Topic Editors

Department of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
School of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China

Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 July 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Viewed by
49537

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrical machines, which can be configured with different power ratings while maintaining superiorities of high efficiency and high power density, have been widely employed in various industry sectors, such as high-speed trains, industrial robots, wind power generation, and electric vehicles. For traction control systems, advanced solutions such as less rare-earth and rare-earth free machines, permanent magnet synchronous reluctance machines, in-wheel machines, and multi-phase/multi-three-phase machines have been widely investigated by both academia and industry. For high-accuracy-demanded drive systems, advanced solutions such as voice coil machines, linear machines, and ultra-high-speed spindle motors have been developed prosperously. As a result, numerous new materials, manufacturing and processing technologies, advanced topologies, and optimization techniques for electrical machines have been developed in recent years.

Meanwhile, as key equipment for electromechanical energy conversion, electrical machines also need corresponding drive and control schemes to guarantee their dynamic and steady-state performances. Therefore, a great number of advanced drive control schemes have been proposed in recent years for meeting the advanced control demands of electrical machines, such as lower switching losses, better fault tolerance and real-time condition monitoring, fewer sensors, parameter identification, and real-time observation.

To collect the latest developments in electrical machines and drives, we are pleased to invite the research community to submit review or regular research papers on, but not limited to, the following relevant topics:

  • Multi-phase and in-wheel machines.
  • Reliability design of machine drive systems.
  • New topologies of electrical machines.
  • Advanced optimization techniques for electrical machines.
  • Applications of new materials in electrical machines.
  • Cooling systems and insulation solutions for giant and high-voltage electrical machines.
  • Underwater motor and sealing designs.
  • Magnetic gears and magnetically geared machines.
  • Drivers and power converters for more-electric vehicles, ship propulsion, and airplanes.
  • Sensored and sensorless control of electrical machines.
  • Fault-tolerant schemes for electrical machines.
  • Condition monitoring and perception techniques for electrical machine systems.
  • Testing methods and parameter identification methods for electrical machines.
  • Distributed and fault-tolerant drive controls for electric vehicles and other special vehicles.

Prof. Dr. Kan Liu
Dr. Wei Hu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • electrical machines
  • topologies
  • condition monitoring and fault diagnosis
  • permanent magnets
  • drive controls
  • power converters
  • sensorless control
  • parameter identification

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Designs
designs
- 3.2 2017 16.4 Days CHF 1600
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Machines
machines
2.6 2.1 2013 15.6 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (29 papers)

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18 pages, 6209 KiB  
Article
Thermal Model and Thermal Analysis of the Dual Drive Sliding Feed System
by Hui Li, Haiyang Liu, Xianying Feng, Yandong Liu, Ming Yao and Anning Wang
Machines 2023, 11(12), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11121084 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The dual drive sliding feed system can obtain a uniform and stable resolution at extremely low speeds and significantly reduce the system’s nonlinear friction. However, the numerous thermal sources within the system and the multipoint sliding contact during transmission result in a significant [...] Read more.
The dual drive sliding feed system can obtain a uniform and stable resolution at extremely low speeds and significantly reduce the system’s nonlinear friction. However, the numerous thermal sources within the system and the multipoint sliding contact during transmission result in a significant temperature rise, leading to considerable thermal deformation and errors. Moreover, the responsive mechanism of the thermal characteristics needs to be clarified. Therefore, firstly, a frictional torque model of the engagement of the screw and nut is established, and the heat generation, heat transfer, and thermal contact resistance (TCR) are solved. Then, based on the solution, a finite element thermal simulation model of the dual drive sliding feed system is established, and experiments are performed for validation. The results show that the error in temperature at the measuring point is less than 2.1 °C, and the axial thermal elongation of the screw is less than 6.2 µm. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the feeding system under various operating conditions are analyzed. The results show that the established thermal simulated model can effectively describe the dynamic thermal characteristics of the dual drive sliding feed system during operation. The effects of the rotational speed and ambient temperature on the dynamic thermal characteristics of the dual drive sliding feed system are investigated separately. The temperature increase in each part of the screw during the operation is characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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19 pages, 10258 KiB  
Article
Increased Dynamic Drivetrain Performance by Implementing a Modular Design with Decentralized Control Architecture
by Niels Divens, Théo Tuerlinckx, Bernhard Westerhof, Kurt Stockman, David van Os and Koen Laurijssen
Machines 2023, 11(11), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11111036 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
This paper assesses the energy consumption, control performance, and application-specific functional requirements of a modular drivetrain in comparison to a benchmark drivetrain. A decentralised control architecture has been developed and validated using mechanical plant models. Simscape models have been validated with data from [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the energy consumption, control performance, and application-specific functional requirements of a modular drivetrain in comparison to a benchmark drivetrain. A decentralised control architecture has been developed and validated using mechanical plant models. Simscape models have been validated with data from an experimental setup including an equivalent modular and benchmark drivetrain. In addition, the control strategy has been implemented and validated on the experimental setup. The results prove the ability of the control strategy to synchronize the motion of the different sliders, resulting in crank position tracking errors below 0.032 radians on the setup. The model and experimental data show an increased performance of the modular drivetrain compared to the benchmark drivetrain in terms of energy consumption, control performance, and functional requirements. The modular drivetrain is especially advantageous for machines running highly dynamic motion profiles due to the reduced inertia. For such motion profiles, an increased position tracking of up to 84% has been measured. In addition, it is shown that the modular drivetrain root mean square (RMS) torque is reduced with 32% compared to the benchmark drivetrain. However, these mechanical energy savings are partly counteracted by the higher motor losses seen in the modular drivetrain, resulting in potential electrical energy savings of around 29%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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16 pages, 4809 KiB  
Article
Clustering Optimization of IPMSM for Electric Vehicles: Considering Inverter Control Strategy
by Jiabao Bu, Shangbin Yuan and Jinhua Du
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10792; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910792 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 593
Abstract
The actual performance of driving motors in the electric vehicle (EV) powertrain depends not only on the electromagnetic design of the motor itself but also on the driving condition of the vehicle. The traditional motor optimization method at the rated point is difficult [...] Read more.
