Topic Editors

Department of Oral Rehabilitation, The Faculty of Medicine, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Departments of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 61000, Israel

State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry and Healthcare developments are continuously ameliorating the level of dental practice. Recent advances in digitalization and computerization are likely to redefine most manufacturing processes and treatment approaches in their effectiveness and attractiveness. Evidence-based data provide us with the necessary information to refine clinical practice in dentistry, oral health, and quality of life. However, a considerable research effort is still required to achieve these methods with unique skills and the ability to cooperate, study, and adjust to continuously evolving conditions and tasks. The present Special Issue will focus on breakthrough valuable research in dentistry and allied disciplines to provide evidence-based information that will contribute to improve dental treatments and oral health.

  • oral rehabilitation and dental implants
  • periodontics and oral surgery
  • pedodontics and orthodontics
  • endodontics and microbiology
  • oral pathology—medicine and oral biology
  • dental materials and nanotechnology

Prof. Dr. Joseph Nissan
Prof. Dr. Gavriel Chaushu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • oral rehabilitation
  • dental implants
  • oral surgery
  • periodontics
  • oral pathology
  • dental materials

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Medicina
medicina
2.6 3.6 1920 19.6 Days CHF 1800
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (94 papers)

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19 pages, 6994 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Image Capture Distance for Facial Thermograms in Dentistry
by Mona Schöffauer, Lea Angst, Angela Stillhart and Murali Srinivasan
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8851; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158851 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Thermography has not yet been validated for the screening of oral disorders and no clear guidelines or methodology for this purpose have been defined in the literature. The current pilot study was aimed as an initial step to evaluate the influence of shooting [...] Read more.
Thermography has not yet been validated for the screening of oral disorders and no clear guidelines or methodology for this purpose have been defined in the literature. The current pilot study was aimed as an initial step to evaluate the influence of shooting distances on the detection of the temperature asymmetries on the face for the purpose of dental thermography. Facial thermograms were taken in three views at three shooting distances for each participant. The mean temperature of the overall image and at the region of interest (ROI) were measured from the analysis software. Thirty adult volunteers participated in this study [n = 30, mean age: 25.8 ± 6.0]. The differences between the mean temperature values at the ROI for all different shooting distances within each profile view were statistically significant [Front: H(2) = 80.176, p < 0.001; Left: H(2) = 21.399, p < 0.001; Right: H(2) = 49.451, p < 0.001]. The mean ROI temperature was influenced by personal effects (p < 0.001), medications (p < 0.001), undergoing dental treatments (p < 0.001) as well as the consumption of food (p < 0.001). This study concludes that the detection of temperature asymmetries on the face in adult volunteers are affected by the capture distance as well as factors such as medication, oral-care, and alimentation. Therefore, it is advised that personal as well as medical histories are obtained in detail prior to making the facial thermograms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 421 KiB  
Article
The Reliability and Validity of Dental Indifference Scale among Romanian Young Adults
by Ruxandra Sfeatcu, Beatrice Adriana Balgiu, Andreea Băluță, Bogdan Mihai Gălbinașu, Carmen Elena Georgescu and Roxana Romanița Ilici
Healthcare 2023, 11(6), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11060876 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
The study aimed at examining the reliability and the validity of the Dental Indifference Scale (DIS), which measures the significant undervaluing attitude towards the state of one’s oral health. The study has a cross-sectional design in which 660 young Romanian adults (Meanage [...] Read more.
The study aimed at examining the reliability and the validity of the Dental Indifference Scale (DIS), which measures the significant undervaluing attitude towards the state of one’s oral health. The study has a cross-sectional design in which 660 young Romanian adults (Meanage = 30.69; 30.30% males) completed an online survey in which the Dental Indifference Scale was included alongside five items related to one’s behavior towards oral health. The reliability was calculated by means of internal consistency and test-retest after two or three weeks. The DIS scores were associated with the questions regarding oral health habits. Although DIS is discriminatory regarding the behavior towards oral hygiene (brushing, flossing) and diet, the reliability of the scale is low (α = 0.37; ω = 0.39; Intraclass correlation coefficienttest-retest = 0.60). In comparison with prior research, no gender differences were found. In exchange, the scores for dental indifference (DI) are significantly different when it comes to comparing people with secondary education and people who are university graduates. The study shows that DIS needs to be used with caution and only with other instruments that evaluate attitudes and behaviors related to oral health which passed the test of validation in various cultural models, the Romanian one included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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18 pages, 2684 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Lower Leg Arteries and Fibular Perforators before Microsurgical Fibular Transfer Using Noncontrast-Enhanced Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective (QISS) Magnetic Resonance Angiography
by Annett Lebenatus, Karolin Tesch, Wiebke Rudolph, Hendrik Naujokat, Ioannis Koktzoglou, Robert R. Edelman, Joachim Graessner, Olav Jansen and Mona Salehi Ravesh
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(4), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041634 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1694
Abstract
(1) Background: Preoperative imaging of the lower leg arteries is essential for planning fibular grafting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of non-contrast-enhanced (CE) Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective (QISS)-magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for reliably visualizing the anatomy and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Preoperative imaging of the lower leg arteries is essential for planning fibular grafting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of non-contrast-enhanced (CE) Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective (QISS)-magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for reliably visualizing the anatomy and patency of the lower leg arteries and for preoperatively determining the presence, number, and location of fibular perforators. (2) Methods: The anatomy and stenoses of the lower leg arteries and the presence, number, and location of fibular perforators were determined in fifty patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors. Postoperative outcomes of patients after fibula grafting were correlated with preoperative imaging, demographic, and clinical parameters. (3) Results: A regular three-vessel supply was present in 87% of the 100 legs. QISS-MRA was able to accurately assign the branching pattern in patients with aberrant anatomy. Fibular perforators were found in 87% of legs. More than 94% of the lower leg arteries had no relevant stenoses. Fibular grafting was performed in 50% of patients with a 92% success rate. (4) Conclusions: QISS-MRA has the potential to be used as a preoperative non-CE MRA technique for the diagnosis and detection of anatomic variants of lower leg arteries and their pathologies, as well as for the assessment of fibular perforators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 6665 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fluoride Content of Mouthwashes on the Metallic Ion Release in Different Orthodontics Archwires
by Francisco Pastor, Juan Carlos Rodriguez, José María Barrera, José Angel Delgado García-Menocal, Aritza Brizuela, Andreu Puigdollers, Eduardo Espinar and Javier Gil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042780 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
Metal ion release studies were carried out on three of the most commonly used orthodontic wires in the clinic: austenitic stainless steel, Ti-Mo, and superelastic NiTi, using three mouthwashes with different fluoride concentrations: 130, 200, and 380 ppm. Immersions were carried out in [...] Read more.
Metal ion release studies were carried out on three of the most commonly used orthodontic wires in the clinic: austenitic stainless steel, Ti-Mo, and superelastic NiTi, using three mouthwashes with different fluoride concentrations: 130, 200, and 380 ppm. Immersions were carried out in these mouthwashes at 37 °C for 1, 4, 7, and 14 days, and the ions released were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). All wires were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a moderate ion release in the stainless steel wires, with nickel and chromium values of 500 and 1000 ppb in the worst conditions for the wires: concentrations of 380 ppm fluoride and 14 days of immersion. However, in the Ti-Mo and NiTi alloys, an abrupt change in release was observed when the samples were immersed in 380 ppm fluoride concentrations. Titanium releases in Ti-Mo wires reached 200,000 ppb, creating numerous pits on the surface. Under the same conditions, the release of Ni and Ti ions from the superelastic wires also exceeded 220,000 ppb and 180,000 ppb, respectively. This release of ions causes variations in the chemical composition of the wires, causing the appearance of martensite plates in the austenitic matrix after 4 days of immersion. This fact causes it to lose its superelastic properties at a temperature of 37 °C. In the case of immersion in 380 ppm mouthwashes for more than 7 days, rich-nickel precipitates can be seen. These embrittle the wire and lose all tooth-correcting properties. It should be noted that the release of Ni ions can cause hypersensitivity in patients, particularly women. The results indicate that the use of mouthwashes with a high content of fluoride should not be recommended with orthodontic archwires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 1626 KiB  
Article
High-Speed Dental Instruments: An Investigation of Protein-Contaminated Dental Handpieces with the Bicinchoninic Acid Assay in Dental Offices in Styria, Austria
by Michael Schalli, Birgit Kogler, Tillo Miorini, Michael Gehrer and Franz F. Reinthaler
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031670 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Due to permanent contact with bodily secretions such as blood and saliva, the dental workplace poses a high risk of infection for patients as well as for personnel. High-speed dental instruments are still considered one of the major hygienic risks, as the high-speed [...] Read more.
Due to permanent contact with bodily secretions such as blood and saliva, the dental workplace poses a high risk of infection for patients as well as for personnel. High-speed dental instruments are still considered one of the major hygienic risks, as the high-speed rotation of the attachments leads to the retraction of infectious material from patients’ oral cavities. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which dental handpieces are contaminated after use. Spray-water samples were taken from different handpieces used in seven dental offices and protein concentrations were measured photometrically. In the first part of the study, samples were collected from each handpiece before and after the treatment of the patients. Additionally, the changes in protein concentration after consecutive treatments in which the same high-speed dental instrument was used were investigated. The results demonstrated measurable protein concentrations in 91.2% of a total of 398 samples, and 96.4% of the spray-water samples taken after treatment showed a discrepancy from the initial measured protein concentration. In 68.4% an increase in protein concentration was observed, whereas in 27.9% a decrease was measured. In conclusion, the internal contamination of high-speed dental instruments frequently occurs in daily usage and consequently may lead to the transmission of infectious agents by flushing the contaminated water out of the spray water tubes. Moreover, it must be pointed out that internal cleansing of handpieces is insufficient and that a final mechanical disinfection is indispensable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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9 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Knowledge of Oral Cancer Risk Factors among International Medical and Dental Students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Sandra Petrauskienė, Dominika Kopczynska, Gintarė Žemgulytė and Kristina Saldūnaitė-Mikučionienė
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020271 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of oral cancer risk factors among international dental and medical students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LSMU). A cross-sectional study was conducted among international medical and dental students at the LSMU in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of oral cancer risk factors among international dental and medical students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LSMU). A cross-sectional study was conducted among international medical and dental students at the LSMU in 2018–2019. In total, 253 students participated, for a response rate of 76.2%. An anonymous self-administered English questionnaire, consisting of 18 items, covered background information (gender, faculty and academic study year), and statements about risk factors for oral cancer and attitudes towards the prevention and treatment of oral cancer. The fifteen statements had the following answer options: yes, no and I don’t know. The statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. Overall, a good, fair and poor knowledge of oral risk factors was reported by 15.02%, 56.92% and 28.06% of the participants, respectively. The mean score for knowledge of oral cancer risk factors was 10.01 (SD = 2.56), which was defined as fair knowledge. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (a good value). Bartlett’s sphericity test and the KMO index were adequate (χ2 = 677.563, p < 0.001; KMO = 0.788). This study demonstrates a lack of knowledge of oral cancer risk factors among international medical and dental students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
12 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Malignant Tumors Involving the Maxillary Sinus: Recommendation of an Examination Sieve and Risk Alarm Score
by Atif Bashir, Zafar Ali Khan, Afsheen Maqsood, Namdeo Prabhu, Muhammad Mudassar Saleem, Bader K. Alzarea, Rakhi Issrani, Shammas Raza Khan, Naseer Ahmed, Maria Shakoor Abbasi, Anand Marya, Mohammed Ghazi Sghaireen and Artak Heboyan
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020194 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
This observational study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and symptoms of maxillary sinus tumors and to propose a clinical examination sieve and a unique risk alarm score to be used for timely patient referral and vigilance. The study consisted of 70 [...] Read more.
This observational study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and symptoms of maxillary sinus tumors and to propose a clinical examination sieve and a unique risk alarm score to be used for timely patient referral and vigilance. The study consisted of 70 patients between 20 to 82 years of age from both sexes. The clinical information gained was collected from the upper dentoalveolar segment, orbit, and nasal sites. Regarding the early clinical sign and symptoms of patients, nasal obstruction was found in 67 patients (95.7%), facial swelling in 69 patients (98.6%), paresthesia in 41 patients (58.6%), and epistaxis in 50 patients (71.4%). Furthermore, in terms of the late signs and symptoms, a palpable mass in buccal sulcus was observed in 65 (92.9%) of the patients, lymphadenopathy in 24 (34.3%), paresthesia in 38 (54.3%), and diplopia in 22 (31.4%). Furthermore, general sign and symptoms like exophthalmos was present in 35 patients (50%), anosmia was observed in 37 patients (52.9%), and oroantral fistula was noted in 37 patients (55.9%). Additionally, 67 (95.7%) of the patients complained of nasal obstruction. Similarly, facial asymmetry was observed in 69 (98.6%) of the patients and double vision was observed in 24 (34.4%). Tumors of the maxillary sinus have a very insidious course of spread and uncertain clinical signs and symptoms. What makes diagnosis worse is the fact that the symptoms of these tumors are so well hidden in the sponge-like nature of the midfacial region that they are easily misinterpreted by patients. Therefore, diagnoses must be made early, dentists must be vigilant, and patients must be fully investigated at the slightest suspicion of a tumor, albeit benign. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Outcome Assessment after Reconstruction of Tumor-Related Mandibular Defects Using Free Vascularized Fibular Flap—A Clinical Study
by Zahid Qayyum, Zafar Ali Khan, Afsheen Maqsood, Namdeo Prabhu, Mohammed Saad Alqarni, Alzarea K. Bader, Rakhi Issrani, Maria Shakoor Abbasi, Naseer Ahmed, Mohammed Ghazi Sghaireen and Artak Heboyan
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020193 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the outcomes of the free vascularized fibular flap in the reconstruction of mandibular defects, and to assess the oral health impact profile of these patients before surgery and after oral rehabilitation. Patients requiring reconstruction of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the outcomes of the free vascularized fibular flap in the reconstruction of mandibular defects, and to assess the oral health impact profile of these patients before surgery and after oral rehabilitation. Patients requiring reconstruction of defects greater than 6 cm were selected for this study. The defect size and type, the size of the required skin paddle, the need for second flaps, the intraoperative complications, and the type of closure were documented. Patients were evaluated postoperatively for function, aesthetics, and donor- or reconstruction-site complications. The validated oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires were filled before and after surgery and after dental rehabilitation. This study included 11 cases of squamous-cell carcinomas, 2 cases of malignant nerve sheath tumors, and 1 case each of malignant melanoma, ameloblastoma, giant-cell tumor, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. The analysis revealed a significant association (p = 0.030) of gender with free vascular flap complications, while no significant association (p > 0.05) was found when donor- and recipient- site complications, as well as the type of resection (Brown’s classification), were compared with free vascular flaps. Moreover, the total OHIP-14 scores for patients before surgery, after surgery, and after dental rehabilitation were 12.03 ± 1.34, 10.66 ± 1.41, and 08.33 ± 0.62, respectively. The oral health-related quality of life was markedly improved after the reconstruction of the mandibular defects with free vascularized fibular flap and dental rehabilitation. The overall success rate of fibular flap in our study was 72.2%, which is lower than that reported in the literature. This may be attributed to the fact that almost all of our cases included large segmental defects that extended across the midline of the mandible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Smoking Status and Risk Awareness of Heated Tobacco Product Use among General Dental Practitioners Belonging to the Aichi Dental Association, Japan
by Yukie Oya, Koji Inagaki, Keiji Tokumaru, Toshiyuki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Segawa, Yohei Yamamoto, Shinsuke Takaki, Takahiro Nimi, Makoto Okai, Noriyasu Uchibori, Takahiro Tabuchi, Akio Mitani and Toru Nagao
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122346 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
The awareness of healthcare practitioners concerning heated tobacco product (HTP) use risks has been evaluated; however, few studies have investigated general dental practitioners’ awareness regarding HTP-use risks. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated dentists’ awareness of the risks of smoking, particularly HTP use. [...] Read more.
The awareness of healthcare practitioners concerning heated tobacco product (HTP) use risks has been evaluated; however, few studies have investigated general dental practitioners’ awareness regarding HTP-use risks. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated dentists’ awareness of the risks of smoking, particularly HTP use. A self-administered questionnaire, including eight questions on conventional cigarette and HTP smoking/using status and both knowledge and awareness of HTP-use risks, was posted to 3883 dentists belonging to the Aichi Dental Association, Japan, in August 2019. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences; statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. We analyzed the data of 1317 dentists (participation rate, 41.6%). The study group included cigarette smokers (11.5%) and HTP users (8.5%), among whom 41.1% were dual users. HTP users were more likely than never smokers/users to correctly perceive HTP-use risks (p < 0.05). This study indicates that in Japan, the proportion of HTP users is higher than that of the general population. It is important to educate not only smokers/users but also never smokers/users on the risks of smoking and using HTPs. Smoking cessation, including ceasing HTP use, and aiming to quit smoking and HTP use among dentists would contribute to appropriate smoking cessation among patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
11 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
Effects of Perioperative Oral Management in Patients with Cancer
by Yasuhiro Kurasawa, Akihiko Iida, Kaya Narimatsu, Hideki Sekiya, Yutaka Maruoka and Yukihiro Michiwaki
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(21), 6576; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11216576 - 06 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Perioperative oral management (POM) is used to prevent pneumonia in patients with cancer. However, the factors that expose hospitalized patients to increased risk of developing pneumonia remain unclear. For example, no study to date has compared the incidence of pneumonia in hospitalized patients [...] Read more.
