Topic Editors

Departamento de Ingeniería Química Industrial y del Medio Ambiente, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, c/José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Vila Real Chemistry Center, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Water Reclamation and Reuse

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
Viewed by
56176

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the growth of the global population and economy, water reclamation and ecological reuse are considered as potential mechanisms to alleviate water stress in some regions around the world. Environmental protection technologies related to water recovery and reuse, as well as natural resource protection, have gained attention in recent years. Innovative water treatment systems can remove pollutants in wastewater, such as organic matter, nutrients, micropollutants, microoranisms or even antibiotic resistance genes, and enable wastewater to be reused. The reuse of wastewater reduces the pressure on freshwater resources, as well as the pollution discharged into the water body.

The purpose of this Topic “Water Reclamation and Reuse” is to review the impact of global freshwater shortages, water resources management and monitoring practices, the most advanced water treatment technologies and the experience of reusing recycled water.

Papers are welcomed including, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Advancement in Water and Wastewater Treatment and Reuse;
  • Big Data Analytics and Modeling;
  • Desalination;
  • Drinking Water Treatment;
  • Emerging Pollutants in Water;
  • Energy Recovery, Conservation, Optimization and Management;
  • Industrial Wastewater Treatment;
  • Municipal Wastewater Treatment;
  • Odor Control;
  • Residuals and Biosolids Management;
  • Stormwater Treatment;
  • Climate Change and Resource Recovery;
  • Urban Water System;
  • Water Quality Monitoring;
  • Water Reclamation and Reuse.

Prof. Dr. Jorge Rodríguez-Chueca
Dr. Marco S. Lucas
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • advancement in water and wastewater treatment and reuse
  • big data analytics and modeling
  • desalination
  • drinking water treatment
  • emerging pollutants in water
  • energy recovery, conservation, optimization and management
  • industrial wastewater treatment
  • municipal wastewater treatment
  • odor control
  • residuals and biosolids management
  • stormwater treatment
  • climate change and resource recovery
  • urban water system
  • water quality monitoring
  • water reclamation and reuse

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
ChemEngineering
ChemEngineering
2.5 4.7 2017 17.2 Days CHF 1600
Membranes
membranes
4.2 4.4 2011 13.6 Days CHF 2700
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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20 pages, 5587 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Effluent Suspended Solid Concentrations from Two Types of Rectangular Secondary Clarifiers
by Byonghi Lee
Water 2022, 14(10), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101577 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4494
Abstract
Secondary clarifiers play a significant role in the successful operation of activated sludge systems. Because of the restriction of available land, South Korean domestic wastewater treatment plants tend to employ rectangular clarifiers to settle mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) for activated sludge systems. [...] Read more.
Secondary clarifiers play a significant role in the successful operation of activated sludge systems. Because of the restriction of available land, South Korean domestic wastewater treatment plants tend to employ rectangular clarifiers to settle mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) for activated sludge systems. A high MLSS concentration must be maintained in the bioreactor to ensure nitrification during winters, and achieve stringent effluent quality. The effluent suspended solid (SS) concentrations of two clarifier types currently being used in South Korea, primary rectangular clarifier-type and Gould Type I secondary clarifiers, were compared using computerized fluid dynamic simulations and hourly secondary effluent suspended solid concentrations. In addition, operational data such as hourly influent flow, daily MLSS concentrations, and sludge volume index were obtained and reviewed. This comparison reveals that the Gould Type I secondary clarifier is resilient to loading variation and produces effluent with a consistently lower suspended solid concentration than the primary rectangular clarifier-type under similar loading conditions and higher loading variations. The results suggest that the existing primary rectangular clarifier-type secondary clarifiers must be converted to Gould Type I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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16 pages, 2483 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Algal Yield and Nutrient Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Piggery Effluent by an Integrated Process-Optimization Strategy of Fungal Decolorization and Microalgae Cultivation
by Jun Qian, Jiaqi Zhang, Zeyu Jin, Jiali Cheng, Jingjing Li, Hanwu Song, Qian Lu, Hugang Li, Ting Wan, Siyi Fu, Jun Li and Wenguang Zhou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4741; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094741 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
The dark brown anaerobic digestion piggery effluent (ADPE) with a large amount of ammonium generally needs high dilution before microalgae cultivation due to its inhibiting effects on algal growth. Due to the strong decolorization of fungi by degrading organic compounds in wastewater, the [...] Read more.
