Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Venko N. Beschkov
Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Konstantin Petrov
Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
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53389

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemistry and energy production always have been interrelated through the years. Currently, these interconnections have become more intensive and diverse because of the problems due to fossil fuel exhaustion and the adverse effects of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from intensive human activity.

One of the possible solutions for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases is the application of renewable energy sources of biological origin to produce biofuels, e.g., bioethanol, biogas, and biodiesel. There is another topic of fundamental and practical interest. It is the production of hydrogen from biomass through fermentation methods. Although the practical results of this research are still modest, any future development in this area are of practical interest.

Besides the traditional processes of combustion, in recent decades a big share of chemical and mainly electrochemical methods have been studied and applied. The use of hydrogen in fuel cell equipment is one example of these applications. Other sources for electricity generation in fuel cells are carbon monoxide and methane. In recent years, hydrogen sulfide has become another attractive source for energy production combined with environmental effects.

A recent and very extensively growing topic of research is on microbial fuel cell applications for combined wastewater treatment and energy production. Although the power densities in this process are low, the microbial fuel cells enable straightforward processes of pollutant destruction compared to the traditional chemical methods.

The research and efforts for the utilization of waste carbon dioxide are growing in recent years. The use of CO2 for production of lipids by photosynthesis of algae in later production of biodiesel is the subject of many studies. Other efforts are based on chemical and electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals and fuels. The present issue is an attempt to present new and attractive chemical and biological methods for energy production with their advantages and applications in different areas of human activities.

Prof. Dr. Venko N. Beschkov
Prof. Dr. Konstantin Petrov
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • energy production
  • greenhouse gases
  • electrochemical methods
  • fuel cells
  • renewable energy
  • biofuels
  • carbon dioxide recycling
  • microbial fuel cells

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400
Bioengineering
bioengineering
4.6 4.2 2014 17.7 Days CHF 2700
ChemEngineering
ChemEngineering
2.5 4.7 2017 17.2 Days CHF 1600
Clean Technologies
cleantechnol
3.8 4.5 2019 26.6 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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29 pages, 4801 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Modeling of Vacuum Systems Using Process Simulation Software
by Eduard Vladislavovich Osipov, Daniel Bugembe, Sergey Ivanovich Ponikarov and Artem Sergeevich Ponikarov
ChemEngineering 2024, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering8020031 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Traditional vacuum system designs often rely on a 100% reserve, lacking precision for accurate petrochemical computations under vacuum. This study addresses this gap by proposing an innovative modeling methodology through the deconstruction of a typical vacuum-enabled process. Emphasizing non-prescriptive pressure assignment, the approach [...] Read more.
Traditional vacuum system designs often rely on a 100% reserve, lacking precision for accurate petrochemical computations under vacuum. This study addresses this gap by proposing an innovative modeling methodology through the deconstruction of a typical vacuum-enabled process. Emphasizing non-prescriptive pressure assignment, the approach ensures optimal alignment within the vacuum system. Utilizing process simulation software, each component was systematically evaluated following a proposed algorithm. The methodology was applied to simulate vacuum-driven separation in phenol and acetone production. Quantifying the vacuum system’s load involved constructing mathematical models in Unisim Design R451 to determine the mixture’s volume flow rate entering the vacuum pump. A standard-sized vacuum pump was then selected with a 40% performance margin. Post-reconstruction, the outcomes revealed a 22.5 mm Hg suction pressure within the liquid-ring vacuum pump, validating the efficacy of the devised design at a designated residual pressure of 40 mm Hg. This study enhances precision in vacuum system design, offering insights that are applicable to diverse petrochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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12 pages, 2289 KiB  
Article
Effect of Glucose and Methylene Blue in Microbial Fuel Cells Using E. coli
by Carolina Montoya-Vallejo, Jorge Omar Gil Posada and Juan Carlos Quintero-Díaz
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7901; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237901 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Microbial fuel cells could be used as an alternative for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. Escherichia coli is a representative bacterium that has been widely studied as a model in laboratory assays despite its limited ability to transfer electrons. Although previous studies have [...] Read more.
