acquisition of vascular-like structures. In conclusion, these results indicate that uPAcyclin is a promising candidate to counteract the formation of new vessels in novel targeted anti-GBM therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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28 pages, 913 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review of Photodynamic Therapy in Gliomas
by Tiffaney Hsia, Julia L. Small, Anudeep Yekula, Syeda M. Batool, Ana K. Escobedo, Emil Ekanayake, Dong Gil You, Hakho Lee, Bob S. Carter and Leonora Balaj
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3918; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153918 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Over the last 20 years, gliomas have made up over 89% of malignant CNS tumor cases in the American population (NIH SEER). Within this, glioblastoma is the most common subtype, comprising 57% of all glioma cases. Being highly aggressive, this deadly disease is [...] Read more.
Over the last 20 years, gliomas have made up over 89% of malignant CNS tumor cases in the American population (NIH SEER). Within this, glioblastoma is the most common subtype, comprising 57% of all glioma cases. Being highly aggressive, this deadly disease is known for its high genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, rendering a complicated disease course. The current standard of care consists of maximally safe tumor resection concurrent with chemoradiotherapy. However, despite advances in technology and therapeutic modalities, rates of disease recurrence are still high and survivability remains low. Given the delicate nature of the tumor location, remaining margins following resection often initiate disease recurrence. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality that, following the administration of a non-toxic photosensitizer, induces tumor-specific anti-cancer effects after localized, wavelength-specific illumination. Its effect against malignant glioma has been studied extensively over the last 30 years, in pre-clinical and clinical trials. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the three generations of photosensitizers alongside their mechanisms of action, limitations, and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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14 pages, 8021 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Utility of Immunohistochemical Detection of MEOX2, SOX11, INSM1 and EGFR in Gliomas
by Jiri Soukup, Lucie Gerykova, Anjali Rachelkar, Helena Hornychova, Michael Christian Bartos, Petr Krupa, Barbora Vitovcova, Zuzana Pleskacova, Petra Kasparova, Katerina Dvorakova, Veronika Skarkova and Jiri Petera
Diagnostics 2023, 13(15), 2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13152546 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Histological identification of dispersed glioma cells in small biopsies can be challenging, especially in tumours lacking the IDH1 R132H mutation or alterations in TP53. We postulated that immunohistochemical detection of proteins expressed preferentially in gliomas (EGFR, MEOX2, CD34) or during embryonal development (SOX11, [...] Read more.
Histological identification of dispersed glioma cells in small biopsies can be challenging, especially in tumours lacking the IDH1 R132H mutation or alterations in TP53. We postulated that immunohistochemical detection of proteins expressed preferentially in gliomas (EGFR, MEOX2, CD34) or during embryonal development (SOX11, INSM1) can be used to distinguish reactive gliosis from glioma. Tissue microarrays of 46 reactive glioses, 81 glioblastomas, 34 IDH1-mutant diffuse gliomas, and 23 gliomas of other types were analysed. Glial neoplasms were significantly more often (p < 0.001, χ2) positive for EGFR (34.1% vs. 0%), MEOX2 (49.3% vs. 2.3%), SOX11 (70.5% vs. 20.4%), and INSM1 (65.4% vs. 2.3%). In 94.3% (66/70) of the glioblastomas, the expression of at least two markers was observed, while no reactive gliosis showed coexpression of any of the proteins. Compared to IDH1-mutant tumours, glioblastomas showed significantly higher expression of EGFR, MEOX2, and CD34 and significantly lower positivity for SOX11. Non-diffuse gliomas were only rarely positive for any of the five markers tested. Our results indicate that immunohistochemical detection of EGFR, MEOX2, SOX11, and INSM1 can be useful for detection of glioblastoma cells in limited histological samples, especially when used in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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12 pages, 2419 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Gliomas’ Grade of Malignancy and Extent of Resection Using Intraoperative Flow Cytometry
by George Vartholomatos, Georgios S. Markopoulos, Eyrysthenis Vartholomatos, Anna C. Goussia, Lefkothea Dova, Savvas Dimitriadis, Stefania Mantziou, Vaso Zoi, Anastasios Nasios, Chrissa Sioka, Athanasios P. Kyritsis, Spyridon Voulgaris and George A. Alexiou
Cancers 2023, 15(9), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15092509 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Background: Intraoperative Flow Cytometry (iFC) is a novel technique for the assessment of the grade of malignancy and the diagnosis of tumor type and resection margins during solid tumor surgery. Herein, we set out to analyze the role of iFC in the grading [...] Read more.