The dark brown anaerobic digestion piggery effluent (ADPE) with a large amount of ammonium generally needs high dilution before microalgae cultivation due to its inhibiting effects on algal growth. Due to the strong decolorization of fungi by degrading organic compounds in wastewater, the process-optimization integrated strategy of fungal decolorization of ADPE and subsequent microalgae cultivation with ammonium-tolerant strain may be a more reliable procedure to reduce the dilution ratio and enhance algal biomass production, and nutrient removal from ADPE. This study determined a suitable fungal strain for ADPE decolorization, which was isolated and screened from a local biogas plant, and identified using 26s rRNA gene sequence analysis. Subsequently, ADPE was pretreated by fungal decolorization to make low-diluted ADPE suitable for the algal growth, and conditions of microalgae cultivation were optimized to achieve maximum algal yield and nutrient removal from the pretreated ADPE. The results showed one promising locally isolated fungal strain, Nanchang University-27, which was selected out of three candidates and identified as Lichtheimia ornata, presenting a high decolorization to ADPE through fungal pretreatment. Five-fold low-diluted ADPE pretreated by L. ornata was the most suitable medium for the algal growth at an initial concentration of ammonium nitrogen of 380 mg L−1 in all dilution treatments. Initial optical density of 0.3 and pH of 9.0 were optimal culture conditions for the algal strain to provide the maximum algal yield (optical density = 2.1) and nutrient removal (88%, 58%, 65%, and 77% for the removal rates of ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand, respectively) from the pretreated ADPE. This study demonstrated that fungal decolorization and subsequent microalgae cultivation could be a promising approach to algal biomass production and nutrient removal from ADPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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10 pages, 1763 KiB  
Article
A Study of Car Wash Wastewater Treatment by Cyclo-Flow Filtration
by Ching-Yao Hu, Wen-Hui Kuan, Li-Wei Ke and Jung-Ming Wu
Water 2022, 14(9), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091476 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4930
Abstract
With the increase in transportation demand and facilities in this era and the significant improvement in people’s living standards, the annual production and sales of vehicles are steadily increasing. With this, the issues of car wash wastewater treatment and water pollution are becoming [...] Read more.
With the increase in transportation demand and facilities in this era and the significant improvement in people’s living standards, the annual production and sales of vehicles are steadily increasing. With this, the issues of car wash wastewater treatment and water pollution are becoming more and more serious. Car wash wastewater mainly comprises fine sand, slick oil, suspended solids (SS), and surfactants, and can be quantified as chemical oxygen demand (COD) on a normative basis. This study examines the use of cyclo-flow filtration with high filtrate flux to treat car wash wastewater to solve issue of limited space in metropolitan areas and increase the willingness of the industry to invest in car wash equipment to recover water resources. The average removal rates of SS and COD are about 81% and 43%, respectively. Compared with current technology, the price of recycled water can compensate for operating costs, requiring minimal operating space owing to the single-unit cyclo-flow filtration system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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13 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Continuous Cultivation of Microalgae in Cattle Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treated with Hydrodynamic Cavitation
by Ruly Terán Hilares, Fabio P. Sánchez Vera, Gilberto J. Colina Andrade, Kevin Tejada Meza, Jaime Cárdenas García and David Alfredo Pacheco Tanaka
Water 2022, 14(8), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081288 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2723
Abstract
Cattle slaughtering produce large amounts of wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matter and nutrients and requires significant treatment before disposal or reutilization. However, the nutrients contained can be valued as a medium for microalgal biomass generation. In this work, hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) [...] Read more.
