Topic Editors

Institute of New Drug Development, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
School of Pharmacy, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China

Conjugated Polymers: Preparation, Properties and Applications

Abstract submission deadline
31 August 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 October 2024
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9312

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymers compete with metals as constituents of several materials, being cheapest in preparation and exhibiting more ductility. Synthesis of conjugated polymers allowed preparing semiconducting materials for replacing metals in electronic and optical applications. Conjugated polymers exhibit alternating double bonds and single bonds and several p-orbitals overlapping, with consequent high electron mobility. Light absorption and emission in the range of UV-Visible-Near IR frequencies rendered the compounds objects of several studies concerning potential applications in Photovoltaic, Light Emission Diodes, Bio-Imaging, Hydrogen Photo-production. Conjugated polymers and analysis of their electro-optical properties constitute an active research field due to the needing for materials whose performances are comparable to the metal semiconductors and can replace them. The development of conjugated polymers can also allow applications of semiconductors in new fields, such as electro-optical biomaterials as well as in the treatment of neurodegenerative, inflammation and infectious disease. In this Topic, we intend to collect research work concerning the preparation of conjugated polymers and analysis of their properties.

Dr. Carmine Coluccini
Dr. Paolo Coghi
Topic Editors

 

Keywords

  • conjugated Polymers
  • elecron Mobility
  • light absorption
  • light Emission
  • electro-optical devices
  • p-orbitals overlapping

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Chemistry
chemistry
2.1 2.5 2019 19.1 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Macromol
macromol
- - 2021 34.7 Days CHF 1000 Submit

