Topic Editors

Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Genova, Via all’Opera Pia 11A, 16145 Genova, Italy
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari, Italy

Energy Management and Efficiency in Electric Motors, Drives, Power Converters and Related Systems

Abstract submission deadline
15 August 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
15 October 2024
Viewed by
20394

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Topic on the subject of “Energy Management and Efficiency in Electric Motors, Drives, Power Converters, and Related Systems”. Today, there is growing attention focused on increasing the use of renewable energy to guarantee sustainable growth all over the world. In the short term, however, even more interesting results can be obtained by increasing energy efficiency. As an example, the European Union has set itself a 20% energy savings target by 2020, which is roughly equivalent to turning off a few hundred power stations. Today, 20% of all final energy consumption in the EU is in the form of electrical energy, but this is predicted to grow significantly over the next few decades. Given this scenario, but also considering that electric motors in industrial applications consume 35%–40% of the generated electrical energy worldwide, power electronics is a key enabling technology allowing the efficient generation, use, and distribution of electrical energy and the implementation of energy-saving applications at reasonable costs, also leading to the huge diffusion of electrical motor drives.

I am pleased to invite you to contribute to this Topic. Papers are solicited which cover aspects of energy efficiency, including the following topics and any other relevant topics that may not be directly specified.

  • Energy management in transport vehicles;
  • High-efficiency electric machines and electrical drives;
  • High-efficiency power converters: topologies, modulation, and control;
  • Wide-bandgap power electronic devices and applications;
  • Renewable energy systems;
  • Grids, smart grids, and utility applications;
  • Electrical energy storage systems;
  • Energy conversion systems for information technology;
  • Energy efficiency for residential, commercial, and industrial applications;
  • Wireless power transfer;
  • Systems for electrical propulsion and transportation electrification;
  • Electric and hybrid vehicles;
  • Highly efficient components for energy conversion.
Prof. Dr. Mario Marchesoni
Prof. Dr. Alfonso Damiano
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • energy management
  • energy efficiency
  • power electronics
  • electric machines
  • electric drives
  • residential applications
  • industrial applications
  • electrical propulsion
  • energy management
  • power converter
  • modulation strategy
  • control system
  • renewable energy systems
  • smart grids
  • energy storage

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
World Electric Vehicle Journal
wevj
2.3 3.7 2007 14.1 Days CHF 1400 Submit

