Topic Editors

Department of Natural Sciences, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO 64468, USA
College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China

Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Fluorescent Nanomaterials

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 August 2022)
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60547

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluorescent nanomaterial-based sensing and imaging are effective analytical methods that have been rapidly developed and widely used in many areas due to their excellent chemical and optical properties. In recent years, fluorescent nanomaterials have received special attention over conventional fluorophores, offering great potential for optical bioimaging, medical diagnosis, photocatalysis, and photovoltaic devices. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), especially those based on cadmium salts and related core-shell nanostructures, have proven to have excellent performance, predictable fluorescence color variations, and long-term resistance to photobleaching. However, a serious disadvantage to these popular QDs is that they contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, whose significant toxicity and environmental hazards are well-documented. In the search for alternative QD-like nanomaterials, carbon-based nanomaterials and other nanomaterials have emerged as the most promising due to their relatively high quantum yields, low cost, non-toxic nature, and excellent biocompatibility. The purpose of this Topic is to serve as an exciting collection of primary research and review articles of the recent progress in the field of the Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Non-Toxic fluorescent Nanomaterials. Submissions may include, but are not limited to, (a) the design and preparation of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials for various applications; (b) the preparation of fluorescent quantum dots with a high relative quantum yield for contrast agents in bioimaging; (c) the development of polymetric nanoparticles for the sensing and photoacoustic imaging of multiple biomarkers (e.g., protein, DNA/RNA, and aptamer); (d) the design of fluorescent nanomaterials with wavelengths in the NIR-II region for super-resolution imaging; (e) the construction of functional MOFs to investigate the metabolic process of diseases. We hope that the papers collected in this topic may inspire progress in nanomaterial-based fluorescent sensing and imaging.

Prof. Dr. Mohammed Jaouad Meziani
Prof. Dr. Zhaohui Li
Topic Editors

Keywords

  •  fluorescent nanomaterials
  •  carbon dots
  •  metal nanoparticles
  •  quantum dots
  •  silica nanoparticles
  •  non-toxic
  •  red fluorescence
  •  bioimaging
  •  dual-modality
  •  chemosensing
  •  biosensing
  •  bioimaging

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Chemistry
chemistry
2.1 2.5 2019 19.1 Days CHF 1800
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900
Photochem
photochem
- - 2021 23.4 Days CHF 1000
Solids
solids
- - 2020 17.5 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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15 pages, 11572 KiB  
Article
Acute and Subacute Toxicity of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters Conjugated with α-Lipoic Acid
by Yun-Fang Chen, Chun-Chieh Hsu and Ching-Hu Chung
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213868 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Fluorescent gold nanoclusters conjugated with α-lipoic acid (FANC) is a promising biocompatible fluorescent nanomaterial with a high potential for drug development. However, there is still no FANC-related research on toxicology, which is very important for future research and the development of healthy food [...] Read more.
Fluorescent gold nanoclusters conjugated with α-lipoic acid (FANC) is a promising biocompatible fluorescent nanomaterial with a high potential for drug development. However, there is still no FANC-related research on toxicology, which is very important for future research and the development of healthy food supplements or drugs. This study uses oral administration of FANC to determine the most appropriate dose range in ICR mice for further evaluation. The in vivo acute and subacute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of FANC to male and female ICR mice. Animal survival, body weight, daily food consumption, hematological profile, organ coefficient, serum biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed. FANC did not show any form of morbidity or mortality at acute and subacute toxicity in both male and female ICR mice. Animal behavior, daily food consumption, hematological profile, organ coefficient, and histopathology showed no treatment-related malignant changes at single and repeated doses. Furthermore, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CRE) levels showed no significant malignant changes, which indicated that FANC does not cause liver and renal damage. The only change observed in this study was the change in body weight. The body weight of the FANC-treated group was slightly decreased in female mice but increased in male mice; however, the body weight decreases were below the threshold of concern, and there was no dose–response effect. In conclusion, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in repeated doses was considered in 20 μM/100 μL/25 g male and female ICR mice. Full article
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25 pages, 4437 KiB  
Review
Two-Dimensional Quantum Dots: From Photoluminescence to Biomedical Applications
by Mariana C. F. Costa, Sergio G. Echeverrigaray, Daria V. Andreeva, Kostya S. Novoselov and Antonio H. Castro Neto
Solids 2022, 3(4), 578-602; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids3040037 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6387
Abstract
Quantum dots (QDs) play a fundamental role in nanotechnology because of their unique optical properties, especially photoluminescence (PL). Quantum confinement effects combined with tailor-made materials make QDs extremely versatile for understanding basic physical phenomena intrinsic to them as well as defining their use [...] Read more.