The actual performance of driving motors in the electric vehicle (EV) powertrain depends not only on the electromagnetic design of the motor itself but also on the driving condition of the vehicle. The traditional motor optimization method at the rated point is difficult to deal with because of the mismatch between its high-efficiency area and the actual operation area. This paper systematically proposes an optimal design method for driving motors for EVs, considering the driving conditions and control strategy to improve motor efficiency and passengers’ riding comfort. It uses cluster analysis to identify representative points and related energy weights to consider motors’ comprehensive performance in different driving cycles. Three typical operation conditions are selected to implement the proposed optimization process. In the design process, by using the sensitivity analysis method, the significance of the structural parameters is effectively evaluated. Moreover, the semianalytical efficiency model and torque model of permanent magnet driving motors based on finite element analysis results are deduced to consider the influence of magnetic saturation, space harmonics, and cross-coupling between d-axis and q-axis magnetic fields. Based on the driving system demands of an A0 class pure EV, the whole optimization design is divided into four steps and three scales, including the motor scale, control scale, and system scale. By using the multi-objective optimization method, Pareto optimality of motor efficiency and torque ripple is achieved under the city driving cycle and highway driving cycle. Compared to the optimization only at the rated condition, the proportion of motor sweet region increased about 1.25 times and 3.5 times by the proposed system-scale optimization under two driving cycles, respectively. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method is verified by the prototype experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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14 pages, 5607 KiB  
Article
Research on the Modulation and Control Strategy for a Novel Single-Phase Current Source Inverter
by Yi Zhang, Tao Yang and Yiru Miao
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6729; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186729 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Compared to the voltage source inverter, the current source inverter (CSI) can boost voltage and improve filtering performance. However, the DC side of CSI is not a real current source, and the DC input current comprises a DC power supply and an inductor. [...] Read more.
Compared to the voltage source inverter, the current source inverter (CSI) can boost voltage and improve filtering performance. However, the DC side of CSI is not a real current source, and the DC input current comprises a DC power supply and an inductor. In the switching process, the DC-link inductor is charged or discharged and is in an uncontrollable state. This paper proposes a novel CSI topology containing five switching tubes and a modulation strategy based on the hysteresis control strategy of the DC-link current. Due to the conduction and switching loss being positive to the DC-link current, the calculation method for the least reference value of the DC-link current is derived to meet power requirements. By constructing a virtual axis, we then present the control strategy of the output voltage in a two-phase rotating reference frame. Finally, we carry out the simulation and experiment are to validate the proposed topology, modulation, and control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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15 pages, 2892 KiB  
Article
Structure Optimization and Control Design of Electronic Oxygen Regulator
by Dongsheng Jiang, Yue Liu, Haowen Yang, Xingxing Fang, Binbin Qian and Hui Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5431; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095431 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The oxygen regulator is the core component of the aircraft life support system, which adjusts the flow and pressure of the breathing gas according to the pilot’s breathing needs. In response to the problem that structural parameters are difficult to adjust and prone [...] Read more.
The oxygen regulator is the core component of the aircraft life support system, which adjusts the flow and pressure of the breathing gas according to the pilot’s breathing needs. In response to the problem that structural parameters are difficult to adjust and prone to jitter when the indirect oxygen regulator system is stable, a direct oxygen regulator is designed using a stepper motor to drive a lung-type flapper, replacing the diaphragm lever-type structure of the indirect oxygen regulator. Due to the nonlinearity and time-varying nature of the dynamic characteristics of oxygen regulators, a single-neuron PID control strategy based on online identification of RBF neural networks is proposed to improve the PID control performance. The RBF neural network is used to identify the Jacobian information of the controlled object, and the single-neuron PID controller completes the online adjustment of the controller parameters to realize the intelligent control of the system. Simulation experimental studies are conducted to verify the performance of the direct oxygen regulator. The result analysis verifies the excellence of the single-neuron PID control strategy based on online recognition of the RBF neural network to improve the system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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20 pages, 8396 KiB  
Article
Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control to Improve Performances and Robustness of a Switched Reluctance Machine for an Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Application
by Rabia Sehab, Ahmad Akrad and Yakoub Saadi
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3212; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073212 - 02 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
In electric vehicles, performances of electric vehicle drivetrains depend on the electric machine and the control. Switched Reluctance Machines (SRMs) are today an alternative to rare earth magnets machines such as Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM), which is used in the vehicle drivetrain. [...] Read more.
In electric vehicles, performances of electric vehicle drivetrains depend on the electric machine and the control. Switched Reluctance Machines (SRMs) are today an alternative to rare earth magnets machines such as Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM), which is used in the vehicle drivetrain. Because of its high nonlinear behavior, the classical control designed for SRMs is not sufficient to obtain good performances. The objective of this paper is to make performance and robustness comparisons of the designed robust controllers considering the high nonlinear behavior of SRMs. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control (STSMC) are developed and validated by simulation for the velocity control loop and the current control loops of the control strategy. However, an evaluation of their performances compared to classical control based on PI controllers is carried out. For a robustness comparison, a variation of SRM parameters is carried out by simulation using the three controllers. Finally, an experimental validation on a developed test bench using the three controllers is conducted to show that Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control (STSMC) is the best in terms of performances and robustness for an electric vehicle application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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22 pages, 6055 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Explicit Model Predictive Control for Track-Following Servo Control of Lunar Gravity Compensation Facility
by Yonggui Zheng, Meng Liu, Hao Wu and Jun Wang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4411; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074411 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
The Lunar Gravity Compensation Facility (LGCF) is a critical component in ground tests for a crewed lunar roving vehicle (CLRV). The track-following servo subsystem’s performance is of critical importance in the LGCF, as it needs to achieve high-precision tracking of the CLRV’s fast, [...] Read more.