Perioperative oral management (POM) is used to prevent pneumonia in patients with cancer. However, the factors that expose hospitalized patients to increased risk of developing pneumonia remain unclear. For example, no study to date has compared the incidence of pneumonia in hospitalized patients by cancer primary lesion, or POM implementation, or not. We determined which patients were most likely to benefit from POM and examined the effects of POM on pneumonia prevention and mortality. In a total of 9441 patients with cancer who underwent surgery during hospitalization, there were 8208 patients in the No POM group, and 1233 in the POM group. We examined between-group differences in the incidence of pneumonia and associated outcomes during hospitalization. There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of pneumonitis, however, patients with lung, or head and neck cancers, demonstrated a lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia. Among patients with lung and pancreatic cancers, mortality was significantly lower in the POM group. POM appears effective at reducing the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients with certain cancers. Further, mortality was significantly lower in patients with lung and pancreatic cancers who received POM; hence, POM may be an effective adjuvant therapy for patients with cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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9 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Unmet Dental Care Needs among Korean Adult Cancer Survivors: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 2016–2018 KNHANES
by So-Yeong Kim and Sun-A Lim
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081563 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the factors associated with unmet dental care needs among Korean adult cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study used data from the seventh (2016–2018) Korea National Health and Examination Survey. It included 339 adult cancer survivors. Participants’ experience of unmet [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the factors associated with unmet dental care needs among Korean adult cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study used data from the seventh (2016–2018) Korea National Health and Examination Survey. It included 339 adult cancer survivors. Participants’ experience of unmet dental care needs was assessed using a health questionnaire survey. Moreover, the subjective oral health status (i.e., toothache) and behavior (i.e., toothbrushing and oral examination) were assessed through oral health interviews. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, and logistic regression analysis. The rate of experience of unmet dental care needs among cancer survivors was 29.5%. Cancer survivors with limitations in performing daily activities of living were more likely to experience unmet dental care needs than cancer survivors without activity limitations ([aOR] = 2.14, [95%CI] = 1.04–4.40). Moreover, cancer survivors who did undergo oral examination within the past year were more likely to experience unmet dental care needs than cancer survivors who underwent oral examination ([aOR] = 2.49, [95%CI] = 1.22–5.07). Korean cancer survivors experienced unmet dental care needs when they did not receive an oral examination or had activity limitations. This study’s findings provide insight into social and behavioral factors associated with unmet dental care needs among Korean cancer survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Photobiomodulation Treatment in Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis in Young Haematological Patients—A Pilot Study
by Paula Fiwek, Katarzyna Emerich, Ninela Irga-Jaworska and Dagmara Pomiecko
Medicina 2022, 58(8), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58081023 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3524
Abstract
Background and Objectives: One of the most debilitating side effects of chemotherapy is oral mucositis (OM). Photobiomodulation (PBM) demonstrates high efficacy in the management of OM. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of oral mucositis and evaluation of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: One of the most debilitating side effects of chemotherapy is oral mucositis (OM). Photobiomodulation (PBM) demonstrates high efficacy in the management of OM. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of oral mucositis and evaluation of the effectiveness of PBM therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 children diagnosed with leukaemia or lymphoma affected by chemotherapy-induced OM were enrolled in the study. OM grade was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) scale. Patients completed an approved questionnaire, and blood cell counts were read every 2 days. OM lesions were treated with class IV laser therapy with a frequency of every 48 h and density of 2, 4, 8, 16 or 30 J/cm2. The level of pain was measured with VAS scale. Results: The 23 patients developed a total of 41 OM episodes with a mean duration of 7.61 days ± 4.70. Laser therapy showed a great reduction regarding pain and a better function of patients even with neutropenia. Conclusions: Oral mucositis represents a significant burden to children. PBM brings positive aspects for patients; however, the optimal treatment parameters require further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
The Application of a 3-Dimensional Printing Technique in Refining the Orthodontic Trans-Palatal Arch
by Yunchun Kuang, Bo Hu, Ge Feng, Lan Huang and Jinlin Song
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7497; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157497 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
The aim of this article was to describe the process of designing and manufacturing 3D TPAs and to discuss some clinical cases in which 3D TPAs were used. Digital models were acquired by scanning the casts, scanning the PVS impressions or scanning the [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to describe the process of designing and manufacturing 3D TPAs and to discuss some clinical cases in which 3D TPAs were used. Digital models were acquired by scanning the casts, scanning the PVS impressions or scanning the dentitions directly. The scanning data in a common STL format was used for the computer design that follows. Then, the design instructions were sent to a 3D printer for fabrication. Finally, manual polishing should be performed. Seven clinical cases in which 3D TPAs were used to assist orthodontic treatment were presented and discussed. The presented clinical cases demonstrated that the 3D TPA was a simple, convenient appliance for the patient and the doctor, and thus, might be more cleansable. The 3D TPA could be designed in different types based on the clinical needs of each case. The application of 3D TPA could be expanded, but clinical trials are necessary to verify the advantages reported here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 2399 KiB  
Article
Content Analysis of YouTube Videos on Radiographic Anatomy on Dental Panoramic Images
by Andy Wai Kan Yeung
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081382 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3482
Abstract
The radiographic anatomy on dental panoramic images is essential knowledge for proper diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. No prior study has examined the content of YouTube videos with regard to radiographic anatomy on panoramic radiography. The objective of this study was to provide [...] Read more.
The radiographic anatomy on dental panoramic images is essential knowledge for proper diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. No prior study has examined the content of YouTube videos with regard to radiographic anatomy on panoramic radiography. The objective of this study was to provide a content analysis on these videos. The initial search string was: (panoramic anatomy). An additional search was performed with the search string: (OPG landmarks). By screening the resultant videos and their related videos (recommended by YouTube as a list on the right of the screen), a total of 62 videos were screened. Videos were excluded if they were irrelevant (e.g., focusing on radiographic errors without covering the anatomy), elaborating mainly with drawings without showing the landmarks on panoramic images, duplicate videos, and non-English speaking. Finally, 38 videos were included and analyzed. Most of them showed clear panoramic images and had clear tracing or delineation of the anatomical landmarks. On average, each video described 26 landmarks, including 12.3 from the midfacial region, 8.2 from the mandible, and 5.2 from soft tissue/air space/others. The videos were of good quality in general, with some frequent shortcomings being lack of visual aid with skull and schematic diagrams, and lack of discussion on clinical relevance. The maxillary sinus was the structure mostly involved in wrong information, particularly the wrong delineation of its posterior wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 1814 KiB  
Article
Orthodontic Loads in Teeth after Regenerative Endodontics: A Finite Element Analysis of the Biomechanical Performance of the Periodontal Ligament
by Cristina Bucchi, Massimo Del Fabbro and Jordi Marcé-Nogué
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7063; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147063 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyse the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament and tooth structure of a cementum-reinforced tooth, a dentine-reinforced tooth and an immature tooth during orthodontic loads using a finite element analysis. A finite element model of a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyse the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament and tooth structure of a cementum-reinforced tooth, a dentine-reinforced tooth and an immature tooth during orthodontic loads using a finite element analysis. A finite element model of a maxillary incisor and its supporting tissues was developed. The root was segmented into two parts: a part that represented a root in an immature state and an apical part that represented the tissue formed after regenerative endodontics. The apical part was given the mechanical properties of dentine or cementum. The three models underwent simulation of mesial load, palatal inclination and rotation. The mean stress values and stress distribution patterns of the periodontal ligament of the dentine- and cementum-reinforced teeth were similar in all scenarios. The maturation of the root, with either dentine or cementum, was beneficial for all scenarios, since the periodontal ligament of the immature tooth showed the highest mean stress values. Under the condition of this computational study, orthodontic loads can be applied in teeth previously treated with regenerative endodontics, since the distribution of stress is similar to those of physiologically mature teeth. In vivo studies should be performed to validate these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 523 KiB  
Article
Postoperative Pain Following Root Canal Instrumentation Using ProTaper Next or Reciproc in Asymptomatic Molars: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Clinical Trial
by Patrícia Santos Oliveira, Meire Coelho Ferreira, Natália Gomes Nascimento Paula, Alessandro Dourado Loguercio, Renata Grazziotin-Soares, Gisele Rodrigues da Silva, Helena Cristina Santos da Mata, José Bauer and Ceci Nunes Carvalho
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3816; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133816 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2542
Abstract
Aim: The development of postoperative pain following root canal instrumentation may impair patient’s comfort and undermine their trust in the dentist. This study assessed the effect of root canal instrumentation techniques (rotary (PTN; ProTaper Next®) and reciprocating (R; Reciproc®)) [...] Read more.
Aim: The development of postoperative pain following root canal instrumentation may impair patient’s comfort and undermine their trust in the dentist. This study assessed the effect of root canal instrumentation techniques (rotary (PTN; ProTaper Next®) and reciprocating (R; Reciproc®)) on the postoperative pain intensity (primary outcome) and tenderness on biting (secondary outcome) of patients’ asymptomatic molars. Methodology: This study protocol was registered with ReBec-WHO (U1111-1182-2800). From a pool of 112 patients evaluated for eligibility (healthy adults (≤18 years old)), with a single asymptomatic molar (maxillary or mandibular) indicated for root canal treatment, diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis (including chronic hyperplastic pulpitis), 75 were randomly allocated in similar proportions to receive the intervention (two-appointment root canal therapy) in either the PTN or R group. The allocated procedures were performed using standardized protocols. Participants (blinded to the instrumentation technique) rated their pain intensity at 6, 12 and 24 h and from day 2 to day 7 following the root canal instrumentation appointment using a VAS and an NRS; the ibuprofen tablets taken and the presence of tenderness on biting were recorded. The instrumentation time was registered. Univariate and multivariate statistics measured the effect of independent variables on the outcomes. Results: From the 75 patients allocated, 8 patients (4 from each group) were lost; in total, 33 patients were analyzed in the PTN group and 34 in the R group. The frequencies of postoperative pain (p > 0.05) and tenderness on biting (p > 0.05) were similar between groups. The medication intake (mean of 1.31 tablets) and the time of instrumentation (approximately 11 min) were similar between groups. Conclusion: ProTaper Next and Reciproc® caused a slight risk of tenderness on biting and contributed to similar self-reported postoperative pain (low intensity) up to 7 days following root canal shaping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Immediate versus Delayed Attachment Incorporation Impact on Prosthetic Aftercare among Mandibular Implant—Supported Overdenture Wearers
by Eran Zenziper, Ofir Rosner, Oded Ghelfan, Joseph Nissan, Sigalit Blumer, Gil Ben-Izhack, Moshe Davidovich, Liat Chaushu, Adrian Kahn and Sarit Naishlos
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3524; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123524 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Background: Substantial effort is dedicated to finding the most favorable parameters that will ensure low aftercare demands among edentulous patients wearing mandibular implant supported overdentures (MISODs). The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to compare prosthetic aftercare between MISOD patients with a [...] Read more.
Background: Substantial effort is dedicated to finding the most favorable parameters that will ensure low aftercare demands among edentulous patients wearing mandibular implant supported overdentures (MISODs). The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to compare prosthetic aftercare between MISOD patients with a simultaneous (group A) vs. a three-week settling in period (group B) prior to attachment incorporation. Methods: Forty-five patients enrolled in this study. Two implants per patient were placed using a two-stage implant insertion protocol. Second-stage surgery was performed after three months. All patients received ball attachments using the direct (chairside) incorporation method. Twenty-two patients received their dentures with simultaneous attachment activation and the rest—twenty-three patients—after a three-week settling in period. Patients’ files were scanned for aftercare visits. Outcome parameters included sore spot relief, attachment incorporation, and denture repair. Additionally, gingival index measurements were compared. Confounding factors included age, gender, and implant dimensions. Results: The mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 84 ± 21 months, and the range 39–120 months. The mean number of visits for group A vs. B respectively: pressure sores relieve (3.63 ± 0.84 vs. 3.71 ± 0.61, p = 0.581), liner exchange due to loss of retention (2.09 ± 1.03 vs. 2.31 ± 1.04 p = 0.487), and gingival index (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.03 ± 0.2, p = 0.653) exhibited no statistically significant differences between the tested groups. No statistically significant differences between the groups were also noted for the denture repair aftercare treatments (p = 0.318) and the independent variables including age, gender, and implant length. Conclusions: Prosthetic aftercare in MISOD wearers is similar whether a simultaneous or a three-week settling in period for attachment incorporation is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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19 pages, 689 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Oral Health Interventions in People with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Review
by Lianne Remijn, Fabiola Sanchez, Bas J. Heijnen, Catriona Windsor and Renée Speyer
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3521; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123521 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
People with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) are at risk of developing aspiration pneumonia. However, there is no “best practice” for oral health interventions to improve swallowing-related outcomes, the incidence of aspiration pneumonia, and oral health in people with OD. Systematic literature searches were conducted [...] Read more.
People with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) are at risk of developing aspiration pneumonia. However, there is no “best practice” for oral health interventions to improve swallowing-related outcomes, the incidence of aspiration pneumonia, and oral health in people with OD. Systematic literature searches were conducted for oral health interventions in OD in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until July 2021. Original articles published in English and reporting pre- and post-intervention measurements were included. The methodology and reporting were guided by the PRISMA checklist. The methodological quality of the eight included studies was rated using the QualSyst critical appraisal tool. The oral health interventions in people with OD were diverse. This study shows little evidence that regular oral care and the free water protocol or oral disinfection reduced the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in people with OD. Oral cleaning, twice a day with an antibacterial toothpaste in combination with intraoral cleaning or the free water protocol, proved to be the most promising intervention to improve oral health. The effect of improved oral health status on swallowing-related outcomes could not be established. Increasing awareness of the importance of oral health and implementing practical oral care guidelines for people involved in the daily care of people with OD are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 680 KiB  
Communication
Content Analysis of YouTube Videos That Demonstrate Panoramic Radiography
by Marlene Grillon and Andy Wai Kan Yeung
Healthcare 2022, 10(6), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061093 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
In this digital era, dental students often search for online resources for self-directed learning. YouTube is one of the most commonly sought online platforms for educational or instructional videos. No prior study has examined the validity of panoramic radiography videos available on YouTube. [...] Read more.
In this digital era, dental students often search for online resources for self-directed learning. YouTube is one of the most commonly sought online platforms for educational or instructional videos. No prior study has examined the validity of panoramic radiography videos available on YouTube. This study provides a content analysis of these YouTube videos. A search for relevant YouTube videos was conducted in April 2022. The search string was: (panoramic OR pan OR OPG) AND (dental OR dentistry OR X-ray). The first 100 videos that resulted from the search and their related videos were screened. Exclusion criteria included irrelevance (e.g., no demonstration of panoramic radiography procedures) and non-English videos. For each included video, the following parameters were recorded: image receptor type, patient age, patient type (real patient, animation, or phantom head), patient preparation procedures, machine preparation, patient positioning, and operator safety. The number of views, comments, likes, and channel subscribers were recorded, as well as the video duration and the age of the video. Forty videos were included and analyzed. Most of the videos demonstrated digital panoramic radiography with an adult patient. Procedures on the patient and machine preparations as well as patient positioning were generally explained well. However, most videos did not well-demonstrate operator safety details concerning the use of adequate personal protective equipment. View count, comment count, and channel subscriber count positively correlated with the like count. Clinicians and students should carefully critique the content of such instructional videos and refer to the contents from other sources such as user manuals and latest recommendations from local authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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18 pages, 2212 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy of Topical Intervention for Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Network Meta-Analysis
by Hao Liu, Lei Tan, Gege Fu, Ling Chen and Hua Tan
Medicina 2022, 58(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58060771 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5959
Abstract
Background and objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical interventions used for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This network meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. We searched four electronic databases, PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Cochrane Central [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical interventions used for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This network meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. We searched four electronic databases, PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase, for randomized controlled trials reporting efficacy and safety data on topical interventions for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. We performed a quality evaluation using a methodology based on the Cochrane Handbook. Two authors independently extracted data on healing effect, size reduction effect, symptom reduction effect, recurrence and safety assessment. Network meta-analysis was then performed using ADDIS and RevMan. Results: A total of 72 trials (5272 subjects) involving 29 topical interventions were included. Honey, lnsulin liposome gel, laser, amlexanox, glycyrrhiza and triamcinolone had better efficacy performance. Probiotics and chlorhexidine helped to prolong ulcer intervals and reduce recurrence. Doxycycline and penicillin had a high risk of adverse events. Hematologic evaluation showed no preference. The rank possibility of size-reducing effect and symptom-reducing effect supported the short-term effect of laser and the long-term effect of probiotics. Conclusions: We recommend the use of laser as a short-term intervention during the exacerbation phase of RAS and probiotics as a long-term intervention during the exacerbation and remission phases of RAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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14 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
Use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for the Recovery of Oral Function after Orthognathic Surgery
by Alberto Cacho, Cristina Tordera and César Colmenero
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123268 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The oral functions of patients are markedly diminished immediately after orthognathic surgery, and novel approaches are needed to accelerate their recovery. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of weekly applications of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for this purpose, [...] Read more.
The oral functions of patients are markedly diminished immediately after orthognathic surgery, and novel approaches are needed to accelerate their recovery. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of weekly applications of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for this purpose, based on the evidence of its effectiveness in other types of patients with muscle alterations. Maximum jaw opening, bite force, pain, and facial inflammation were compared between patients receiving TENS and those receiving sham-TENS for 30 min at baseline and weekly over a four-week period after orthognathic surgery and were also compared between the before and after of each procedure. TENS was applied at 220 Hz, applying the maximum intensity tolerated by each individual patient. The TENS procedure was identical for all patients, but the device was not turned on in the sham-TENS group. Patients were blinded to their group membership. Results were analyzed separately in skeletal class II and III patients. Improvements in jaw opening and inflammation were significantly greater in the TENS than in the sham-TENS group, attributable to the muscle relaxation achieved with the procedure. Research is warranted on the benefits of a more frequent application of TENS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
On the Association between Implant-Supported Prosthesis and Glycemic Control (HbA1c Values)
by Daya Masri, Hiba Masri-Iraqi, Joseph Nissan, Carlos Nemcovsky, Leon Gillman, Sarit Naishlos and Liat Chaushu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116923 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Background: Dietary habits, food intake and oral health are important factors for general health. The aim of these present study was to assess the association between implant-supported fixed oral rehabilitation and glycemia, by monitoring HbA1c values before and after implant-supported prostheses (ISP) [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary habits, food intake and oral health are important factors for general health. The aim of these present study was to assess the association between implant-supported fixed oral rehabilitation and glycemia, by monitoring HbA1c values before and after implant-supported prostheses (ISP) delivery to diabetic individuals. Methods: Retrospective, cohort study based on dental records. All treatments were performed by experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons and experienced prosthodontists. Inclusion criteria: ISP delivery, diagnosis of diabetes in the medical files, consecutive individuals. Variables included—primary outcome—differences (delta) in HbA1c values prior to implant placement and one year after ISP delivery, early implant failure (EIF). Confounding factors included age, gender, physical status, smoking, implant jaw location, implant length, implant width, total implant count per individual. Results: Statistically significant (p < 0.01) decrease in HbA1c from 7.10 ± 1.09% to 6.66 ± 1.02% following ISP delivery was recorded. The mean HbA1c delta was 0.44 ± 0.73%, where 39.0% of the patients had a significant improvement (delta decrease > 0.5%). Univariate and multivariate model using logistic regression at individual level showed that initial high HbA1c levels was the only factor positively predicting improvement (OR = 1.96, CI [1.22, 3.14], p < 0.01). Univariate model at implant level demonstrated that implants placed in the anterior maxilla also contributed to significant improvement in HbA1c values. Multivariate analysis at implant level was similar to individual level. Number of missing teeth did not affect the results significantly. Conclusion: ISP delivery to partially or completely edentulous diabetic individuals may improve HbA1c balance. The mechanism awaits future elucidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
10 pages, 1898 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning Application in Dental Caries Detection Using Intraoral Photos Taken by Smartphones
by Mai Thi Giang Thanh, Ngo Van Toan, Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Tra, Cu Nguyen Giap and Duc Minh Nguyen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115504 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8340
Abstract
A mobile-phone-based diagnostic tool, which most of the population can easily access, could be a game changer in increasing the number of examinations of people with dental caries. This study aimed to apply a deep learning algorithm in diagnosing the stages of smooth [...] Read more.