Quantum dots (QDs) play a fundamental role in nanotechnology because of their unique optical properties, especially photoluminescence (PL). Quantum confinement effects combined with tailor-made materials make QDs extremely versatile for understanding basic physical phenomena intrinsic to them as well as defining their use in a vast range of applications. With the advent of graphene in 2004, and the discovery of numerous other two-dimensional (2D) materials subsequently, it became possible to develop novel 2D quantum dots (2DQDs). Intensive research of the properties of 2DQDs over the last decade have revealed their outstanding properties and grabbed the attention of researchers from different fields: from photonics and electronics to catalysis and medicine. In this review, we explore several aspects of 2DQDs from their synthesis, functionalization, and characterization to applications, focusing on their bioimaging, biosensing, and theranostic solutions Full article
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11 pages, 2680 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Al Doping on the Optical Characteristics of ZnO Nanopowders Obtained by the Low-Cost Sol-Gel Method
by Pooja Nag Mishra, Pankaj Kumar Mishra and Dinesh Pathak
Chemistry 2022, 4(4), 1136-1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry4040077 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
In this work, the influence of Al (0, 2, 4, and 6 wt.%) on the optical properties of ZnO has been briefly investigated and described. The undoped and doped samples were characterized using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and Photoluminescence (PL). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of Al (0, 2, 4, and 6 wt.%) on the optical properties of ZnO has been briefly investigated and described. The undoped and doped samples were characterized using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and Photoluminescence (PL). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data in our preceding study is also indexed, and materials are said to have a wurtzite-structured hexagonal phase and exhibit no impurity phases. The average crystallite sizes of the pure ZnO were found to increase, i.e., from 14.19 nm to 34.17 nm with an increase in temperature, and in the case of Al-doped ZnO, at a constant temperature, from 35.05 nm to 18.89 nm, respectively. The average crystallite size of AZO (Al-doped ZnO) decreases with increasing Al content. With the increasing temperature, increases in crystallinity and size of the pure ZnO have been observed. In the case of Al doping, with an increase in the concentration of doping the crystallite size is seen to be decreased, without any change in the temperature. Al doping improves the formation of the well-ordered crystalline structure of ZnO up to a certain limit of doping. The absorbance spectra were used to determine the optical band gap of the samples. The optical photoluminescence (PL) spectra of both ZnO and AZO nanopowder are obviously influenced by the increasing temperature and Al doping content, respectively. Different optical properties of ZnO and AZO were observed for different contents of Al in ZnO. The band gap of AZO nanopowder with different concentrations has been seen to be lower than that of undoped ZnO (3.10 eV), suggesting broad application potential. Also, the optical properties of ZnO were tailored by Al doping in the near visible region, suggesting various potential uses. Full article
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14 pages, 7358 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots with Tunable Crystal Structure and Photoluminescent Properties
by Jingling Li, Haixin Zheng, Ziming Zheng, Haibo Rong, Zhidong Zeng and Hui Zeng
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 2969; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12172969 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
Mastery over the structure of nanocrystals is a powerful tool for the control of their fluorescence properties and to broaden the range of their applications. In this work, the crystalline structure of CdSe can be tuned by the precursor concentration and the dosage [...] Read more.