The Lunar Gravity Compensation Facility (LGCF) is a critical component in ground tests for a crewed lunar roving vehicle (CLRV). The track-following servo subsystem’s performance is of critical importance in the LGCF, as it needs to achieve high-precision tracking of the CLRV’s fast, wide range of motion in the horizontal direction. The subsystem must also operate within various constraints, including those related to speed, acceleration, and position. These requirements introduce new challenges to both the design and control of the subsystem. To tackle these challenges, this paper employs a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) vector control method based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) to achieve accurate speed tracking. Additionally, this paper presents an Explicit Model Predictive Control (EMPC) strategy for precise position servo control of the track-following system under multi-parameter constraints. The simulation model of the track-following servo subsystem is established based on the above methods. The simulation results demonstrate that the position tracking error of the gravity compensation system, constructed using the above method combined with EMPC control, is less than 0.2 m. The control performance of the EMPC is significantly better than those of the PI and LQI controllers. The influence of errors on the drawbar pull is within 12.5%, and its effect on the compensation force is negligible. These results provide theoretical support for the design of a track-following servo subsystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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14 pages, 4422 KiB  
Article
Design and Verification of Adaptive Adjustable Output Control on Micro Spray Gun
by Jiun-Hung Lin, Chih-Hong Chen and Shih-Tsang Tang
Machines 2023, 11(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030354 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
The general spray gun is used for industrial large-area spraying, and there is less demand for different pressures and the accuracy of spraying pressure, so mechanical pressure regulators are mostly used. However, as the demand for artistic innovation continues to grow, it promotes [...] Read more.
The general spray gun is used for industrial large-area spraying, and there is less demand for different pressures and the accuracy of spraying pressure, so mechanical pressure regulators are mostly used. However, as the demand for artistic innovation continues to grow, it promotes the advent of the micro spray gun. The micro spray gun is currently commonly known as an airbrush. The micro spray gun is mainly used for fine drawing, so it must provide different pressures with high precision pressures, but the existing mechanical regulators cannot meet this requirement. For these unmet requirements, this study proposed a solution for PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control micro spray gun system. The results showed that the PID control could effectively provide various stable output pressures of the micro spray gun. The pressure-varying range of 30 kPa could rapidly return to the target value in 10 s (the usual spraying time). The proposed solution then presents better spraying effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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19 pages, 9130 KiB  
Article
Transmission Performance of Halbach Array Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Governor
by Yonglong Zhu, Hai Wang, Henian Li, Chunlai Yang and Jingsong Gui
Electronics 2023, 12(5), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12051161 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
A novel cylinder permanent magnet governor (CPMG) with Halbach segmentation is proposed in this paper. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CPMG, different permanent magnet (PM) arrangement methods are adopted. To achieve a fair comparison result, all the PMs are [...] Read more.
A novel cylinder permanent magnet governor (CPMG) with Halbach segmentation is proposed in this paper. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CPMG, different permanent magnet (PM) arrangement methods are adopted. To achieve a fair comparison result, all the PMs are of the same size. The main magnetic fluxes are considered to obtain a comprehensive equivalent magnetic circuit model of the CPMG with Halbach array and analytical output torque that is calculated. The analytical method of transmitted torque for CPMG is then presented. Additionally, the effect of the average output torque of CPMG under parameters of the thickness of the copper rings, the slip rate and the effective coupling of the copper rings are investigated. Finally, the prototype platform is ready for testing on the field. The results were consistent with the results of the simulation, and the error was kept within the range of 5%. This research can provide a theoretical and practical reference for the optimal design of the transmission characteristic of CPMG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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24 pages, 4136 KiB  
Article
Study on Stator-Rotor Misalignment in Modular Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Different Slot/Pole Combinations
by Danilo Riquelme, Carlos Madariaga, Werner Jara, Gerd Bramerdorfer, Juan A. Tapia and Javier Riedemann
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052777 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2669
Abstract
Addressing stator-rotor misalignment, usually called eccentricity, is critical in permanent magnet (PM) machines since significantly high radial forces can be developed on the bearings, which can trigger a major fault and compromise the structural integrity of the machine. In this regard, this paper [...] Read more.
Addressing stator-rotor misalignment, usually called eccentricity, is critical in permanent magnet (PM) machines since significantly high radial forces can be developed on the bearings, which can trigger a major fault and compromise the structural integrity of the machine. In this regard, this paper aims to provide insight into the unaddressed identification and analysis of the impact of eccentric tolerances on relevant performance indices of permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) with modular stator core. Static and dynamic eccentricity are assessed for different slot/pole combinations through the finite element method (FEM), and the results are compared with those of PMSMs with a conventional stator core. The unbalanced magnetic forces (UMF), cogging torque, back-emf, and mean torque variations are described and related to the eccentricity magnitude and classification. The main findings indicate that severe radial forces and significant additional cogging torque harmonics are generated because of eccentricity. Additionally, it is found that the main differences between modular PMSMs and conventional PMSMs rely on the value of slots per pole per phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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19 pages, 5986 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Fractional-Order Anti-Saturation Synchronous Control for Dual-Motor Systems
by Yongbin Zhong, Jian Gao and Lanyu Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042307 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
The synchronization error of a dual-motor system will seriously affect the motion profile accuracy. To solve this problem, an adaptive fractional-order anti-saturation synchronous control method based on fractional-order frequency-domain control theory is proposed in this paper. On the one hand, the proposed method [...] Read more.