Microbial fuel cells could be used as an alternative for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. Escherichia coli is a representative bacterium that has been widely studied as a model in laboratory assays despite its limited ability to transfer electrons. Although previous studies have employed glucose and methylene blue in electricity production using E. coli, there remains a lack of understanding on how current generation would impact the production of metabolites and what the most appropriate conditions for current production might be. To shed light on those issues, this manuscript used a 32 factorial design to evaluate the effect of the concentration of organic matter (glucose) and the concentration of the mediator methylene blue (MB) using E. coli DH5α as an anodic microorganism. It was found that as the concentration of glucose was increased, the production of electricity increased and at the same time, its degradation percentage decreased. Similarly, a 17-fold increase in current production was observed with an elevation in methylene blue concentration from 0 to 0.3 mM, though inhibition became apparent at higher concentrations. The maximum power generated by the cell was 204.5 µW m−2, achieving a current density of 1.434 mA m−2 at concentrations of 5 g L−1 of glucose and 0.3 mM of MB. Reductions in the production of ethanol, lactate, and acetate were observed due to the deviation of electrons to the anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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15 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Improving Biomethanol Synthesis via the Addition of Extra Hydrogen to Biohydrogen Using a Reverse Water–Gas Shift Reaction Compared with Direct Methanol Synthesis
by Kuntima Krekkeitsakul, Rujira Jitrwung, Weerawat Patthaveekongka and Teerasak Hudakorn
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082425 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Conventionally, methanol is derived from a petroleum base and natural gas, but biomethanol is obtained from biobased sources, which can provide a good alternative for commercial methanol synthesis. The fermentation of molasses to produce biomethanol via the production of biohydrogen (H2 and [...] Read more.
Conventionally, methanol is derived from a petroleum base and natural gas, but biomethanol is obtained from biobased sources, which can provide a good alternative for commercial methanol synthesis. The fermentation of molasses to produce biomethanol via the production of biohydrogen (H2 and CO2) was studied. Molasses concentrations of 20, 30, or 40 g/L with the addition of 0, 0.01, or 0.1 g/L of trace elements (TEs) (NiCl2 and FeSO4·7H2O) were investigated, and the proper conditions were a 30 g/L molasses solution combined with 0.01 g/L of TEs. H2/CO2 ratios of 50/50% (v/v), 60/40% (v/v), and 70/30% (v/v) with a constant feed rate of 60 g/h for CO2 conversion via methanol synthesis (MS) and the reverse water–gas shift (RWGS) reaction were studied. MS at temperatures of 170, 200, and 230 °C with a Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and pressure of 40 barg was studied. Increasing the H2/CO2 ratio increased the maximum methanol product rate, and the maximum H2/CO2 ratio of 70/30% (v/v) resulted in methanol production rates of 13.15, 17.81, and 14.15 g/h, respectively. The optimum temperature and methanol purity were 200 °C and 62.9% (wt). The RWGS was studied at temperatures ranging from 150 to 550 °C at atm pressure with the same catalyst and feed. Increasing the temperature supported CO generation, which remained unchanged at 21 to 23% at 500 to 550 °C. For direct methanol synthesis (DMS), there was an initial methanol synthesis (MS) reaction followed by a second methanol synthesis (MS) reaction, and for indirect methanol synthesis (IMS), there was a reverse water–gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by methanol synthesis (MS). For pathway 1, DMS (1st MS + 2nd MS), and pathway 2, IMS (1st RWGS + 2nd MS), the same optimal H2/CO2 ratio at 60/40% (v/v) or 1.49/1 (mole ratio) was determined, and methanol production rates of 1.04 (0.033) and 1.0111 (0.032) g/min (mol/min), methanol purities of 75.91% (wt) and 97.98% (wt), and CO2 consumptions of 27.32% and 57.25%, respectively, were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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16 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Dry Reforming of Methane in Packed and Fluidized Beds: Effects of Key Operating Parameters
by Fahad Al-Otaibi, Hongliang Xiao, Abdallah S. Berrouk and Kyriaki Polychronopoulou
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7030057 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Replacing the conventionally used steam reforming of methane (SRM) with a process that has a smaller carbon footprint, such as dry reforming of methane (DRM), has been found to greatly improve the industry’s utilization of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, we numerically [...] Read more.
Replacing the conventionally used steam reforming of methane (SRM) with a process that has a smaller carbon footprint, such as dry reforming of methane (DRM), has been found to greatly improve the industry’s utilization of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, we numerically modeled a DRM process in lab-scale packed and fluidized beds using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The simulation results agree well with the available experimental data. Based on these validated models, we investigated the effects of temperature, inlet composition, and contact spatial time on DRM in packed beds. The impacts of the side effects on the DRM process were also examined, particularly the role the methane decomposition reaction plays in coke formation at high temperatures. It was found that the coking amount reached thermodynamic equilibrium after 900 K. Additionally, the conversion rate in the fluidized bed was found to be slightly greater than that in the packed bed under the initial fluidization regime, and less coking was observed in the fluidized bed. The simulation results show that the adopted CFD approach was reliable for modeling complex flow and reaction phenomena at different scales and regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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16 pages, 4784 KiB  
Article
Steel Slag Decorated with Calcium Oxide and Cerium Oxide as a Solid Base for Effective Transesterification of Palm Oil
by Jichao Sun, Hewei Yu, Peisen Zhang, Gaoyu Qi, Xiuxiu Chen, Xiaohui Liang and Hongyu Si
Processes 2023, 11(6), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11061810 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
For further resource utilization of solid waste steel slag and the reduction in biodiesel production costs, this study used steel slag as a carrier to synthesize a CaO-CeO2/slag solid base catalyst for the effective transesterification of palm oil into fatty acid [...] Read more.