Mastery over the structure of nanocrystals is a powerful tool for the control of their fluorescence properties and to broaden the range of their applications. In this work, the crystalline structure of CdSe can be tuned by the precursor concentration and the dosage of tributyl phosphine, which is verified by XRD, photoluminescence and UV-vis spectra, TEM observations, and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technology. Using a TBP-assisted thermal-cycling technique coupled with the single precursor method, core–shell QDs with different shell thicknesses were then prepared. The addition of TBP improves the isotropic growth of the shell, resulting in a high QY value, up to 91.4%, and a single-channel decay characteristic of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. This work not only provides a facile synthesis route to precisely control the core–shell structures and fluorescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals but also builds a link between ligand chemistry and crystal growth theory. Full article
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10 pages, 1964 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Polyvinyl Imine Modified Carbon Quantum Dots and Their Application in Methotrexate Detection
by Xiaojing Si, Mei Han, Hongyan Zeng and Xiaoyi Wei
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165254 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Objective: A sensitive and selective fluorescence-detection platform based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was designed and developed for the determination of methotrexate (MTX), for the purpose of minimizing the possible toxic threat of MTX in clinics. Methods: The approach was prepared for the [...] Read more.
Objective: A sensitive and selective fluorescence-detection platform based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was designed and developed for the determination of methotrexate (MTX), for the purpose of minimizing the possible toxic threat of MTX in clinics. Methods: The approach was prepared for the first time by a simple, hydrothermal method, making the synthesis and modification processes realized in one step using polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the proposed PEI-CQDs were obtained with high fluorescence quantum yield (38%). Results: MTX was found highly responsive and effective in quenching the fluorescence of the PEI-CQDs, due to a suggested fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism or inner-filter effect. The linear range of MTX was between 1 and 600 μmol/L under optimum conditions, with a detection limit (LOD) as low as 0.33 μmol/L. Furthermore, the fluorescent method was established for the MTX assay, and satisfactory results were acquired in real-sample determination. The average labeled quantity was 98.2%, and the average added standard recovery was 100.9%. Conclusions: The proposed PEI-CQDs showed a remarkable potential for broad applications in biological molecule determination and environmental analysis. Full article
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11 pages, 4090 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of Nitric Acid in Electrochemically Synthesized Silicon Nanocrystals: Tunability of Bright and Uniform Photoluminescence
by Alfredo Morales-Sánchez, María Antonia Cardona-Castro, Liliana Licea-Jiménez, Liliana Palacios-Huerta, Antonio Coyopol, Sergio Alfonso Pérez-García, Jaime Alvarez-Quintana and Mario Moreno
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122015 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1948
Abstract
In this work, we show a correlation between the composition and the microstructural and optical properties of bright and uniform luminescent porous silicon (PSi) films. PSi films were synthesized by electrochemical etching using nitric acid in an electrolyte solution. PSi samples synthesized with [...] Read more.
In this work, we show a correlation between the composition and the microstructural and optical properties of bright and uniform luminescent porous silicon (PSi) films. PSi films were synthesized by electrochemical etching using nitric acid in an electrolyte solution. PSi samples synthesized with nitric acid emit stronger (up to six-fold greater) photoluminescence (PL) as compared to those obtained without it. The PL peak is shifted from 630 to 570 nm by changing the concentration ratio of the HF:HNO3:(EtOH-H2O) electrolyte solution, but also shifts with the excitation energy, indicating quantum confinement effects in the silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows a uniform silicon content in the PSi samples that emit the strongest PL. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the Si-NCs in these PSi samples are about ~2.9 ± 0.76 nm in size and are embedded in a dense and stoichiometric SiO2 matrix, as indicated by the Fourier transform infrared analysis. On the other hand, the PSi films that show PL of low intensity present an abrupt change in the silicon content depth and the formation of non-bridging oxygen hole center defects. Full article
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17 pages, 3920 KiB  
Article
Automated Quantum Dots Purification via Solid Phase Extraction
by Malín G. Lüdicke, Jana Hildebrandt, Christoph Schindler, Ralph A. Sperling and Michael Maskos
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12121983 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
The separation of colloidal nanocrystals from their original synthesis medium is an essential process step towards their application, however, the costs on a preparative scale are still a constraint. A new combination of approaches for the purification of hydrophobic Quantum Dots is presented, [...] Read more.