The synchronization error of a dual-motor system will seriously affect the motion profile accuracy. To solve this problem, an adaptive fractional-order anti-saturation synchronous control method based on fractional-order frequency-domain control theory is proposed in this paper. On the one hand, the proposed method performs a compensation on the closed-loop feedback control loop to unify the frequency-domain characteristics for a dual-motor system. With the frequency-domain characteristics’ unification module, the dual-motor system will have the same response performance regarding the input signal. On the other hand, considering that the nonlinear problem of control voltage saturation will also cause the asynchronization problem of the dual-motor system, the proposed method involves an adaptive fractional-order anti-saturation module to prevent voltage saturation and eliminate the nonlinear effects. The experimental results verify that the proposed method can accurately avoid the saturation effect and effectively reduce the synchronization error of the dual-motor system, with a root-mean-square synchronization error reduction of 80.974%. Hence, the proposed method provides an effective solution for the high-precision synchronous motion of a dual-motor system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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19 pages, 5168 KiB  
Article
Modified Design of Two-Switch Buck-Boost Converter to Improve Power Efficiency Using Fewer Conduction Components
by Sunghwan Kim, Haiyoung Jung and Seok-hyun Lee
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010343 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
In this study, a modified design of a two-switch buck-boost (TSBB) converter is proposed to improve power efficiency using fewer conduction components, and the optimal power range is measured. The proposed TSBB converter operates in three topologies: buck, boost, and buck-boost, like the [...] Read more.
In this study, a modified design of a two-switch buck-boost (TSBB) converter is proposed to improve power efficiency using fewer conduction components, and the optimal power range is measured. The proposed TSBB converter operates in three topologies: buck, boost, and buck-boost, like the conventional TSBB converter. However, the proposed converter improves the power efficiency in the buck and buck-boost topologies by decreasing conduction loss using the diode in the switch-off section while maintaining the same number of semiconductors as that in the conventional TSBB converter. The power efficiency of the buck topology improves for the power range 10–80 W in the constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) modes; it increases on average by 0.75–1.36% and 0.83–2.27% in the CV and CC modes, respectively. The power efficiency of the buck-boost topology step-down improves for the 10–80 W in all modes. This increases the average by 0.73–0.99% and 3.33–4.75% in the CV and CC modes, respectively. The power efficiency of the buck-boost topology step-up increases on average by 1.65–2.00% for 10–80 W in the CV mode. In the CC mode, it increases by 2.17–2.77% on average for 10–50 W. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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20 pages, 7485 KiB  
Article
Crowning Method on Bearing Supporting Large Wind Turbine Spindle Considering the Flexibility of Structure of Shaft System
by Xiangyang Liu, Rongjun Niu, Bin Wang, Shuai Zhang, Yongcun Cui and Zhanli Zhang
Machines 2023, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11010028 - 26 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
To meet the precision design of bearings on large wind turbine spindles, a crowning method of bearing on wind turbine spindles considering the flexibility of the support structure is proposed. Firstly, a finite element (FE) model of the shaft system with a flexible [...] Read more.
To meet the precision design of bearings on large wind turbine spindles, a crowning method of bearing on wind turbine spindles considering the flexibility of the support structure is proposed. Firstly, a finite element (FE) model of the shaft system with a flexible structure is constructed by connecting the shaft and bearing through constraint equations (CE) and multi-point constraint (MPC) algorithms and replacing the bearing rollers with nonlinear spring elements and dampers. Then, the Newmark integration algorithm is used to solve the model and analyze the effect of the structure’s rigidity on the load distribution of bearings. Then, perform convergence analysis of the sequences of the spring load distribution using a high-pass filter based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and root mean square error (RMSE) to obtain a suitable number of replacement springs. Finally, a sub-model of the upwind bearing is constructed with structured mesh. With the maximum Von Mises stress of the roller profile as the design target, the optimal logarithmic crowning of the roller and its tolerance zone under the given working conditions are obtained. The results show that the FE model of the shaft system proposed has good convergence. The FE model of the shaft system considering the flexibility of the support structure can obtain more accurate load distributions of bearings and can make the accurate crowning design of the bearing rollers based on the actual working conditions. This provides support for the precision design of bearings in large shaft systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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19 pages, 9549 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Learning Control of Hydraulic Servo System Based on TD3 Algorithm
by Xiaoming Yuan, Yu Wang, Ruicong Zhang, Qiang Gao, Zhuangding Zhou, Rulin Zhou and Fengyuan Yin
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121244 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
This paper aims at the characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying and parameter coupling in a hydraulic servo system. An intelligent control method is designed that uses self-learning without a model or prior knowledge, in order to achieve certain control effects. The control quantity can [...] Read more.