A mobile-phone-based diagnostic tool, which most of the population can easily access, could be a game changer in increasing the number of examinations of people with dental caries. This study aimed to apply a deep learning algorithm in diagnosing the stages of smooth surface caries via smartphone images. Materials and methods: A training dataset consisting of 1902 photos of the smooth surface of teeth taken with an iPhone 7 from 695 people was used. Four deep learning models, consisting of Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNNs), You Only Look Once version 3 (YOLOv3), RetinaNet, and Single-Shot Multi-Box Detector (SSD), were tested to detect initial caries lesions and cavities. The reference standard was the diagnosis of a dentist based on image examination according to the International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS) classification. Results: For cavitated caries, YOLOv3 and Faster R-CNN showed the highest sensitivity among the four tested models, at 87.4% and 71.4%, respectively. The sensitivity levels of these two models were only 36.9 % and 26% for visually non-cavitated (VNC). The specificity of the four models reached above 86% for cavitated caries and above 71% for VNC. Conclusion: The clinical application of YOLOv3 and Faster R-CNN models for diagnosing dental caries via smartphone images was promising. The current study provides a preliminary insight into the potential translation of AI from the laboratory to clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 1955 KiB  
Article
Double Lateral Sliding Bridge Flap versus Laterally Closed Tunnel for the Treatment of Single Recessions in the Mandibular Anterior Teeth: A Pseudorandomized Clinical Trial
by Norberto Quispe-López, Juan Sánchez-Santos, Joaquín Delgado-Gregori, Joaquín López-Malla Matute, Nansi López-Valverde, Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho, Javier Flores-Fraile, Cristina Gómez-Polo and Javier Montero
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(10), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11102918 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
(1) Background: This study compared the clinical and esthetic results of the double lateral sliding bridge flap (DLSBF) and the laterally closed tunnel (LCT) techniques, with a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), for the treatment of single Miller class II-III recessions in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study compared the clinical and esthetic results of the double lateral sliding bridge flap (DLSBF) and the laterally closed tunnel (LCT) techniques, with a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), for the treatment of single Miller class II-III recessions in the mandibular anterior teeth. (2) Methods: This pseudorandomized clinical trial evaluated 14 patients, 7 of whom were part of the DLSBF + SCTG group, with an average follow-up of 58.7 ± 24.0 months, and 7 of whom were in the LCT + SCTG group, with an average follow-up of 16.7 ± 3.3 months. Clinical and esthetic evaluations of the following parameters were performed and the results for the two groups were compared: gingival recession depth, probing depth, keratinized tissue width, gingival thickness, percentage of root coverage and root coverage esthetic score. (3) Results: After the follow-up period, each technique provided evidence of a reduction in recession depth and clinical attachment level, as well as increased keratinized tissue width and gingival thickness, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). The analysis showed that gingival recession depth decreased less in the DLSBF group (4.3 ± 1.2 mm to 0.6 ± 1.1 mm) than it did in the LCT group (4.9 ± 1.1 mm to 0.1 ± 0.4 mm), but no significant difference was found between the two groups. Similarly, a greater reduction in the clinical attachment level parameter was observed in the LCT group, while a greater increase in gingival thickness was observed in the DLSBF group. The presence of scars was the only parameter for which statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the two study groups were found. (4) Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, it indicates that the LCT + SCTG technique may be considered an optimal technique in terms of reducing gingival recession depth, complete root coverage and esthetic results for the treatment of single gingival recessions in the mandibular anterior teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 1014 KiB  
Review
A Diagnostic Insight of Dental Pulp Testing Methods in Pediatric Dentistry
by Andreea Igna, Doina Mircioagă, Marius Boariu and Ștefan-Ioan Stratul
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050665 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7742
Abstract
The accurate diagnosis of pulpal pathology in pediatric dentistry is essential for the success of vital pulp therapy. Pulp testing is often a challenging task due to understanding and cooperation issues of pediatric patients, as well as the particularities of pulpal physiology encountered [...] Read more.
The accurate diagnosis of pulpal pathology in pediatric dentistry is essential for the success of vital pulp therapy. Pulp testing is often a challenging task due to understanding and cooperation issues of pediatric patients, as well as the particularities of pulpal physiology encountered in primary and immature permanent teeth. Sensibility tests, although still widely used by dental practitioners, are no longer recommended by pediatric specialists mainly due to their subjective nature. Vitality pulp tests have gained popularity in the last decade in light of some encouraging results of clinical studies. However, their use is not a routine practice yet. This paper is a literature review aimed to guide dental practitioners towards selecting the appropriate pulp testing method for their pediatric cases. It provides an overview on a multitude of pulp testing methods and an update in recommendations for primary and immature permanent teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 2022 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Combining an Extraoral High-Volume Evacuator with Preprocedural Mouth Rinsing in Reducing Aerosol Contamination Produced by Ultrasonic Scaling
by Shoji Takenaka, Maki Sotozono, Asaka Yashiro, Rui Saito, Niraya Kornsombut, Traithawit Naksagoon, Ryoko Nagata, Takako Ida, Naoki Edanami and Yuichiro Noiri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106048 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
The coronavirus disease pandemic has afforded dental professionals an opportunity to reconsider infection control during treatment. We investigated the efficacy of combining extraoral high-volume evacuators (eHVEs) with preprocedural mouth rinsing in reducing aerosol contamination by ultrasonic scalers. A double-masked, two-group, crossover randomized clinical [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease pandemic has afforded dental professionals an opportunity to reconsider infection control during treatment. We investigated the efficacy of combining extraoral high-volume evacuators (eHVEs) with preprocedural mouth rinsing in reducing aerosol contamination by ultrasonic scalers. A double-masked, two-group, crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted over eight weeks. A total of 10 healthy subjects were divided into two groups; they received 0.5% povidone-iodine (PI), essential oil (EO), or water as preprocedural rinse. Aerosols produced during ultrasonic scaling were collected from the chest area (PC), dentist’s mask, dentist’s chest area (DC), bracket table, and assistant’s area. Bacterial contamination was assessed using colony counting and adenosine triphosphate assays. With the eHVE 10 cm away from the mouth, bacterial contamination by aerosols was negligible. With the eHVE 20 cm away, more dental aerosols containing bacteria were detected at the DC and PC. Mouth rinsing decreased viable bacterial count by 31–38% (PI) and 22–33% (EO), compared with no rinsing. The eHVE prevents bacterial contamination when close to the patient’s mouth. Preprocedural mouth rinsing can reduce bacterial contamination where the eHVE is positioned away from the mouth, depending on the procedure. Combining an eHVE with preprocedural mouth rinsing can reduce bacterial contamination in dental offices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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14 pages, 2952 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Maxillary Sinus on Tooth Movement during Orthodontics Based on Biomechanical Responses of Periodontal Ligaments
by Xin Liu, Mao Liu, Bin Wu, Jingjing Liu, Wencheng Tang and Bin Yan
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 4990; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12104990 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
The maxillary sinus is a common anatomic limitation for orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of orthodontic forces on a particular anatomy can be studied using finite element analysis (FEA). Our study aimed to determine the effect of different tooth penetration depths into the [...] Read more.
The maxillary sinus is a common anatomic limitation for orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of orthodontic forces on a particular anatomy can be studied using finite element analysis (FEA). Our study aimed to determine the effect of different tooth penetration depths into the maxillary sinus floor (MSF) on the orthodontic force system for bodily tooth movement. Using the cone-beam computed tomography of a patient with low MSF, we modeled the geometry of canine, premolar, and molar teeth with their periodontal ligaments and the alveolar bone surrounding them. The models were manually modified to simulate different root penetration depths. Thereafter, the center of resistance and stress distributions for teeth penetrating into the MS were determined using FEA. Moreover, the force systems for teeth with a low MSF to varying degree were evaluated based on the FEA results. During orthodontic tooth movement, the individual differences in the periodontal anatomy should be considered. The CR position decreases with the penetration depth, while the average hydrostatic stress in the PDL increases rapidly. In this paper, we present the correction coefficients of the orthodontic force and moment for a tooth penetrating into the MSF, which is necessary for personalized treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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15 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
Knowledge Level on Infection Control among Romanian Undergraduate and Postgraduate Dental Students
by Catalina Iulia Saveanu, Maria Diana Meslec, Alexandra Ecaterina Saveanu, Daniela Anistoroaei, Livia Bobu, Carina Balcos and Oana Tanculescu
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050661 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Infection control practices in dentistry should be continuously evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of dental students from Iași, Romania about infection control in the dental office. Materials and Methods: Dental students [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Infection control practices in dentistry should be continuously evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of dental students from Iași, Romania about infection control in the dental office. Materials and Methods: Dental students and resident dentists attending the “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Iași were randomly selected in accordance with ethical guidelines, and a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based online study was conducted. The questionnaire included 21 items about infection control in dentistry. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and the chi-square test was used for data comparison, with a cutoff point of 0.05 for statistical significance. Results: The study sample included 150 subjects (75.3% female and 24.7% male) with a mean age of 25.71 ± 4.54 years. Mode of infection transmission was known by 74% of the subjects, and 76% were aware of standard precautions, with significant differences by the year of study (p = 0.012, r = 0.002). A percentage of 20% of subjects knew the means of transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (p = 0.032, r = 0.166). Most of the subjects were not vaccinated against HBV (p = 0.002, r = −0.274). Notions of high-level disinfection and sterilization were confused by 19.5% of the subjects. Only 22% of the subjects knew the correct processing of handpieces (p = 0.048, r = −0.071). The sources of information were diverse for 64.66% of the respondents, while 31.33% of them used courses and seminars only. Conclusions: There is a need for improvement in the level of knowledge on infection control for both dental students and residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
16 pages, 1828 KiB  
Systematic Review
Bracket Transfer Accuracy with the Indirect Bonding Technique—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Hisham Sabbagh, Yeganeh Khazaei, Uwe Baumert, Lea Hoffmann, Andrea Wichelhaus and Mila Janjic Rankovic
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092568 - 04 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3550
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the bracket transfer accuracy of the indirect bonding technique (IDB). Methods: Systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus through November 2021. Selection Criteria: In vivo and ex vivo studies investigating bracket [...] Read more.
Purpose: To investigate the bracket transfer accuracy of the indirect bonding technique (IDB). Methods: Systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus through November 2021. Selection Criteria: In vivo and ex vivo studies investigating bracket transfer accuracy by comparing the planned and achieved bracket positions using the IDB technique were considered. Information concerning patients, samples, and applied methodology was collected. Measured mean transfer errors (MTE) for angular and linear directions were extracted. Risk of bias (RoB) in the studies was assessed using a tailored RoB tool. Meta-analysis of ex vivo studies was performed for overall linear and angular bracket transfer accuracy and for subgroup analyses by type of tray, tooth groups, jaw-related, side-related, and by assessment method. Results: A total of 16 studies met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. The overall linear mean transfer errors (MTE) in mesiodistal, vertical and buccolingual direction were 0.08 mm (95% CI 0.05; 0.10), 0.09 mm (0.06; 0.11), 0.14 mm (0.10; 0.17), respectively. The overall angular mean transfer errors (MTE) regarding angulation, rotation, torque were 1.13° (0.75; 1.52), 0.93° (0.49; 1.37), and 1.11° (0.68; 1.53), respectively. Silicone trays showed the highest accuracy, followed by vacuum-formed trays and 3D printed trays. Subgroup analyses between tooth groups, right and left sides, and upper and lower jaw showed minor differences. Conclusions and implications: The overall accuracy of the indirect bonding technique can be considered clinically acceptable. Future studies should address the validation of the accuracy assessment methods used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors of Dental Caries in Preschool Children in Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Manarin Boonyawong, Prim Auychai and Duangporn Duangthip
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050794 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Dental caries remains prevalent in young children. This study determined dental caries prevalence and risk factors associated with caries experience in Thai preschool children. Five kindergartens in Samut Sakhon Province were evaluated. Preschool children (4- to 5-year-old children) were recruited. The participants’ parents [...] Read more.
Dental caries remains prevalent in young children. This study determined dental caries prevalence and risk factors associated with caries experience in Thai preschool children. Five kindergartens in Samut Sakhon Province were evaluated. Preschool children (4- to 5-year-old children) were recruited. The participants’ parents completed a questionnaire regarding their children’s demographic and socio-economic backgrounds and their oral health-related behaviors. Dental caries status and oral hygiene were recorded using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (dmft) and visible plaque index (VPI), respectively. In total, 308 children completed the oral examination (93.9% response rate). The mean age of the children was 5.1 ± 0.5 years old. Among them, 249 children (80.8%) had dental caries (dmft > 0) and their mean dmft score (SD) was 8.2 (4.7). The children’s age, VPI, primary caregiver, age of starting tooth brushing, assisted tooth brushing, and mother’s education level were significantly associated with dental caries (X2test, p < 0.05). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that older children with a higher VPI score and whose mothers had lower education had a significantly higher risk of having dental caries (p < 0.05). Caries prevalence was high among the evaluated Thai preschool children. The child’s age, visible dental plaque, and mother’s educational level are significant risk factors for dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 1923 KiB  
Article
Incidence, Size and Orientation of Maxillary Sinus Septa—A Retrospective Clinical Study
by Laura Andreea Schiller, Horia Mihail Barbu, Stefania Andrada Iancu and Silviu Brad
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092393 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study is to analyze if there is any statistical correlation between the surgery’s complexity (easy to difficult—depending on the anatomical conditions) and the patient’s sex, type of edentulism, and left or right side of the maxilla. Methods: Cone [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study is to analyze if there is any statistical correlation between the surgery’s complexity (easy to difficult—depending on the anatomical conditions) and the patient’s sex, type of edentulism, and left or right side of the maxilla. Methods: Cone beam computed tomography records of 1192 maxillary sinuses were evaluated, measured, and statistically analyzed with respect to patient sex, type of edentulism, and left or right side, taking into consideration Wen’s proposed sinus septum classification. Results: Our research suggests that most sinus augmentation procedures in patients presenting antral septum fall into the Moderate A category (31.94%) and that there is not a correlation between the surgery’s complexity (easy to difficult) and the patient’s sex, type of edentulism and left or right side of the maxilla. Conclusion: We suggest a minor modification to Wen’s classification in view of the fact that our findings revealed a combination of medio-lateral and antero-posterior septa that we could not classify in one of the existing categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 1638 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method for Digital Reconstruction of the Mucogingival Borderline in Optical Scans of Dental Plaster Casts
by Leonard Simon Brandenburg, Stefan Schlager, Lara Sophie Harzig, David Steybe, René Marcel Rothweiler, Felix Burkhardt, Benedikt Christopher Spies, Joachim Georgii and Marc Christian Metzger
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092383 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Adequate soft-tissue dimensions have been shown to be crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. To date, there is evidence that placement of dental implants should only be conducted in an area covered with attached gingiva. Modern implant planning software does not [...] Read more.
Adequate soft-tissue dimensions have been shown to be crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. To date, there is evidence that placement of dental implants should only be conducted in an area covered with attached gingiva. Modern implant planning software does not visualize soft-tissue dimensions. This study aims to calculate the course of the mucogingival borderline (MG-BL) using statistical shape models (SSM). Visualization of the MG-BL allows the practitioner to consider the soft tissue supply during implant planning. To deploy an SSM of the MG-BL, healthy individuals were examined and the intra-oral anatomy was captured using an intra-oral scanner (IOS). The empirical anatomical data was superimposed and analyzed by principal component analysis. Using a Leave-One-Out Cross Validation (LOOCV), the prediction of the SSM was compared with the original anatomy extracted from IOS. The median error for MG-BL reconstruction was 1.06 mm (0.49–2.15 mm) and 0.81 mm (0.38–1.54 mm) for the maxilla and mandible, respectively. While this method forgoes any technical work or additional patient examination, it represents an effective and digital method for the depiction of soft-tissue dimensions. To achieve clinical applicability, a higher number of datasets has to be implemented in the SSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
Co-Sleeping as a Protector against Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Cross-Sectional Study
by María Carrillo-Díaz, Ana Ruiz-Guillén, María Moya, Martín Romero-Maroto and María José González-Olmo
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092338 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Mothers practice co-sleeping and breastfeeding simultaneously, for convenience and to strengthen bonding. Due to the scarcity of studies analyzing the impact of co-sleeping on primary dentition, this study aimed to analyze the possible effects of co-sleeping on children’s occlusion. In this cross-sectional study, [...] Read more.
Mothers practice co-sleeping and breastfeeding simultaneously, for convenience and to strengthen bonding. Due to the scarcity of studies analyzing the impact of co-sleeping on primary dentition, this study aimed to analyze the possible effects of co-sleeping on children’s occlusion. In this cross-sectional study, mothers of 221 children aged 2–5 years who had been breastfed for less than 6 months completed a questionnaire about non-nutritive sucking habits. The WHO (World Health Organization) and IOTN-AC indices (the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need) were used to assess malocclusion. The type of sagittal (dental and skeletal), transverse and vertical malocclusion was recorded. The non-co-sleeping group showed significantly higher pacifier use (p < 0.05), digital sucking (p < 0.05) and atypical swallowing (p < 0.05) habits. The non-co-sleeping group showed significantly higher mean scores on the IOTN-AC (p < 0.05) and WHO (p < 0.01), a significantly higher presence of canine class II (p < 0.05), anterior open bite (p < 0.05), posterior crossbite (p < 0.05), overbite (p < 0.05), skeletal class II (p < 0.01) and protrusion (p < 0.05). In conclusion, children who practice co-sleeping appear to have a lower frequency and duration of non-nutritive sucking habits. Co-sleeping may contribute to a lower development of malocclusions in children who are weaned early (before six months of age). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
Predictive Factors in the Appearance and Evolution of Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity
by Alexandra Carp, Andrei Nicolau, Mihaela Moscalu and Eugenia Popescu
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050570 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) registered an alarming fall in the average age of individuals diagnosed in the last decade. Objectives: The aim of our study is to assess the main risk factors for OSCC specific to Romania and to identify [...] Read more.
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) registered an alarming fall in the average age of individuals diagnosed in the last decade. Objectives: The aim of our study is to assess the main risk factors for OSCC specific to Romania and to identify patients at risk for this pathology. The purpose is to implement in the future a screening and early diagnosis program for OSCC in our country. Materials and Methods: A ten-year case-control study was conducted on patients selected from “St. Spiridon” Hospital-Iaşi, Romania. The study contained 1780 individuals diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Results: For the patients under 46 years old: APC = −2.8 percent (95% CI: −24.4 to −7.1; p = 0.0012), with the observed rate of 30.18 percent. The incidence increased in patients aged 46 to 49 years (APC = 9.6%; 95% CI: 6.7 to −10.4; p = 0.0081). For the age group 49 to 64 years old: APC = −2.4 percent (95% CI: −5.3 to −1.6, p = 0.1239). For the age group 64–74: APC = −4.6, (95% CI: 1.4 to 6.9, p = 0.0108). The incidence of incidents was lower in the age group 74–80 (p = 0.0025). For the age group 80–91: APC = 8.1 (95% CI: 6.4 to 14.2, p = 0.0024), with the incidence of cases: APC = 8.1 (95% CI: 6.4 to 14.2, p = 0.0024). Univariate analysis revealed a substantially higher risk of developing oral carcinoma in males (OR = 4.43; CI: 3.84 to 5.80). Age above 60, cigarette usage and alcohol abuse are significant risk factors for OSCC. Patients with lymph node dissemination, ulcero-vegetant form, stages II and IV, whose therapeutic approach consisted of radiotherapy and chemotherapy or radiotherapy only had a worse rate of survival at 24 months post-therapy. Conclusions: Our study highlights the increase in the incidence of OSCC in Romania during the research period, the decrease in the average age of diagnosed patients, as well as the degree to which the studied population is exposed to the main risk factors specific to this geographical area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 1152 KiB  
Review
Endodontic Regenerative Procedures in Necrotic Adult Teeth
by Sara Garrido-Parada, Pablo Castelo-Baz, Nancy Feijoo-Pato, José Gaviño-Orduña and Benjamín Martín-Biedma
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4212; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094212 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
There have been published regenerative endodontic protocols for treating immature teeth in young patients, but there are no clinical considerations for the adult teeth. The goal of the present review is to propose a specific clinical protocol for both mature and immature adult [...] Read more.
There have been published regenerative endodontic protocols for treating immature teeth in young patients, but there are no clinical considerations for the adult teeth. The goal of the present review is to propose a specific clinical protocol for both mature and immature adult teeth with necrotic pulps. Research was performed from January to April of 2021. From the 539 studies identified through the initial search, 23 studies were qualified for the final analysis (3 randomized controlled trials and 20 case reports). The results in mature adult teeth indicate a success rate of 96.35 and 100% in bone healing through the randomized controlled trials and case reports, respectively; 100% in absence of clinical symptoms, and 58 and 62.5% in positive response to sensibility tests. The success rate in the case reports in teeth with open apex reported a 61.5% of root development, 100% of bone healing, 96.15% of absence of clinical symptoms, and 43.7% of positive response to sensibility tests. The current evidence is scarce but emerging, so REPs may be a promising alternative for treating adult necrotic teeth. The clinical protocol proposed is based on the evidence available and age considerations, and should be updated in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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17 pages, 1147 KiB  
Review
Post-Operative Endodontic Pain Management: An Overview of Systematic Reviews on Post-Operatively Administered Oral Medications and Integrated Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations
by Federica Di Spirito, Giuseppe Scelza, Roberto Fornara, Francesco Giordano, Donato Rosa and Alessandra Amato
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050760 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5741
Abstract
Endodontic treatment comprises the overall management of pre-, intra- and post-operative symptoms, including post-operative endodontic pain, considered as a complication susceptible of chronicization. Post-operative pain is very common and highly unpreventable and has a multi-factorial etiology and a potential pathogenic link to the [...] Read more.