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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25 pages, 10935 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Logic-Based Energy Management System for Regenerative Braking of Electric Vehicles with Hybrid Energy Storage System
by Mehmet Şen, Muciz Özcan and Yasin Ramazan Eker
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14073077 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs), which are environmentally friendly, have been used to minimize the global warming caused by fossil fuels used in vehicles and increasing fuel prices due to the decrease in fossil resources. Considering that the energy used in EVs is obtained from [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs), which are environmentally friendly, have been used to minimize the global warming caused by fossil fuels used in vehicles and increasing fuel prices due to the decrease in fossil resources. Considering that the energy used in EVs is obtained from fossil resources, it is also important to store and use energy efficiently in EVs. In this context, recovery from a regenerative braking system plays an important role in EV energy efficiency. This paper presents a fuzzy logic-based hybrid storage technique consisting of a supercapacitor (SC) and battery for efficient and safe storage of a regenerative braking system. First, the constraints of the battery to be used in the EV for fuzzy logic control are identified. Then, the fuzzy logic system is created and tested in the ADVISOR and Siemens Simcenter Flomaster programs in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) driving cycle. A SC was selected for primary storage to prevent the battery from being continuously charged from regenerative braking, thus reducing its lifetime. In cases where the vehicle consumes more energy than the average energy consumption, energy consumption from the battery is reduced by using the energy stored in the SC, and the SC energy is discharged, making preparations for the energy that will come from the next regenerative braking. Thus, the high current values transferred to the battery during regenerative braking are effectively limited by the SC. In this study, the current values on the battery in the EV with a hybrid storage system decreased by 29.1% in the ADVISOR program and 28.7% in the Simcenter Flomaster program. In addition, the battery generated 46.84% less heat in the hybrid storage system. Thus, the heating and capacity losses caused by this current on the battery were minimized. The presented method provides more efficient energy management for EVs and plays an important role in maintaining battery health. Full article
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16 pages, 3929 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of Two-Wheeler Electric Vehicle Batteries Using Multi-Mode Drive Cycles
by Padmavathi Lakshmanan, Anand Abhishek, Brijendra Kumar Verma and Subhash Kumar Ram
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040145 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
This article presents a model-based approach to assess the battery performance of a two-wheeler EV drive train system for various user driving patterns using the selected urban drive cycles. The battery pack is one of the most expensive parts of an EV, and [...] Read more.
This article presents a model-based approach to assess the battery performance of a two-wheeler EV drive train system for various user driving patterns using the selected urban drive cycles. The battery pack is one of the most expensive parts of an EV, and its life is heavily dependent on its usage pattern. The impact of the user’s driving behaviour on the performance parameters of the EV battery pack needs to be investigated. Thus, a two-wheeler EV drive train model was developed in MATLAB with a 5 kW motor, a 4.32 kWh battery, vehicle dynamics, and the power train control algorithms for in-depth analysis of battery performance. The validity of the developed model was tested against various state-of-the-art drive cycles for a duration of 3600 s. Numerous user driving behaviours, such as aggressive, moderate, and slow driving behaviours, were modelled with modified drive cycles, which were used to assess the two-wheeler battery pack performance. An optimum speed range, which ranges from 21 km/h to 34 km/h for different drive cycles, was identified, and these speed ranges minimised the battery energy consumption for the selected drive cycles with the modified drive cycle models. Full article
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12 pages, 7273 KiB  
Article
Margin Elimination in a 55 nm Near-Threshold Microcontroller with Adaptive Prediction Capability and Voltage Scaling
by Runze Yu, Zhenhao Li, Xi Deng, Zhaoxu Wang, Haoming Zhang and Zhenglin Liu
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071211 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative approach for error prediction (EP) tailored to near-threshold operations, addressing the energy-efficient requirements of digital circuits in applications such as IoT devices and wearables. The novel EP technique combines the benefits of error prediction and detection, effectively addressing [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative approach for error prediction (EP) tailored to near-threshold operations, addressing the energy-efficient requirements of digital circuits in applications such as IoT devices and wearables. The novel EP technique combines the benefits of error prediction and detection, effectively addressing critical issues associated with each method by enabling adaptive prediction capability and voltage scaling. More specifically, the presented EP method requires no modifications to the processor pipeline and mitigates the generation of false-positive errors, ensuring stable operation of the system at high-efficiency points. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through its implementation in a near-threshold 32-bit microprocessor system with a modest 5.82% area overhead. Silicon measurements validate the adaptive EP system from 0.59 to 0.66 V (4–32 MHz) and confirm its removal of all voltage margins. Here, the EP technique reduces the energy consumption by 18.6–25.1% with respect to the signoff margins and it allows the system to operate without energy overhead compared to its ideal non-margined critical operation point, with less than a 5% throughput loss. Full article
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20 pages, 5416 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Modulation Strategies for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives Used in Weak Grids
by Shuo Wang, Dmytro Prystupa, Yuli Bao, Vasyl Varvolik, Giampaolo Buticchi, He Zhang and Michele Degano
Energies 2024, 17(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17030615 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Synchronous reluctance machines are considered a cost-effective solution for several industrial applications and present potential efficiency benefits compared to induction motors. In industrial applications, power supply oscillations can lead to short-term disturbances that can affect the drive operation; therefore, the control must be [...] Read more.