For further resource utilization of solid waste steel slag and the reduction in biodiesel production costs, this study used steel slag as a carrier to synthesize a CaO-CeO2/slag solid base catalyst for the effective transesterification of palm oil into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The synthesis involved a two-step impregnation of steel slag with nitrate of calcium and cerium and thermal activation at 800 °C for 180 min. Then, the catalysts’ textural, chemical, and CO2 temperature-programmed desorption properties were characterized. The catalytic activity depended highly on the ratio of Ca-Ce to steel slag mass; the CaO-CeO2/slag-0.8 catalyst showed outstanding performance. Characterization showed that the surface area and total basicity of the Ca-Ce/slag-0.8 catalyst were 3.66 m2/g and 1.289 mmol/g, respectively. The reactivity results showed that FAMEs obtained using 7 wt.% catalyst, 9:1 of methanol-to-palm-oil molar ratio, 180 min reaction duration, and 70 °C reaction temperature was optimum (i.e., 95.3% yield). In addition, the CaO-CeO2/slag-0.8 catalyst could be reused for at least three cycles, retaining 91.2% of FAMEs yield after n-hexane washing. Hence, the catalyst exhibits an excellent potential for cost-effective and environmentally friendly biodiesel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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17 pages, 10147 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Electrochemical Properties of Layered NaxMn0.5Co0.5O2 Obtained at Different Calcined Temperatures
by Le Minh Nguyen, Van Hoang Nguyen, Doan My Ngoc Nguyen, Minh Kha Le, Van Man Tran and My Loan Phung Le
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7020033 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
P-type layered oxides recently became promising candidates for Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) for their high specific capacity and rate capability. This work elucidated the structure and electrochemical performance of the layered cathode material NaxMn0.5Co0.5O2 (NMC) with x~1 [...] Read more.
P-type layered oxides recently became promising candidates for Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) for their high specific capacity and rate capability. This work elucidated the structure and electrochemical performance of the layered cathode material NaxMn0.5Co0.5O2 (NMC) with x~1 calcined at 650, 800 and 900 °C. XRD diffraction indicated that the NMC material possessed a phase transition from P3- to P2-type layered structure with bi-phasic P3/P2 at medium temperature. The sodium storage behavior of different phases was evaluated. The results showed that the increased temperature improved the specific capacity and cycling stability. P2-NMC exhibited the highest initial capacity of 156.9 mAh·g−1 with capacity retention of 76.2% after 100 cycles, which was superior to the initial discharge capacity of only 149.3 mAh·g−1 and severe capacity fading per cycle of P3-NMC, indicating high robust structure stability by applying higher calcination temperature. The less stable structure also contributed to the fast degradation of the P3 phase at high current density. Thus, the high temperature P2 phase was still the best in sodium storage performance. Additionally, the sodium diffusion coefficient was calculated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and demonstrated that the synergic effect of the two phases facile the sodium ion migration. Hard carbon||P2-NMC delivered a capacity of 80.9 mAh·g−1 and 63.3% capacity retention after 25 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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11 pages, 2865 KiB  
Article
Renewable Polymers Derived from Limonene
by Roman Aleksandrovich Lyubushkin, Natalia Igorevna Cherkashina, Dar’ya Vasil’yevna Pushkarskaya, Dar’ya Sergeyevna Matveenko, Alexander Sergeevich Shcherbakov and Yuliya Sergeevna Ryzhkova
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7010008 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Renewable natural and synthetic basic substances can be used to produce biodegradable polymers. Several methods of the polymerization of terpene limonene have been evaluated. The polymerization methods evaluated are radical polymerization, cationic polymerization and thiol-ene polymerization. The free-radical polymerization of limonene with azobisisobutyronitrile [...] Read more.