Endodontic treatment comprises the overall management of pre-, intra- and post-operative symptoms, including post-operative endodontic pain, considered as a complication susceptible of chronicization. Post-operative pain is very common and highly unpreventable and has a multi-factorial etiology and a potential pathogenic link to the acute inflammation of the periapical area, secondary to localized chemical, mechanical, host and/or microbial damage occurring during endodontic treatment. Considering the multitude of heterogeneous technical and pharmacological approaches proposed to control post-operative endodontic pain, the present study primarily comprised an overview of systematic reviews of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials, summarizing findings on post-operatively administered oral medications for post-operative endodontic pain control, in order to note the most effective type and dosage of such drugs. Secondarily, a narrative review of the current evidence on technical solutions to be observed during endodontic treatment procedures, to control post-operative pain, was conducted to provide integrated evidence-based clinical recommendations for optimal post-operative endodontic pain management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Romanian Version of the Oral Health Values Scale: Adaptation and Validation
by Beatrice Adriana Balgiu, Ruxandra Sfeatcu, Christina Mihai, Mircea Lupușoru, Mirela Veronica Bucur and Laura Tribus
Medicina 2022, 58(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040544 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Oral health values are an indicator of how people decide their priorities for oral health—an integral part of general health. The purpose of the study was the validation of the Oral Health Values Scale (OHVS), which measures the extent [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Oral health values are an indicator of how people decide their priorities for oral health—an integral part of general health. The purpose of the study was the validation of the Oral Health Values Scale (OHVS), which measures the extent to which individuals invest in their oral health and which includes four factors: Professional dental care, Appearance, Flossing, and Retention of teeth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of adults (n = 869; Mean age = 32.98) who completed the online questionnaire set. The OHVS was translated into Romanian through the forward-backward translation procedure. The construct validity was assessed through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on the maximum likelihood estimation method. The convergent validity was assessed by associating the OHVS with scales that evaluate the oral health quality of life (OHIP-14), the attitude towards one’s dentist (R-DBS), oral self-care (DNS), and general health literacy (GHL). The internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω. Results: The CFA supports the four-factor model of the scale. The OHVS total score and its subscales are negatively associated with the impact of oral health on the quality of life (except for the Appearance subscale) and with a distrust in the dentist’s treatments; they are positively associated with oral self-care and general health literacy. The gender difference shows females have higher scores on all four subscales. The internal consistency is good for Appearance, Flossing, and the OHVS total score, but weak for Professional dental care and Retention. Conclusions: OHVS is a valid instrument in the Romanian context that can enrich the set of tools that contribute to oral health research, especially in epidemiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 364 KiB  
Article
Effect of Morbidities, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Migrant Elderly Following Children in Weifang, China
by Hexian Li and Fanlei Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084677 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
This study explored the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress, morbidity, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the migrant elderly following children (MEFC) in Weifang, China. A total of 613 MEFC were selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The GOHAI scale was [...] Read more.
This study explored the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress, morbidity, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the migrant elderly following children (MEFC) in Weifang, China. A total of 613 MEFC were selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The GOHAI scale was used to evaluate oral health-related quality of life. The DASS-21 scale was used to assess levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation between these indicators and oral health-related quality of life, of which 43.9% were classified as having poor oral health. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MEFC who were of older age (OR = 0.965, p = 0.039), with hypertension (OR = 0.567, p = 0.004), with gastroenteropathy (OR = 0.263, p = 0.007), had received an outpatient service in the past year (OR = 0.669, p = 0.048), were depressed (OR = 0.338, p = 0.012), and anxious (OR = 0.414, p = 0.026) were less likely to report good oral health status. On the other hand, the MEFC with a high school education or above (OR = 1.872, p = 0.020) were more likely to report good oral health than those with primary school education and below. In conclusion, with regard to depression, anxiety, and stress: the results indicated that the fewer morbidities, the lower the level of depression and anxiety and the better the OHRQoL of MEFC. Targeted measures for government, communities, and family members were given to improve the OHRQoL of MEFC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
10 pages, 638 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Drug Holidays of Antiresorptive Agents and Surgical Outcomes in Cancer Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
by Mitsunobu Otsuru, Sakiko Soutome, Keisuke Omori, Koki Suyama, Kota Morishita, Saki Hayashida, Maho Murata, Yukinori Takagi, Miho Sasaki, Misa Sumi, Yuka Kojima, Shunsuke Sawada, Yuki Sakamoto and Masahiro Umeda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084624 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
It is controversial as to whether the withdrawal of antiresorptive (AR) agents is necessary while treating medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). In this study, we investigated whether a drug holiday promoted sequestrum separation and improved the surgical outcomes of MRONJ patients with [...] Read more.
It is controversial as to whether the withdrawal of antiresorptive (AR) agents is necessary while treating medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). In this study, we investigated whether a drug holiday promoted sequestrum separation and improved the surgical outcomes of MRONJ patients with malignant tumors, who were undergoing high-dose AR therapy. In total, we included 103 MRONJ patients with malignant tumors as their primary disease who underwent surgery at Nagasaki University Hospital or Kansai Medical University Hospital from January 2009 to December 2020. We recorded the patients’ age, sex, primary disease, MRONJ stage, type and administration period of the AR agent, presence of diabetes, corticosteroid use, drug holiday period, white blood cell count, serum albumin, serum creatinine, outcomes, and computed tomography findings. The relationships between a drug holiday and sequestrum separation, and between a drug holiday and outcome, were analyzed. Drug holidays of 60, 90, and 120 days were not significant factors of sequestrum separation and did not influence patients’ surgical outcomes as per the univariate and multivariate analyses. MRONJ patients with cancer as their primary disease should be operated upon immediately and without drug holidays if their general condition permits surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Patients’ Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry: A Controlled Study
by Esra Kosan, Joachim Krois, Katja Wingenfeld, Christian Eric Deuter, Robert Gaudin and Falk Schwendicke
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082143 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3014
Abstract
Background: As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly important in modern dentistry, we aimed to assess patients’ perspectives on AI in dentistry specifically for radiographic caries detection and the impact of AI-based diagnosis on patients’ trust. Methods: Validated questionnaires with Likert-scale batteries (1: “strongly [...] Read more.
Background: As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly important in modern dentistry, we aimed to assess patients’ perspectives on AI in dentistry specifically for radiographic caries detection and the impact of AI-based diagnosis on patients’ trust. Methods: Validated questionnaires with Likert-scale batteries (1: “strongly disagree” to 5: “strongly agree”) were used to query participants’ experiences with dental radiographs and their knowledge/attitudes towards AI as well as to assess how AI-based communication of a diagnosis impacted their trust, belief, and understanding. Analyses of variance and ordinal logistic regression (OLR) were used (p < 0.05). Results: Patients were convinced that “AI is useful” (mean Likert ± standard deviation 4.2 ± 0.8) and did not fear AI in general (2.2 ± 1.0) nor in dentistry (1.6 ± 0.8). Age, education, and employment status were significantly associated with patients’ attitudes towards AI for dental diagnostics. When shown a radiograph with a caries lesion highlighted by an arrow, patients recognized the lesion significantly less often than when using AI-generated coloured overlays highlighting the lesion (p < 0.0005). AI-based communication did not significantly affect patients’ trust in dentists’ diagnosis (p = 0.44; OLR). Conclusions: Patients showed a positive attitude towards AI in dentistry. AI-supported diagnostics may assist communicating radiographic findings by increasing patients’ ability to recognize caries lesions on dental radiographs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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14 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Romanian Postgraduate Periodontal Residency Teaching: Past Experience, Present Imperatives and Future Considerations in a Multicentric Evaluation
by Cristina Andrada Costea, Dora Maria Popescu, Alexandra Roman, Ștefan-Ioan Stratul, Petra Șurlin, Marius Negucioiu, Iulia Cristina Micu, Andreea Ciurea, Patricia Ondine Lucaciu, Luminița Lazăr, Doina Elena Mircioagă and Andrada Soancă
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084488 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The aims of this study were to identify the challenges in periodontology postgraduate residency programs during the COVID-19 pandemic by identifying the modifications of educational instruments, to evaluate the impact of hybrid education on periodontology postgraduate programs in terms of resident-centred outcomes, and [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to identify the challenges in periodontology postgraduate residency programs during the COVID-19 pandemic by identifying the modifications of educational instruments, to evaluate the impact of hybrid education on periodontology postgraduate programs in terms of resident-centred outcomes, and to evaluate the education efficiency of an innovative teaching approach. Resident doctors from three Romanian dental faculties were included in study groups based on the intensity of clinical training. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect information on residents’ perception about teaching activity. Important educational changes were identified. Moreover, residents learned a periodontal procedure through online training and then performed it on preclinical models three times. The working times were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. Resident doctors were unsatisfied with clinical practice during the pandemic year, but they positively valued the development of online courses. Learning efficiency improved by repeating the same procedure on preclinical models, as proved by the significant decrease of the working times. E-learning was appreciated as an important component of the new hybrid teaching approach. Reorganization and further emphasis on both preclinical and medical practice, targeted to aid residents perform more accurate and efficient procedures, are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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8 pages, 1696 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Denture Cleansing Solutions on the Retention of Precision Attachments: An In Vitro Study
by Gonca Deste Gokay, Serhat Emre Ozkir, Thomas Gerhard Wolf, Gulsum Gokcimen, Nergiz Rona, Mehmet Bicer and Burak Yilmaz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074345 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1917
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different cleansing solutions on the retention of precision attachments. A precision attachment patrix was embedded into acrylic resin and the matrix was placed onto the patrix. The red (high retention, 8 N), yellow (regular retention, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different cleansing solutions on the retention of precision attachments. A precision attachment patrix was embedded into acrylic resin and the matrix was placed onto the patrix. The red (high retention, 8 N), yellow (regular retention, 6 N), and green (reduced retention, 4 N) plastic matrixes of the attachments (n = 32) were soaked in three different denture cleansing solutions (sodium laureth sulfate, sodium bicarbonate-sodium perborate, sodium bicarbonate) for a duration simulating 6 months of clinical use. The control group was soaked in tap water. A universal testing machine was used to measure the retention values of attachments after they were soaked in denture cleansers. The retention values were compared among the groups with repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). Yellow attachments were affected by sodium laureth sulfate, sodium bicarbonate-sodium perborate, and water (p = 0.012). Green attachments’ retention increased after immersion in sodium laureth sulfate (p = 0.04) and water (p = 0.02). Red attachments’ retention increased after immersion in sodium laureth sulfate or sodium bicarbonate-sodium perborate (p = 0.045). Water did not affect the retention of red attachments. Because sodium bicarbonate tablets did not affect the retention of attachments, clinicians may recommend their use as a cleanser. Clinicians also may inform patients using fixed and removable partial prostheses with precision attachments of a possible increase in retention after the use of sodium laureth sulfate or when using sodium bicarbonate-sodium perborate with yellow and red attachments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Implant-Supported Prosthesis Is a Viable Treatment Alternative for American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status 3 Individuals—A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Daya Masri, Hiba Masri-Iraqi, Sarit Naishlos, Evgeny Weinberg, Vadim Reiser and Liat Chaushu
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11072002 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Background: Within medicine, it is common to use risk prediction tools towards clinical decision making. One of the most widely accepted assessment tools is the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) classification. Oral and maxillofacial procedures performed in an ambulatory setting [...] Read more.
Background: Within medicine, it is common to use risk prediction tools towards clinical decision making. One of the most widely accepted assessment tools is the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) classification. Oral and maxillofacial procedures performed in an ambulatory setting would be considered low risk for the procedure itself. However, little is known concerning the impact of ASA PS on surgical outcomes. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of ASA PS classification on early implant failure (EIF). Methods: Retrospective cohort study based on dental records. All treatments were performed by experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons and experienced prosthodontists. Inclusion criteria: ASA physical status 1,2,3, consecutive individuals. Variables included the following: age, gender, implant location, implant length, implant width, smoking, and early implant failure. Results: Univariate tests at the patient level showed no statistically difference between the different classifications of ASA PS (1,2,3). Multivariate model using logistic regression at individual level showed that two factors were found to be associated with an increased risk for EIF—augmented bone and implant brand. Conclusions: ASA PS 3 is not a contraindication for implant-supported prostheses. EIF in ASA PS 3 is not significantly different from ASA PS 1,2. In contrast, factors such as bone augmentation and implant brand might be significant risk factors for EIF, regardless of ASA PS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
14 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Oral Microbiome Using Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta Extract Varnish in a Mouse Model with Oral Gavage of P. gingivalis ATCC 53978
by Seong-Jin Shin, Seong-Hee Moon, Hyun-Jin Kim, Seung-Han Oh and Ji-Myung Bae
Medicina 2022, 58(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040506 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
Background and Objective: There is increasing interest in preventing periodontitis using natural products. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta (CA) varnish on the oral microbiome and alveolar bone loss in a mouse periodontitis [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: There is increasing interest in preventing periodontitis using natural products. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta (CA) varnish on the oral microbiome and alveolar bone loss in a mouse periodontitis model. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) ATCC 53978 and cell cytotoxicity using CCK-8 on L929 cells were measured. Balb/c mice were assigned into five groups (negative control, positive control, CA in drinking water, varnish, and CA varnish). P. gingivalis was administered to the mice by oral gavage three times. After sacrifice, the oral microbiome and the levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was measured using micro-computed tomography. Results: CA extract showed an antibacterial effect against P. gingivalis (p < 0.05) and showed no cytotoxicity at that concentration (p > 0.05). Although alpha diversity of the oral microbiome did not statistically differ between the groups (p > 0.05), the relative abundance of dominant bacteria tended to be different between the groups. The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β was reduced in the CA varnish group (p < 0.05), and no difference was observed in MMP-9 expression and alveolar bone loss (p > 0.05). Conclusions: CA varnish did not affect the overall microflora and exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect, suggesting that it is possibility a suitable candidate for improving periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 1427 KiB  
Article
Local Administration of ElectroMagnetic Field as Add-On Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Facial Pain: A Pilot Study
by Marco Storari, Nicoletta Zerman and Enrico Spinas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074123 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Fibromyalgic syndrome and orofacial neuropathic pain are major public health concerns affecting up to 5% and 10%, respectively, of the general population. They generally require medications such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants, which may additionally impact the quality of life with their side effects. [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgic syndrome and orofacial neuropathic pain are major public health concerns affecting up to 5% and 10%, respectively, of the general population. They generally require medications such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants, which may additionally impact the quality of life with their side effects. Modern technologies and related applications have changed several fields of human life, even in medicine. In the current study, the local administration of electromagnetic fields as add-on therapy for the treatment of cervical and facial pain in patients with fibromyalgia or neuropathic pain has been evaluated. A total of 15 patients were recruited, and an electromagnetic field was delivered through a small patch applied between C3 and C4. Patients were followed for 12 months, and pain levels were rated via the VAS scale; ∆% was calculated through the analysis of median VAS scale values at each time point. Mild-to-moderate improvements were found, especially after six months. Patients with fibromyalgic syndrome showed better response rates than those with orofacial neuropathic pain. Joint stiffness, masticatory fatigue, and sleep disturbances were also reduced. In conclusion, the local application of electromagnetic field appeared effective in treating fibromyalgic and neuropathic pain in the head and neck district, with broader improvements and no side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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7 pages, 414 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Delayed Infections after Lower Third Molar Extraction
by Giuseppe Monaco, Maria Rosaria A. Gatto and Gian Andrea Pelliccioni
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074028 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Purpose: This retrospective study aimed to verify that the onset of delayed infection after lower third molar extraction was influenced by the amount of distal space. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 265 patients (age range 12–55 years), who had one or two mandibular [...] Read more.
Purpose: This retrospective study aimed to verify that the onset of delayed infection after lower third molar extraction was influenced by the amount of distal space. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 265 patients (age range 12–55 years), who had one or two mandibular third molars to be extracted. All 380 third molars were removed for orthodontic reasons, periodontal disease, or pericoronitis and were evaluated by the Pell and Gregory classification using the panoramic radiographs. Results: Delayed infection, characterized from purulent exudates from the alveolus and swelling, was reported in 21 extractions between 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. In 16 of the 21 cases of infection, a class III of Pell and Gregory was observed, and this anatomic condition evidenced an extremely reduced space distal to the second molar. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the absence of distal space was significantly correlated with delayed infection. These data are important for proper examination of a patient because, in the case of class I or II of Pell and Gregory, a delayed infection was less likely to occur, while a class III of Pell and Gregory could indicate a greater likelihood of this type of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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7 pages, 778 KiB  
Communication
The Diagnostic Relevance and Interfaces Covered by Mach Band Effect in Dentistry: An Analysis of the Literature
by Andy Wai Kan Yeung
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040632 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
This work surveyed how the Mach band effect was mentioned in the dental literature and provided a qualitative assessment of diagnostic relevance and interfaces covered. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were queried in mid-Jan 2022. The search string was (“mach band effect” OR [...] Read more.
This work surveyed how the Mach band effect was mentioned in the dental literature and provided a qualitative assessment of diagnostic relevance and interfaces covered. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were queried in mid-Jan 2022. The search string was (“mach band effect” OR “mach effect”) AND (dental OR oral OR tooth OR teeth OR maxillofacial OR orofacial). All publications returned by the searches were screened. Exclusion criteria included irrelevance (e.g., dealing with “Mach effect” that was non-radiographic or non-dental) and not written in English. Reference lists of returned publications were manually searched to identify potentially missed papers. For each included publication, the following parameters were recorded: any presentation of radiographic images showing a Mach band effect, direct investigation of the effect, relevance to which structural interfaces, diagnostic relevance, and in which parts of the publication Mach band effect was mentioned. Seventy-seven publications were included and analyzed. The majority of the publications mentioned the Mach band effect in the Discussion section about its diagnostic relevance to caries detection at the enamel-dentinal junction and the interface between restorative material and tooth structure. Eight of them presented radiographic images showing a Mach band effect. Three of them investigated the Mach band effect. Dental publications seldom covered the Mach band effect. When they covered it, most of them only mentioned it in the Discussion section without actually investigating it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 230 KiB  
Article
Minimizing MRONJ after Tooth Extraction in Cancer Patients Receiving Bone-Modifying Agents
by Gal Avishai, Daniel Muchnik, Daya Masri, Ayelet Zlotogorski-Hurvitz and Liat Chaushu
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11071807 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
Background: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a mucosal lesion of the maxillofacial region with necrotic bone exposure. MRONJ is believed to be multifactorial. Tooth extraction is debatably a risk factor for MRONJ. The targets of the present study were to examine [...] Read more.
Background: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a mucosal lesion of the maxillofacial region with necrotic bone exposure. MRONJ is believed to be multifactorial. Tooth extraction is debatably a risk factor for MRONJ. The targets of the present study were to examine MRONJ occurrence in patients using bone modifying agents (BMAs) for oncology indications and undergoing a dental extraction, and to assess whether suspected predisposing factors can predict MRONJ. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, cohort study included all patients fitting the inclusion criteria and a large tertiary medical center. Data were obtained from the hospital’s medical records using a structured questionnaire. Results: We performed 103 extractions on 93 patients. Local inflammation/infection of the extraction site was most associated with a complication (p = 0.001) OR = 13.46, 95% CI = (1.71, 105.41), OR = 13.5. When the indication for extraction was periodontal disease, vertical root fracture, or periapical pathosis, the odds of developing MRONJ were 4.29 times higher than for all other indications (p = 0.1), OR = 4.29, 95% CI = (1.16, 15.85). A significant association was found between the time of onset of BMA treatment and time of extraction and the development of MRONJ, OR = 3.34, 95% CI = (1.01, 10.18). Other variables did not correlate with the development of MRONJ. Conclusion: Local inflammation/infection and onset of BMA treatment prior to extraction yield a 10.23 times higher chance of developing MRONJ following tooth extraction. Future protocols should use this information to minimize MRONJ incidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
9 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Cross Sectional Study on the Association between Dental Caries and Life Habits in School Age Italian Children
by Massimiliano Ciribè, Angela Galeotti, Chiara Dolci, Livia Gargiullo, Martina Mammone, Erika Cirillo, Paola Festa and Giuseppe La Torre
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040607 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Dental caries is still a major public health issue and influences the overall health of children. The risk factors for caries include biological, socio-behavioral, and environmental factors. Our aim is to assess the association between dental caries and the life habits of children [...] Read more.