Cattle slaughtering produce large amounts of wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matter and nutrients and requires significant treatment before disposal or reutilization. However, the nutrients contained can be valued as a medium for microalgal biomass generation. In this work, hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) followed by membrane filtration or biological (microalgae cultivation) treatment in continuous mode were performed. From cattle slaughterhouse wastewater (CSW), by the effect of HC treatment with air injection in batch mode, more than 20% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed. In a continuous HC process, the COD content in output was 324 mg O2/L, which is 68% lower than the supplied CSW. After that, 76% of residual COD was removed by filtration through a tubular alumina membrane (600 nm). Finally, 85% of residual COD after HC treatment in 24 h in a batch mode was removed by microalgae. On the other hand, the COD concentration in the output was around 59 mg O2/L in continuous mode, which represents 85–93% COD removal. The process involving HC and microalgae growing looks promising since in addition to water treatment, the microalgae produced could be valued in a biorefinery concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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21 pages, 3169 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Models for Achieving Self-Sustainability in Sanitation
by Mahesh Ganesapillai, Aritro Sinha, Rishabh Mehta, Aditya Tiwari, Vijayalakshmi Chellappa and Jakub Drewnowski
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073384 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
The present study investigates the potential of using fecal ash as an adsorbent and demonstrates a self-sustaining, optimized approach for urea recovery from wastewater streams. Fecal ash was prepared by heating synthetic feces to 500 °C and then processing it as an adsorbent [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the potential of using fecal ash as an adsorbent and demonstrates a self-sustaining, optimized approach for urea recovery from wastewater streams. Fecal ash was prepared by heating synthetic feces to 500 °C and then processing it as an adsorbent for urea adsorption from synthetic urine. Since this adsorption approach based on fecal ash is a promising alternative for wastewater treatment, it increases the process’ self- sustainability. Adsorption experiments with varying fecal ash loadings, initial urine concentrations, and adsorption temperatures were conducted, and the acquired data were applied to determine the adsorption kinetics. These three process parameters and their interactions served as the input vectors for the artificial neural network model, with the percentage urea adsorption onto fecal ash serving as the output. The Levenberg–Marquardt (TRAINLM) and Bayesian regularization (TRAINBR) techniques with mean square error (MSE) were trained and tested for predicting percentage adsorption. TRAINBR was demonstrated in our study to be an ideal match for improving urea adsorption, with an accuracy of R = 0.9982 and a convergence time of seven seconds. The ideal conditions for maximum urea adsorption were determined to be a high starting concentration of 13.5 g.L−1; a low temperature of 30 °C, and a loading of 1.0 g of adsorbent. For urea, the improved settings resulted in maximum adsorption of 92.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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14 pages, 12699 KiB  
Article
Greenhouse Desalination by Humidification–Dehumidification Using a Novel Green Packing Material
by Nejib Ghazouani, Abdulhakim Bawadekji, Alaa A. El-Bary, Nidhal Becheikh, Yahya Alassaf, Gasser E. Hassan and Mahmoud M. Elewa
Water 2022, 14(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060869 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
Humidification–dehumidification (HD) is a non-traditional desalination process in which water evaporates from a saline liquid stream and the vapour condenses into purified water. In nature, seawater is heated by solar radiation and evaporates from the air that moistens it. This is known as [...] Read more.
Humidification–dehumidification (HD) is a non-traditional desalination process in which water evaporates from a saline liquid stream and the vapour condenses into purified water. In nature, seawater is heated by solar radiation and evaporates from the air that moistens it. This is known as the rainy cycle. The artificial version of this cycle is called the HD desalination cycle. The latter has received a lot of attention in recent years, and many researchers have studied the complexities of the technology. In the present work, experimental work with a simple configuration was developed and built, consisting of a humidification column followed by a condenser, in which the humidified air is dehumidified to produce fresh water. A novel and unique packaging material was used in the humidifier, consisting of a cellulose plant grown on the banks of the River Nile. In all previous work, the main problem was the type of packaging material that could ensure intimate contact and uniformity between aqueous flow and airflow. Consequently, this new filler material proved extremely suitable in terms of hydrophilicity and interconnectivity. Several variables, including the packing mass of each stage, the number of stages, the flow of air and saltwater, the concentration of saltwater, and the inlet temperature of saltwater and condensation temperature, were examined to determine their influence on the production of fresh water and its salinity. The best results arrived at in this study were wet packing conditions, 0.5 m/s air flowrate, 26 g packing for each of the 6-stage columns, and 500 mL/min water flow rate at 70 °C. It was found that this present setup, which can be coupled with solar heating to make the greenhouse desalination process cost-effective, could produce a high production of fresh water and be competitive compared with other commercial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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20 pages, 2104 KiB  
Article
Index System of Water Resources Development and Utilization Level Based on Water-Saving Society
by Ce Dai, Jie Tang, Zhaoyang Li, Yucong Duan, Yunke Qu, Yao Yang, Hang Lyu, Dan Zhang and Yongtai Wang
Water 2022, 14(5), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050802 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
The notion of a ‘Water-saving society’ may help China achieve sustainable development and high-quality development. In this paper, the concept of water resources development and utilization level is discussed from the perspective of a water-saving society, and an evaluation index system including 33 [...] Read more.