This paper aims at the characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying and parameter coupling in a hydraulic servo system. An intelligent control method is designed that uses self-learning without a model or prior knowledge, in order to achieve certain control effects. The control quantity can be obtained at the current moment through the continuous iteration of a strategy–value network, and the online self-tuning of parameters can be realized. Taking the hydraulic servo system as the experimental object, a twin delayed deep deterministic (TD3) policy gradient was used to reinforce the learning of the system. Additionally, the parameter setting was compared using a deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) and a linear–quadratic–Gaussian (LQG) based on linear quadratic Gaussian objective function. To compile the reinforcement learning algorithm and deploy it to the test platform controller for testing, we used the Speedgoat prototype target machine as the controller to build the fast prototype control test platform. MATLAB/Coder and compute unified device architecture (CUDA) were used to generate an S-function. The results show that, compared with other parameter tuning methods, the proposed algorithm can effectively optimize the controller parameters and improve the dynamic response of the system when tracking signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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18 pages, 13519 KiB  
Article
A Novel Suppression Method for Low-Order Harmonics Causing Resonance of Induction Motor
by Pengyun Song, Yanghui Liu, Tao Liu, Huazhang Wang and Liwei Wang
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121206 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
In the motor drive system of electric vehicles, there are some nonlinear factors, such as the deadtime and the conduction voltage drop of switching devices, which will generate low-order harmonics of the stator current and the torque ripple. The frequency of the harmonic [...] Read more.
In the motor drive system of electric vehicles, there are some nonlinear factors, such as the deadtime and the conduction voltage drop of switching devices, which will generate low-order harmonics of the stator current and the torque ripple. The frequency of the harmonic may coincide with the natural frequency of the motor, so resonance may occur on the motor drive system. To reduce the noise caused by motor resonance, the characteristics of harmonic distortion caused by the deadtime, and the conduction voltage drop of the switching device, are analyzed firstly. Then, a motor vector control strategy with specific low order is proposed. The sixth-order harmonic resonance controller in d-q axis is introduced into the control loop, and the parameter designing principle of the controller is also presented. Without affecting the control performance of the current loop, the sixth-order harmonic of the stator current near the natural frequency can be significantly suppressed. Finally, the simulation and the experiment are carried out to certify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed harmonic suppression method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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16 pages, 3332 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Stress in Rotors of Permanent Magnet Machines—Comparison of Different Determination Methods
by Christian Monissen, Mehmet Emin Arslan, Andreas Krings and Jakob Andert
Energies 2022, 15(23), 9169; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15239169 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
In this work, different analytical methods for calculating the mechanical stresses in the rotors of permanent magnet machines are presented. The focus is on interior permanent magnet machines. First, an overview of eight different methods from the literature is given. Specific differences are [...] Read more.
In this work, different analytical methods for calculating the mechanical stresses in the rotors of permanent magnet machines are presented. The focus is on interior permanent magnet machines. First, an overview of eight different methods from the literature is given. Specific differences are pointed out, and a brief summary of the analytical approach for each method is provided. For reference purposes, a finite element model is created and simulated for each rotor geometry studied. A total of seven rotors rom representative automotive powertrains are considered in their specific speed range. The analytical methods are used to determine the maximum mechanical stress concentration factors for the seven rotor geometries, in which we are determined to find maximum mechanical stress as a final step of the analytical process. For each geometry and each respective operating speed range, the deviations from the finite element reference are determined. In addition, the error in the selected geometry variations is evaluated. A recommendation for the method with the lowest error considering all cases studied is given specifically for the stress in the airgap bridge and the central bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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15 pages, 6106 KiB  
Article
CVT for a Small Electric Vehicle Using Centrifugal Belt Pulley
by Hyung-jin Do and Se-hoon Oh
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8800; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238800 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
In a conventional continuously variable transmission (CVT), the belt slides up and down along the slope of the pulley to shift gears. Efficiency is reduced because of slippage from the shifting of the belt. In this study, the centrifugal belt pulley for CVT [...] Read more.
In a conventional continuously variable transmission (CVT), the belt slides up and down along the slope of the pulley to shift gears. Efficiency is reduced because of slippage from the shifting of the belt. In this study, the centrifugal belt pulley for CVT were investigated. Instead of applying the belt slip method, a rail groove was machined on the side of the pulley, and a push piece pushed the belt up by centrifugal force along the rail groove. The CVT was designed and manufactured using this mechanism. A CVT tester was manufactured to validate the performance of the proposed transmission. The suitability of the CVT was verified through structural analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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23 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Application of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Technology in the Development of Electro-Hydraulic Servo System Control Algorithms
by Quan Liang, Jun Gao, Feihong Liu, Kelei Wang, Haiyang Zhang, Zhike Wang and Donghai Su
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233850 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
In this paper, we present a method to identify paramaters for controlling electro-hydraulic servo systems in a real-time environment. With the aim of addressing the problem that it is difficult to accurately obtain the state space equation parameters of the physical entity of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a method to identify paramaters for controlling electro-hydraulic servo systems in a real-time environment. With the aim of addressing the problem that it is difficult to accurately obtain the state space equation parameters of the physical entity of the electro-hydraulic servo system, we introduce an online identification theory (recursive least squares method) for identifying said parameters of the state space model in a valve-controlled symmetrical cylinder system. After accurately obtaining the parameters of the system, nonlinear control of the valve-controlled symmetrical cylinder system is carried out using a backstepping algorithm. In order to verify the actual effect of the online identification algorithm and backstepping algorithm, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation platform for the valve-controlled symmetrical cylinder system is built in a Linux real-time system, and the real-time performance of the system is evaluated, which demonstrates that the platform can be reliably applied for subsequent system identification and backstepping verification. The results of the HIL simulation test demonstrate that the online identification algorithm and backstepping control method developed in this paper are effective and reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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20 pages, 7691 KiB  
Article
Characteristics Analysis and Optimization of the Structural Parameters of PTRB
by Shicheng Zheng, Yongling Fu, Deyi Wang, Junlin Pan, Ziyu Liu and Juan Chen
Machines 2022, 10(11), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10111051 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Bearings, as integral parts and components in machinery and equipment, play a critical role in system performance. In this paper, the theoretical models of basic axial load rating, basic radial load rating, and friction torque for the planetary thread roller bearing (PTRB) were [...] Read more.