Background: Intraoperative Flow Cytometry (iFC) is a novel technique for the assessment of the grade of malignancy and the diagnosis of tumor type and resection margins during solid tumor surgery. Herein, we set out to analyze the role of iFC in the grading of gliomas and the evaluation of resection margins. Material and Methods: iFC uses a fast cell cycle analysis protocol (Ioannina Protocol) that permits the analysis of tissue samples within 5–6 min. Cell cycle analysis evaluated the G0/G1 phase, S-phase, mitosis, and tumor index (S + mitosis phase fraction) and ploidy status. In the current study, we evaluated tumor samples and samples from the peripheral borders from patients with gliomas who underwent surgery over an 8-year period. Results: Eighty-one patients were included in the study. There were sixty-eight glioblastoma cases, five anaplastic astrocytomas, two anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, one pilocytic astrocytoma, three oligodendrogliomas and two diffuse astrocytomas. High-grade gliomas had a significantly higher tumor index than low grade gliomas (median value 22 vs. 7.5, respectively, p = 0.002). Using ROC curve analysis, a cut-off value of 17% in the tumor index could differentiate low- from high-grade gliomas with a 61.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. All low-grade gliomas were diploid. From the high-grade gliomas, 22 tumors were aneuploid. In glioblastomas, aneuploid tumors had a significantly higher tumor index (p = 0.0018). Twenty-three samples from glioma margins were evaluated. iFC verified the presence of malignant tissue in every case, using histology as the gold standard. Conclusion: iFC constitutes a promising intraoperative technique for glioma grading and resection margin assessment. Comparative studies with additional intraoperative adjuncts are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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19 pages, 4289 KiB  
Article
High Intra-Tumor Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 Level as a Predictor of Poor Treatment Outcomes in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma
by Fatih M. Uckun, Sanjive Qazi and Vuong Trieu
Cancers 2023, 15(6), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15061676 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
Here, we report that tumor samples from newly diagnosed pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) patients express significantly higher levels of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFB2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) than control pons samples, which correlated with augmented expression of transcription factors [...] Read more.
Here, we report that tumor samples from newly diagnosed pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) patients express significantly higher levels of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFB2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) than control pons samples, which correlated with augmented expression of transcription factors that upregulate TGFB2 gene expression. Our study also demonstrated that RNA sequencing (RNAseq)-based high TGFB2 mRNA level is an indicator of poor prognosis for DIPG patients, but not for pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) patients or pediatric diffuse midline glioma (DMG) patients with tumor locations outside of the pons/brainstem. Notably, DIPG patients with high levels of TGFB2 mRNA expression in their tumor samples had significantly worse overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). By comparison, high levels of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) mRNA expression in tumor samples was associated with significantly better survival outcomes of DIPG patients, whereas high levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) expression was not prognostic. Our study fills a significant gap in our understanding of the clinical significance of high TGFB2 expression in pediatric high-grade gliomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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17 pages, 3082 KiB  
Article
Hotspot on 18F-FET PET/CT to Predict Aggressive Tumor Areas for Radiotherapy Dose Escalation Guiding in High-Grade Glioma
by Bastien Allard, Brieg Dissaux, David Bourhis, Gurvan Dissaux, Ulrike Schick, Pierre-Yves Salaün, Ronan Abgral and Solène Querellou
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010098 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
The standard therapy strategy for high-grade glioma (HGG) is based on the maximal surgery followed by radio-chemotherapy (RT-CT) with insufficient control of the disease. Recurrences are mainly localized in the radiation field, suggesting an interest in radiotherapy dose escalation to better control the [...] Read more.