Dental caries is still a major public health issue and influences the overall health of children. The risk factors for caries include biological, socio-behavioral, and environmental factors. Our aim is to assess the association between dental caries and the life habits of children and their parents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome (Italy) among primary school children aged 5 to 11. Parents completed the anamnestic questionnaire, and a dental clinical examination was performed on 333 children. Caries prevalence was 38.7% overall, 47% in males and 31.9% in females. The association between bottle night-time feeding and caries was statistically significant (43.2%; p = 0.013). Usage of a honeyed pacifier was also significantly associated with the presence of caries (72.7%; p = 0.027). Finally, higher caries prevalence was found among male children (47% vs. 31.9%; p = 0.005). The present study shows that the percentage of caries is still high in the paediatric population, and caries prevalence is associated with life habits. Our results highlight the importance of oral health education programs at primary school that involve teachers and parents to contribute to improving lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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14 pages, 3202 KiB  
Article
Morphologic Evaluation of Dentoalveolar Structures after Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontic Treatment in Romanian Adult Patients
by Irinel Panainte, Dorin-Horațiu Nenovici, Marius Mariș, Dan-Cosmin Șerbănoiu, Claudiu Vartolomei and Mariana Păcurar
Medicina 2022, 58(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040468 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics is an approach that can be useful in treating complex orthodontic cases and that could enhance the rate of tooth movement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes that occurred in the buccal cortical [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics is an approach that can be useful in treating complex orthodontic cases and that could enhance the rate of tooth movement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes that occurred in the buccal cortical bone and at the root level after an orthodontic treatment when corticotomy was used, in Romanian patients. Materials and Methods: After dividing the subjects into two groups (maxillary and mandibular corticotomy), based on CBCT, measurements were made of the thickness of the cortical buccal bone at the cervical, median and apical level, and of the root length at T0 (before corticotomy) and T1 (6 months after surgery). Several tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: In the maxillary arch, the bone thickness measured after corticotomy in males was 0.64 mm at the cervical level, 0.53 mm at the medial level and 0.30 mm in the apical area. In females, the values were 0.46 mm (cervical), 0.37 mm (medial) and 0.36 mm (apical). In the lower arch, the values obtained for these three regions were 0.37 mm, 0.30 mm and 0.37 mm for males and 0.58 mm, 0.32 mm and 0.43 mm for female subjects. All values were statistically significant. The root length for the lower teeth at T0 was 11.98 ± 2.24 mm at T0 and 11.97 ± 2.24 mm at T1. For the upper teeth, the root length at T0 was 13.83 ± 2.28 mm and 13.81 ± 2.28 mm. Conclusions: Comparing the measurements, it was observed that the biggest changes in the cortical bone were at the cervical level. In the maxillary arch, the most significant modifications were registered at the canines and the level of the first premolars, and in the lower arch at the incisors level. The measured root resorption of the teeth was considered to be statistically insignificant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 889 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Morphology of Impacted Maxillary Central Incisors: A Systematic Review
by Guoda Mockutė, Gustė Klimaitė and Dalia Smailienė
Medicina 2022, 58(4), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040462 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3048
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The knowledge of the morphology of impacted maxillary central incisors may lead to more effective treatment. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the morphology of impacted maxillary central incisors and compare them with contralateral teeth. Material and methods [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The knowledge of the morphology of impacted maxillary central incisors may lead to more effective treatment. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the morphology of impacted maxillary central incisors and compare them with contralateral teeth. Material and methods: This systematic review adhered to the PRISMA statement. The literature search was carried out using PubMed (Medline database), Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Web of Science and Science Direct electronic databases with no publication date restrictions up to July 2021. Data assessing the morphology of unilaterally impacted maxillary central incisors (ICI) evaluated with CBCT were extracted, and the quality of the studies was evaluated. Crown length, root length, and root dilaceration of impacted maxillary central incisors were compared with contralateral unimpacted teeth. Results: The initial database search identified a total number of 287 studies. After applying the selection criteria, 21 articles were selected for a full-text analysis, and four retrospective studies involving 205 patients were included in the systematic review. According to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), two of included articles were graded as “Good” and the remaining two as “Fair” quality. The results showed no difference between impacted teeth and their contralateral crowns, or a minor decrease in ICI crown length (from 0.15 to 0.56 mm). The root lengths of impacted maxillary central incisors were considerably shorter than contralateral incisors (from 2.13 to 3.22 mm) and, as dental age increased, root growth decreased and the incidence of root dilaceration was more frequent. Conclusions: The root lengths of impacted maxillary central incisors were considerably shorter compared to the contralateral incisors. Root dilacerations frequency and severity increased as dental age increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 3039 KiB  
Article
Esthetic Assessment following Ridge Augmentation, Late Implant Placement and Immediate Esthetic Reconstruction of the Atrophic Anterior Maxilla
by Sarit Naishlos, Vadim Reiser, Helena Zelikman, Joseph Nissan, Daya Masri, Hiba Nassra, Gavriel Chaushu, Sigalit Blumer and Liat Chaushu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063689 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Purpose: Evaluate the esthetic outcome of ridge augmentation using cancellous bone-block allografts, late implant placement, and immediate loading in the atrophic anterior maxilla, by PES (pink esthetic score) and WES (white esthetic score) indexes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Inclusion [...] Read more.
Purpose: Evaluate the esthetic outcome of ridge augmentation using cancellous bone-block allografts, late implant placement, and immediate loading in the atrophic anterior maxilla, by PES (pink esthetic score) and WES (white esthetic score) indexes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Inclusion criteria were bone loss of at least 3 mm horizontally and 3 mm vertically according to preliminary CBCT; ridge augmentation using cancellous bone-block allografts; six months later the implant insertion and immediately loaded. PES-WES index was used for esthetic assessment of soft tissues surrounding the final implant-supported prosthesis (ISP). Results: All twenty-five successive individuals were included. The mean follow-up was 12.1 ± 56 months (range, 42–90 months). The mean PES index and WES index were 7 ± 1.74 (range: 5–10) and 8.4 ± 2.12 (range: 5–10), respectively. The mean total combination of PES index and WES index (PES/WES) was 15.3 ± 2.85 (range: 12–20). All ISPs had an overall score >12 (the defined threshold of clinical acceptability). Conclusions: Ridge augmentation in the atrophic anterior maxilla using cancellous bone-block allografts and immediate loading allows a stable esthetic result of the soft and hard tissues over the years (follow-up of 42–90 months). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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15 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Peri-Implant Bone Loss with a Convergent Transmucosal Morphology: Retrospective Clinical Study
by María Costa Castillo, Martín Laguna Martos, Rocío Marco Pitarch, Marina García Selva, Silvia del Cid Rodríguez, Carla Fons-Badal and Rubén Agustín Panadero
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063443 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the peri-implant bone loss of infracrestal, supracrestal, and crestal implants from the day of placement and up to 1 year of prosthetic loading. Material and methods: A retrospective clinical study was carried out. The [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the peri-implant bone loss of infracrestal, supracrestal, and crestal implants from the day of placement and up to 1 year of prosthetic loading. Material and methods: A retrospective clinical study was carried out. The sample consisted of 30 implants placed on 30 patients. It was divided into three groups: infracrestal (n = 10), crestal (n = 10), and supracrestal (n = 10) implants. Results: Following the statistical analysis, it was observed that, 4 months after implant placement, the mean values of total peri-implant bone loss were 0.04 mm in infracrestal implants, 0.26 mm in crestal implants, and 0.19 mm in supracrestal implants. At the end of one year of prosthetic loading, the peri-implant bone loss was 0.12 mm in infracrestal implants, 1.04 mm in crestal implants, and 0.27 mm in supracrestal implants. It was determined that peri-implant bone loss in crestal implants was significantly higher than in supracrestal implants, and these in turn were significantly higher than in infracrestal implants. Conclusions: The implants that obtained a better biological behavior on peri-implant bone tissue were the infracrestal implants with a converging transmucosal abutment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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8 pages, 425 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dietary Habits, Type A Behavior Pattern and Its Relationship with Oral Health Status in Dental Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Marta Olmos-Valverde, María Carrillo-Díaz, María José González-Olmo, Martín Romero-Maroto and Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(6), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11061540 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Oral health status among dental students has been widely studied, and while the repercussions of certain factors, such as personality type, adherence to healthy lifestyle habits and certain eating patterns, have been considered in the past, this study aims to study the combination [...] Read more.
Oral health status among dental students has been widely studied, and while the repercussions of certain factors, such as personality type, adherence to healthy lifestyle habits and certain eating patterns, have been considered in the past, this study aims to study the combination of such factors and to carry out, in addition, clinical examinations that could provide deeper knowledge of real oral health status. A sample of 195 dental students was gathered and basic sociodemographic data (gender, age, nationality, hygiene habits, body mass index (BMI)) were collected, and type A personality scale (ERCTA), emotional eating (EE) and healthy lifestyle scale (EVS) values were registered. Descriptive analysis, Pearson correlations, a hierarchical linear regression model and moderation analysis were performed. Results showed that higher EE values were associated with a higher BMI, an increase in the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, a higher number of carious and filled teeth, a higher ERCTA and a lower adherence to the EVS. Likewise, a higher DMFT was associated with a higher BMI, higher bleeding on probing index (BOP) values, higher ERCTA values and lower adherence to EVS. Dental floss disuse, BMI, EE and EVS predicted 25.3% of DMFT. In addition, a type A personality has a moderating effect only in those with medium and high EE levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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8 pages, 15564 KiB  
Article
The Verification of the Degree of Concordance of the SMI/CVMS Indexes in Evaluating the Pubertal Growth Stages—Longitudinal Study
by Elena Galan, Andreea Raluca Hlatcu, Ștefan Milicescu, Jr., Elina Teodorescu, Simina Neagoe and Ecaterina Ionescu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062783 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The research aims to verify the concordance between the skeletal maturity index (SMI) measured on the hand and wrist X-rays using Fishman method and the cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS), measured on the lateral cephalometric X-rays using Baccetti method. The concordance of the [...] Read more.
The research aims to verify the concordance between the skeletal maturity index (SMI) measured on the hand and wrist X-rays using Fishman method and the cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS), measured on the lateral cephalometric X-rays using Baccetti method. The concordance of the two indexes (SMI and CVMS) has been statistically verified with the help of the Cohen’s kappa coefficient, by relating them to the growth stages, within a longitudinal study done upon a group of 38 patients, 22 female and 16 male, aged between 8–18 y, the analyzed investigations being done in series, along the orthodontic treatment. The research showed a strong correlation between the SMI and CVMS indexes within the analyzed group, confirmed by the obtained values (k = 0.84 for female and k = 0.85 for male). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Oral Habits during the Lockdown from the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in the Romanian Population
by Mariana Cărămidă, Mihaela Adina Dumitrache, Ana Maria Cristina Țâncu, Roxana Romanița Ilici, Radu Ilinca and Ruxandra Sfeatcu
Medicina 2022, 58(3), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58030387 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to changes in population daily patterns. In order to adapt oral health promotion measures for future similar conditions, the main objective of the study was to assess changes in dental hygiene and eating and smoking [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to changes in population daily patterns. In order to adapt oral health promotion measures for future similar conditions, the main objective of the study was to assess changes in dental hygiene and eating and smoking habits during the government lockdown in Romania. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted immediately after the end of the lockdown and consisted of 800 adult subjects. Data collection was done via an online survey. Participants were divided into two groups: non-medical/dental practitioners (N-M/D group) and medical/dental practitioners (M/D group). Results: An increased use of dental floss from 27% (pre-lockdown) to 30.5% (during lockdown) was identified in the M/D group, while the manual toothbrush usage increased to 64.8% (during lockdown) from 61.7% (pre-lockdown) in the N-MD/group. No significant differences regarding toothbrushing frequency were observed in either group. A change in the number of daily snacks was identified in both groups (3–4 snacks per day: from 11% to 20.2% in the N-M/D group, from 13.1% to 22.2% in the M/D group). The consumption of sweets as a preferred snack was also noticed. A decrease of tobacco consumers was assessed in the lockdown period (from 66.6% to 60.4% in the M/D group, from 68.5% to 61.9% in the N-/M/D group). Conclusions: Oral habits were changed during the pandemic lockdown through the increase in the frequency of the consumption of snacks and sweets and the decrease in frequency of smokers. Only minor changes were observed in oral hygiene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
11 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
The MOHIP-14PW (Modified Oral Health Impact Profile 14-Item Version for Pregnant Women): A Real-World Study of Its Psychometric Properties and Relationship with Patient-Reported Oral Health
by Chengwu Yang, Shulamite S. Huang, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Hugh Silk, Judith A. Savageau and Stefanie L. Russell
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030461 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2473
Abstract
Background: The 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) has been widely used as a measure for oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) since its publication in 1997. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties and relationship with patient-reported [...] Read more.
Background: The 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) has been widely used as a measure for oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) since its publication in 1997. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties and relationship with patient-reported oral health in pregnant women. Aim: To offer empirical evidence for appropriate use of the OHIP-14 among pregnant women in research and clinical practice. Objectives: (1) to empirically investigate the psychometric properties of the OHIP-14, (2) to modify it into the MOHIP-14PW (modified OHIP-14 for pregnant women), and (3) to compare their relationships with patient-reported oral health in pregnant women. Methods: In this real-world study (RWS) from suburban New York clinics, we collected OHIP-14 data from 291 pregnant women and assessed its psychometric properties at the item-, dimension-, and measure-level, including confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Accordingly, we modified the OHIP-14 into the MOHIP-14PW. Finally, we compared their correlations with patient-reported oral health scores. Results: All OHIP-14 items had severely skewed distributions, and two had a correlation with the patient-reported oral health < 0.1. All seven pairs of items correlated well (0.47 to 0.62), but the Cronbach’s alphas indicated suboptimal reliability, with two below 0.70. CFA results offered suboptimal support to the original structure, and EFA found a three-dimensional structure best fitted the data. Therefore, we modified the OHIP-14 into the MOHIP-14PW. CFA on the MOHIP-14PW offered stronger supports, and the Cronbach’s alphas increased to 0.92, 0.72, and 0.71. The MOHIP-14PW’s dimensions were more meaningful to pregnant women and had stronger relationships with patient-reported oral health than the OHIP-14; the average correlation coefficients increased by 26% from 0.19 in OHIP-14 to 0.24 in the MOHIP-14PW. Conclusions: The original OHIP-14 required modifications at the item-, dimension-, and measure- level, and the MOHIP-14PW had better psychometric properties, easier interpretation, and stronger correlation with patient-reported oral health in low-income pregnant women. Through an interdisciplinary RWS on a large sample of pregnant women, this study offers concrete empirical evidence for the advantages of the MOHIP-14PW over the original OHIP-14. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
12 pages, 235 KiB  
Article
Oral Hygiene Practices and Oral Health Knowledge among Students in Split, Croatia
by Antonija Tadin, Renata Poljak Guberina, Josipa Domazet and Lidia Gavic
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020406 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5512
Abstract
Background: Knowledge of oral health is a fundamental prerequisite for healthy behavior, allowing individuals to take measures to protect their overall health. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the knowledge of oral health as well as to assess the oral hygiene habits among [...] Read more.
Background: Knowledge of oral health is a fundamental prerequisite for healthy behavior, allowing individuals to take measures to protect their overall health. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the knowledge of oral health as well as to assess the oral hygiene habits among healthcare and non-healthcare students. Methods: The study was based on a questionnaire and was conducted among 1088 students. Most of the students, 67.6% were non-healthcare students. Data were processed by Mann–Whitney or Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The correct median score and interquartile range were 11 (9–13) for all surveyed students, 11 (9–12) for students in non-healthcare programs and 13 (11–14) for students in healthcare programs. Students did not significantly differ in the knowledge of oral health by gender (p = 0.082) but did differ by age, study program, and year of study (p ≤ 0.001). Students whose family members work in the field of dental medicine also showed better oral health knowledge (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results showed good oral health knowledge among tested university students. However, it is important to emphasize that students who showed better knowledge more often used additional aids to maintain oral hygiene; therefore, the obtained data underline the importance of students’ further education in order to better understand and maintain oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
8 pages, 465 KiB  
Review
Survival Rates of Endodontically Treated Posterior Teeth Restored with All-Ceramic Partial-Coverage Crowns: When Systematic Review Fails
by Marco Ferrari, Edoardo Ferrari Cagidiaco, Denise Irene Karin Pontoriero, Carlo Ercoli and Kostantinos Chochlidakis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19041971 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2714
Abstract
Background: To determine the survival rates of endodontically treated posterior teeth (EDPT) restored with partial coverage all-ceramic crowns with or without the use of fiber posts. Methods: MEDLINE and Cochrane searches were conducted in order to identify Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) related to [...] Read more.
Background: To determine the survival rates of endodontically treated posterior teeth (EDPT) restored with partial coverage all-ceramic crowns with or without the use of fiber posts. Methods: MEDLINE and Cochrane searches were conducted in order to identify Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) related to endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with partial coverage crowns. The search period was extended until February 2020 and only in vivo, human, and studies in the English language were included. A manual search was also conducted and additional articles, if found, were included in the database. Results: The initial search for the selected databases identified 495 studies, which were all screened for inclusion through titles, abstracts and full-text reading. Out of these 495 studies, only one article met the eligibility criteria and was included in this systematic review. Statistical analysis could not be performed. Conclusions: Only one RCT was identified in this systematic review. More clinical evidence is necessary to assess the survival rate of EDPT with partial-coverage crowns. This systematic review failed because it did not find scientific evidence to support the use of indirect bonded restorations on EDPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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7 pages, 9292 KiB  
Article
Root Canal Cleaning after Different Irrigation Techniques: An Ex Vivo Analysis
by Federica Di Spirito, Massimo Pisano, Mario Caggiano, Prashant Bhasin, Roberto Lo Giudice and Dina Abdellatif
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020193 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3223
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The endodontic space is a complex area on both micro and macro levels; therefore, traditional irrigation techniques may not guarantee a complete cleaning of such a complicated tridimensional system. The presented ex vivo study aimed to evaluate root canal [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The endodontic space is a complex area on both micro and macro levels; therefore, traditional irrigation techniques may not guarantee a complete cleaning of such a complicated tridimensional system. The presented ex vivo study aimed to evaluate root canal cleanliness, obtained through an equal volume of traditionally applied sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), compared to ultrasonically activated NaOCl and ultrasonically activated NaOCl that had undergone intracanal heating NaOCl. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars underwent root sample length standardization (18 mm), root canal preparation and, based on the irrigation method employed, were randomly and equally assigned to three study groups, composed of root samples treated with ultrasonically activated NaOCl, ultrasonically activated NaOCl that had undergone intracanal heating and traditionally applied NaOCl. The root specimens were subsequently fixated with 4% buffered formalin solution and decalcified in Morse liquid. A total often 6-micron-thick serial cross-sections were obtained, dyed using hematoxylin and eosin and examined through an optical microscope at 40×, 100×, and 200×. Results: Ultrasonically activated NaOCl that had undergone intracanal heating showed a significantly smaller amount of debris compared to ultrasonically activated and traditionally applied NaOCl groups (p value < 0.05). Conclusions: Root canal cleanliness saw significant enhancements by ultrasonically activated NaOCl that had undergone intracanal heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Pain and Avoidance during and after Endodontic Therapy: The Role of Pain Anticipation and Self-Efficacy
by Noelia Santos-Puerta and Cecilia Peñacoba-Puente
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031399 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Background: Pain anticipation has been identified as a predictor of pain and avoidance with respect to endodontic therapy. Self-efficacy is also key to the development and maintenance of health behaviors and achieve patient adherence to treatment. However, the role of self-efficacy has not [...] Read more.