The separation of colloidal nanocrystals from their original synthesis medium is an essential process step towards their application, however, the costs on a preparative scale are still a constraint. A new combination of approaches for the purification of hydrophobic Quantum Dots is presented, resulting in an efficient scalable process in regard to time and solvent consumption, using common laboratory equipment and low-cost materials. The procedure is based on a combination of solvent-induced adhesion and solid phase extraction. The platform allows the transition from manual handling towards automation, yielding an overall purification performance similar to one conventional batch precipitation/centrifugation step, which was investigated by thermogravimetry and gas chromatography. The distinct miscibility gaps between surfactants used as nanoparticle capping agents, original and extraction medium are clarified by their phase diagrams, which confirmed the outcome of the flow chemistry process. Furthermore, the solubility behavior of the Quantum Dots is put into context with the Hansen solubility parameters framework to reasonably decide upon appropriate solvent types. Full article
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13 pages, 4395 KiB  
Article
Quantum Dot Nanobead-Based Fluorescence-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Glycinin in Soybeans and Soy Products
by Qinglong Song, Anguo Liu, Shimin Zhang, Runxian Li, Shiyan Qiao and Pingli He
Molecules 2022, 27(12), 3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123664 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Soybean glycinin, as a major soybean allergen, is difficult to accurately quantify due to its large molecular weight and complex structure. CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanobead (QB) is a core/shell fluorescent nanomaterial with strong fluorescent signals and high sensitivity at 630 nm. An immunosorbent [...] Read more.
Soybean glycinin, as a major soybean allergen, is difficult to accurately quantify due to its large molecular weight and complex structure. CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanobead (QB) is a core/shell fluorescent nanomaterial with strong fluorescent signals and high sensitivity at 630 nm. An immunosorbent assay based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanobeads (QBs-FLISA) was developed for the glycinin quantification in soybean and soybean products. Here, the purified glycinin was coated on the microporous plate to serve as the coating antigen, and CdSe/ZnS nanobead conjugated with anti-glycinin polyclonal antibodies was used as fluorescent detection probe. The target glycinin in the sample and the coated antigen on the plate competitively adsorbed the antibody labeled the CdSe/ZnS QBs probes. The limits of detection and quantitation for glycinin were 0.035 and 0.078 μg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of the spiked samples ranged from 89.8% to 105.6%, with relative standard deviation less than 8.6%. However, compared with ELISA, the sensitivities of QBs-FLISA for the detection of glycinin were increased by 7 times, and the detection time was shortened by two-thirds. This QBs-FLISA method has been effectively applied to the detection of soybean seeds with different varieties and soy products with different processing techniques, which will provide a rapid screening method for soybean and soybean products with low allergens. Full article
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24 pages, 5396 KiB  
Article
High-Resolution Color Transparent Display Using Superimposed Quantum Dots
by Mahboubeh Dolatyari, Farid Alidoust, Armin Zarghami, Ali Rostami, Peyman Mirtaheri and Hamit Mirtagioglu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(9), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12091423 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1685
Abstract
In this paper, a high-resolution full-color transparent monitor is designed and fabricated using the synthesized quantum dots for the first time. For this purpose, about 100 compounds that had the potential to emit blue, green, and red lights were selected, and simulation was [...] Read more.
In this paper, a high-resolution full-color transparent monitor is designed and fabricated using the synthesized quantum dots for the first time. For this purpose, about 100 compounds that had the potential to emit blue, green, and red lights were selected, and simulation was performed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, in which the shell layer was selected to be SiO2 or TiO2 in the first step. Among the simulated compounds with SiO2 or TiO2 shells, Se/SiO2 and BTiO3/SiO2 were selected as blue light emitters with high intensity and narrow bandwidth. Accordingly, CdSe/SiO2 nanoparticles were selected as green light emitters and Au/TiO2 for the red light. As the surface of the nanoparticles in their optical properties is important, reactivation of the nanoparticles’ surface is required to reach the high-intensity peak and resolution. To this end, in the second step, the surface of Se and CdSe nanoparticles reacted with ethanolamine, which can make a strong bond with cadmium atoms. The band structure and optical properties were obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) method. The Se/Ethanolamine and CdSe/Ethanolamine were experimentally synthesized to evaluate the theoretical results, and their optical properties were measured. To fabricate a transparent monitor, Se/Ethanolamine, CdSe/SiO2, and Au/TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solved in water and deposited on the glass by the doctor blading technique. Finally, high-resolution videos and images were displayed on the fabricated monitor. Full article
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12 pages, 2688 KiB  
Article
Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nano-Crystals Grown in a Poly[styrene-co-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl Methacrylate)] Matrix Immobilized on Exfoliated Graphene Nano-Sheets
by Anastasios Stergiou, Ioanna K. Sideri, Martha Kafetzi, Anna Ioannou, Raul Arenal, Georgios Mousdis, Stergios Pispas and Nikos Tagmatarchis
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081275 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Development of graphene/perovskite heterostructures mediated by polymeric materials may constitute a robust strategy to resolve the environmental instability of metal halide perovskites and provide barrierless charge transport. Herein, a straightforward approach for the growth of perovskite nano-crystals and their electronic communication with graphene [...] Read more.