Bearings, as integral parts and components in machinery and equipment, play a critical role in system performance. In this paper, the theoretical models of basic axial load rating, basic radial load rating, and friction torque for the planetary thread roller bearing (PTRB) were derived. Then, a detailed comparison was made between the performance indexes of a PTRB prototype and common high-quality bearing products to demonstrate the advantages of PTRB in volume, bearing capacity, and use method. Next, the effects of different structural parameters on the performance indexes of PTRB were analyzed. On this basis, a multi-objective optimization design was carried out on PTRB under axial load and radial load separately with basic load rating and friction torque as optimization objects to obtain PTRB with superior comprehensive performance. Designers could, in consideration of their specific needs and optimized design results, select the structural parameters of PTRB. Furthermore, a dedicated performance test system was researched and developed, which verified the good static bearing capacity and impact resistance of the PTRB prototype. Within the range of dynamic load rating, the test data were slightly larger than the simulation data for the friction torque, manifesting a relatively high degree of precision of the theoretical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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16 pages, 5994 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy PID Control of the Three-Degree-of-Freedom Parallel Mechanism Based on Genetic Algorithm
by Zhifang Zhu, Yuanjie Liu, Yuling He, Wenhao Wu, Hongzhou Wang, Chong Huang and Bingliang Ye
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11128; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111128 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
It is necessary to upgrade and transform the sorting equipment in the industrial production line. In order to improve production efficiency and reduce labor intensity, a high-speed lightweight parallel mechanism control system for the high-speed sorting and packaging of light items was studied. [...] Read more.
It is necessary to upgrade and transform the sorting equipment in the industrial production line. In order to improve production efficiency and reduce labor intensity, a high-speed lightweight parallel mechanism control system for the high-speed sorting and packaging of light items was studied. A fuzzy PID controller based on genetic algorithm (GA) optimization is proposed according to the nonlinear and strong coupling characteristics of the parallel mechanism (PM) control system. The inverse kinematic analysis was conducted to map the workspace trajectory tracking problem to the joint space. It was transformed into the trajectory planning and solving problems in the joint space. The motion trajectory was obtained utilizing quintic polynomial interpolation. Finally, the servo control system model was established, and the PID control parameters were optimized and self-tuned by the GA. They were applied to the fuzzy PID controller for simulation experiments. The simulation results showed that the GA-optimized fuzzy PID control system compared with the fuzzy PID control system had a 23.39% shorter rise time, 22.32% less regulation time, and 7.18% less steady-state error. The control system had a good dynamic and steady-state performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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20 pages, 6720 KiB  
Article
Adapting Neural-Based Models for Position Error Compensation in Robotic Catheter Systems
by Toluwanimi O. Akinyemi, Olatunji M. Omisore, Xingyu Chen, Wenke Duan, Wenjing Du, Guanlin Yi and Lei Wang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 10936; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122110936 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Robotic catheter systems with master–slave designs are employed for teleoperated navigation of flexible endovascular tools for treating calcified lesions. Despite improved tool manipulation techniques, patient safety and lowering operative risks remain top priorities. Therefore, minimizing undesirable drifts and imprecise navigation of flexible tools [...] Read more.
Robotic catheter systems with master–slave designs are employed for teleoperated navigation of flexible endovascular tools for treating calcified lesions. Despite improved tool manipulation techniques, patient safety and lowering operative risks remain top priorities. Therefore, minimizing undesirable drifts and imprecise navigation of flexible tools during intravascular catheterization is essential. In the current master–slave designs, finite displacement lag between position command and actual navigation action at the slave device affects smooth catheterization. In this study, we designed and developed a compact 2-DOF robotic catheter system and characterized the influence of displacement step values, velocity, and motion gap on the position error at the slave device. For uniform and varying motion commands from the master platform, the results indicate that the overall position error increases with the distance traveled and the displacement step values, respectively. Hence, we proposed using recurrent neural networks—long short-term memory and gated recurrent unit controllers to predict the slave robot’s position and appropriate compensation value per translation step. An analysis of in-silico studies with CoppeliaSim showed that the neural-based controllers can ensure uniform motion mapping between the master–slave devices. Furthermore, we implemented the models within the RCS for a catheterization length of 120 mm. The result demonstrates that the controllers suitably aid the slave robot’s stepwise displacement. Thus, the neural-based controllers help match the translational motion and precise tool navigation by the slave robotic device. Therefore, the neural-based controllers could contribute to alleviating patients’ safety concerns during robotic interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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20 pages, 6095 KiB  
Article
Fertilization Control System Research in Orchard Based on the PSO-BP-PID Control Algorithm
by Chang Wan, Jiawei Yang, Ling Zhou, Shuo Wang, Jie Peng and Yu Tan
Machines 2022, 10(11), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10110982 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
In order to improve the precision of the variable-rate fertilization system in orchards, this paper conducted a simulation by MATLAB and experimental research based on a variable-rate fertilization experiment platform. The variable-rate fertilization experimental platform was mainly composed of a power supply, DC [...] Read more.