Renewable natural and synthetic basic substances can be used to produce biodegradable polymers. Several methods of the polymerization of terpene limonene have been evaluated. The polymerization methods evaluated are radical polymerization, cationic polymerization and thiol-ene polymerization. The free-radical polymerization of limonene with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator was carried out. The cationic polymerization of limonene was carried out using AlCl3 as a catalyst. The copolymerization of limonene with mercaptoethanol, 2-mercaptoethyl ether without an initiator and with an AIBN initiator was studied and it was also shown that polymerization can proceed spontaneously. The resulting compounds were investigated by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The values of the molecular weight characteristics of the samples obtained are presented, such as: number-average molecular weight, hydrodynamic radius and characteristic viscosity, depending on the method of production. The coefficients α (molecular shape) in the Mark–Kuhn–Houwink equation are determined according to the established values of the characteristic viscosity. According to the values obtained, the AC molecules in solution have parameters α 0.14 to 0.26, which corresponds to a good solvent and the molecular shape-dense coil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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14 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Biodiesel via Interesterification Reaction of Calophyllum inophyllum Seed Oil and Ethyl Acetate over Lipase Catalyst: Experimental and Surface Response Methodology Analysis
by Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Normaliza Normaliza, Elva Dianis Novia Anisa, Haniif Prasetiawan, Dhoni Hartanto, Harumi Veny, Fazlena Hamzah and Miradatul Najwa Muhd Rodhi
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7737; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207737 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Biodiesel is increasingly being considered as an alternative to the fossil fuel as it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and feasible for mass production. Biodiesel can be produced from various types of vegetable oils. Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil (CSO) is among the prospective nonedible [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is increasingly being considered as an alternative to the fossil fuel as it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and feasible for mass production. Biodiesel can be produced from various types of vegetable oils. Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil (CSO) is among the prospective nonedible vegetable oils considered as a raw material for biodiesel synthesis. The most common process of the biodiesel manufacturing is the transesterification of vegetable oils which results in glycerol as a by-product. Thus, product purification is necessary. In this work, an alternative route to biodiesel synthesis through interesterification reaction of vegetable oil and ethyl acetate was conducted. By replacing alcohol with ethyl acetate, triacetin was produced as a side product rather than glycerol. Triacetin can be used as a fuel additive to increase the octane number of the fuel. Therefore, triacetin separation from biodiesel products is needless. The interesterification reaction is catalyzed by an alkaline catalyst or by a lipase enzyme. In this study, biodiesel synthesis was carried out using a lipase enzyme since it is a green and sustainable catalyst. The interesterification reaction of CSO with ethyl acetate in the presence of a lipase catalyst was conducted using the molar ratio of CSO and ethyl acetate of 1:3. The reaction time, lipase catalyst concentration, and reaction temperature were varied at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 h, 10%,15%, 20%, and 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, respectively. The experimental results were also analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) with the Box–Behnken design (BBD) model on Design Expert software. Data processing using RSM revealed that the highest conversion within the studied parameter range was 41.46%, obtained at a temperature reaction of 44.43 °C, a reaction time of 5 h, and a lipase catalyst concentration of 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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12 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Economic Analysis of Biogas Production via Biogas Digester Made from Composite Material
by KeChrist Obileke, Golden Makaka, Nwabunwanne Nwokolo, Edson L. Meyer and Patrick Mukumba
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6050067 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6053
Abstract
This study seeks to evaluate the economic implication of a biogas digester built from composite material to ascertain its cost effectiveness. The feasibility study conducted indicates that a brick made only of fixed dome digester costs between USD 3193.99 and USD 4471.59. This [...] Read more.
This study seeks to evaluate the economic implication of a biogas digester built from composite material to ascertain its cost effectiveness. The feasibility study conducted indicates that a brick made only of fixed dome digester costs between USD 3193.99 and USD 4471.59. This high cost is attributed to the construction material, thus prompting the need to use materials of lower cost for affordability and sustainability. Hence, the digester under study was made from composite material comprising high-density polyethylene (HDPE), bricks and cement. The inlet and outlet chambers were built using bricks and cement, while the digestion chamber was made from HDPE material. From the economic analysis conducted, the total initial investment cost of the biogas digester was reported to be USD 1623.41 with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 8.5%, discount payback period (DPP) of 2 years and net present value (NPV) of USD 1783.10. The findings equally revealed that the estimated quantity of biogas could replace 33.2% of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cooking gas. Moreover, the biogas daily yield of 1.57 m3 generates approximately 9.42 kWh of electricity, which costs about USD 1.54. Thus, the study recommends the use of composite material of plastics and bricks in constructing the biogas digester, as it is cost effective and sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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15 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Thermochemical Analysis of a Packed-Bed Reactor Using Finite Elements with FlexPDE and COMSOL Multiphysics
by Sebastian Taco-Vasquez, César A. Ron, Herman A. Murillo, Andrés Chico and Paul G. Arauz
Processes 2022, 10(6), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10061144 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3010
Abstract
This work presents the thermochemical analysis of a packed-bed reactor via multi-dimensional CFD modeling using FlexPDE and COMSOL Multiphysics. The temperature, concentration, and reaction rate profiles for methane production following the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) synthesis were studied. To this end, stationary and dynamic differential [...] Read more.