Development of graphene/perovskite heterostructures mediated by polymeric materials may constitute a robust strategy to resolve the environmental instability of metal halide perovskites and provide barrierless charge transport. Herein, a straightforward approach for the growth of perovskite nano-crystals and their electronic communication with graphene is presented. Methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) nano-crystals were grown in a poly[styrene-co-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)], P[St-co-DMAEMA], bi-functional random co-polymer matrix and non-covalently immobilized on graphene. P[St-co-DMAEMA] was selected as a bi-modal polymer capable to stabilize the perovskite nano-crystals via electrostatic interactions between the tri-alkylamine amine sites of the co-polymer and the A-site vacancies of the perovskite and simultaneously enable Van der Waals attractive interactions between the aromatic arene sites of the co-polymer and the surface of graphene. The newly synthesized CH3NH3PbBr3/co-polymer and graphene/CH3NH3PbBr3/co-polymer ensembles were formed by physical mixing of the components in organic media at room temperature. Complementary characterization by dynamic light scattering, microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the formation of uniform spherical perovskite nano-crystals immobilized on the graphene nano-sheets. Complementary photophysical characterization by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy unveiled the photophysical properties of the CH3NH3PbBr3/co-polymer colloid perovskite solution and verified the electronic communication within the graphene/CH3NH3PbBr3/co-polymer ensembles at the ground and excited states. Full article
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13 pages, 2965 KiB  
Article
Nanocrystalline Yb:YAG-Doped Silica Glass with Good Transmittance and Significant Spectral Performance Enhancements
by Hehe Dong, Yinggang Chen, Yan Jiao, Qinling Zhou, Yue Cheng, Hui Zhang, Yujie Lu, Shikai Wang, Chunlei Yu and Lili Hu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081263 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
In this study, Yb:YAG-nanocrystal-doped silica glass with high transmission and excellent spectral properties was successfully prepared using a modified sol–gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) analyses confirmed that the [...] Read more.
In this study, Yb:YAG-nanocrystal-doped silica glass with high transmission and excellent spectral properties was successfully prepared using a modified sol–gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) analyses confirmed that the Yb:YAG nanocrystals, with their low content, homogeneous distribution, and small crystal size, directly crystallized into the silica glass network without annealing treatment. In contrast with conventional microcrystalline glass having large particles (>0.1 μm) and a large particle content, nanocrystalline glass with a homogeneous distribution and sizes of ~22 nm had higher optical transmittance and better spectral properties. Compared with Yb3+ doped silica glass without nanocrystals, the Yb:YAG-nanocrystal-doped silica glass had a 28% increase in absorption cross-section at 975 nm and a 172% enhanced emission cross-section at 1030 nm without any changes in the spectral pattern of the Yb3+ ions in the silica glass. Meanwhile, the Yb:YAG-doped silica glass with large size and high optical quality was easily prepared. Therefore, the Yb:YAG-nanocrystal-doped silica glass is expected to be a promising near-infrared laser material. Full article
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16 pages, 4102 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effective and Selective Fluorescent Chemosensor (Pyr-NH@SiO2 NPs) for Mercury Detection in Seawater
by Shahid Ali, Muhammad Mansha, Nadeem Baig and Safyan Akram Khan
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081249 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The release of mercury into the environment has adverse effects on humans and aquatic species, even at very low concentrations. Pyrene and its derivatives have interesting fluorescence properties that can be utilized for mercury (Hg2+) ion sensing. Herein, we reported the [...] Read more.