Background: Pain anticipation has been identified as a predictor of pain and avoidance with respect to endodontic therapy. Self-efficacy is also key to the development and maintenance of health behaviors and achieve patient adherence to treatment. However, the role of self-efficacy has not been studied yet in endodontic treatment. Methods: This study was conducted on 101 patients who needed root canal therapy. They had to fill a questionnaire before treatment registered pain anticipation and self-efficacy; during and after treatment were registered pain intensity and avoidance. Results: Pain anticipation explained pain during (Beta = 0.51, t = 5.82, p ≤ 0.001, [0.34, 0.69]) and after treatment (Beta = 0.38, t = 4.35, p ≤ 0.001, [0.21, 0.55]). Self-efficacy did not have an influence in pain values. Pain anticipation explained avoidance during (Beta = 0.51, t = 3.60, p ≤ 0.001, [0.23, 0.80]) and after treatment (Beta = 0.62, t = 4.29, p ≤ 0.001, [0.33, 0.91]). Self-efficacy had a significant role in avoidance during treatment (Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p ≤ 0.03, [0.01, 0.23]) with a strong moderation relationship between pain anticipation and avoidance when self-efficacy was medium (Beta = 0.44, t = 3.24, p = 0.002, [0.17, 0.72]) or high (Beta = 0.84, t = 3.5, p ≤ 0.001, [0.37, 1.33]). Self-efficacy was not significant respect to avoidance after treatment. Conclusions: Self-efficacy is an important variable in endodontic therapy due to their moderating effect between pain anticipation and avoidance behavior during the procedure. It is necessary to improve the results of root canal therapy and reduce patient’s avoidance in order to take into account this variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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17 pages, 768 KiB  
Study Protocol
The Assessment of Prolonged Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blockade for Postoperative Analgesia in Mandibular Third Molar Surgery by a Perineural Addition of Dexamethasone to 0.5% Ropivacaine: A Randomized Comparison Study
by Simona Stojanović, Nikola Burić, Milos Tijanić, Kosta Todorović, Kristina Burić, Nina Burić, Marija Jovanović and Vukadin Bajagić
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031324 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
Background: Perineurally adding dexamethasone to local anesthetics could enable postoperative analgesia. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of 4 mg dexamethasone and 0.5% ropivacaine on the prolonged duration of mandibular anesthesia for postoperative analgesia during third molar surgery. Materials and method: The [...] Read more.
Background: Perineurally adding dexamethasone to local anesthetics could enable postoperative analgesia. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of 4 mg dexamethasone and 0.5% ropivacaine on the prolonged duration of mandibular anesthesia for postoperative analgesia during third molar surgery. Materials and method: The patients of both sexes, and in the age range of 17 to 50 yrs of age, received the Gow-Gates anesthesia. Group I received 4 mL of plain 0.5% ropivacaine, with perineurally added 1 mL/4 mg of dexamethasone; group II received 4 mL of plain 0.5% ropivacaine with perineurally added 1 mL of 0.9% saline; group III received 4 mL of plain 0.5 bupivacaine with perineurally added 1 mL of 0.9% saline. The prime anesthesia outcome was the duration of conduction anesthesia (DCA); the secondary outcome was the duration of analgesia (DAN) and analgesia before analgesic intake. Results: In 45 randomly selected subjects (mean age 27.06 ± 8.20), DCA was statistically longest in group I (n = 15) (592.50 ± 161.75 min, p = 0.001), collated with groups II (n = 15) and III (n = 15) (307.40 ± 84.71 and 367.07 ± 170.52 min, respectively). DAN was significantly the longest in group I (mean: 654.9 ± 198.4 min, p = 0.001), compared with group II (345.4 ± 88.0 min) and group III (413.7 ± 152.3 min), with insignificant adverse reactions. One-third of the operated patients absented from the use of analgesics. Conclusion: A amount 0.5% ropivacaine with dexamethasone usefully served as an analgesic with a success rate of 93.4% of the given anesthesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Socio-Economic Determinants of Dental Service Expenditure: Findings from a French National Survey
by Anne-Charlotte Bas and Sylvie Azogui-Lévy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031310 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
(1) Background: This study investigated how individual enabling resources influence (i) their probability of using dental services and (ii) consumers’ expenditure on dental treatment. (2) Methods: Data were derived from a self-administered national health survey questionnaire and from expenditure data from national health [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study investigated how individual enabling resources influence (i) their probability of using dental services and (ii) consumers’ expenditure on dental treatment. (2) Methods: Data were derived from a self-administered national health survey questionnaire and from expenditure data from national health insurance. Multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze entry into the dental health system (yes/no) and, independently, the individual expenditure of dental care users. (3) Results: People with the highest incomes were more likely to use dental service (aOR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.28, 1.97), as were those with complementary health insurance and the lowest deprivation scores. For people using dental services, good dental health status was associated with less expenditure (−70.81 EUR; 95% CI = −116.53, −25.08). For dental service users, the highest deprivation score was associated with EUR +43.61 dental expenditure (95% CI = −0.15; 87.39). (4) Conclusion: Socioeconomic determinants that were especially important for entry into the dental health service system were relatively insignificant for ongoing service utilization. These results are consistent with our hypothesis of a dental care utilization process in two steps. Public policies in countries with private fees for dentistry should improve the clarity of dental fees and insurance payments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
11 pages, 8387 KiB  
Article
Acinar Atrophy, Fibrosis and Fatty Changes Are Significantly More Common than Sjogren’s Syndrome in Minor Salivary Gland Biopsies
by Ainat Klein, Jonathan Klein, Moran Chacham, Shlomi Kleinman, Amir Shuster, Oren Peleg, Clariel Ianculovici and Ilana Kaplan
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020175 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3453
Abstract
Background and Objective: Hyposalivation and xerostomia can result from a variety of conditions. Diagnosis is based on a combination of medical history, clinical and serological parameters, imaging, and minor salivary gland biopsy when indicated. The Objective was to characterize microscopic changes in minor [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Hyposalivation and xerostomia can result from a variety of conditions. Diagnosis is based on a combination of medical history, clinical and serological parameters, imaging, and minor salivary gland biopsy when indicated. The Objective was to characterize microscopic changes in minor salivary gland biopsies taken in patients with xerostomia. Materials and Methods: 10-year retrospective analysis of minor salivary gland biopsies, 2007–2017. Histomorphometric analysis included gland architecture, fibrosis, fat replacement, inflammation and stains for IgG/IgG4, when relevant. Results: 64 consecutive biopsies, of which 54 had sufficient tissue for diagnosis of Sjogren’s Syndrome (SS) were included (18 males, 46 females, average age 56 (±12.5) years). Only 12 (22.2%) were microscopically consistent with SS, none stained for IgG4. Medical conditions were recorded in 40 (63%), most frequently hypertension and hyperlipidemia (28% each). Medications were used by 45 (70%), of which in 50% more than one. Xerostomia in non-SS cases was supported by abnormal gland morphology, including acinar atrophy, fibrosis and fatty replacement. All morphological abnormalities are correlated with age, while fatty replacement correlated with abnormal lipid metabolism. Multiple medications correlated with microscopic features which did not correspond with SS. Conclusions: SS was confirmed in a minority of cases, while in the majority fatty replacement, fibrosis and multiple medications can explain xerostomia, and are related to aging and medical conditions. Medical history and auxiliary tests could lead to correct diagnosis in non-SS patients, avoiding biopsy. The necessity of a diagnostic biopsy should be given serious consideration only after all other diagnostic modalities have been employed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 4179 KiB  
Article
A Novel Device for Blood Drainage after Le Fort I Osteotomy: Maxillary Sinus Ventilation Drainage (MSVD)
by Ui-Lyong Lee, Hyo-Won Jang, Han-Wool Choung, Sei-Young Lee and Young-Jun Choi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030562 - 23 Jan 2022
Viewed by 3254
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to present a novel maxillary sinus ventilation drainage (MSVD) device which facilitates blood drainage and nasal breathing after Le Fort I osteotomy. One hundred patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery from January 2016 to June 2016 at [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to present a novel maxillary sinus ventilation drainage (MSVD) device which facilitates blood drainage and nasal breathing after Le Fort I osteotomy. One hundred patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery from January 2016 to June 2016 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital were retrospectively selected and divided into two groups. MSVD was applied in 50 patients, who were allocated to the MSVD group, while the remaining 50 patients, in whom MSVD was not applied, were allocated to the non-MSVD group. All patients underwent a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan before and 2 days after surgery. CBCT was used to analyze middle meatus patency and the percentage of hematoma volume per entire maxillary sinus volume. Statistical comparisons between the two groups were performed using the Chi-squared and Mann–Whitney U tests to investigate the clinical effectiveness of MSVD. The MSVD group showed significantly higher maintenance ratio of the middle meatus patency and a higher percentage of maxillary sinus air volume (p < 0.05) than the non-MSVD group. MSVD facilitated nasal breathing after Le Fort I osteotomy by reducing hematoma inside the maxillary sinus and promoting middle meatal patency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 693 KiB  
Article
Influence of Chewing Ability on Elderly Adults’ Cognitive Functioning: The Mediating Effects of the Ability to Perform Daily Life Activities and Nutritional Status
by Yun-Sook Jung, Taejun Park, Eun-Kyong Kim, Seong-Hwa Jeong, Young-Eun Lee, Min-Jeong Cho, Keun-Bae Song and Youn-Hee Choi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031236 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Chewing ability is also related to activities of daily living (ADLs) and nutritional status; however, these associations have not been firmly established. We examined chewing ability as a predictor variable and explored its relationship with cognitive functioning as mediated by ADLs and nutritional [...] Read more.
Chewing ability is also related to activities of daily living (ADLs) and nutritional status; however, these associations have not been firmly established. We examined chewing ability as a predictor variable and explored its relationship with cognitive functioning as mediated by ADLs and nutritional status data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Patients were receiving home healthcare service in Mun-gyeong city, Gyung-buk, Korea. Participants comprised 295 patients aged 81.35 ± 6.70 years. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed using AMOS 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The model fit was based on absolute fit index and incremental fit index. Data were collected to assess cognitive functioning (using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination for dementia screening (MMSE-DS)), ADL, a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, and a chewing ability test. Participants with better chewing ability had significantly better cognitive functioning, ADLs, and nutritional status (p < 0.001). Chewing ability directly affected cognitive functioning and indirectly affected how ADLs and MNA affected MMSE-DS. Chewing ability is an important factor influencing the cognitive functioning of elderly adults in Korea, both directly and indirectly through mediating variables such as nutritional status and ADLs. Efforts to help older adults maintain their chewing ability are necessary for preventing cognitive impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Olfactory Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients Who Do Not Report Olfactory Symptoms: A Pilot Study with Some Suggestions for Dentists
by Riccardo Favero, Silva Hajrulla, Anna Bordin, Carla Mucignat-Caretta, Piergiorgio Gaudioso, Bruno Scarpa, Lorenzo Favero and Giancarlo Ottaviano
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031036 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Background: Smell and taste dysfunction are frequently reported by SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. The degree of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction varies from a very mild reduction to their complete loss. Several studies have been performed to determine their prevalence in COVID-19 patients, mostly using [...] Read more.
Background: Smell and taste dysfunction are frequently reported by SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. The degree of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction varies from a very mild reduction to their complete loss. Several studies have been performed to determine their prevalence in COVID-19 patients, mostly using subjective measurement methods. The literature lacks long-term studies regarding duration and recovery. Methods: We assessed olfactory performance, using the Sniffin’ Sticks olfactory test, in a group of patients who had not reported olfactory dysfunction, around 131 days after their COVID-19 diagnosis. Results: 11 out of 20 subjects showed no olfactory reduction (65%), while 9 subjects showed reduced TDI score (45%). A total of 13 subjects (65%) scored above the cutoff point for Threshold, 16 subjects (80%) scored above the cutoff point for discrimination and 13 subjects (65%) scored above the cutoff point for identification. Conclusion: Objective measurement methods of olfactory performance show a higher prevalence of olfactory reduction compared to patients’ self-reported questionnaires. Olfactory dysfunction can last even months after its onset and because of its high prevalence, it could be a screening symptom for suspect COVID-19 cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 3223 KiB  
Article
Light Transmission of Various Aesthetic Posts at Different Depths and Its Effect on Push-Out Bond Strength, Microhardness of Luting Cement
by Satheesh B. Haralur, Turki Abdullah Alasmari, Mohammed Hussin Alasmari and Hafiz Mohammed Hakami
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010075 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Background and Objectives: One requirement for the cemented post is the light transmittance on its entire length up to the deepest portion of a root canal to ensure the complete polymerization of resin cement. This study aimed to determine the light transmission [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: One requirement for the cemented post is the light transmittance on its entire length up to the deepest portion of a root canal to ensure the complete polymerization of resin cement. This study aimed to determine the light transmission ability in different aesthetic posts at different depths and its effect on the push-out bond strength and microhardness of luting cement at the corresponding interface. Materials and Methods: Twenty endodontic posts from glass fiber posts (GFP), zirconia ceramic posts (ZCP), and highly translucent zirconium oxide posts (HTZP) were sequentially sectioned into 12.8 and 4 mm lengths after recording the light intensity using a dental radiometer. Sixty single rooted premolar teeth root canals were treated and implanted vertically in a resin block. The post space was prepared and cemented with GFP, ZCP, and HTZP posts with twenty samples each. The root portion of teeth samples were sectioned into cervical, middle, and apical portion. A universal testing machine was utilized for the push-out bond strength test for the first ten samples from each group. The remaining ten samples from each group were used for the microhardness test using a micro-indenter instrument. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way Analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests at p < 0.05. Results: The GFP endodontic postpresented with significant highest light translucency compared to HTZP, which was significantly higher than ZCP. GFP posts showed significantly higher bond strength per unit area compared to ZCP at analogous cross sections. The hardness of luting cement was also significantly higher amongst all tested endodontic posts. Conclusions: GFP high light translucency enhanced the curing of the luting resin cement that resulted in harder cement and a stronger bond supported by hardness and push-out tests. These findings suggest that GFP is preferred to be used with light-cured luting cements for restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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8 pages, 578 KiB  
Article
Coronally Advanced Flap with Connective Tissue Graft for Treating Orthodontic-Associated Miller Class III Gingival Recession of the Lower Incisors: A One-Year Retrospective Study
by Evgeny Weinberg, Roni Kolerman, Lazar Kats, Omer Cohen, Daya Masri, Alon Sebaoun and Gil Slutzkey
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11010235 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 7115
Abstract
(1) Background: To assess the clinical outcome of coronally advanced flap combined with connective tissue graft for the treatment of orthodontic-associated Miller Class III gingival recession of the lower incisors. (2) Methods: This study included 15 patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment prior [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To assess the clinical outcome of coronally advanced flap combined with connective tissue graft for the treatment of orthodontic-associated Miller Class III gingival recession of the lower incisors. (2) Methods: This study included 15 patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment prior to development of recession. Measurements of recession depth, recession width, probing depth, and width of keratinized tissue were performed clinically immediately before surgery and after one year. In addition, digital measurements of recession depth, recession width, and root coverage esthetic score were performed on intraoral photographs. (3) Results: Significant reduction was observed for probing depth, recession depth, and recession width at one year, with significant increase in width of keratinized tissue. Mean root coverage was 83 ± 24% for recession depth, while complete root coverage was achieved in 10 out of 21 recessions (48%). The average root coverage esthetic score at 12 months was 7.1 ± 2.6. An interaction was found between initial recession depth and mean root coverage. (4) Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, our results confirm that combination of coronally advanced flap and connective tissue graft is effective in reducing post-orthodontic Miller Class III recessions of the mandibular incisors, even when the correction of the tooth malposition, is unattainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 13632 KiB  
Article
Autologous Tooth Dentin Graft: A Retrospective Study in Humans
by José Manuel Cervera-Maillo, David Morales-Schwarz, Hilde Morales-Melendez, Lanka Mahesh and José Luis Calvo-Guirado
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010056 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3359
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an autologous dentin graft, via extracted teeth that are processed into bacteria-free particulate dentin in a Smart dentin grinder and then grafted immediately into alveolus post extraction or [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an autologous dentin graft, via extracted teeth that are processed into bacteria-free particulate dentin in a Smart dentin grinder and then grafted immediately into alveolus post extraction or into bone deficiencies. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy, partially edentulous patients with some teeth in the mandible were recruited in the study. After their own teeth were grinded, particulate teeth were placed in empty sockets and bone defects after teeth extractions. Furthermore, after three, six, 12 and 24 months, core samples using a 3 mm trephine were obtained. Results: At three months, the particles of grinded tooth were immersed inside a new connective tissue with a small new bone formation (16.3 ± 1.98). At six months, we observed small particles of dentin integrated in new immature bone, without inflammation in the soft tissue (41.1 ± 0.76). At twelve months, we observed a high amount of bone formation surrounding tooth particles (54.5 ± 0.24), and at twenty-four months, new bone, a big structure of bone, was observed with dentin particles (59.4 ± 1.23), statistically different when compared it with at three months. Conclusions: A particulate dentin graft should be considered as an alternative material for sockets’ preservation, split technique, and also for sinus lifting. One of the special characteristics after 24 months of evaluation was the high resorption rate and bone replacement without inflammation. This material could be considered as an acceptable biomaterial for different bone defects due to its osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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18 pages, 5275 KiB  
Article
The Association of the One-Abutment at One-Time Concept with Marginal Bone Loss around the SLA and Platform Switch and Conical Abutment Implants
by Nasreen Hamudi, Eitan Barnea, Evgeny Weinberg, Amir Laviv, Eitan Mijiritsky, Shlomo Matalon, Liat Chaushu and Roni Kolerman
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11010074 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
Objectives: Repeated abutment disconnection/reconnection may compromise the mucosal barrier and result in crestal bone level changes. The clinical significance of this phenomenon is not yet clear, as most studies on this topic are short-term. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
Objectives: Repeated abutment disconnection/reconnection may compromise the mucosal barrier and result in crestal bone level changes. The clinical significance of this phenomenon is not yet clear, as most studies on this topic are short-term. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of abutment disconnections and reconnections on peri-implant marginal bone loss over a medium-term follow-up period. Material and methods: Twenty-one patients (6 men and 15 women) with a mean age 66.23 ± 9.35 year at the time of implant placement were included. All patients who received two adjacent nonsubmerged implants were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: definitive multiunit abutments (DEFs) connected to the implant that were not removed (test group) or healing abutments (HEAs) placed at surgery, which were disconnected and reconnected 3–5 times during the prosthetic phase (control group). Peri-implant marginal bone levels (MBL) were measured through periapical X-rays images acquired immediately after the surgery (baseline), at 4–7 months immediately after prosthetic delivery, and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up visits. Results: No implant was lost or presented bone loss of more than 1.9 mm during the 3-year follow-up; thus, the survival and success rate was 100%. Peri-implant mucositis was noticed in 38.1% DEFs and 41.9% of HEAs at the 3-year follow-up assessment. At the end of 3 years, the MBL was −0.35 ± 0.69 mm for participants in the DEFs group and −0.57 ± 0.80 mm for the HEAs group, with significant statistical difference between groups. Conclusions: Immediate connection of the multiunit abutments reduced bone loss in comparison with 3–5 disconnections noted in the healing abutments 3 years after prosthetic delivery. However, the difference between the groups was minimal; thus, the clinical relevance of those results is doubtful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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37 pages, 1972 KiB  
Review
Survival Rates of Dental Implants in Autogenous and Allogeneic Bone Blocks: A Systematic Review
by Phil Donkiewicz, Korbinian Benz, Anita Kloss-Brandstätter and Jochen Jackowski
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121388 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3644
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Preliminary studies emphasize the similar performance of autogenous bone blocks (AUBBs) and allogeneic bone blocks (ALBBs) in pre-implant surgery; however, most of these studies include limited subjects or hold a low level of evidence. The purpose of this review [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Preliminary studies emphasize the similar performance of autogenous bone blocks (AUBBs) and allogeneic bone blocks (ALBBs) in pre-implant surgery; however, most of these studies include limited subjects or hold a low level of evidence. The purpose of this review is to test the hypothesis of indifferent implant survival rates (ISRs) in AUBB and ALBB and determine the impact of various material-, surgery- and patient-related confounders and predictors. Materials and Methods: The national library of medicine (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were screened for studies reporting the ISRs of implants placed in AUBB and ALBB with ≥10 participants followed for ≥12 months from January 1995 to November 2021. The review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The risk of bias was assessed via several scoring tools, dependent on the study design. Means of sub-entities were presented as violin plots. Results: An electronic data search resulted in the identification of 9233 articles, of which 100 were included in the quantitative analysis. No significant difference (p = 0.54) was found between the ISR of AUBB (96.23 ± 5.27%; range: 75% to 100%; 2195 subjects, 6861 implants) and that of ALBB (97.66 ± 2.68%; range: 90.1% to 100%; 1202 subjects, 3434 implants). The ISR in AUBB was increased in blocks from intraoral as compared to extraoral donor sites (p = 0.0003), partially edentulous as compared to totally edentulous (p = 0.0002), as well as in patients younger than 45 as compared to those older (p = 0.044), cortical as compared to cortico-cancellous blocks (p = 0.005) and in delayed implantations within three months as compared to immediate implantations (p = 0.018). The ISR of ALBB was significantly increased in processed as compared to fresh-frozen ALBB (p = 0.004), but also in horizontal as compared to vertical augmentations (p = 0.009). Conclusions: The present findings widely emphasize the feasibility of achieving similar ISRs with AUBB and ALBB applied for pre-implant bone grafting. ISRs were negatively affected in sub-entities linked to more extensive augmentation procedures such as bone donor site and dentition status. The inclusion and pooling of literature with a low level of evidence, the absence of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing AUBB and ALBB and the limited count of comparative studies with short follow-ups increases the risk of bias and complicates data interpretation. Consequently, further long-term comparative studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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9 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
The Outcomes of an Interventional Oral Health Program on Dental Students’ Oral Hygiene
by Katarina Kalevski, Jovan Vojinovic, Milica Gajic, Ema Aleksic, Zoran Tambur, Jovana Milutinovic, Nenad Borotic and Rasa Mladenovic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413242 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2304
Abstract
Dental students are an interesting population because they are expected to have a higher level of knowledge of and to exhibit better oral hygiene habits, and thus have a greater impact on the environment, families, and society as a whole. The aim of [...] Read more.