Synchronous reluctance machines are considered a cost-effective solution for several industrial applications and present potential efficiency benefits compared to induction motors. In industrial applications, power supply oscillations can lead to short-term disturbances that can affect the drive operation; therefore, the control must be robust to guarantee high efficiency and service continuity. The focus of this study was to identify the speed boundaries considering different values of applied DC-link voltage, taking into account the highly nonlinear magnetic behavior of the machine and its cross-coupling characteristics. In addition, a comprehensive carrier-based implementation of a pulse width modulation strategy was proposed to achieve optimal efficiency in both the machine and converter, which is essential in the presence of “weak” grids. The proposed technique was demonstrated to meet the desired reference torque and rated speed, even during DC-link voltage drops (up to 7.4% of the rated voltage). The proposed methodology was experimentally validated on a 90 kW SynRM drive with a broader modulation range and higher efficiency. This work considered several different supply voltage levels to assess the stability and continuity of torque output and further proved the proposed method. Full article
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16 pages, 10249 KiB  
Article
Optimization Strategy for Output Voltage of CCM Flyback Converter Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control
by Yannan Yu, Mei Kong, Jichi Yan and Yeqin Lu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12786; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312786 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
To solve the problem of system output voltage fluctuation caused by interferences such as load fluctuation and internal inductor parameter perturbation in a flyback converter, a second-order linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) strategy based on output voltage is proposed in this paper. [...] Read more.
To solve the problem of system output voltage fluctuation caused by interferences such as load fluctuation and internal inductor parameter perturbation in a flyback converter, a second-order linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) strategy based on output voltage is proposed in this paper. A small-signal model of a CCM flyback converter is established, and the equivalent transfer function of voltage control based on second-order LADRC is derived. A second-order LADRC is constructed, and a parameter design method for the controller is proposed. The response characteristics of the output voltage of the converter under five internal and external disturbances of different control strategies are compared and studied using MATLAB R2022b/Simulink simulation software, and a CCM flyback converter experimental platform based on dSPACE is built to verify the corresponding comparative experiments. The simulation and experimental results jointly verify the superiority of the control strategy for the anti-interference and robustness of the output voltage of the CCM flyback converter. Full article
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20 pages, 5762 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Energy Flow in a Mid-Sized Electric Passenger Vehicle in Urban Driving Conditions
by Youngkuk An, Byeonggyu Yang, Jinil Park, Jonghwa Lee and Kyoungseok Park
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(8), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14080218 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Because of emissions of exhaust gases, global warming is proceeding, and air pollution has increased. Thus, many countries are manufacturing eco-friendly vehicles, including electric vehicles. However, the range of electric vehicles is less than the range of internal combustion engine vehicles, so electric [...] Read more.
Because of emissions of exhaust gases, global warming is proceeding, and air pollution has increased. Thus, many countries are manufacturing eco-friendly vehicles, including electric vehicles. However, the range of electric vehicles is less than the range of internal combustion engine vehicles, so electric vehicle production is being disrupted. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the energy flow of electric vehicles. Therefore, to analyze energy flow of electric vehicles, this study suggested an energy flow structure first, then modeled the energy flow of the vehicle, dividing it into battery, inverter and motor, reduction gear and differential, and wheel parts. This study selected a test vehicle, drove in urban driving conditions and measured data. Then, this study calculated energy flow using MATLAB/SIMULINK in real time, and calculated and analyzed energy loss of each of the vehicle’s parts using the calculated data. Full article
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13 pages, 8661 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Vibration Characteristics of High-Frequency Transformer under DC Bias with Different Winding Structures
by Haibo Ding, Wenliang Zhao, Min Li, Li Zhang and Youliang Sun
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041185 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
The core excitation saturation and vibration caused by DC bias are one of the important considerations in the design of high-frequency transformer (HFT). This paper studies the electromagnetic vibration characteristics of DC biased HFT with different winding structures. The vibration mechanism of iron [...] Read more.
The core excitation saturation and vibration caused by DC bias are one of the important considerations in the design of high-frequency transformer (HFT). This paper studies the electromagnetic vibration characteristics of DC biased HFT with different winding structures. The vibration mechanism of iron core and winding under DC bias is analyzed. The optimal topology size of HFT is determined by area product (AP) method. In addition, the electromagnetic vibration multi-physical coupling model of a 500 V HFT under DC bias is established. At the same time, the electromagnetic vibration characteristics of interleaved winding and continuous winding of HFT are compared. The research shows that the current fluctuation of interleaved winding is smaller than that of continuous winding because of its ability to withstand impulse voltage. In addition, the average loss and maximum vibration displacement of HFT with entanglement winding are reduced in different degrees. The above research rules have guiding significance for the design of HFT and the method of suppressing DC bias. Full article
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17 pages, 6443 KiB  
Article
Flicker-Free LED Driver Based on Cuk Converter with Integrated Magnetics
by Yanxia Shen, Jintao Xia and Chengchao Cai
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030075 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Electric vehicles contain various types of light emitting diode (LED) devices. A significant twice-line-frequency ripple current is usually produced in a conventional offline LED driver with a high power factor. In this paper, a flicker-free LED driver based on isolated Cuk converter with [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles contain various types of light emitting diode (LED) devices. A significant twice-line-frequency ripple current is usually produced in a conventional offline LED driver with a high power factor. In this paper, a flicker-free LED driver based on isolated Cuk converter with integrated magnetic technique is proposed. Two inductors and power transformer are combined into one magnetic core to eliminate the wave current as much as possible. With time domain analysis in electrical circuit and magnetic circuit, the operation principle, operational waveforms, and transfer function are analyzed in detail. Finally, experimental results from a 30 W laboratory prototype supplied by a 220 V grid validate the effectiveness of proposed LED driver. Full article
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17 pages, 3148 KiB  