The release of mercury into the environment has adverse effects on humans and aquatic species, even at very low concentrations. Pyrene and its derivatives have interesting fluorescence properties that can be utilized for mercury (Hg2+) ion sensing. Herein, we reported the highly selective pyrene-functionalized silica nanoparticles (Pyr-NH@SiO2 NPs) for chemosensing mercury (Hg2+) ions in a seawater sample. The Pyr-NH@SiO2 NPs were synthesized via a two-step protocol. First, a modified Stöber method was adopted to generate amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (NH2@SiO2 NPs). Second, 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid was coupled to NH2@SiO2 NPs using a peptide coupling reaction. As-synthesized NH2@SiO2 NPs and Pyr-NH@SiO2 NPs were thoroughly investigated by 1H-NMR, FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDS, TGA, and BET surface area analysis. The fluorescent properties were examined in deionized water under UV-light illumination. Finally, the developed Pyr-NH@SiO2 NPs were tested as a chemosensor for Hg2+ ions detection in a broad concentration range (0–50 ppm) via photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The chemosensor can selectively detect Hg2+ ions in the presence of ubiquitous ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Ag+, and seawater samples). The quenching of fluorescence properties with Hg2+ ions (LOD: 10 ppb) indicates that Pyr-NH@SiO2 NPs can be effectively utilized as a promising chemosensor for mercury ion detection in seawater environments. Full article
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13 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Merging Porphyrins with Gold Nanorods: Self Assembly Construct to High Fluorescent Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules
by Vanda Vaz Serra, Sofia G. Serra, Mariana C. S. Vallejo, Pedro M. R. Paulo, Nuno M. M. Moura, David Botequim, Maria Graça P. M. S. Neves and Sílvia M. B. Costa
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050872 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2571
Abstract
Dual probe porphyrin-gold nanorod polyelectrolyte microcapsules were developed to explore the enhancing effects of a plasmonic interface of self-assembled gold nanoparticles in the fluorescence emission from porphyrins loaded into the capsules’ core. An analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data reports a [...] Read more.
Dual probe porphyrin-gold nanorod polyelectrolyte microcapsules were developed to explore the enhancing effects of a plasmonic interface of self-assembled gold nanoparticles in the fluorescence emission from porphyrins loaded into the capsules’ core. An analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data reports a notable 105–106-fold increase in the maximum detected photon rates from diffraction-limited spots and an overall six-fold increase in fluorescence as averaged over the whole microcapsule area. Large emission enhancements were correlated with decreases in fluorescence lifetimes. The microcapsule’s design proved effective in achieving high fluorescent hybrids and may shed light on new possibilities for advanced materials imaging applications. Full article
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11 pages, 3715 KiB  
Communication
White-Light GaN-μLEDs Employing Green/Red Perovskite Quantum Dots as Color Converters for Visible Light Communication
by Xiaoyan Liu, Langyi Tao, Shiliang Mei, Zhongjie Cui, Daqi Shen, Zhengxuan Sheng, Jinghao Yu, Pengfei Ye, Ting Zhi, Tao Tao, Lei Wang, Ruiqian Guo and Pengfei Tian
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040627 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
GaN-based μLEDs with superior properties have enabled outstanding achievements in emerging micro-display, high-quality illumination, and communication applications, especially white-light visible light communication (WL-VLC). WL-VLC systems can simultaneously provide white-light solid-state lighting (SSL) while realizing high-speed wireless optical communication. However, the bandwidth of conventional [...] Read more.