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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18 pages, 4923 KiB  
Article
Chlorpromazine–Polypyrrole Drug Delivery System Tailored for Neurological Application
by Sara Krawczyk, Sylwia Golba, Cristina Neves and João Tedim
Molecules 2024, 29(7), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29071531 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Nowadays, drug delivery systems (DDSs) are gaining more and more attention. Conducting polymers (CPs) are efficiently used for DDS construction as such systems can be used in therapy. In this research, a well-known CP, polypyrrole (PPy), was synthesized in the presence of the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, drug delivery systems (DDSs) are gaining more and more attention. Conducting polymers (CPs) are efficiently used for DDS construction as such systems can be used in therapy. In this research, a well-known CP, polypyrrole (PPy), was synthesized in the presence of the polysaccharide heparin (HEP) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as electrolyte on a steel substrate. The obtained results demonstrate the successful incorporation of CPZ and HEP into the polymer matrix, with the deposited films maintaining stable electrochemical parameters across multiple doping/dedoping cycles. Surface roughness, estimated via AFM analysis, revealed a correlation with layer thickness—decreasing for thinner layers and increasing for thicker ones. Moreover, SEM images revealed a change in the morphology of PPy films when PPy is electropolymerized in the presence of CPZ and HEP, while FTIR confirmed the presence of CPZ and HEP within PPy. Due to its lower molecular mass compared to HEP, CPZ was readily integrated into the thin polymer matrix during deposition, with diffusion being unimpeded, as opposed to films with greater thickness. Finally, the resulting system exhibited the ability to release CPZ, enabling a dosing range of 10 mg to 20 mg per day, effectively covering the therapeutic concentration range. Full article
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11 pages, 2895 KiB  
Article
Substitution Effect of a Single Nitrogen Atom on π-Electronic Systems of Linear Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Theoretically Visualized Coexistence of Mono- and Polycyclic π-Electron Delocalization
by Jong Min Lim, Sangdeok Shim, Hoa Thi Bui, Jimin Kim, Ho-Joong Kim, Yoon Hwa and Sung Cho
Molecules 2024, 29(4), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29040784 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 559
Abstract
We theoretically investigated the nitrogen substitution effect on the molecular structure and π-electron delocalization in linear nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Based on the optimized molecular structures and magnetic field-induced parameters of fused bi- and tricyclic linear N-PAHs, we found that the local [...] Read more.
We theoretically investigated the nitrogen substitution effect on the molecular structure and π-electron delocalization in linear nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Based on the optimized molecular structures and magnetic field-induced parameters of fused bi- and tricyclic linear N-PAHs, we found that the local π-electron delocalization of subcycles (e.g., mono- and bicyclic constituent moieties) in linear N-PAHs is preserved, despite deviation from ideal structures of parent monocycles. The introduction of a fused five-membered ring with a pyrrolic N atom (N-5MR) in linear N-PAHs significantly perturbs the π-electronic condition of the neighboring fused six-membered ring (6MR). Monocyclic pyrrole exhibits substantial bond length alternations, strongly influencing the π-electronic systems of both the fused N-5MR and 6MR in linear N-PAHs, depending on the location of shared covalent bonds. A fused six-membered ring with a graphitic N atom in an indolizine moiety cannot generate monocyclic π-electron delocalization but instead contributes to the formation of polycyclic π-electron delocalization. This is evidenced by bifurcated diatropic ring currents induced by an external magnetic field. In conclusion, the satisfaction of Hückel’s 4n + 2 rule for both mono- and polycycles is crucial for understanding the overall π-electron delocalization. It is crucial to consider the unique characteristics of the three types of substituted N atoms and the spatial arrangement of 5MR and 6MR in N-PAHs. Full article
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13 pages, 2327 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Novel Polycyclopentadithiophene
by Farah Zayanah Ahmad Zulkifli, Moeka Ito, Takahiro Uno and Masataka Kubo
Polymers 2023, 15(20), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15204091 - 15 Oct 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
A novel π-conjugated polymer based on cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) and poly(4,4′]-(((4Hcyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b′]dithiophene-4,4-diyl)bis(ethane-2,1-diyl))bis(oxy))bis(4-oxobutanoic acid)) (PCPDT-CO2H) was prepared as a sparingly soluble material. The generation of hydroxyl radicals from PCPDT-CO2H in water was confirmed by using coumarin [...] Read more.
A novel π-conjugated polymer based on cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) and poly(4,4′]-(((4Hcyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b′]dithiophene-4,4-diyl)bis(ethane-2,1-diyl))bis(oxy))bis(4-oxobutanoic acid)) (PCPDT-CO2H) was prepared as a sparingly soluble material. The generation of hydroxyl radicals from PCPDT-CO2H in water was confirmed by using coumarin as a hydroxyl radical indicator. Furthermore, PCPDT-CO2H was found to catalyze the oxidative hydroxylation of arylboronic acid and the oxidation of benzaldehyde, indicating that PCPDT-CO2H can be a promising candidate for metal-free and 100% organic heterogeneous photocatalysts. Full article
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16 pages, 3874 KiB  
Review
Different Roles between PEDOT:PSS as Counter Electrode and PEDOT:Carrageenan as Electrolyte in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications: A Systematic Literature Review
by Euis Siti Nurazizah, Annisa Aprilia, Risdiana Risdiana and Lusi Safriani
Polymers 2023, 15(12), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15122725 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has been mostly used as a counter electrode to give a high performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Recently, PEDOT doped by carrageenan, namely PEDOT:Carrageenan, was introduced as a new material to be applied on DSSC as an electrolyte. PEDOT:Carrageenan [...] Read more.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has been mostly used as a counter electrode to give a high performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Recently, PEDOT doped by carrageenan, namely PEDOT:Carrageenan, was introduced as a new material to be applied on DSSC as an electrolyte. PEDOT:Carrageenan has a similar synthesis process as PEDOT:PSS, owing to their similar ester sulphate (-SO3H) groups in both PSS and carrageenan. This review provides an overview of the different roles between PEDOT:PSS as a counter electrode and PEDOT:Carrageenan as an electrolyte for DSSC applications. The synthesis process and characteristics of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:Carrageenan were also described in this review. In conclusion, we found that the primary role of PEDOT:PSS as a counter electrode is to transfer electrons back to cell and accelerate redox reaction with its superior electrical conductivity and high electrocatalytic activity. PEDOT:Carrageenan as an electrolyte has not shown the main role for regenerating the dye sensitized at the oxidized state, probably due to its low ionic conductivity. Therefore, PEDOT:Carrageenan still obtained a low performance of DSSC. Additionally, the future perspective and challenges of using PEDOT:Carrageenan as both electrolyte and counter electrode are described in detail. Full article