The notion of a ‘Water-saving society’ may help China achieve sustainable development and high-quality development. In this paper, the concept of water resources development and utilization level is discussed from the perspective of a water-saving society, and an evaluation index system including 33 indicators is constructed. This paper takes the evaluation of water resources development and utilization level of Jingyu County from 2009 to 2018 as an example to verify the rationality of the indicator system of this study. Additionally, by changing the sensitivity analysis method of indicator weights, the indicators with greater influence on the evaluation results are screened to reduce the uncertainty of too many indicators and low correlation. The results show that the evaluation value of water resources development and utilization level in Jingyu County from 2009 to 2018 was improved from V to II, and the improvement of industrial and domestic water use efficiency and effectiveness improved the water resource problems in the study area. Sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity parameters are the degree of water resources development and utilization (8.7%), water consumption per CNY 10,000 of industrial value added (11.2%), water consumption per CNY 10,000 of GDP (9.3%), leakage rate of the urban water supply network (8.4%), per capita water resources (10.1%), per capita COD emissions (9.3%) and urbanization rate (8.2%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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11 pages, 6966 KiB  
Article
Fate and Transportation of Viruses from Reclaimed Water into a Floatation System
by Peiqian Dou, Jue Kou, Chunbao Sun, Zhenhua Xie and Zhijun Gu
Water 2022, 14(5), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050781 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
The fate and transport of viruses in floatation systems is considerably important for accurate determination of the safety of reusing reclaimed water in the flotation process. Herein, simulation experiments on the floatation, adsorption and desorption were performed to examine the effect of initial [...] Read more.
The fate and transport of viruses in floatation systems is considerably important for accurate determination of the safety of reusing reclaimed water in the flotation process. Herein, simulation experiments on the floatation, adsorption and desorption were performed to examine the effect of initial virus concentration, pH and floatation reagents on the adsorption of viruses ΦΧ174 and MS2 onto copper–molybdenum ores. The transport of viruses in the flotation systems was also investigated. The viruses in the reclaimed water were rapidly adsorbed onto the ore particles, suggesting that tailing wastewater can be safely reused for floatation. However, the adsorbed viruses in the concentrates, middlings and tailings may pose health risks at certain exposure levels. The transport of viruses was dominated by their attachment to ore particles, with most being inactivated or irreversibly adsorbed. The removal and adsorption rates decreased as the initial virus concentration increased, and the removal rate decreased as pH was increased from 7.5 to 9.5. In comparison with MS2, ΦΧ174 was removed more effectively. This suggested that electrostatic repulsion is an important mechanism because MS2 has a greater negative charge. The attachment of both ΦΧ174 and MS2 onto the mineral particles increased significantly in the presence of PJ053 and CaO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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11 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Organic Matter Origin on the Chlorine Bulk Decay Coefficient in Reclaimed Water
by Sung-Won Kang and Kwang-Ho Ahn
Water 2022, 14(5), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050765 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Using reclaimed water has been increasing to manage water shortages arising due to climate change. Research has been conducted on reclaimed water production, but few studies have investigated the pipe network and supply of reclaimed water. Reclaimed water contains greater amounts of organic [...] Read more.