The standard therapy strategy for high-grade glioma (HGG) is based on the maximal surgery followed by radio-chemotherapy (RT-CT) with insufficient control of the disease. Recurrences are mainly localized in the radiation field, suggesting an interest in radiotherapy dose escalation to better control the disease locally. We aimed to identify a similarity between the areas of high uptake on O-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET) before RT-CT, the residual tumor on post-therapy NADIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the area of recurrence on MRI. This is an ancillary study from the IMAGG prospective trial assessing the interest of FET PET imaging in RT target volume definition of HGG. We included patients with diagnoses of HGG obtained by biopsy or tumor resection. These patients underwent FET PET and brain MRIs, both after diagnosis and before RT-CT. The follow-up consisted of sequential brain MRIs performed every 3 months until recurrence. Tumor delineation on the initial MRI 1 (GTV 1), post-RT-CT NADIR MRI 2 (GTV 2), and progression MRI 3 (GTV 3) were performed semi-automatically and manually adjusted by a neuroradiologist specialist in neuro-oncology. GTV 2 and GTV 3 were then co-registered on FET PET data. Tumor volumes on FET PET (MTV) were delineated using a tumor to background ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.6 and different % SUVmax PET thresholds. Spatial similarity between different volumes was performed using the dice (DICE), Jaccard (JSC), and overlap fraction (OV) indices and compared together in the biopsy or partial surgery group (G1) and the total or subtotal surgery group (G2). Another overlap index (OV’) was calculated to determine the threshold with the highest probability of being included in the residual volume after RT-CT on MRI 2 and in MRI 3 (called “hotspot”). A total of 23 patients were included, of whom 22% (n = 5) did not have a NADIR MRI 2 due to a disease progression diagnosed on the first post-RT-CT MRI evaluation. Among the 18 patients who underwent a NADIR MRI 2, the average residual tumor was approximately 71.6% of the GTV 1. A total of 22% of patients (5/23) showed an increase in GTV 2 without diagnosis of true progression by the multidisciplinary team (MDT). Spatial similarity between MTV and GTV 2 and between MTV and GTV 3 were higher using a TBR ≥ 1.6 threshold. These indices were significantly better in the G1 group than the G2 group. In the FET hotspot analysis, the best similarity (good agreement) with GTV 2 was found in the G1 group using a 90% SUVmax delineation method and showed a trend of statistical difference with those (poor agreement) in the G2 group (OV’ = 0.67 vs. 0.38, respectively, p = 0.068); whereas the best similarity (good agreement) with GTV 3 was found in the G1 group using a 80% SUVmax delineation method and was significantly higher than those (poor agreement) in the G2 group (OV’= 0.72 vs. 0.35, respectively, p = 0.014). These results showed modest spatial similarity indices between MTV, GTV 2, and GTV 3 of HGG. Nevertheless, the results were significantly improved in patients who underwent only biopsy or partial surgery. TBR ≥ 1.6 and 80–90% SUVmax FET delineation methods showing a good agreement in the hotspot concept for targeting standard dose and radiation boost. These findings need to be tested in a larger randomized prospective study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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15 pages, 609 KiB  
Review
Methylation Profiling in Diffuse Gliomas: Diagnostic Value and Considerations
by Anna Wenger and Helena Carén
Cancers 2022, 14(22), 5679; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14225679 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Diffuse gliomas cause significant morbidity across all age groups, despite decades of intensive research efforts. Here, we review the differences in diffuse gliomas in adults and children, as well as the World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021 classification of these tumours. We explain how [...] Read more.
Diffuse gliomas cause significant morbidity across all age groups, despite decades of intensive research efforts. Here, we review the differences in diffuse gliomas in adults and children, as well as the World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021 classification of these tumours. We explain how DNA methylation-based classification works and list the methylation-based tumour types and subclasses for adult and paediatric diffuse gliomas. The benefits and utility of methylation-based classification in diffuse gliomas demonstrated to date are described. This entails the identification of novel tumour types/subclasses, patient stratification and targeted treatment/clinical management, and alterations in the clinical diagnosis in favour of the methylation-based over the histopathological diagnosis. Finally, we address several considerations regarding the use of DNA methylation profiling as a diagnostic tool, e.g., the threshold of the classifier, the calibrated score, tumour cell content and intratumour heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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20 pages, 5820 KiB  
Article
Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Induced Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Glioblastoma Multiforme
by Tsung-Ying Lin, Tung-Hsuan Wu, Rong-Dar Tzou, Yi-Chiang Hsu, Kuan-Ting Lee and Tai-Hsin Tsai
Neurol. Int. 2022, 14(4), 804-823; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint14040066 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and devastating brain tumor characterized by poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Despite advances in multidisciplinary treatment, GBM constinues to have a poor overall survival. The Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (RGP) has been reported to possess [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and devastating brain tumor characterized by poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Despite advances in multidisciplinary treatment, GBM constinues to have a poor overall survival. The Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (RGP) has been reported to possess anti-allergic, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, it not clear what effect it may have on tumorigenesis in GBM. This study demonstrated that RGP reduced glioma cell viability and attenuated glioma cell locomotion in GBM8401 and U87MG cells. RGP treated cells had significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and rise in the percentage of caspase-3 activity. In addition, the results of study’s cell cycle analysis also showed that RGP arrested glioma cells at G2/M phase and Cell failure pass the G2 checkpoint by RGP treatment in GBM8401 Cells. Based on the above results, it seems to imply that RGP activated DNA damage checkpoint system and cell cycle regulators and induce apoptosis in established GBM cells. In conclusion, RGP can inhibit proliferation, cell locomotion, cell cycle progression and induce apoptosis in GBM cells in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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17 pages, 17989 KiB  
Article
Role of Transmembrane Water Exchange in Glioma Invasion/Migration: In Vivo Preclinical Study by Relaxometry at Very Low Magnetic Field
by Maria Rosaria Ruggiero, Hamza Ait Itto, Simona Baroni, Sandra Pierre, Jean Boutonnat, Lionel M. Broche, Silvio Aime, François Berger, Simonetta Geninatti Crich and Hana Lahrech
Cancers 2022, 14(17), 4180; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14174180 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
This work shows that the longitudinal relaxation differences observed at very low magnetic fields between invasion/migration and proliferation processes on glioma mouse models in vivo are related to differences in the transmembrane water exchange basically linked to the aquaporin expression changes. Three glioma [...] Read more.
