Topic Editors

1. Nilima Sinha Medical College and Hospital, Madhepura, Bihar, India
2. Jacobs Retina Center, Shiley Eye Institute, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
UPMC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography – Recent Advances

Abstract submission deadline
25 March 2025
Manuscript submission deadline
26 May 2025
Viewed by
11443

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

From their use as a research tools to their commercial availability, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have gained widespread acceptability as imaging modalities in our clinical practice. OCT provides a three-dimensional in vivo histological analysis of the retina with resolution reaching up to 5 µm or lower. OCTA, a non-invasive technique to image the chorioretinal microvasculature, provides three-dimensional details compared to dye-based angiography techniques such as fluorescein or indocyanine angiography. Both spectral and swept-source OCT and OCTA, with wavelengths 840 and 1050 nm, respectively, are commercially available. The inclusion of wide-field imaging techniques has improved our field of view from 20 degrees up to 220 degrees in wide-field OCT (i.e., the retinal periphery), helping diagnose peripheral retinal degeneration, retinoschisis, retinal detachment, and peripheral choroidal pathologies. Different algorithms such as split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA), OCTA Ratio Analysis (OCTARA), and OCT-microangiography complex algorithm (OMAG) are available for OCTA imaging and to provide both qualitative and quantitative information. Further technical improvements in OCTA imaging have increased the scanned area from smaller 3*3 mm slabs to much larger 12*12 mm slabs. These images can be montaged to recreate vascular patterns extending to the equator. Both OCT and OCTA can be useful in assessing retinal vascular diseases, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, uveitic pathologies, and ocular tumors. Addressing concerns such as a multitude of artifacts, slower image acquisition speed, lower resolution, the high cost of wide-field OCT machines, and the variability in different OCTA machines related to proprietary algorithms may further enhance the appeal of OCT and OCTA. This Topic summarizes the recent advances in OCT and OCTA and their clinical application in various chorioretinal diseases. We plan to include prospective and retrospective original articles and a few review articles on this Topic.

Dr. Sumit Randhir Singh
Dr. Jay Chhablani
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • optical coherence tomography
  • OCT angiography
  • wide field OCT
  • central serous chorioretinopathy
  • choroidal vascularity index
  • choroidal disorders
  • choroidal neovascularization
  • AMD
  • diabetic macular edema
  • central serous chorioretinopathy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Clinical & Translational Ophthalmology
jcto
- - 2023 15.0 days * CHF 1000 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Personalized Medicine
jpm
3.4 2.6 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Tomography
tomography
1.9 2.3 2015 24.5 Days CHF 2400 Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2023.


Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
26 pages, 3025 KiB  
Review
Non-Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Assessment: Focus on Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers
by Daniela Adriana Iliescu, Ana Cristina Ghita, Larisa Adriana Ilie, Suzana Elena Voiculescu, Aida Geamanu and Aurelian Mihai Ghita
Diagnostics 2024, 14(7), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14070764 - 03 Apr 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The imagistic evaluation of non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is crucial for diagnosis, monitoring progression, and guiding management of the disease. Dry AMD, characterized primarily by the presence of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, requires detailed visualization of the retinal structure to [...] Read more.
The imagistic evaluation of non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is crucial for diagnosis, monitoring progression, and guiding management of the disease. Dry AMD, characterized primarily by the presence of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, requires detailed visualization of the retinal structure to assess its severity and progression. Several imaging modalities are pivotal in the evaluation of non-neovascular AMD, including optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, or color fundus photography. In the context of emerging therapies for geographic atrophy, like pegcetacoplan, it is critical to establish the baseline status of the disease, monitor the development and expansion of geographic atrophy, and to evaluate the retina’s response to potential treatments in clinical trials. The present review, while initially providing a comprehensive description of the pathophysiology involved in AMD, aims to offer an overview of the imaging modalities employed in the evaluation of non-neovascular AMD. Special emphasis is placed on the assessment of progression biomarkers as discerned through optical coherence tomography. As the landscape of AMD treatment continues to evolve, advanced imaging techniques will remain at the forefront, enabling clinicians to offer the most effective and tailored treatments to their patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 522 KiB  
Article
Interocular Symmetry of Choroidal Parameters in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy with and without Diabetic Macular Edema
by Anna Raciborska, Patryk Sidorczuk, Joanna Konopińska and Diana Anna Dmuchowska
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010176 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 528
Abstract
This study focuses on the interocular comparison of choroidal parameters in diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without diabetic macular edema (DME), as well as in patients with unilateral DME (present in only one eye). The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the interocular comparison of choroidal parameters in diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without diabetic macular edema (DME), as well as in patients with unilateral DME (present in only one eye). The aim of this study was to determine the symmetry in order to obtain better insights into the pathophysiology of diabetic choroidopathy. This retrospective single-center cross-sectional study included 170 eyes from 85 patients (61 with DR and 24 controls), divided into subgroups depending on the presence of DME. The patients underwent fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography examination, and the analysis included various choroidal parameters: choroidal thickness, volume, and the choroidal vascularity index (CVI). In terms of the choroidal thickness, one eye of a patient with DR, regardless of the presence, absence, or unilaterality of DME, may be treated as representative for that patient. CVI proved symmetrical for controls and patients with DR without DME. However, there was some asymmetry of CVI in patients with bilateral or unilateral DME. There was no straightforward relationship between choroidopathy and DME. Other mechanisms were also involved in the pathogenesis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2983 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Topographic Vessel Density and Retinal Thickness Changes in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Anti-VEGF Therapy: Is It a Suitable OCTA Biomarker?
by Juan Santamaría, José María Caminal, Estefanía Cobos, Marc Biarnes, Ramon Rodriguez-Leor, Rahul Morwani, Manel García-Mendieta, Daniel Lorenzo, Pere García-Bru and Luis Arias
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(12), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13121718 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between topographic vessel density (VD) and retinal thickness (RT) reductions induced by vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This was [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between topographic vessel density (VD) and retinal thickness (RT) reductions induced by vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This was a prospective, interventional case series. VD and RT measurements were separately taken in four parafoveal subfields at baseline and after six months of treatment. This correlation was statistically assessed using Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The study included a total of 48 eyes in the final analysis. Mean VD decreased from baseline to month 6 (from 45.2 (±3.5) to 44.6% (±3.2) in the superficial capillary plexus and from 50 (±3.3) to 49% (±3.9) in the deep capillary plexus). Statistically significant reductions in RT were observed in all ETDRS sectors (p < 0.0001). No significant association was found between RT and VD, even when analyzing responders and non-responders separately. After six months of anti-VEGF treatment, no significant correlation was observed between the topographic VD and RT values. These findings suggest that reductions in VD values may not solely result from a reduction in microaneurysms, also being affected by the repositioning of displaced vessels due to edema and a reduction in their caliber. Therefore, VD changes may not be a suitable indirect OCTA biomarker of microaneurysm turnover and treatment response. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 4385 KiB  
Review
The State of Intraoperative OCT in Vitreoretinal Surgery: Recent Advances and Future Challenges
by Nicolò Ciarmatori, Marco Pellegrini, Francesco Nasini, Pietro Maria Talli, Laura Sarti and Marco Mura
Tomography 2023, 9(5), 1649-1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9050132 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Since its first introduction more than 30 years ago, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology practice, providing a non-invasive in vivo cross-sectional view of the structures of the eye. Mostly employed in the clinical setting due to its tabletop configuration requiring an [...] Read more.
Since its first introduction more than 30 years ago, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology practice, providing a non-invasive in vivo cross-sectional view of the structures of the eye. Mostly employed in the clinical setting due to its tabletop configuration requiring an upright patient positioning, the recent advent of microscope-integrated systems now allows ophthalmologists to perform real-time intraoperative OCT (iOCT) during vitreoretinal surgical procedures. Numerous studies described various applications of this tool, such as offering surgeons feedback on tissue–instrument interactions in membrane peeling, providing structural images in macular hole repair, and showing residual subretinal fluid or perfluorocarbon in retinal detachment surgery. This narrative review aims at describing the state of the art of iOCT in vitreoretinal procedures, highlighting its modern role and applications in posterior segment surgery, its current limitations, and the future perspectives that may improve the widespread adoption of this technology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4508 KiB  