Using reclaimed water has been increasing to manage water shortages arising due to climate change. Research has been conducted on reclaimed water production, but few studies have investigated the pipe network and supply of reclaimed water. Reclaimed water contains greater amounts of organic matter, nutrients, and ionic substances compared to tap water. Therefore, it is highly likely to cause problems, such as water pollution due to microbial propagation in pipes, and leakage due to pipe corrosion, which interfere with water supply system operations. This study investigated the residual chlorine decay characteristics of chlorine disinfectants applied to a control biofilm in reclaimed water pipe networks. The bulk decay coefficient was compared between reclaimed water and a humic acid solution, and the origin of organic matter was analyzed using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The experimental results show that residual chlorine was consumed because protein and amino acid-based organic matter reacted more rapidly with chlorine than natural organic matter, such as humic acid. Moreover, chlorine bulk decay occurred rapidly in reclaimed water when total organic carbon was 3 mg/L or higher. These results confirm that removing organic matter during reclaimed water treatment may affect the management of the pipe network system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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19 pages, 5979 KiB  
Article
Energy-Efficient CuO/TiO2@GCN Cellulose Acetate-Based Membrane for Concurrent Filtration and Photodegradation of Ketoprofen in Drinking and Groundwater
by Lethula E. Mofokeng, Lerato Hlekelele, John Moma, Zikhona N. Tetana and Vongani P. Chauke
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031649 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
Photocatalytic membranes possessing both photocatalytic and solid-liquid separation capabilities were developed. These materials are based on ternary 1% CuO/TiO2@GCN (1:9) embedded on cellulose acetate (CA) via the phase inversion method. The CA membranes containing 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt% of 1% [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic membranes possessing both photocatalytic and solid-liquid separation capabilities were developed. These materials are based on ternary 1% CuO/TiO2@GCN (1:9) embedded on cellulose acetate (CA) via the phase inversion method. The CA membranes containing 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt% of 1% CuO/TiO2@GCN (1:9) (CTG–100, CTG–300 and CTG–500) were fabricated. The deposition of 1% CuO/TiO2@GCN (1:9) onto the CA membranes and the consequential changes in the materials’ properties were investigated with various characterization techniques. For instance, PXRD, FTIR, and XPS analysis provided evidence that photocatalytic membranes were formed. Electron microscopy and EDX were then used to visualize the photocatalytic membranes and show that the photocatalyst (1% CuO/TiO2@GCN (1:9)) was well dispersed onto the CA membrane. On the other hand, the properties of the photocatalytic membranes were scrutinized, where it was found that the membranes had a sponge-like morphology and that was significantly less hydrophilic compared to neat CA. The removal of KP in water using CTG–500 exhibited over 94% efficiency, while 38% for neat CA was achieved. Water permeability flux improved with increasing 1% CuO/TiO2@GCN (1:9) and hydrophilicity of the membranes. The electrical energy consumption was calculated and determined to be significantly lower than that of the CA membrane. The CTG–500 membrane after every cycle showed self-cleaning ability after operation in drinking and groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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20 pages, 2992 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature and TiO2-Incorporation on the Properties of SiOC/SiC Composites for Efficient Wastewater Treatment Applications
by Natália C. Fontão, Lucas N. Ferrari, Joice C. Sapatieri, Kurosch Rezwan and Michaela Wilhelm
Membranes 2022, 12(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12020175 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
This study focuses on the development of porous ceramer and SiOC composites which are suitable for microfiltration applications, using a mixture of polysiloxanes as the preceramic precursor. The properties of the membranes—such as their pore size, hydrophilicity, specific surface area, and mechanical resistance—were [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development of porous ceramer and SiOC composites which are suitable for microfiltration applications, using a mixture of polysiloxanes as the preceramic precursor. The properties of the membranes—such as their pore size, hydrophilicity, specific surface area, and mechanical resistance—were tailored in a one-step process, according to the choice of pyrolysis temperatures (600–1000 °C) and the incorporation of micro- (SiC) and nanofillers (TiO2). Lower pyrolysis temperatures (<700 °C) allowed the incorporation of TiO2 in its photocatalytically active anatase phase, enabling the study of its photocatalytic decomposition. The produced materials showed low photocatalytic activity; however, a high adsorption capacity for methylene blue was observed, which could be suitable for dye-removal applications. The membrane performance was evaluated in terms of its maximum flexural strength, water permeation, and separation of an oil-in-water emulsion. The mechanical resistance increased with an increase of the pyrolysis temperature, as the preceramic precursor underwent the ceramization process. Water fluxes varying from 2.5 to 370 L/m2·h (2 bar) were obtained according to the membrane pore sizes and surface characteristics. Oil-rejection ratios of 81–98% were obtained at an initial oil concentration of 1000 mg/L, indicating a potential application of the produced PDC membranes in the treatment of oily wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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22 pages, 4802 KiB  
Article
Wastewater Purification with Nutrient and Carbon Recovery in a Mobile Resource Container
by Hanna Kyllönen, Juha Heikkinen, Eliisa Järvelä, Lotta Sorsamäki, Virpi Siipola and Antti Grönroos
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120975 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Water reuse from wastewater treatment plants can significantly reduce freshwater demand. Additionally municipal sewage and some industrial wastewaters could be used as sources of nutrients and carbon more effectively than they are used today. Biological treatments have attracted the most attention in wastewater [...] Read more.