Dental students are an interesting population because they are expected to have a higher level of knowledge of and to exhibit better oral hygiene habits, and thus have a greater impact on the environment, families, and society as a whole. The aim of this research was to determine the state of oral hygiene in dental students before and after the interventional health education program. The research sample consisted of 119 students of dentistry in their first and fourth years of study. The first research stage was conducted before health education intervention (for the evaluation of selected oral health parameters, the Decayed, Missing and Filled index, Greene–Vermillion index, Silness–Löe plaque index, Silness–Löe gingival index, and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index were used). The second stage was conducted as a clinical measurement of oral health changes. The conducted health education intervention, to an extent, led to changes in the state of oral hygiene among the students, and thus healthier habits. There was a statistically significant difference in the examined population between the beginning of the study and after the health education intervention program. Although a significant improvement in oral hygiene and oral health was noticed after the health education intervention program, the state of oral hygiene was still not at a satisfactory level among the dental students, contrary to our expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
16 pages, 1213 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Digital Self-Assessment Systems and Faculty Feedback for Tooth Preparation in a Preclinical Simulation
by Milan Stoilov, Lea Trebess, Markus Klemmer, Helmut Stark, Norbert Enkling and Dominik Kraus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413218 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Background: Regarding the new dental licensing regulations in Germany (AOZ), this study evaluated the effectiveness of two different digital tooth preparation validation systems in comparison to traditional faculty feedback. Methods: Participants were randomly divided into groups: Faculty Feedback (FF: n = 33), PrepCheck [...] Read more.
Background: Regarding the new dental licensing regulations in Germany (AOZ), this study evaluated the effectiveness of two different digital tooth preparation validation systems in comparison to traditional faculty feedback. Methods: Participants were randomly divided into groups: Faculty Feedback (FF: n = 33), PrepCheck® (PC: n = 32) and Dental Teacher™ (n = 32). Students had the task to prepare tooth 16 for a retentive full-cast crown. Preparations could be repeated as often as desired. Feedback was provided either by faculty staff or by digital validation systems only. Exams were conducted and graded by two independent and experienced examiners. A survey was performed to evaluate the assessment concepts. Results: No statistical difference in examination performance between groups could be observed. Nevertheless, the survey showed participants preferred consulting the faculty staff rather than the digital validation systems. Students preferred practising with DT rather than with PC. Conclusions: Although both classical and digital methods showed comparable results regarding the preparation examination performance, direct feedback by the faculty staff is still appreciated by the students. A combination of both methods is mandatory since demonstration and advice by the teacher is needed. However, digital tooth preparation validation systems are predestined for free practice sessions, providing self-assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 2639 KiB  
Article
Electric and Manual Oral Hygiene Routines Affect Plaque Index Score Differently
by Shaima Bahammam, Chia-Yu Chen, Yoshiki Ishida, Akito Hayashi, Yutaka Ikeda, Hiroaki Ishii, David M. Kim and Shigemi Nagai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413123 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4061
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the oral hygiene behaviors in the general population and identify factors affecting oral hygiene behaviors and plaque removal efficacy. A survey was distributed to patients through 11 dental practices in Japan, and each patient’s plaque index score [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the oral hygiene behaviors in the general population and identify factors affecting oral hygiene behaviors and plaque removal efficacy. A survey was distributed to patients through 11 dental practices in Japan, and each patient’s plaque index score (PIS) was recorded. In total, 1184 patients participated (521 women and 660 men), with 84.04% using manual toothbrushes (MTBs) and 15.96% using electric toothbrushes (ETBs). ETB users had a significantly lower PIS compared to MTB users (p = 0.0017). In addition, a statistically significant difference in the PIS was detected in relation to the frequency of brushing per day (≥2 times) and time spent on brushing (≥1 min). Some MTB users spent less than 1 min brushing, while all ETB users spent at least 1 min brushing, and extended brushing periods significantly improved the PIS for the MTB users. MTB users tend to replace brush heads more frequently than ETB users, and the frequency of replacement affected the PIS significantly (p < 0.01) for the MTB users. The status of dental treatment (first visit, in treatment versus recall) also significantly affected the PIS (p < 0.01). The ETB was more effective than the MTB in terms of better plaque removal and reduced frequency of brush head replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
Semi-Rigid Fixation Using a Sliding Plate for Treating Fractures of the Mandibular Condylar Process
by Byung-Kyu So, Kyeong-Soo Ko, Dong-Hyuck Kim, Hyon-Seok Jang, Eui-Seok Lee and Ho-Kyung Lim
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5782; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245782 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Occlusal displacement often occurs after surgery for condylar process fractures because it is difficult to reduce these fractures precisely. However, performing semi-rigid fixation using a sliding plate may overcome this limitation. A retrospective clinical comparison between semi-rigid and rigid fixations was performed. Among [...] Read more.
Occlusal displacement often occurs after surgery for condylar process fractures because it is difficult to reduce these fractures precisely. However, performing semi-rigid fixation using a sliding plate may overcome this limitation. A retrospective clinical comparison between semi-rigid and rigid fixations was performed. Among 34 patients who had unilateral condylar process fractures, 17 were treated with rigid fixation and the remaining with semi-rigid fixation using a sliding plate. For all patients, panoramic radiographs were collected 1 day and 6 months after surgery. In these radiographs, ramus height and condylar process inclination were measured, and the differences between the fractured and normal sides were assessed. Additionally, the radiographic density of the fracture area was measured. Differences in surgical outcomes and operative times between the two groups and changes in postoperative deviations within each group were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in ramus height and condylar process inclination between the two groups at postoperative day 1 and 6 months. Radio-density was observed to be higher in the rigid fixation group, and it increased with time in both groups. The semi-rigid fixation group had a significantly shorter operative time than the other group did. Semi-rigid and rigid fixations showed no differences in terms of effectiveness and outcomes of surgery. In terms of operative time, semi-rigid fixation was superior to rigid fixation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Dental Midline on Asymmetric Faces: Perspective of Laypersons and Dentists
by Joana Meneses Martins, Liliana Gavinha Costa, Ana Lidia Carvalho, Maria Conceição Manso, Sandra Gavinha, Mariano Herrero-Climent, Blanca Ríos-Carrasco, Carlos Falcão and Paulo Ribeiro
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412904 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4180
Abstract
Background: The objective was to determine if asymmetric facial features, nasal and chin deviations, affect the perception of attractiveness of a dental midline angulation, and if it is consistent among both dentists and laypeople. It was also analyzed if factors, such as the [...] Read more.
Background: The objective was to determine if asymmetric facial features, nasal and chin deviations, affect the perception of attractiveness of a dental midline angulation, and if it is consistent among both dentists and laypeople. It was also analyzed if factors, such as the sex, age group of the participants and the dentist’s area of operation are relevant in their assessment. Methods: A cross-sectional study, approved by the Ethics Committee of Fernando Pessoa University. From a symmetrical facial model (SFM) image, a natural-looking asymmetrical face was created. Based on this asymmetric facial model six images were created, with different directions and degrees of inclination of the dental midline. In total, 236 laypersons and 242 dentists completed the online questionnaire where they rated the self-perception of attractiveness of the eight images (VAS scale from 0 to 10). Non-parametric comparisons (IBM© SPSS Statistics vs. 27.0, p < 0.05). Results: The results showed a significant difference in the perception of attractiveness between laypeople and dentists. This finding was consistent regarding every image, except for the SFM. The factors, sex of the people participating and dentist’s area of operation, seemed only to contribute to a significant difference in the perception when it came to the SFM. The perceived attractiveness of the images, for dentists and laypersons, did not differ by age group of the participant, apart from images 6 and 8. Conclusions: Dentists are more rigorous about dental midline inclinations than laypersons. The perception of attractiveness was affected by the age group and sex of the participants and the dentist’s area of operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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9 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Malocclusion among Young Patients with Gingival Recessions—A Cross-Sectional Observational Pilot Study
by Darius Tomina, Smaranda Buduru, Cristian Mihail Dinu, Andreea Kui, Cătălina Dee, Raluca Cosgarea and Marius Negucioiu
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121316 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Dental occlusion and gingival recession have been studied over the past years especially because of the increasing incidence of occlusal interferences in young patients. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate any association between occlusal dysfunctions and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Dental occlusion and gingival recession have been studied over the past years especially because of the increasing incidence of occlusal interferences in young patients. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate any association between occlusal dysfunctions and gingival recessions. Data on gingival phenotype and previous orthodontic treatment were also collected to assess any correlation with the presence of gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically healthy subjects, without signs of periodontitis and with gingival recessions, were included in the study. The following parameters were determined: location and extent of the gingival recession, gingival phenotype and functional occlusion by means of observing and registering the occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation position, protrusive and lateral guidance. Results: Premolars were mostly affected in cases of working-side interferences during lateral guidance (71.19% of the affected teeth during left and 75% during right mandibular movements). The chi-squared exact test applied for the analysis of contingency tables revealed statistically significant associations between excursive interferences during lateral guidance and anterior guidance and the presence of gingival recession on the involved group of teeth. Conclusions: The results suggest that most gingival recessions might be associated with working-side interferences, the highest number of gingival recessions being associated with active interferences during lateral guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
10 pages, 1404 KiB  
Article
Changes in Distribution of Dental Biofilm after Insertion of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances
by Urszula Kozak, Agnieszka Lasota and Renata Chałas
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(23), 5638; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235638 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
Good oral hygiene is an important factor in oral and general health, especially in orthodontic patients, because fixed appliances might impede effective oral hygiene and thus increase the risks of tooth decay, periodontal disease and general health complications. This study investigated the impact [...] Read more.
Good oral hygiene is an important factor in oral and general health, especially in orthodontic patients, because fixed appliances might impede effective oral hygiene and thus increase the risks of tooth decay, periodontal disease and general health complications. This study investigated the impact of fixed orthodontic appliances on the distribution of dental biofilm in teenagers. Supragingival plaque was assessed at T0, T1 and T2. The distribution of the biofilm was analyzed. Approximal Plaque Index (API) and Bonded Bracket Index (BBI) were used to measure the presence of dental plaque. After insertion of the fixed appliance, the dental plaque indices values in the orthodontically treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in the control group. Fixed orthodontic appliances caused significant changes in the distribution of the biofilm. This was characterized by the change of location of the dental plaque. In the orthodontic group, we observed an increase in the amount of the supragingival plaque on the vestibular surface of the teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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22 pages, 1409 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of the Literature on Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Individuals
by Stefano Cianetti, Chiara Valenti, Massimiliano Orso, Giuseppe Lomurno, Michele Nardone, Anna Palma Lomurno, Stefano Pagano and Guido Lombardo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312360 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3908
Abstract
Dental caries and periodontal disease represent a health problem and a social cost for the entire population, and in particular for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals who are less resistant to disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the prevalence and severity of [...] Read more.
Dental caries and periodontal disease represent a health problem and a social cost for the entire population, and in particular for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals who are less resistant to disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the prevalence and severity of the two dental pathologies, caries and periodontal disease, in the different classes of socio-economically disadvantaged subjects and to understand which of them are most affected. A systematic search of the literature was performed in MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE and Web of Science after establishing a suitable search strategy for each database, using keywords related to socio-economically vulnerable classes and health outcomes. Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals are more susceptible to tooth decay and periodontal disease (with relative tooth loss) than non-vulnerable people. Additionally, when multiple vulnerabilities are combined in the same subject, these oral diseases worsen. There is no type of vulnerability more affected by caries and periodontitis than others, since overall they all have severe disease indices. The data from this systematic literature review might be useful for health policy makers looking to allocate more resources and services to socially disadvantaged individuals, resulting in making them more resilient to oral disease due to their social marginalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 42197 KiB  
Article
Physical Properties of Modern Reciprocal Endodontic Systems and Fatigue Failure Testing in Simulated Clinical Conditions
by Alexandr Jusku, Jan Tomáštík, Lukáš Václavek, Petr Jirásek, Ľuboš Harvan, Pavel Holík and Radim Čtvrtlík
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11160; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311160 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Instrument fracture ranks among the most crucial complications during the endodontic treatment of a tooth. In order to better understand the practical limits of the instrument, the relation between the cyclic fatigue resistance and physical properties such as hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep [...] Read more.
Instrument fracture ranks among the most crucial complications during the endodontic treatment of a tooth. In order to better understand the practical limits of the instrument, the relation between the cyclic fatigue resistance and physical properties such as hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and surface roughness were explored. Cyclic fatigue testing in an artificial root canal at intracanal temperature, nanoindentation and 3D microscopy were used for evaluation of four commonly used thermomechanically treated NiTi endodontic instruments (Unicone Plus 6/025, Unicone 6/025, Reciproc Blue R25 and WaveOne Gold Primary). Cyclic fatigue results were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney and Bonferroni corrections. The wear resistance of Unicone 6/025 instruments was significantly lower compared to all other instruments (p < 0.05). WaveOne Gold Primary was significantly less resistant than Unicone Plus 6/025 and Reciproc Blue R25, while the difference between Reciproc Blue R25 and Unicone Plus 6/025 was insignificant (p > 0.05). These results are in correlation with measurements of local mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus and their ratios H/E and H3/E2). Even though surface roughness, area of cross-section and shape of instruments are important factors affecting instruments behavior, thermal processing appears to be the most important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 19430 KiB  
Article
Topical Cyclosporine in Oral Lichen Planus—A Series of 21 Open-Label, Biphasic, Single-Patient Observations
by Babak Monshi, Christina Ellersdorfer, Michael Edelmayer, Gabriella Dvorak, Clemens Ganger, Christian Ulm, Klemens Rappersberger and Igor Vujic
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(22), 5454; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10225454 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2883
Abstract
Topical cyclosporine (CSA) has been reported as an alternative treatment in steroid-refractory oral lichen planus (OLP), but evidence is limited and conflicting. An N-of-1 trial setting could be appropriate to evaluate interindividual differences in treatment response. We studied a series of 21 open-label, [...] Read more.
Topical cyclosporine (CSA) has been reported as an alternative treatment in steroid-refractory oral lichen planus (OLP), but evidence is limited and conflicting. An N-of-1 trial setting could be appropriate to evaluate interindividual differences in treatment response. We studied a series of 21 open-label, biphasic single-patient observations. Patients (15 women, 6 men) with OLP recalcitrant to topical steroids received four weeks of CSA mouth rinse (200 mg/twice daily) followed by four weeks of drug withdrawal. Pain (visual analogue scale (VAS) score), disease extent (physicians’ global assessment (PGA) score) and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score,) were assessed at baseline (T0), after four weeks of treatment (T1) and after another four weeks without treatment (T2). Median age was 58 years (interquartile range/IQR = 52–67) and median disease duration was 18 months (IQR = 12–44). Median baseline VAS score decreased significantly at T1 (p = 0.0003) and increased at T2 (p = 0.032) (T0 = 5 (IQR = 3–6.5); T1 = 2 (IQR = 0.5–3.4); T2 = 3 (IQR = 2–4.8)). Similarly, median baseline PGA score decreased significantly at T1 (p = 0.001) and increased at T2 (p = 0.007) (T0 = 2 (IQR = 1.3–2.5); T1 = 1 (IQR = 1–2); T2 = 2 (IQR = 1–2)). Median baseline DLQI score also decreased significantly at T1 (p =.027) but did not change at T2 (p = 0.5) (T0 = 2.5 (IQR = 1–5.8); T1 = 1 (IQR = 0–3); T2 = 1 (IQR = 1–4)). CSA responders (n = 16) had significantly higher median baseline VAS scores (5.2 (IQR = 5–6.5)) than nonresponders (n =5) (2 (IQR = 2–3.5) (p = 0.02). In our study, pain, disease extent and quality of life of patients with OLP improved significantly during therapy with low-dose CSA mouth rinse and exacerbated after drug withdrawal. Remarkably, patients with high initial VAS scores seemed to profit most. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Aesthetic Preference in the Transverse Orientation of the Occlusal Plane in Rehabilitation: Perspective of Laypeople and Dentists
by Ana Lidia Carvalho, Liliana Gavinha Costa, Joana Meneses Martins, Maria Conceição Manso, Sandra Gavinha, Mariano Herrero-Climent, Blanca Ríos-Carrasco, Carlos Falcão and Paulo Ribeiro
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212258 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
The present study had a convenience sample with 236 laypeople and 242 dentists who completed an online questionnaire to choose the most attractive image among six pairs for comparison. Control image: symmetric (parallelism between occlusal plane (OP), commissural line (CL), and interpupillary line [...] Read more.