This work presents the thermochemical analysis of a packed-bed reactor via multi-dimensional CFD modeling using FlexPDE and COMSOL Multiphysics. The temperature, concentration, and reaction rate profiles for methane production following the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) synthesis were studied. To this end, stationary and dynamic differential equations for mass and heat transfer were solved via the finite element technique. The transport equations for 1-D and 2-D models using FlexPDE consider dispersion models, where the fluid and the catalyst can be treated as either homogeneous or heterogenous systems depending on the gradient extents. On the other hand, the 3-D model obtained in COMSOL deems the transport equations incorporated in the Porous Media module. The aim was to compare the FlexPDE and COMSOL models, and to validate them with experimental data from literature. As a result, all models were in good agreement with experimental data, especially for the 2-D and 3-D dynamic models. In terms of kinetics, the predicted reaction rate profiles from the COMSOL model and the 2-D dynamic model followed the temperature trend, thus reflecting the temperature dependence of the reaction. Based on these findings, it was demonstrated that applying different approaches for the CFD modeling of F-T processes conducts reliable results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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16 pages, 27961 KiB  
Article
Optimum Biodiesel Production Using Ductile Cast Iron as a Heterogeneous Catalyst
by Nada Amr El-Khashab, Marwa Mohamed Naeem and Mai Hassan Roushdy
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6030040 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
Biofuels production become a target for many researchers nowadays. Biodiesel is one the most important biofuels that are produced from biomass using economics and modern techniques. The ductile cast iron solid waste dust is one of the wastes produced by the cast iron [...] Read more.
Biofuels production become a target for many researchers nowadays. Biodiesel is one the most important biofuels that are produced from biomass using economics and modern techniques. The ductile cast iron solid waste dust is one of the wastes produced by the cast iron industry which has a bad effect on the environment. This paper investigates the possibility of reusing ductile cast iron solid waste as a biodiesel heterogeneous catalyst used in its production from sunflower waste cooking oil. Four reaction parameters were chosen to determine their effect on the reaction responses. The reaction parameters are M:O ratio, reaction time and temperature, and catalyst loading. The reaction responses are the biodiesel and glycerol conversions. The upper and lower limits are selected for each reaction parameter such as (50–70 °C) reaction temperature, (5–20) methanol to oil molar ratio, (1–5%) catalyst loading, and (1–4 h) reaction time. Optimization was done with economic and environmental targets which include lowering the biodiesel production cost, increasing the volume of biodiesel produced, and decreasing the amount of resulting glycerol. The optimum reactions are 20:1 M:O molar ratio, 65 °C reaction temperature, 5 wt% catalyst loading, 2 h reaction time, and a stirring rate of 750 rpm. The biodiesel conversion resulting at this optimum reaction conditions is 91.7 percent with agreed with all biodiesel standards. The catalyst usability test was done it was found the catalyst can be used up to 4 times after that a fresh catalyst is required to be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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22 pages, 7198 KiB  
Article
Residence Time Distribution of Non-Spherical Particles in a Continuous Rotary Drum
by Saeed Mahdavy, Hamid Reza Norouzi, Christian Jordan, Bahram Haddadi and Michael Harasek
Processes 2022, 10(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10061069 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
The motion of non-spherical particles with sharp edges, as they are commonly involved in practice, was characterized by residence time distribution (RTD) measurement in a continuous drum. Particles with two sizes, 6 and 10 mm, and two densities, 750 and 2085 kg/m3 [...] Read more.
The motion of non-spherical particles with sharp edges, as they are commonly involved in practice, was characterized by residence time distribution (RTD) measurement in a continuous drum. Particles with two sizes, 6 and 10 mm, and two densities, 750 and 2085 kg/m3, were used in the experiments. The effects of rotation speed (3–11 rpm), incline angle (2–4°), feed rate, and mixture composition were investigated and compared to the results of other researchers on particles without sharp edges. We also fitted the RTD with an axial dispersion model to obtain a better insight into the flow behavior. MRT of non-spherical particles with sharp edges depends on ωα similar to other shapes, while the value of alpha is higher for particles with sharp edges (0.9 < α < 1.24), especially at high incline angles. The MRT depends on incline angle, β−b, where b varies between 0.81 (at low ω) and 1.34 (at high ω), while it is close to 1 for other shapes. Feed rate has a slight effect on the MRT of particles with sharp edges and the effect of particle size diminishes when rotation speed increases. The MRT linearly increases with volume fraction of light particles in a mixture of light and heavy particles (from pure heavy to pure light particles). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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13 pages, 2308 KiB  
Article
Study of Methane Fermentation of Cattle Manure in the Mesophilic Regime with the Addition of Crude Glycerine
by Wacław Romaniuk, Ivan Rogovskii, Victor Polishchuk, Liudmyla Titova, Kinga Borek, Witold Jan Wardal, Serhiy Shvorov, Yevgen Dvornyk, Ihor Sivak, Semen Drahniev, Dmytro Derevjanko and Kamil Roman
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3439; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093439 - 08 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
The urgency of the study is due to the need to increase the productivity of biogas plants by intensifying the process of methane fermentation of cattle manure in mesophilic mode by adding to it the waste from biodiesel production: crude glycerine. To substantiate [...] Read more.