Water reuse from wastewater treatment plants can significantly reduce freshwater demand. Additionally municipal sewage and some industrial wastewaters could be used as sources of nutrients and carbon more effectively than they are used today. Biological treatments have attracted the most attention in wastewater purification, whereas, so far, only a little attention has been paid to the physico-chemical technologies. These technologies could, however, have great potential to recover nutrients when purifying wastewater. In this study, the main emphasis was to study the possibilities to utilize existing physico-chemical unit operations for wastewater purification and nutrients as well as carbon recovery. Unit operations were selected so that they could produce exploitable circular economy products from wastewaters and be assembled in a mobile container for carrying out recovery anywhere that is suitable. The results showed that in a mobile container, solids could be successfully separated from the studied wastewaters by flocculation-assisted solid/liquid separation and then processed into hydrochar by hydrothermal carbonization. Phosphate was precipitated using lime milk as calcium phosphate, and ammonium nitrogen was captured from the wastewater using membrane contactor technology resulting in ammonium sulphate for fertilizer use. Additionally, reverse osmosis retained residual impurities well, producing good quality water for reuse. The techno-economic feasibility seems promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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12 pages, 4052 KiB  
Article
The Role of Sulphonic and Phosphoric Pendant Groups on the Diffusion of Monovalent Ions in Polyelectrolyte Membranes: A Molecular Dynamics Study
by Ismail Abdulazeez, Billel Salhi, Nadeem Baig and Qing Peng
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120940 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Lithium-ion consumption has risen significantly in recent years due to its use in portable devices. Alternative sources of lithium, which include the recovery from brine using the sustainable and eco-friendly electrodialysis technology, has been explored. This technology, however, requires effective cation-exchange membranes that [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion consumption has risen significantly in recent years due to its use in portable devices. Alternative sources of lithium, which include the recovery from brine using the sustainable and eco-friendly electrodialysis technology, has been explored. This technology, however, requires effective cation-exchange membranes that allow the selective permeation of lithium ions. In this study, we have investigated, via molecular dynamics simulations, the role of the two common charged groups, the sulfonic and the phosphoric groups, in promoting the adsorption of monovalent ions from brine comprising Li+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ ions. The analysis of the mean square displacement of the ions revealed that Li+ and Na+ ions exhibit superior diffusion behaviors within the polyelectrolyte system. The O-atoms of the charged groups bind strongly with the divalent ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+), which raises their diffusion energy barrier and consequently lowers their rate of permeation. In contrast, the monovalent ions exhibit weaker interactions, with Na+ being slightly above Li+, enabling the permeation of Li+ ions. The present study demonstrates the role of both charged groups in cation-exchange membranes in promoting the diffusion of Li+ and Na+ ions, and could serve as a guide for the design of effective membranes for the recovery of these ions from brine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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18 pages, 6988 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Polysulfone-Surface Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite Membranes for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater
by Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Arun Kumar Shukla, Mohamed Habib Mrad, Abdullah M. Alswieleh and Khalid M. Alotaibi
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120935 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2739
Abstract
Membranes are an efficient way to treat emulsified heavy metal-based wastewater, but they generally come with a trade-off between permeability and selectivity. In this research, the amine and sulphonic groups on the inner and outer surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were first [...] Read more.