The present study had a convenience sample with 236 laypeople and 242 dentists who completed an online questionnaire to choose the most attractive image among six pairs for comparison. Control image: symmetric (parallelism between occlusal plane (OP), commissural line (CL), and interpupillary line (IL)). Change of Control, obtaining three images with a 3-degree inclination of the labial commissures. Image A: OP parallel to IL; Image B: OP parallel to CL; Image C: OP at 1.5 degree mean angulation between IL and CL. Non-parametric comparison (IBM© SPSS Statistics vs. 27.0, p < 0.05). The “Dentists” group’s decreasing order of preference (attractiveness) of the images is: Control > A > C > B (p < 0.05). In the “Lay” group, it is: Control > A > (C not ≠ B). Dentists significantly prefer more the Control and Image A than laypeople (p < 0.001). Sex (single exception in laypeople), age, and dentist’s area of activity did not interfere in the perception of attractiveness. Dentists and laypeople preferred the Control when compared to images with CL canted. In the existence of CL inclination, the preference of the groups was the IL as a reference for OP orientation, with the mean angulation or coincident with the CL being considered less aesthetic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Factors That Influence the Judgment of Oral Management Necessity in Preoperative Oral Screening
by Nanami Kai, Yoko Tsukamoto, Kaoru Urabe, Asuka Tani, Yuko Inai, Asako Okadome, Haruhiko Kashiwazaki, Shinsuke Mizutani and Naohisa Wada
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212236 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Oral management during the perioperative period is important to prevent the development of postoperative complications. However, there are no unified systems to examine the oral status of patients and very few studies have focused on preoperative oral screening. In this study, we examined [...] Read more.
Oral management during the perioperative period is important to prevent the development of postoperative complications. However, there are no unified systems to examine the oral status of patients and very few studies have focused on preoperative oral screening. In this study, we examined the oral status of patients who underwent oral screening at a University Hospital. A total of 1173 patients who underwent oral screening for perioperative management from April 2020 to July 2021 were enrolled. The subjects’ medical data were retrospectively extracted from the dental records, and finally, the data of 1081 patients aged ≥20 years were analyzed. Oral screening based on seven categories was performed by dentists or dental hygienists. Our cumulative results determined whether patients required oral management during the perioperative period. “Poor oral hygiene” was the most frequent category (24%) of all oral categories examined. Logistic analysis revealed that tooth mobility had the highest odds ratio (21.476; 95% confidence interval: 11.462–40.239; p < 0.001) for oral management necessity during the perioperative period. Our study suggests that poor oral hygiene is most frequently observed in preoperative oral screening. Moreover, tooth mobility in preoperative oral screening may influence the judgment of oral management necessity during the perioperative period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
11 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Higher Risk of Gastric Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Periodontitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan
by Xin Li, Hitesh Singh Chaouhan, Ching-Hao Li, Tung-Min Yu, I-Kuan Wang, Cheng-Li Lin, Chi-Yuan Li and Kuo-Ting Sun
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111678 - 07 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Periodontitis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory oral disease that is characterized by tooth loss and is commonly associated with several systemic inflammatory diseases. Some epidemiological studies suggest that those suffering from periodontitis might be at a greater risk of developing gastric Helicobacter [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory oral disease that is characterized by tooth loss and is commonly associated with several systemic inflammatory diseases. Some epidemiological studies suggest that those suffering from periodontitis might be at a greater risk of developing gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection; however, evidence that showing the association between periodontitis and the risk of gastric Hp infection is less clear. We conducted a large-scale, population-based study in Taiwan with a 13-year follow-up period to evaluate the risk of gastric Hp in a periodontitis patient cohort. To conduct this study, we used epidemiological data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2000 to 2013. We selected 134,474 participants (64,868 males and 69,606 females with a minimum age of 20 years), with and without periodontitis, and matched patient cohort groups for age, sex, index year, and co-morbidities. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the risk of gastric Hp infection in patients with periodontitis. Patients with periodontitis exhibited a higher risk of developing gastric Hp infection compared to those individuals/groups without periodontitis (1.35 vs. 0.87 per 1000 person-years, adjusted the hazards ratio (aHR 1.52), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.38–1.67, p < 0.001). The risk of gastric Hp infection persisted even after stratifying by age (aHR = 1.96 (1.79–2.13) for 50–64 years and 1.70 (1.49–1.94) for ≥65 years), gender (aHR = 1.20 (1.11–1.29) for men), and presence of comorbidities of hypertension (aHR = 1.24 (1.11–1.38)), hyperlipidemia (aHR = 1.28 (1.14–1.42)), COPD (aHR = 1.45 (1.31–1.61)), CLD (aHR = 1.62 (1.47–1.77)) and CKD (aHR = 1.44 (1.04–1.99)). Overall, our findings showed that periodontitis patients have a greater risk for gastric Hp than individuals without periodontitis. Clinicians should perform regular good oral hygiene practices, along with newer treatments, for patients with periodontitis, especially those at higher risk of gastric Hp infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 534 KiB  
Article
Clinical Analysis of the Diagnostic Accuracy and Time of Execution of a Transillumination Caries Detection Method Compared to Bitewing Radiographs
by Gian Andrea Pelliccioni, Maria Rosaria Antonella Gatto, Silvia Bolognesi, Daniele Dal Fiume, Maicon Sebold and Lorenzo Breschi
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(20), 4780; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204780 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Purposes: this clinical study evaluated the accuracy and execution time of a digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) technique for the detection of approximal caries in posterior teeth compared to intra-oral examination associated with bitewing radiographs. Methods: one hundred patients were selected and submitted [...] Read more.
Purposes: this clinical study evaluated the accuracy and execution time of a digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) technique for the detection of approximal caries in posterior teeth compared to intra-oral examination associated with bitewing radiographs. Methods: one hundred patients were selected and submitted to clinical inspection and bitewing radiographs. The outcomes of this process were converted into scores, according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): 0—sound tooth; 1, 2, and 3—carious lesion confined within enamel; 4, 5, and 6—dentin carious lesion. Subsequently, an independent investigator acquired digital images of the same teeth using a DIFOTI device (DIAGNOcam, Kavo Dental), which were also converted into ICDAS scores. The time required for executing diagnostic procedures was measured. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of DIFOTI were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The time necessary to perform the diagnostic methods was evaluated by Mann–Whitney U (alfa = 0.05). Results: the overall test accuracy for the DIFOTI-based device ranged from 0.717 to 0.815 (area under the ROC curve) with p < 0.0001 for all ICDAS scores. Bitewing radiographs took almost twice the time required by DIFOTI (p < 0.001). Conclusions: the DIFOTI-based device DIAGNOcam provided accurate detection of approximal caries in posterior teeth, even at early stages. The technique employed for transillumination caries diagnosis by the same device took less time than conventional bitewing radiographs. Clinical Relevance: transillumination devices, such as DIAGNOcam, can be accurately used for caries diagnosis in approximal surfaces of posterior teeth, demanding less clinical time and without radiation-related risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 3184 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of the Dental Pulp and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells of the Yucatan Miniature Pig
by Soo-Jin Son, SeokJin Jang, HyungChul Rah and SeokHwa Choi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209461 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Miniature pigs have been considered as a recommended large animal model for biomedical research. Mesenchymal stem cells offer promising potential for tissue regeneration. Recent studies have suggested that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) may provide more reliable [...] Read more.
Miniature pigs have been considered as a recommended large animal model for biomedical research. Mesenchymal stem cells offer promising potential for tissue regeneration. Recent studies have suggested that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) may provide more reliable strategies for the treatment of dental diseases using a cell-based tissue engineering approach. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare the characteristics of the DPSCs and PDLSCs of a miniature pig breed to the DPSCs and PDLSCs of a domestic farm pig breed. Stem cells of the DP and PDL were obtained from a male Yucatan miniature pig (nine months old) and a male domestic farm pig breed (six months old). The cell morphology, surface stem cell marker expression, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation ability were evaluated. Under a light microscope, the DPSCs and PDLSCs of the miniature pig breed had morphologies similar to those of the domestic farm pig breed. The proliferation of PDLSCs in both animals showed no significant differences, except on day five, whereas the proliferation of DPSCs was significantly higher in the miniature pig breed. However, the osteogenic abilities of the DPSCs and PDLSCs from the miniature pig breed were significantly lower compared to the domestic farm pig breed. This observation emphasizes the need for the breed-specific optimization of an osteogenic differentiation culture protocol for Yucatan miniature pig DPSCs and PDLSCs before application to cell-based therapy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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10 pages, 2204 KiB  
Article
Esthetic Assessment Succeeding Anterior Atrophic Maxilla Augmentation with Cancellous Bone-Block Allograft and Late Restoration Loading
by Sarit Naishlos, Eran Zenziper, Helena Zelikman, Joseph Nissan, Shaked Mizrahi, Gavriel Chaushu, Shlomo Matalon and Liat Chaushu
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(20), 4635; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204635 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Background: Various conditions may lead to bony deficiency in the anterior maxilla. The present study evaluated esthetic (PES—pink esthetic score and WES—white esthetic score) results after augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla using cancellous bone-block allograft followed by implant placement and late (conventional) [...] Read more.
Background: Various conditions may lead to bony deficiency in the anterior maxilla. The present study evaluated esthetic (PES—pink esthetic score and WES—white esthetic score) results after augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla using cancellous bone-block allograft followed by implant placement and late (conventional) loading. Methods: Cohort study that included 33 patients with missing teeth in the upper anterior region characterized by extensive bone loss. Allogeneic cancellous bone-blocks were used for augmentation. Six months later, a dental implant was inserted. After a waiting time of an additional six-months, implant exposure and reconstruction were performed. The mean follow-up period was 62.93 ± 17.37 months (range 19–82 months). Results: The mean value of PES/WES was 17.8 ± 2.78. All patients had a PES/WES value above 12 (threshold value defined as clinically acceptable esthetics). The mean value of PES was 9.0 ± 1.79 and the mean value of WES was 8.8 ±1.84. Conclusions: Bone augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla using cancellous block-allograft and late loading supports achievement of a predictable esthetic result with long-term stability of soft and hard tissues around implant-supported reconstructions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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9 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Lack of Salivary Long Non-Coding RNA XIST Expression Is Associated with Increased Risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Tzong-Ming Shieh, Chung-Ji Liu, Shih-Min Hsia, Valendriyani Ningrum, Chiu-Chu Liao, Wan-Chen Lan and Yin-Hwa Shih
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4622; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194622 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Studies have shown that there is a disparity between males and females in south-east Asia with regard to oral cancer morbidity. A previous study found that oral cancer tissue showed loss of heterozygosity of the X-linked lncRNA XIST gene. We suggest that XIST [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that there is a disparity between males and females in south-east Asia with regard to oral cancer morbidity. A previous study found that oral cancer tissue showed loss of heterozygosity of the X-linked lncRNA XIST gene. We suggest that XIST may play an important role in oral cancer morbidity when associated with sex. Saliva contains proteins and RNAs that are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases. This study investigated salivary XIST expression and the correlation to clinical–pathological data among oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Salivary XIST expression was only observed in females, and a high proportion of females with OSCC lack salivary lncRNA XIST expression (88%). The expression showed no correlation with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking habits. People lacking salivary lncRNA XIST expression had a significantly increased odds ratio of suffering from OSCC (OR = 19.556, p < 0.001), particularly females (OR = 33.733, p < 0.001). The ROC curve showed that salivary lncRNA XIST expression has acceptable discrimination accuracy to predict the risk of OSCC (AUC = 0.73, p < 0.01). Lack of salivary lncRNA XIST expression was associated with an increased risk of OSCC. We provided an insight into the role of salivary lncRNA XIST as a biomarker to predict the morbidity of OSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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12 pages, 2776 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Surface Texture Analysis of Fluoride’s Effect on Enamel Erosion
by Waseem Habashi, Amal Bader-Farraj, Nir Shpack, Ilan Beitlitum, Hila May and Rachel Sarig
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4528; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194528 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
Enamel erosion has become a common clinical finding that often impairs dental esthetics and function. In the current study, we aimed to implement the three-dimensional surface texture analysis (3DST) method to explore the protective effect of fluoride on surface texture prior to erosive [...] Read more.
Enamel erosion has become a common clinical finding that often impairs dental esthetics and function. In the current study, we aimed to implement the three-dimensional surface texture analysis (3DST) method to explore the protective effect of fluoride on surface texture prior to erosive conditions. For each of the 50 teeth used in this study, the polished buccal enamel surface was divided into three separate areas: the first area was untouched polished enamel, the two other surfaces were immersed in 0.3% citric acid for 30 s. One was treated with high-concentration (19,000 ppm) sodium fluoride (NaF) solution prior to acid attack, and the other had no treatment prior to acid exposure. Enamel surface texture and step height measurements were obtained using a high-resolution disk scanning confocal microscope, and SEM images were also acquired. Surfaces treated with fluoride showed fewer variations in 3-D surface texture parameters than the eroded surface compared to the control group (p = 0.001). This was in accordance with the SEM descriptive images. The findings indicate that pre-fluoridated enamel areas were less affected by the acid and showed similar features to the untouched enamel. Moreover, a protective effect of the fluoride treatment against irreversible enamel damage was noted as the surface loss (step-height) was significantly reduced (p = 0.03). The study showed that 3DST analysis is a valuable methodology for detecting and quantifying subtle differences between the surfaces. When exploring the combination of all surface texture parameters, it was revealed that the pre-fluoridated eroded enamel surfaces showed considerable similarity to the untouched enamel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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9 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
Accuracy and Wear Evaluation of the Customized Zirconia Guided Sleeves
by Yu-Feng Chen, Chin-Yun Pan, Yung-Chung Chen, Je-Kang Du and Ting-Hsun Lan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9035; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199035 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
This in vitro study investigated the accuracy and wear conditions of three drill sleeve distances (0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mm) for 3D-guided stents in simulated clinical dental implant surgery. Fifteen sets of upper and lower partially edentulous epoxy tooling board models with four [...] Read more.
This in vitro study investigated the accuracy and wear conditions of three drill sleeve distances (0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mm) for 3D-guided stents in simulated clinical dental implant surgery. Fifteen sets of upper and lower partially edentulous epoxy tooling board models with four edentulous first molar sites were prepared in a Nissin Simple Manikin II and set on a dental chair. Sixty computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) designed and guided stents with three drill sleeve distances were prepared in this study. The maximum height (Sz) of the wear roughness of drills, maximum deviation, and drilling time were observed. The highest maximum horizontal deviations were observed at the upper first molar (0.48 ± 0.12 mm, p < 0.001). The highest maximum vertical and angular deviations were observed at the lower left first molar (1.08 ± 0.35 mm and 5.61° ± 1.21°, respectively, p < 0.001). Only angular deviation significantly differed among the three drill sleeve distances (p = 0.046); the 0.03 mm distance exhibited the maximum angular deviation (3.92° ± 1.87°). The bigger drill sleeve distance (0.03 mm) was associated with more wear roughness (8.70 ± 2.29 µm) of the drills. Guided stents with varying drill-sleeve distances (0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mm) exhibited no significant difference in preparation drilling time and abrasive wear. In practice, the optimal drill sleeve distance for single-type CAD/CAM-guided stents of dental implantation was 0.01 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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11 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Periodontitis, Halitosis and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Catarina Izidoro, João Botelho, Vanessa Machado, Ana Mafalda Reis, Luís Proença, Ricardo Alves and José João Mendes
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4415; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194415 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2350
Abstract
We aimed to explore the association between volatile sulfurous compounds (VSCs) and periodontal epithelial surface area (PESA) and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) on a cohort of periodontitis patients. Consecutive patients were assessed for periodontitis and halitosis. A full-mouth periodontal status assessment tested [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore the association between volatile sulfurous compounds (VSCs) and periodontal epithelial surface area (PESA) and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) on a cohort of periodontitis patients. Consecutive patients were assessed for periodontitis and halitosis. A full-mouth periodontal status assessment tested probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival recession (REC), bleeding on probing (BoP), PISA and PESA. A halitosis assessment was made using a VSC detector device. Periodontal measures were regressed across VSC values using adjusted multivariate linear analysis. From a total of seventy-two patients (37 females/35 males), the PESA of posterior-lower regions was found to be significantly higher in halitosis cases than their non-halitosis counterparts (p = 0.031). Considering all patients, the PESA of the posterior-lower region (B = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.2–2.3, p = 0.026) and age (B = −1.6, 95% CI: −3.1–0.2, p = 0.026) showed significant association with VSCs. In halitosis patients, the PESA of the posterior-lower region (B = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0–0.1, p = 0.001), PISA Total (B = −0.1, 95% CI: −0.1–0.0, p = 0.008) and the OHIP-14 domain of physical disability (B = −2.1, 95% CI:−4.1–0.1, p = 0.040) were the most significant variables in this model. The PESA from the posterior-lower region may be associated with VSCs when other causes of extra-oral halitosis are excluded. Further intervention studies are needed to confirm this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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8 pages, 1152 KiB  
Article
Korean Panax Ginseng Reduces Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats
by Reza Talebian, Vahid Mollabashi, Arezoo Motaghedifard and Reinhard Gruber
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8856; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198856 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2319
Abstract
Ginseng, a herbal plant, is rich in pharmacologically active ginsenosides capable of promoting bone regeneration and of reducing inflammatory osteolysis. Ginseng was therefore proposed to reduce the catabolic changes during periodontitis. Here, we tested the capability of ginseng to modulate orthodontic tooth movement [...] Read more.
Ginseng, a herbal plant, is rich in pharmacologically active ginsenosides capable of promoting bone regeneration and of reducing inflammatory osteolysis. Ginseng was therefore proposed to reduce the catabolic changes during periodontitis. Here, we tested the capability of ginseng to modulate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). To this aim, 55 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (I) a normal group without any interventions; (II) an untreated OTM serving as a control; and (III, IV, and V) treated OTMs receiving daily oral administrations of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg of a standardized extract from the roots of Korean Panax ginseng G115 for three weeks, respectively. The molar tooth was moved towards the incisor during three weeks followed by measurements of the distance between the first and the second molars. Moreover, the impact of OTM and ginseng extracts on body weight was determined. Our data showed that, compared with the OTM control, 150 and 300 mg/kg of G115 ginseng extract significantly decreased the OTM from 0.87 mm (min 0.69; max 0.96) to 0.53 (min 0.42, max 0.62; p = 0.002) and 0.36 (min 0.27, max 0.43; p < 0.0001), respectively. Moreover, 150 and 300 mg/kg of G115 significantly lowered the body weights of the rats when compared with the respective controls (p = 0.002 and p < 0.0001, respectively). These findings suggest that extracts from Panax ginseng are capable of reducing orthodontic tooth movement in rats and is associated with a decrease in body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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7 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Candida albicans Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Novel Endodontic Solvents
by Inês Ferreira, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Liliana Fernandes, Mariana Henriques and Irene Pina-Vaz
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7748; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167748 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Background: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungi isolated in endodontic infections. In this study, the ability of C. albicans biofilm to tolerate the novel solvent mixtures methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)/tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and MEK/orange oil (OOil) sequentially to the standard irrigation of sodium [...] Read more.
Background: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungi isolated in endodontic infections. In this study, the ability of C. albicans biofilm to tolerate the novel solvent mixtures methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)/tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and MEK/orange oil (OOil) sequentially to the standard irrigation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) was evaluated. Methods: Biofilm cell cultures of C. albicans SC 5314 were treated sequentially with NaOCl and EDTA and exposed to MEK/TCE or MEK/OOil. The effect of the antimicrobial treatment was evaluated using the disk diffusion method for planktonic culture, and the enumeration of colony-forming units (CFUs) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for biofilm cell culture. Results: C. albicans mature biofilm (24 h) was significantly reduced in biomass and cell viability after solvent mixtures’ exposure, compared with the previous NaOCl and EDTA treatments. MEK/OOil combination caused a total reduction of biofilm, while with MEK/TCE, there was a 3-log (CFU/cm2) reduction compared with the sequence NaOCl and EDTA, and a 4-log (CFU/cm2) reduction compared with the control. Conclusions: The additional exposure of a preformed 24 h C. albicans biofilm to novel solvent mixtures MEK/TCE and MEK/OOil caused a positive antibiofilm impact, overcoming the performance of the conventional endodontic irrigating protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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