The urgency of the study is due to the need to increase the productivity of biogas plants by intensifying the process of methane fermentation of cattle manure in mesophilic mode by adding to it the waste from biodiesel production: crude glycerine. To substantiate the rational amount of crude glycerine in the substrate, the following tasks were performed: determination of dry matter, dry organic matter, and moisture of the substrate from cattle manure with the addition of crude glycerine; conducting experimental studies on biogas yield during fermentation of cattle manure with the addition of crude glycerine with periodic loading of the substrate; and development of a biogas yield model and determination of the rational composition of crude glycerine with its gradual loading into biogas plants with cattle manure. The article presents the results of research on fermentation of substrates in a laboratory biogas plant with a useful volume of 30 L, which fermented different proportions of crude glycerine with cattle manure at a temperature of 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C. The scientific novelty of the work is to determine the patterns of intensification of the process of methane fermentation of cattle manure with the addition of different portions of crude glycerine. A rapid increase in biogas yield is observed when the glycerol content is up to 0.75%. With the addition of more glycerine, the growth of biogas yield slows down. The digester of the biogas plant, where experimental studies were conducted on the fermentation of substrates based on cattle manure with the addition of co-substrates, is suitable for periodic loading of the substrate. As a rule, existing biogas plants use a gradual mode of loading the digester. Conducting experimental studies on biogas yield during fermentation of cattle manure with the addition of crude glycerine with periodic loading of the substrate makes it possible to build a mathematical model of biogas yield and determine the rational composition (up to 0.75%) of crude glycerine with its gradual loading in biogas plants. Adding 0.75% of crude glycerine to the substrate at a fermentation temperature of 30 °C allows to increase the biogas yield by 2.5 times and proportionally increase the production of heat and electricity. The practical application of this knowledge allows the design of an appropriate capacity of the biogas storage tank (gasholder). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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11 pages, 2355 KiB  
Article
Improving Epoxy Resin Performance Using PPG and MDI by One-Step Modification
by Yong Wen, Xudong Liu and Lang Liu
Processes 2022, 10(5), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10050929 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
The toughening modification of epoxy resin by polyurethane prepolymer (PU) can effectively solve the disadvantage of high brittleness in its application. In this study, a convenient way to toughen epoxy resins was explored, and the monomers PPG and MDI for the synthesis of [...] Read more.
The toughening modification of epoxy resin by polyurethane prepolymer (PU) can effectively solve the disadvantage of high brittleness in its application. In this study, a convenient way to toughen epoxy resins was explored, and the monomers PPG and MDI for the synthesis of polyurethane prepolymers were used for a one-step modification of epoxy resins. The test results of viscosity and elongation at break showed that P-M reduced the viscosity of the epoxy resin and improved the toughness. Especially when the content of P-M was 25%, the elongation at the break of the modified EP reached 196.56%. From a thermogravimetric and pyrolysis kinetic analysis, the P-M modification had better thermal stability than the PU modification. These findings have particular implications for the toughening and engineering applications of epoxy resins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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11 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Di- and Mono-Rhamnolipids Produced by the Pseudomonas putida PP021 Isolate Significantly Enhance the Degree of Recovery of Heavy Oil from the Romashkino Oil Field (Tatarstan, Russia)
by Liliya Biktasheva, Alexander Gordeev, Svetlana Selivanovskaya and Polina Galitskaya
Processes 2022, 10(4), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040779 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Around the globe, only 30–50% of the amount of oil estimated to be in reservoirs (“original oil in place”) can be obtained using primary and secondary oil recovery methods. Enhanced oil recovery methods are required in the oil processing industry, and the use [...] Read more.