In order to improve the precision of the variable-rate fertilization system in orchards, this paper conducted a simulation by MATLAB and experimental research based on a variable-rate fertilization experiment platform. The variable-rate fertilization experimental platform was mainly composed of a power supply, DC motors, a PPC-15A1 on-board computer that contains a PCI8932 PC-DAQ, speed sensors, fertilizer dischargers, and a NAV60 module that can receive Beidou Navigation Satellite System positioning data. According to the fertilizer application mechanism of an external grooved wheel fertilizer applicator, the control system model of the variable-rate fertilization driven by the DC motor for orchards was established. A BP neural network adaptive PID controller based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) was proposed to improve the control precision of the system. The step response simulation results by MATLAB show that the overshoot of the BP-PID controller optimized by the PSO algorithm (PSO-BP-PID) is 12.7%, and the adjustment time is 0.557 s. The variable-rate fertilization experiments were conducted, in which the control system was tested by using the PSO-BP-PID controller. The variable fertilizer seeder control system of the Chinese national standard was adopted to evaluate the performance indexes of the system, such as the range of fertilizer amount adjustment, the response time of fertilizer amount adjustment, and the control precision of fertilizer amount. In the variable rate fertilization experiments, the average fertilization errors, respectively, are 1.16% and 1.07%, under the conditions of changing the target fertilization amount and the vehicle speed. The test results are consistent with the simulation results, and the variable-rate fertilization performance parameters are improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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16 pages, 8866 KiB  
Article
Robust Sensorless Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Deadbeat Extended Electromotive Force Observer
by Seung-Taik Kim, In-Sik Yoon, Sung-Chul Jung and Jong-Sun Ko
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7568; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207568 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel and robust method of sensorless speed control using a deadbeat observer for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The proposed sensorless speed control method uses a deadbeat observer to estimate the extended electromotive force (EEMF) in a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel and robust method of sensorless speed control using a deadbeat observer for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The proposed sensorless speed control method uses a deadbeat observer to estimate the extended electromotive force (EEMF) in a rotational coordinate system. The estimated EEMF is used in the IPMSM velocity estimation algorithm. The deadbeat EEMF observer (DEEMFO) shows greater robustness compared to the reconstructor, which estimates the EEMF by simply recalculating the voltage equation. Unlike a reconstructor, DEEMFO has a feedback component, so it can compensate for errors due to uncertainty in motor parameters and errors due to parameter fluctuations that may occur during use. By simulating and experimenting with speed, load torque, and parameter fluctuations, it is proved to be more robust and precise than the reconstructor. The simulation is performed with MATLAB/Simulink, and the experiments were carried out using a DSP TMS320F28335 and a motor-generator set (M-G Set). The simulation and experiment results show the reliability and precision of the proposed sensorless control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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20 pages, 7395 KiB  
Article
Research on Parameter Design and Control Method for Current Source Inverter–Fed IM Drive Systems
by Pengyun Song, Yanghui Liu and Chao Liu
Machines 2022, 10(10), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100922 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
In the current source inverter (CSI)-fed inductor motor (IM) drive system, DC-bus inductance and AC-filter capacitance have a direct impact on the dynamic response speed, power quality and power density. In addition, due to the addition of filter capacitors, the mathematical model formed [...] Read more.
In the current source inverter (CSI)-fed inductor motor (IM) drive system, DC-bus inductance and AC-filter capacitance have a direct impact on the dynamic response speed, power quality and power density. In addition, due to the addition of filter capacitors, the mathematical model formed by the IM and capacitor is a third-order system, which increases the difficulty of parameter tuning for the control loop. To solve the above problems in the CSI, a DC-bus inductance design method based on current response speed and the ripple of the DC-link current and an AC-filter capacitance design method based on current utilization and filtering characteristics are presented. Then, the analytical expressions between the open-loop cut-off frequency, phase margin and the PI controller parameters of the current loop and speed loop are derived. Finally, an experimental platform is established to validate the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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10 pages, 4723 KiB  
Communication
Electromagnetic and Mechanical Analysis and Measurements of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors Based on Equivalent Magnetic Circuit Method
by Young-Keun Lee, Tae-Kyoung Bang, Seong-Tae Jo, Yong-Joo Kim, Kyung-Hun Shin and Jang-Young Choi
Machines 2022, 10(10), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100915 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
This paper is about the magnetic field analysis of an interior permanent magnet motor (IPM motor) by using the equivalent magnetic circuit method (EMC method), which requires a small amount of computation time compared with the finite element method (FEM). IPM motors have [...] Read more.