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15 pages, 5542 KiB  
Article
The Pivotal Role of Benzimidazole in Improving the Thermal and Dielectric Performance of Upilex-Type Polyimide
by Meng Lian, Fei Zhao, Jun Liu, Faqin Tong, Lingbin Meng, Yongqi Yang and Feng Zheng
Polymers 2023, 15(10), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15102343 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Polyimide (PI) with ultra-high thermal resistance and stability is essential for application as a flexible substrate in electronic devices. Here, the Upilex-type polyimides, which contained flexibly “twisted” 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA), have achieved various performance improvements via copolymerization with a diamine containing benzimidazole structure. With [...] Read more.
Polyimide (PI) with ultra-high thermal resistance and stability is essential for application as a flexible substrate in electronic devices. Here, the Upilex-type polyimides, which contained flexibly “twisted” 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA), have achieved various performance improvements via copolymerization with a diamine containing benzimidazole structure. With the rigid benzimidazole-based diamine bearing conjugated heterocyclic moieties and hydrogen bond donors fused into the PI backbone, the benzimidazole-containing PI showed outstanding thermal, mechanical, and dielectric performance. Specifically, the PI containing 50% bis-benzimidazole diamine achieved a 5% decomposition temperature at 554 °C, an excellent high glass transition temperature of 448 °C, and a coefficient of thermal expansion lowered to 16.1 ppm/K. Meanwhile, the tensile strength and modulus of the PI films containing 50% mono-benzimidazole diamine increased to 148.6 MPa and 4.1 GPa, respectively. Due to the synergistic effect of rigid benzimidazole and hinged, flexible ODA, all PI films exhibited an elongation at break above 4.3%. The electrical insulation of the PI films was also improved with a dielectric constant lowered to 1.29. In summary, with appropriate mixing of rigid and flexible moieties in the PI backbone, all the PI films showed superior thermal stability, excellent flexibility, and acceptable electrical insulation. Full article
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21 pages, 5006 KiB  
Article
Novel Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers with 1-Thioxophosphole Main-Chain Units and Remarkable Photoinduced Changes in Their Resonance Raman Spectra
by Ivana Šloufová, Tereza Urválková, Muriel Hissler and Jiří Vohlídal
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5207; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235207 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1630
Abstract
New low-bandgap unimers, with the central thiophene-(1-thioxophosphole)-thiophene (TPT) ring sequence and 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridin-4′-yl (tpy) end groups connected to the central unit via conjugated linkers of different size, are prepared and assembled with Zn(II) and Fe(II) ions to metallo-supramolecular polymers (MSPs) that are [...] Read more.
New low-bandgap unimers, with the central thiophene-(1-thioxophosphole)-thiophene (TPT) ring sequence and 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridin-4′-yl (tpy) end groups connected to the central unit via conjugated linkers of different size, are prepared and assembled with Zn(II) and Fe(II) ions to metallo-supramolecular polymers (MSPs) that are studied regarding their properties. The most interesting feature of Zn-MSPs is the luminescence extended deep into the NIR region. Fe-MSPs not only show the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) manifested by the MLCT band (an expected feature) but also an as-yet-undescribed remarkable phenomenon: specific damping of the bands of the TPT sequence in the resonance Raman spectra taken from solid Fe-MSPs using the excitation to the MLCT band (532 nm). The damping is highly reversible at the low laser power of 0.1 mW but gradually becomes irreversible as the power reaches ca. 5 mW. The revealed phenomenon is not shown by the same Fe-MSPs in solutions, nor by Fe-MSPs containing no phosphole units. A hypothesis is proposed that explains this phenomenon and its dependence on the irradiation intensity as a result of the interplay of three factors: (i) enhancement of the MLCT process by excitation radiation, (ii) the electron-acceptor character of the 1-thioxophosphole ring, and (iii) morphological changes of the lattice and their dependence on the population of new structures in the lattice. Full article
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12 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Study of Vinyl-Sulfonate Monomers and Their Effect as the Dopants of Polyaniline Dimers
by Isis Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alain S. Conejo-Dávila, Anayansi Estrada-Monje, Alejandro Vega-Rios and Erasto Armando Zaragoza-Contreras
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6353; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196353 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Establishing the structure–property relationships of monomers and polymers via theoretical chemistry is vital for designing new polymer structures with a specific application. Developing bifunctional monomers with selective polymerizable sites is one of the strategies employed to obtain complex polymeric systems. In this work, [...] Read more.
Establishing the structure–property relationships of monomers and polymers via theoretical chemistry is vital for designing new polymer structures with a specific application. Developing bifunctional monomers with selective polymerizable sites is one of the strategies employed to obtain complex polymeric systems. In this work, a theoretical study on anilinium 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate (ani-AMPS) and anilinium 4-styrenesulfonate (ani-SS) monomers and their respective doped polyaniline dimer (PAni-d AMPS or PAni-d SS) was performed. The study focused on understanding the susceptibility of the vinyl group to a radical attack and the conformation changes resulting from the coordinated covalent bond between sulfonate and aniliniun. Applying Density Functional Theory with the B3LYP functional and a basis set of 6 − 31 + G(d,p), the structures of the ani-AMPS, ani-SS, PAni-d AMPS, and PAni-d SS were optimized, and the different chemical descriptors were determined. The simulation showed that the reactivity of the vinyl group in the ani-AMPS is slightly higher. The sulfonate group undergoes a conformational change when bonding with PAni-d AMPS or PAni-d SS compared to its respective bifunctional monomer. Additionally, the electronegativity of PAni-d depends on the dopant’s structure. Thus, the bonded spacer between the vinyl and sulfonate groups (dopant) plays a notable role in the final characteristics of ani-AMPS, ani-SS, PAni-d AMPS, and PAni-d SS. Full article
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