Around the globe, only 30–50% of the amount of oil estimated to be in reservoirs (“original oil in place”) can be obtained using primary and secondary oil recovery methods. Enhanced oil recovery methods are required in the oil processing industry, and the use of microbially produced amphiphilic molecules (biosurfactants) is considered a promising efficient and environmentally friendly method. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by the Pseudomonas putida PP021 isolate were extracted and characterized, and their potential to enhance oil recovery was demonstrated. It was found that the cell-free biosurfactant-containing supernatant decreased the air–water interface tension from 74 to 28 mN m−1. Using TLC and FTIR methods, the biosurfactants produced by the isolate were classified as mono- and di-rhamnolipid mixtures. In the isolates’ genome, the genes rhlB and rhlC, encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of mono- and di-rhamnolipids, respectively, were revealed. Both genes were expressed when the strain was cultivated on glycerol nitrate medium. As follows from the sand-packed column and core flooding simulations, biosurfactants produced by P. putida PP021 significantly enhance the degree of recovery, resulting in additional 27% and 21%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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13 pages, 14526 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Synthesis-Dependent Photoelectrochemical Properties of Tungsten Oxide Powders
by Anastasia Tsarenko, Mikhail Gorshenkov, Aleksey Yatsenko, Denis Zhigunov, Vera Butova, Vasily Kaichev and Anna Ulyankina
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6020031 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
A rapid, facile, and environmentally benign strategy to electrochemical oxidation of metallic tungsten under pulse alternating current in an aqueous electrolyte solution was reported. Particle size, morphology, and electronic structure of the obtained WO3 nanopowders showed strong dependence on electrolyte composition (nitric, [...] Read more.
A rapid, facile, and environmentally benign strategy to electrochemical oxidation of metallic tungsten under pulse alternating current in an aqueous electrolyte solution was reported. Particle size, morphology, and electronic structure of the obtained WO3 nanopowders showed strong dependence on electrolyte composition (nitric, sulfuric, and oxalic acid). The use of oxalic acid as an electrolyte provides a gram-scale synthesis of WO3 nanopowders with tungsten electrochemical oxidation rate of up to 0.31 g·cm−2·h−1 that is much higher compared to the strong acids. The materials were examined as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical reforming of organic substances under solar light. WO3 synthesized in oxalic acid is shown to exhibit excellent activity towards the photoelectrochemical reforming of glucose and ethylene glycol, with photocurrents that are nearly equal to those achieved in the presence of simple alcohol such as ethanol. This work demonstrates the promise of pulse alternating current electrosynthesis in oxalic acid as an efficient and sustainable method to produce WO3 nanopowders for photoelectrochemical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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20 pages, 3513 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis and Cost Estimation of a CO2 Capture Plant in Aspen HYSYS
by Shirvan Shirdel, Stian Valand, Fatemeh Fazli, Bernhard Winther-Sørensen, Solomon Aforkoghene Aromada, Sumudu Karunarathne and Lars Erik Øi
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6020028 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6168
Abstract
A standard CO2 capture process is implemented in Aspen HYSYS, simulated, and evaluated based on available data from Fortum’s waste burning facility at Klemetsrud in Norway. Since amine-based CO2 removal has high costs, the main aim is cost-optimizing. A simplified carbon-capture [...] Read more.
A standard CO2 capture process is implemented in Aspen HYSYS, simulated, and evaluated based on available data from Fortum’s waste burning facility at Klemetsrud in Norway. Since amine-based CO2 removal has high costs, the main aim is cost-optimizing. A simplified carbon-capture unit with a 20-m absorber packing height, 90% CO2 removal efficiency, and a minimum approach temperature for the lean/rich amine heat exchanger (ΔTmin) of 10 °C was considered the base case simulation model. A sensitivity analysis was performed to optimize these parameters. For the base case study, CO2 captured cost was calculated as 37.5 EUR/t. When the sensitivity analysis changes the size, the Power Law method adjusts the equipment cost. A comparison of the Enhanced Detailed Factor (EDF) and the Power Law approach was performed for all simulations to evaluate the uncertainties in the findings from the Power Law method. The optimums calculated for ΔTmin and CO2 capture rate were 15 °C and 87% for both methods, with CO2 removal costs of 37 EUR/t CO2 and 36.7 EUR/t CO2, respectively. With 19 m of packing height to absorber, the minimum CO2 capture cost was calculated as 37.3 EUR/t and 37.1 EUR/t for the EDF and Power Law methods, respectively. Since there was a difference between the Power Law method and the EDF method, a size factor exponent derivation was performed. The derivation resulted in the following exponents: for the lean heat exchanger 0.74, for the lean/rich heat exchanger 1.03, for the condenser 0.68, for the reboiler 0.92, for the pump 0.88, and for the fan 0.23. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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14 pages, 5262 KiB  
Article
Design and Control of Extractive Dividing Wall Column for Separating Dipropyl Ether/1-Propyl Alcohol Mixture
by Qiliang Ye, Yule Wang, Hui Pan, Wenyong Zhou and Peiqing Yuan
Processes 2022, 10(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040665 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
The focus of this work is the study of the extractive dividing wall column (EDWC) for separating the azeotropic mixture of dipropyl ether and 1-propyl alcohol with N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) as the entrainer. Three separation sequences are investigated, including a conventional extractive distillation [...] Read more.