Article
Torque-Pulse-Based Initial Rotor Polarity Detection for IPMSM with Low Saturation Effect
by Weibin Yang, Yuanlin Wang, Hao Guo, Xinxin Sun, Gurakuq Dajaku, Saleem Riaz, Haider Zaman and Dieter Gerling
Electronics 2022, 11(24), 4165; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11244165 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Referring to the sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the initial rotor polarity is normally estimated based on the motor saturation effect. However, for certain special IPMSMs, the saturation effect is weak even at the rated point, making the saturation-based [...] Read more.
Referring to the sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the initial rotor polarity is normally estimated based on the motor saturation effect. However, for certain special IPMSMs, the saturation effect is weak even at the rated point, making the saturation-based rotor polarity detection methods invalid. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel rotor polarity detection method based on torque-pulse injection. Two current pulses are imposed on the positive and negative directions of the q-axis estimated by the high-frequency injection (HFI) method, respectively; the signs of speed peaks indicate the rotor polarity. To derive the rotor polarity from the tiny speed signal, a new speed estimation method is presented. To improve the dynamic performance of speed estimation, a special current filter is adopted in the HFI method. To choose the proper width and amplitude of the current pulse under different load and inertia conditions, an automatic program is designed. The proposed method has the advantages of high accuracy, short identification time, tiny movement, and automatic operation, making it applicable to various load and inertia conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experiments on an IPMSM with low saturation effect. Full article
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12 pages, 3111 KiB  
Article
Research into the Regenerative Braking of an Electric Car in Urban Driving
by Dainis Berjoza, Vilnis Pirs and Inara Jurgena
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110202 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5688
Abstract
As the use of fossil energy sources in transport declines, new technologies, e.g., electric vehicles, are being introduced. One of the advantages of electric vehicles in urban driving is the possibility to charge their batteries with regenerative energy during braking. For this reason, [...] Read more.
As the use of fossil energy sources in transport declines, new technologies, e.g., electric vehicles, are being introduced. One of the advantages of electric vehicles in urban driving is the possibility to charge their batteries with regenerative energy during braking. For this reason, electric cars usually have a longer range per charge in urban driving than in non-urban driving. This research experimentally examined the regenerative braking of a converted Renault Clio electric car at different regenerative braking settings in the range of 0–100%. An original research methodology was developed for road tests in urban driving. The driving cycle included aggressive driving with rapid acceleration and braking. The road test was conducted in second and third gears, which are the usual gears for driving an electric car in a city. The highest regenerative braking efficiencies were achieved at a 100% setting, which in some replications reached 24% of the total electrical energy consumed; however, the 100% setting was too high from the perspective of comfortable driving of the electric car and contributed to a too significant increase in the braking force at the initial stages of braking. Full article
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26 pages, 9183 KiB  
Article
Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors’ Passive Sensorless Control: A Review
by Alessandro Benevieri, Lorenzo Carbone, Simone Cosso, Krishneel Kumar, Mario Marchesoni, Massimiliano Passalacqua and Luis Vaccaro
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7747; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207747 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors is nowadays used in many industrial, home and traction applications, as it allows the presence of a position sensor to be avoided with benefits for the cost and reliability of the drive. An estimation of the [...] Read more.
Sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors is nowadays used in many industrial, home and traction applications, as it allows the presence of a position sensor to be avoided with benefits for the cost and reliability of the drive. An estimation of the rotor position is required to perform the field-oriented control (FOC), which is the most common control scheme used for this type of motor. Many algorithms have been developed for this purpose, which use different techniques to derive the rotor angle from the stator voltages and currents. Among them, the so-called passive methods have gained increasing interest as they do not introduce additional losses and current distortion associated instead with algorithms based on the injection of high-frequency signals. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the main passive sensorless methods proposed in the technical literature over the last few years, analyzing their main features and principles of operation. An experimental comparison among the most promising passive sensorless algorithms is then reported, focusing on their performance in the low-speed operating region. Full article
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15 pages, 1855 KiB  
Article
A 5 V-to-32 V Input PVT-Robust Charge-Pump Circuit with Adjustable Output in a 0.18 μm BCD Process
by Xinyi Ma, Liangkun Wang and Jiaqing Yu
Electronics 2022, 11(18), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11182828 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
In this paper, a new closed-loop charge-pump circuit with adjustable output voltage and an on-chip compensation technique is proposed. The environmental temperature and process corner can be detected with an on-chip detection circuit and automatically feedback an adjusted reference voltage. With this, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new closed-loop charge-pump circuit with adjustable output voltage and an on-chip compensation technique is proposed. The environmental temperature and process corner can be detected with an on-chip detection circuit and automatically feedback an adjusted reference voltage. With this, the magnitude of the charge-pump output voltage with Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) can be compensated. The charge-pump circuit is designed and verified with a 180 nm Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process, and its output voltage at different process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) is controllable with low ripple. There are three selections for adjusting the output voltage: +5 V/+7 V/+10 V shifts, with the supply voltage ranging from 5 V to 32 V. It can remain tunable and stable at any shifts. The maximum deviation is ±0.265%, and the maximum load current can reach 30 mA. The ripple voltage is less than 0.3% (Δ Vripple/Vout) underthe maximum load. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the worst case of the process sensitivity (σ/μ) is 0.1%. The charge-pump core area is 0.308 mm2, and the power consumption is 4.753 mW. The circuit can produce high-precision output and is suitable for high-side driving IC applications. Full article
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