This work shows that the longitudinal relaxation differences observed at very low magnetic fields between invasion/migration and proliferation processes on glioma mouse models in vivo are related to differences in the transmembrane water exchange basically linked to the aquaporin expression changes. Three glioma mouse models were used: Glio6 and Glio96 as invasion/migration models and U87 as cell proliferation model. In vivo proton longitudinal relaxation-rate constants (R1) at very low fields were measured by fast field cycling NMR (FFC-NMR). The tumor contribution to the observed proton relaxation rate, R1tum (U87: 12.26 ± 0.64 s−1; Glio6: 3.76 ± 0.88 s−1; Glio96: 6.90 ± 0.64 s−1 at 0.01 MHz), and the intracellular water lifetime, τin (U87: 826 ± 19 ms; Glio6: 516 ± 8 ms; Glio96: 596 ± 15 ms), were found to be good diagnostic hallmarks to distinguish invasion/migration from proliferation (p < 0.01 and 0.001). Overexpression of AQP4 and AQP1 were assessed in invasion/migration models, highlighting the pathophysiological role of these two aquaporins in water exchange that, in turn, determine the lower values in the observed R1 relaxation rate constant in glioma invasion/migration. Overall, our findings demonstrate that τin and R1 (measured at very low fields) are relevant biomarkers, discriminating invasion/migration from proliferation in vivo. These results highlight the use of FFC-NMR and FFC-imaging to assess the efficiency of drugs that could modulate aquaporin functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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16 pages, 2702 KiB  
Systematic Review
Diagnostic Accuracy of PET/CT or PET/MRI Using PSMA-Targeting Radiopharmaceuticals in High-Grade Gliomas: A Systematic Review and a Bivariate Meta-Analysis
by Barbara Muoio, Domenico Albano, Francesco Dondi, Francesco Bertagna, Valentina Garibotto, Jolanta Kunikowska, Arnoldo Piccardo, Salvatore Annunziata, Vittoria Espeli, Denis Migliorini and Giorgio Treglia
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071665 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Background: Several studies proposed the use of positron emission tomography (PET) with Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in brain tumors. Our aim is to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of these methods in high-grade gliomas (HGG) with a bivariate meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive [...] Read more.
Background: Several studies proposed the use of positron emission tomography (PET) with Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in brain tumors. Our aim is to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of these methods in high-grade gliomas (HGG) with a bivariate meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of studies on the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT or PET/MRI with PSMA-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in HGG was performed. Original articles evaluating these imaging methods both in the differential diagnosis between HGG and low-grade gliomas (LGG) and in the assessment of suspicious HGG recurrence were included. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Statistical heterogeneity was also assessed using the I2 test. Results: The meta-analysis of six selected studies (157 patients) provided the following results about PET/CT or PET/MRI with PSMA-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnosis of HGG: sensitivity 98.2% (95% CI: 75.3–99.9%), specificity 91.2% (95% CI: 68.4–98.1%), LR+ 4.5 (95% CI: 2.2–9.3), LR− 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04–0.15), and DOR 70.1 (95% CI: 19.6–250.9). No significant statistical heterogeneity among the included studies was found (I2 = 0%). Conclusions: the quantitative data provided demonstrate the high diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT or PET/MRI with PSMA-targeting radiopharmaceuticals for HGG detection. However, more studies are needed to confirm the promising role of PSMA-targeted PET in this clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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23 pages, 2151 KiB  
Review
Obstacles to Glioblastoma Treatment Two Decades after Temozolomide
by João Victor Roza Cruz, Carolina Batista, Bernardo de Holanda Afonso, Magna Suzana Alexandre-Moreira, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Bruno Pontes, Vivaldo Moura Neto and Fabio de Almeida Mendes
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133203 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4607
Abstract
Glioblastomas are considered the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with an average of 15 months’ survival rate. The treatment is surgery resection, followed by chemotherapy with temozolomide, and/or radiotherapy. Glioblastoma must have wild-type IDH gene and some characteristics, such [...] Read more.