This paper is about the magnetic field analysis of an interior permanent magnet motor (IPM motor) by using the equivalent magnetic circuit method (EMC method), which requires a small amount of computation time compared with the finite element method (FEM). IPM motors have a specific shape of rotor in which the permanent magnets are embedded. Therefore, in the bridge region, the magnetic saturation is generated due to the shape of the permanent magnet, which affects the magnetic flux density distribution in the air gap and the characteristics of the IPM motor. Thus, to design an IPM motor, the magnetic saturation effects should be considered along with the rotor shape. In addition, because the rotor of the IPM rotates at a high speed directly in connection with the load, the stress generated from the rotor must be stably distributed. Consequently, according to the rotor shape characteristics of the IPM, the stress is concentrated in the thin bridge region during high-speed rotation. When the stress generated in the bridge region exceeds the yield stress of the rotor iron core material, the bridge part is destroyed. Therefore, it is important to analyze the stress that occurs in the rotor during high-speed rotation in the rotor design stage of the IPM. In this study, we analyzed the magnetic field characteristics of an IPM motor using its equivalent magnetic circuit while considering the magnetic saturation in the bridge region. The stability of the rotor was determined by presenting a safety factor based on the maximum stress generated at the rotor for each speed. We derived the stator natural frequency to evaluate the resonance possibility between the electrical frequency and the stator natural frequency. Finally, the validity of the constructed equivalent magnetic circuit was verified by comparing the results with those obtained via the FEM analysis and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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12 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation of Magnetic Balance Current Sensor Based on Magnetic Scalar Potential Volume Integral
by Dacheng Ni, Derong Luo, Shoudao Huang and Yang Lv
Electronics 2022, 11(19), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11193008 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
In this paper, a field–circuit combined simulation method, based on the magnetic scalar potential volume integral equation (MSP-VIE) and its fast algorithms, are proposed for the transient simulation and nonlinear distortion analysis of the magnetic balance current sensor. The magnetic part of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a field–circuit combined simulation method, based on the magnetic scalar potential volume integral equation (MSP-VIE) and its fast algorithms, are proposed for the transient simulation and nonlinear distortion analysis of the magnetic balance current sensor. The magnetic part of the sensor is modeled and simulated by MSP-VIE with the field matrices extracted by the method of moments. By directly implementing the magnetic field equation in the circuit, these field matrices can be regarded as equivalent circuit parameters of the magnetic part, to construct the corresponding SPICE model. Finally, the field–circuit combined model of the entire sensor is unified in a circuit, so with the SPICE solver, the transient simulation is accomplished in the time domain. Moreover, aiming at the time-consuming problem, this paper presents a corresponding fast method to accelerate the simulation. The comparison of measurement and simulation demonstrates that the proposed method not only realizes the transient simulation of the whole sensor, but also simulates some hidden performance details; thus, it can be applied to practical engineering, to guide and test the early design of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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16 pages, 908 KiB  
Review
A Review on Magnet Loss Analysis, Validation, Design Considerations, and Reduction Strategies in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
by Samith Sirimanna, Thanatheepan Balachandran and Kiruba Haran
Energies 2022, 15(17), 6116; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176116 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
Eddy current losses in magnets are a major consideration in the rotor design of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Stator design choices and the use of modern inverters with high switching frequency introduce harmonics that can contribute to significant losses in the magnets, [...] Read more.
Eddy current losses in magnets are a major consideration in the rotor design of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Stator design choices and the use of modern inverters with high switching frequency introduce harmonics that can contribute to significant losses in the magnets, causing the rotor to heat up. In typical PMSMs, the lack of rotor cooling can cause the magnet’s performance to degrade at high temperatures and eventually demagnetize. This review examines a large number of studies analyzing magnet eddy current losses using analytical methods and finite-element analysis. In some of these studies, magnet segmentation is carried out to reduce the losses; however, their loss-reduction effects depend highly on the type of PMSM and the mix of stator harmonics. Magnet segmentation without considering these effects can, in fact, increase the magnet losses, in addition to the extra manufacturing efforts. Multiple design analysis show the influence of rotor–stator geometric features on magnet losses. Although measuring magnet eddy current losses for these motor designs is a tedious task, authors have proposed calorimetric and loss segregation-based techniques to provide validation. This paper addresses magnet loss modeling techniques, PM material considerations, magnet segmentation effectiveness, motor and stator design effects, and experimental validation to inform motor designers about the costs and benefits of rotor designs that minimize rotor losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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17 pages, 2820 KiB  
Article
Design and Research on Electro-Hydraulic Drive and Energy Recovery System of the Electric Excavator Boom
by Lin Li, Tiezhu Zhang, Kaiwei Wu, Liqun Lu, Lianhua Lin and Haigang Xu
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4757; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134757 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
The hydraulic accumulator has the advantages of high power density, fast response, stable operation and high cost performance. However, compared with the electric energy storage method, the hydraulic accumulator has low energy density and large pressure fluctuation while absorbing and discharging energy, which [...] Read more.
The hydraulic accumulator has the advantages of high power density, fast response, stable operation and high cost performance. However, compared with the electric energy storage method, the hydraulic accumulator has low energy density and large pressure fluctuation while absorbing and discharging energy, which severely limits its application in hydraulic excavators. To improve the potential energy loss of the boom during the lowering process, an electro-hydraulic drive and energy recovery system for excavator booms (EHDR-EEB) based on a battery and accumulator is proposed. As a result, a simulation model of the electro-hydraulic drive and energy management strategy of a 1.6 t pure electric hydraulic excavator is built to investigate the energy regeneration and utilization. The simulation outcomes show that the potential energy recovery rate is as high as 92%. This research on EHDR-EEB makes a significant contribution to the economic improvement of electric hydraulic excavators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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19 pages, 6704 KiB  
Article
3D Pipe Forming of a New Bending Machine with a 3PUU–3RPS Hybrid Mechanism
by Shuai Zhang, Yusen Li, Zhenming Yue, Zhongran Zhang, Lianpeng Su, Biao Yan and Jun Gao
Machines 2022, 10(6), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10060470 - 12 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2737
Abstract
To achieve the spatial variable curvature bending process of metal pipes, one 3PUU–3RPS hybrid mechanism designed for the free-bending forming of pipes is presented in this study. Its kinematics model was conducted based on theoretical analysis, and the obtained result was validated through [...] Read more.
To achieve the spatial variable curvature bending process of metal pipes, one 3PUU–3RPS hybrid mechanism designed for the free-bending forming of pipes is presented in this study. Its kinematics model was conducted based on theoretical analysis, and the obtained result was validated through ADAMS simulation. Through the theoretical analysis, the inverse position model of the proposed mechanical construction, which can show the relationship between the motion and the drive of the working platform, was presented. The velocity Jacobian matrix was also obtained and analyzed by establishing the inverse velocity model and inverse acceleration model. In addition, the static stiffness analysis of the proposed mechanical construction was also conducted in ABAQUS. Finally, by investigating its working space, the capability of 3PUU–3RPS mechanism was proved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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