Membranes are an efficient way to treat emulsified heavy metal-based wastewater, but they generally come with a trade-off between permeability and selectivity. In this research, the amine and sulphonic groups on the inner and outer surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were first modified by a chemical approach. Then, MSNs with amine and sulphonic groups were utilized as new inorganic nanofiller to fabricate mixed matrix polysulfone (PSU) nanocomposite membranes using the classical phase inversion approach. The resultant nanoparticles and membranes were characterized by their physico-chemical characteristics as well as determination of pure water permeability along with cadmium and zinc ion removal. Embedding nanoparticles resulted in a significant rise in the water permeability as a result of changes in the surface properties and porosity of the membrane. Furthermore, the efficiency of developed membranes to remove cadmium and zinc was significantly improved by more than 90% due to the presence of functional groups on nanoparticles. The functionalized-MSNs/PSU nanocomposite membrane has the potential to be an effective industrial effluent removal membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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14 pages, 3347 KiB  
Article
Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Synthetic Stormwater Runoff by a Porous Asphalt Pavement System with Modified Zeolite Powder Porous Microsphere as a Filter Column
by Hui Luo, Baojie He, Wenhao Zhang and Zhaoqian Jing
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10810; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210810 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Porous asphalt pavement (PAP) system is a widely used treatment measure in sustainable stormwater management and groundwater recharge, but their variable performance in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal requires further reinforcement prior to widespread uptake. Two laboratory-scale PAP systems were developed by [...] Read more.
Porous asphalt pavement (PAP) system is a widely used treatment measure in sustainable stormwater management and groundwater recharge, but their variable performance in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal requires further reinforcement prior to widespread uptake. Two laboratory-scale PAP systems were developed by comparing limestone bedding and zeolite incorporated into modified zeolite powder porous microsphere (MZP-PM) as a filter column under a typical rainfall. The PAP system of zeolite bedding incorporated into MZP-PM (a weight less than 5% of zeolite) removed 74.5% to 90.6% of ammonium (NH4+-N) and 72.9% to 92.4% of total phosphate (TP) from the influent, as compared with 25.7% to 62.7% of NH4+-N and 32.6% to 56.4% of TP by that of the limestone as bed material. This improvement was presumably due to MZP-PM’s high adsorption capacity and surface complexation. The formation of ≡(La)(OH)PO2 was verified to be the dominant pathway for selective phosphate adsorption by MZP-PM and ion-exchange was proved to be the main removal process for ammonium. This study provides promising results for improving N and P removal by modifying a porous asphalt pavement system to include an MZP-PM adsorbent column as a post-treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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36 pages, 15520 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review on Electric Field-Assisted Membrane Processes: Implications for Fouling Control, Water Recovery, and Future Prospects
by Yuxiang Shen and Appala Raju Badireddy
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110820 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3322
Abstract
Electrofiltration, an electric field-assisted membrane process, has been a research topic of growing popularity due to its ability to improve membrane performance by providing in situ antifouling conditions in a membrane system. The number of reports on electrofiltration have increased exponentially over the [...] Read more.
Electrofiltration, an electric field-assisted membrane process, has been a research topic of growing popularity due to its ability to improve membrane performance by providing in situ antifouling conditions in a membrane system. The number of reports on electrofiltration have increased exponentially over the past two decades. These reports explored many innovations, such as novel configurations of an electric field, engineered membrane materials, and interesting designs of foulant compositions and membrane modules. Recent electrofiltration literature focused mainly on compiling results without a comprehensive comparative analysis across different works. The main objective of this critical review is to, first, organize, compare and contrast the results across various electrofiltration studies; second, discuss various types of mechanisms that could be incorporated into electrofiltration and their effect on membrane system performance; third, characterize electrofiltration phenomenon; fourth, interpret the effects of various operational conditions on the performance of electrofiltration; fifth, evaluate the state-of-the-art knowledge associated with modeling efforts in electrofiltration; sixth, discuss the energy costs related to the implementation of electrofiltration; and finally, identify the current knowledge gaps that hinder the transition of the lab-scale observations to industry-scale electrofiltration as well as the future prospects of electrofiltration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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11 pages, 3091 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Removal of Cesium Ions via Capacitive Deionization Using an Ion-Exchange Layer Coated on a Carbon Electrode
by Sang-Hun Lee, Mansoo Choi, Jei-Kwon Moon, Songbok Lee, Jihoon Choi and Seonbyeong Kim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10042; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110042 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2208