GaN-based μLEDs with superior properties have enabled outstanding achievements in emerging micro-display, high-quality illumination, and communication applications, especially white-light visible light communication (WL-VLC). WL-VLC systems can simultaneously provide white-light solid-state lighting (SSL) while realizing high-speed wireless optical communication. However, the bandwidth of conventional white-light LEDs is limited by the long-lifetime yellow yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phosphor, which restricts the available communication performance. In this paper, white-light GaN-μLEDs combining blue InGaN-μLEDs with green/red perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Green PQDs (G-PQDs) and red PQDs (R-PQDs) with narrow emission spectrum and short fluorescence lifetime as color converters instead of the conventional slow-response YAG phosphor are mixed with high-bandwidth blue InGaN-μLEDs to generate white light. The communication and illumination performances of the WL-VLC system based on the white-light GaN-based μLEDs are systematically investigated. The VLC properties of monochromatic light (green/red) from G-PQDs or R-PQDs are studied in order to optimize the performance of the white light. The modulation bandwidths of blue InGaN-μLEDs, G-PQDs, and R-PQDs are up to 162 MHz, 64 MHz, and 90 MHz respectively. Furthermore, the white-light bandwidth of 57.5 MHz and the Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) of (0.3327, 0.3114) for the WL-VLC system are achieved successfully. These results demonstrate the great potential and the direction of the white-light GaN-μLEDs with PQDs as color converters to be applied for VLC and SSL simultaneously. Meanwhile, these results contribute to the implementation of full-color micro-displays based on μLEDs with high-quality PQDs as color-conversion materials. Full article
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8 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Lightly Boron-Doped Nanodiamonds for Quantum Sensing Applications
by Masfer Alkahtani, Dmitrii K. Zharkov, Andrey V. Leontyev, Artemi G. Shmelev, Victor G. Nikiforov and Philip R. Hemmer
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040601 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
Unlike standard nanodiamonds (NDs), boron-doped nanodiamonds (BNDs) have shown great potential in heating a local environment, such as tumor cells, when excited with NIR lasers (808 nm). This advantage makes BNDs of special interest for hyperthermia and thermoablation therapy. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Unlike standard nanodiamonds (NDs), boron-doped nanodiamonds (BNDs) have shown great potential in heating a local environment, such as tumor cells, when excited with NIR lasers (808 nm). This advantage makes BNDs of special interest for hyperthermia and thermoablation therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that the negatively charged color center (NV) in lightly boron-doped nanodiamonds (BNDs) can optically sense small temperature changes when heated with an 800 nm laser even though the correct charge state of the NV is not expected to be as stable in a boron-doped diamond. The reported BNDs can sense temperature changes over the biological temperature range with a sensitivity reaching 250 mK/√Hz. These results suggest that BNDs are promising dual-function bio-probes in hyperthermia or thermoablation therapy as well as other quantum sensing applications, including magnetic sensing. Full article
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43 pages, 6502 KiB  
Review
Review on Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials: Bioimaging, Biosensing, Drug Delivery, Tissue Engineering, Antimicrobial, and Agro-Food Applications
by Vancha Harish, Devesh Tewari, Manish Gaur, Awadh Bihari Yadav, Shiv Swaroop, Mikhael Bechelany and Ahmed Barhoum
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030457 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 199 | Viewed by 23012
Abstract
In the last few decades, the vast potential of nanomaterials for biomedical and healthcare applications has been extensively investigated. Several case studies demonstrated that nanomaterials can offer solutions to the current challenges of raw materials in the biomedical and healthcare fields. This review [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, the vast potential of nanomaterials for biomedical and healthcare applications has been extensively investigated. Several case studies demonstrated that nanomaterials can offer solutions to the current challenges of raw materials in the biomedical and healthcare fields. This review describes the different nanoparticles and nanostructured material synthesis approaches and presents some emerging biomedical, healthcare, and agro-food applications. This review focuses on various nanomaterial types (e.g., spherical, nanorods, nanotubes, nanosheets, nanofibers, core-shell, and mesoporous) that can be synthesized from different raw materials and their emerging applications in bioimaging, biosensing, drug delivery, tissue engineering, antimicrobial, and agro-foods. Depending on their morphology (e.g., size, aspect ratio, geometry, porosity), nanomaterials can be used as formulation modifiers, moisturizers, nanofillers, additives, membranes, and films. As toxicological assessment depends on sizes and morphologies, stringent regulation is needed from the testing of efficient nanomaterials dosages. The challenges and perspectives for an industrial breakthrough of nanomaterials are related to the optimization of production and processing conditions. Full article
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