Glioblastomas are considered the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with an average of 15 months’ survival rate. The treatment is surgery resection, followed by chemotherapy with temozolomide, and/or radiotherapy. Glioblastoma must have wild-type IDH gene and some characteristics, such as TERT promoter mutation, EGFR gene amplification, microvascular proliferation, among others. Glioblastomas have great heterogeneity at cellular and molecular levels, presenting distinct phenotypes and diversified molecular signatures in each tumor mass, making it difficult to define a specific therapeutic target. It is believed that the main responsibility for the emerge of these distinct patterns lies in subcellular populations of tumor stem cells, capable of tumor initiation and asymmetric division. Studies are now focused on understanding molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance, the tumor microenvironment, due to hypoxic and necrotic areas, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix remodeling, and in controlling blood brain barrier permeabilization to improve drug delivery. Another promising therapeutic approach is the use of oncolytic viruses that are able to destroy specifically glioblastoma cells, preserving the neural tissue around the tumor. In this review, we summarize the main biological characteristics of glioblastoma and the cutting-edge therapeutic targets that are currently under study for promising new clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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29 pages, 1085 KiB  
Viewpoint
MDACT: A New Principle of Adjunctive Cancer Treatment Using Combinations of Multiple Repurposed Drugs, with an Example Regimen
by Richard E. Kast, Alex Alfieri, Hazem I. Assi, Terry C. Burns, Ashraf M. Elyamany, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Georg Karpel-Massler, Christine Marosi, Michael E. Salacz, Iacopo Sardi, Pieter Van Vlierberghe, Mohamed S. Zaghloul and Marc-Eric Halatsch
Cancers 2022, 14(10), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14102563 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
In part one of this two-part paper, we present eight principles that we believe must be considered for more effective treatment of the currently incurable cancers. These are addressed by multidrug adjunctive cancer treatment (MDACT), which uses multiple repurposed non-oncology drugs, not primarily [...] Read more.
In part one of this two-part paper, we present eight principles that we believe must be considered for more effective treatment of the currently incurable cancers. These are addressed by multidrug adjunctive cancer treatment (MDACT), which uses multiple repurposed non-oncology drugs, not primarily to kill malignant cells, but rather to reduce the malignant cells’ growth drives. Previous multidrug regimens have used MDACT principles, e.g., the CUSP9v3 glioblastoma treatment. MDACT is an amalgam of (1) the principle that to be effective in stopping a chain of events leading to an undesired outcome, one must break more than one link; (2) the principle of Palmer et al. of achieving fractional cancer cell killing via multiple drugs with independent mechanisms of action; (3) the principle of shaping versus decisive operations, both being required for successful cancer treatment; (4) an idea adapted from Chow et al., of using multiple cytotoxic medicines at low doses; (5) the idea behind CUSP9v3, using many non-oncology CNS-penetrant drugs from general medical practice, repurposed to block tumor survival paths; (6) the concept from chess that every move creates weaknesses and strengths; (7) the principle of mass—by adding force to a given effort, the chances of achieving the goal increase; and (8) the principle of blocking parallel signaling pathways. Part two gives an example MDACT regimen, gMDACT, which uses six repurposed drugs—celecoxib, dapsone, disulfiram, itraconazole, pyrimethamine, and telmisartan—to interfere with growth-driving elements common to cholangiocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma, and non-small-cell lung cancer. gMDACT is another example of—not a replacement for—previous multidrug regimens already in clinical use, such as CUSP9v3. MDACT regimens are designed as adjuvants to be used with cytotoxic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas)
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