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using electrosorption to remove cesium (Cs+) ions from aqueous solutions using the membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) process. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The activated [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using electrosorption to remove cesium (Cs+) ions from aqueous solutions using the membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) process. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The activated carbon electrode coated by a polymer layer showed higher specific adsorption capacity (SAC) and removal efficiency of Cs+ than the AC electrode. The effects of potential, flow rate, initial Cs+ concentration, and pH values were investigated to optimize the electrosorption performance. The electrosorption capacity increased with an increase in the applied potential and the concentration of Cs+ in the influent water. The pH value is an important parameter on electrosorption performance. The removal of Cs+ ions was affected by the pH of the influent water because H+ ions acted as competing ions during the electrosorption process. Cs+ was preferentially adsorbed to the electrode in the early stages of adsorption but was later replaced by H+. A higher presence of H+ ions could reduce the adsorption capacity of Cs+ ions. The ion-exchange layer coated AC electrode was shown to be favorable for the removal of Cs+, despite the limited electrosorption ability in a highly acidic solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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18 pages, 47209 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Degradation of Crystal Violet Using Ti/Pt/SnO2 Electrode
by Rachid El Brychy, Mohamed Moutie Rguiti, Nadia Rhazzane, Moulay Driss Mellaoui, Khalid Abbiche, Mhamed Abali, Lahcen Bazzi, Mustapha Hilali, Souad El Issami, Karine Groenen-Serrano and Hanane Zejli
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8401; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188401 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
Today, organic wastes (paints, pigments, etc.) are considered to be a major concern for the pollution of aqueous environments. Therefore, it is essential to find new methods to solve this problem. This research was conducted to study the use of electrochemical processes to [...] Read more.
Today, organic wastes (paints, pigments, etc.) are considered to be a major concern for the pollution of aqueous environments. Therefore, it is essential to find new methods to solve this problem. This research was conducted to study the use of electrochemical processes to remove organic pollutants (e.g., crystal violet (CV)) from aqueous solutions. The galvanostatic electrolysis of CV by the use of Ti/Pt/SnO2 anode, were conducted in an electrochemical cell with 100 mL of solution using Na2SO4 and NaCl as supporting electrolyte, the effect of the important electrochemical parameters: current density (20–60 mA cm−2), CV concentration (10–50 mg L−1), sodium chloride concentration (0.01–0.1 g L−1) and initial pH (2 to 10) on the efficiency of the electrochemical process was evaluated and optimized. The electrochemical treatment process of CV was monitored by the UV-visible spectrometry and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). After only 120 min, in a 0.01 mol L−1 NaCl solution with a current density of 50 mA cm−2 and a pH value of 7 containing 10 mg L−1 CV, the CV removal efficiency can reach 100%, the COD removal efficiency is up to 80%. The process can therefore be considered as a suitable process for removing CV from coloured wastewater in the textile industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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15 pages, 3047 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study on the Combination of Different Pre-Treatments with Nanofiltration for Efficiently Restraining Membrane Fouling While Providing High-Quality Drinking Water
by Yan Chen, Huiping Li, Weihai Pang, Baiqin Zhou, Tian Li, Jian Zhang and Bingzhi Dong
Membranes 2021, 11(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060380 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
Nanofiltration (NF) is a promising post-treatment technology for providing high-quality drinking water. However, membrane fouling remains a challenge to long-term NF in providing high-quality drinking water. Herein, we found that coupling pre-treatments (sand filtration (SF) and ozone–biological activated carbon (O3-BAC)) and [...] Read more.
Nanofiltration (NF) is a promising post-treatment technology for providing high-quality drinking water. However, membrane fouling remains a challenge to long-term NF in providing high-quality drinking water. Herein, we found that coupling pre-treatments (sand filtration (SF) and ozone–biological activated carbon (O3-BAC)) and NF is a potent tactic against membrane fouling while achieving high-quality drinking water. The pilot results showed that using SF+O3-BAC pre-treated water as the feed water resulted in a lower but a slowly rising transmembrane pressure (TMP) in NF post-treatment, whereas an opposite observation was found when using SF pre-treated water as the feed water. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy determined that the O3-BAC process changed the characteristic of dissolved organic matter (DOM), probably by removing the DOM of lower apparent molecular weight (LMW) and decreasing the biodegradability of water. Moreover, amino acids and tyrosine-like substances which were significantly related to medium and small molecule organics were found as the key foulants to membrane fouling. In addition, the accumulation of powdered activated carbon in O3-BAC pre-treated water on the membrane surface could be the key reason protecting the NF membrane from fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Reclamation and Reuse)
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