The focus of this work is the study of the extractive dividing wall column (EDWC) for separating the azeotropic mixture of dipropyl ether and 1-propyl alcohol with N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) as the entrainer. Three separation sequences are investigated, including a conventional extractive distillation sequence (CEDS), EDWC and a pressure swing distillation sequence (PSDS). The static simulation results showed that the EDWC with DMAC as the entrainer is more economically attractive than CEDS and PSDS. Subsequently, a control structure CS1 based on a three-temperature control loop and a control structure CS2 with the vapor split ratio as the manipulated variable are investigated for the EDWC. Their dynamic control performances are evaluated by facing large feed flow rates and composition disturbances. The results showed that the CS1 can deal with feed flow rate disturbance effectively. However, the transient deviation is large and the settling time is too long when facing feed flow composition disturbances. The CS2 can quickly and effectively deal with feed flow rate and composition disturbances, and it can maintain the two products at high purity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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16 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Coprocessing Corn Germ Meal for Oil Recovery and Ethanol Production: A Process Model for Lipid-Producing Energy Crops
by Yuyao Jia, Deepak Kumar, Jill K. Winkler-Moser, Bruce Dien, Kent Rausch, Mike E. Tumbleson and Vijay Singh
Processes 2022, 10(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040661 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
Efforts to engineer high-productivity crops to accumulate oils in their vegetative tissue present the possibility of expanding biodiesel production. However, processing the new crops for lipid recovery and ethanol production from cell wall saccharides is challenging and expensive. In a previous study using [...] Read more.
Efforts to engineer high-productivity crops to accumulate oils in their vegetative tissue present the possibility of expanding biodiesel production. However, processing the new crops for lipid recovery and ethanol production from cell wall saccharides is challenging and expensive. In a previous study using corn germ meal as a model substrate, we reported that liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment enriched the lipid concentration by 2.2 to 4.2 fold. This study investigated combining oil recovery with ethanol production by extracting oil following LHW and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of the biomass. Corn germ meal was again used to model the oil-bearing energy crops. Pretreated germ meal hydrolysate or solids (160 and 180 °C for 10 min) were fermented, and lipids were extracted from both the spent fermentation whole broth and fermentation solids, which were recovered by centrifugation and convective drying. Lipid contents in spent fermentation solids increased 3.7 to 5.7 fold compared to the beginning germ meal. The highest lipid yield achieved after fermentation was 36.0 mg lipid g−1 raw biomass; the maximum relative amount of triacylglycerol (TAG) was 50.9% of extracted oil. Although the fermentation step increased the lipid concentration of the recovered solids, it did not improve the lipid yields of pretreated biomass and detrimentally affected oil compositions by increasing the relative concentrations of free fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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20 pages, 10374 KiB  
Article
Thermogravimetric Kinetic Analysis of Non-Recyclable Waste CO2 Gasification with Catalysts Using Coats–Redfern Method
by Ahmad Mohamed S. H. Al-Moftah, Richard Marsh and Julian Steer
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6020022 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2784
Abstract
In the present study, the effect of dolomite and olivine as catalysts on the carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification of a candidate renewable solid recovered fuel, known as Subcoal™ was determined. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to produce the TGA curves and [...] Read more.
In the present study, the effect of dolomite and olivine as catalysts on the carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification of a candidate renewable solid recovered fuel, known as Subcoal™ was determined. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to produce the TGA curves and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) for the gasification reaction at different loadings of the catalyst (5, 10, 15 wt.%). The XRD results showed that the crystallinity proportion in Subcoal™ powder and ash was 42% and 38%, respectively. The Arrhenius constants of the gasification reaction were estimated using the model-fitting Coats–Redfern (CR) method. The results showed that the mass loss reaction time and thermal degradation decreased with the increase in catalyst content. The degradation reaction for complete conversion mainly consists of three sequences: dehydration, devolatilisation, and char/ash formation. The complete amount of thermal degradation of the Subcoal™ sample obtained with dolomite was lower than with olivine. In terms of kinetic analysis, 19 mechanism models of heterogeneous solid-state reaction were compared by the CR method to identify the most applicable model to the case in consideration. Among all models, G14 provided excellent linearity for dolomite and G15 for olivine at 15 wt.% of catalyst. Both catalysts reduced the activation energy (Ea) as the concentration increased. However, dolomite displayed higher CO2 gasification efficiency of catalysis and reduction in Ea. At 15 wt.% loading, the Ea was 41.1 and 77.5 kJ/mol for dolomite and olivine, respectively. Calcination of the mineral catalyst is substantial in improving the activity through enlarging the active surface area and number of pores. In light of the study findings, dolomite is a suitable mineral catalyst for the industrial-scale of non-recyclable waste such as Subcoal™ gasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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