Article
Characterizing Foveal Hypoplasia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Evaluation of Microvascular Abnormalities and Clinical Significance
by Jens Julian Storp, Julian Alexander Zimmermann, Moritz Fabian Danzer, Maged Alnawaiseh, Nicole Eter and Sami Al-Nawaiseh
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 4992; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12154992 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) features and macular flow density (FD) in various retinal layers in a cohort of patients with foveal hypoplasia (FH) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), in order to characterize microvascular abnormalities and explore their [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) features and macular flow density (FD) in various retinal layers in a cohort of patients with foveal hypoplasia (FH) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), in order to characterize microvascular abnormalities and explore their potential clinical significance. FAZ parameters and FD, as well as retinal thickness and volume values were analyzed and compared between patients with FH and an age- and gender-matched control cohort. Correlations between disease severity and visual acuity (VA), as well as between disease severity and FAZ features were evaluated. A total of 19 eyes with FH and 19 control eyes were included. The study group showed significantly higher FD values in the foveal sectors of the superficial and deep capillary plexus compared to controls. FAZ area, perimeter, and acircularity index (ACI) were noticeably altered in eyes with FH; however, they did not correlate with disease severity. Visual acuity was negatively correlated with disease severity. The results of this study provide evidence of altered microvasculature architecture specifically in the foveal sectors of patients with FH. The higher FD values in the foveal sectors of FH patients suggest a potential compensatory response of the retinal microvasculature. FAZ parameters and FD values of the foveal sectors could be used as part of an OCTA-based grading system in FH patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1640 KiB  
Article
Retinal Thickness Deviation: A New OCT Parameter for Assessing Diabetic Macular Edema
by Paola Marolo, Enrico Borrelli, Francesco Gelormini, Giacomo Boscia, Guglielmo Parisi, Matteo Fallico, Costanza Barresi, Giorgio Lari, Alessandro Berni, Francesco Bandello and Michele Reibaldi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(12), 3976; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12123976 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
(1) Purpose: To determine the “retinal thickness deviation” (RTD) in diabetic macular edema (DME) eyes treated with intravitreal therapy and to establish associations between RTD and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective study, including consecutive patients with DME eyes [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: To determine the “retinal thickness deviation” (RTD) in diabetic macular edema (DME) eyes treated with intravitreal therapy and to establish associations between RTD and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective study, including consecutive patients with DME eyes undergoing intravitreal therapy with two years of follow-up. BCVA and central subfield thickness (CST) were collected at baseline and at 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. RTD was calculated as the absolute difference between measured and normative CST values at each time point. Linear regression analyses were performed between RTD and BCVA and between CST and BCVA. (3) Results: One hundred and four eyes were included in the analysis. The RTD was 177.0 (117.2) μm at baseline, 97.0 (99.7) μm at 12 months and 89.9 (75.3) μm at 24 months of follow-up (p < 0.001). RTD showed a moderate association with BCVA at baseline (R2 = 0.134, p < 0.001) and 12 months (R2 = 0.197, p < 0.001) and a substantial association at 24 months (R2 = 0.272, p < 0.001). The CST showed a moderate association with BCVA at baseline (R2 = 0.132, p < 0.001) and 12 months (R2 = 0.136, p < 0.001), while the association was weak at 24 months (R2 = 0.065, p = 0.009). (4) Conclusions: RTD showed a good association with visual outcome in patients with DME eyes undergoing intravitreal treatment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2424 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Ocular Perfusion in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Receiving Hemodialysis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography
by Larissa Lahme, Jens Julian Storp, Elena Marchiori, Eliane Esser, Nicole Eter, Natasa Mihailovic and Maged Alnawaiseh
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(11), 3836; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12113836 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Hemodialysis (HD) is known to affect ocular blood flow. This case-control study aims to evaluate macular and peripapillary vasculature in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving HD in comparison to matched controls. A total of 24 eyes of 24 ESRD patients receiving [...] Read more.
Hemodialysis (HD) is known to affect ocular blood flow. This case-control study aims to evaluate macular and peripapillary vasculature in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving HD in comparison to matched controls. A total of 24 eyes of 24 ESRD patients receiving HD and 24 eyes of 24 healthy, age- and gender-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used to image the superficial (SCP), deep (DCP), and choriocapillary (CC) macular vascular plexus, as well as the radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC) of the optic disc. In addition, retinal thickness (RT) and retinal volume (RV) were compared between both groups. Flow density (FD) values of each retinal layer and data of parameters related to the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), as well as RT and RV, were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U tests. There was no significant difference in FAZ parameters between the two groups. Whole en face FD of the SCP and CC was noticeably reduced in the HD group in comparison to the control group. FD was negatively correlated with the duration of HD treatment. RT and RV were significantly smaller in the study group than in controls. Retinal microcirculation appears altered in patients with ESRD undergoing HD. Concurrently, the DCP appears more resilient towards hemodynamic changes in comparison to the other microvascular retinal layers. OCTA is a useful, non-invasive tool to investigate retinal microcirculation in ESRD patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 16405 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Optical Coherence Tomography Aspects of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions
by Andreea Stănuşi, Monica Mihaela Iacov-Crăițoiu, Monica Scrieciu, Ioana Mitruț, Bogdan Costin Firulescu, Mihaela Roxana Boțilă, Diana Elena Vlăduțu, Adrian Ştefan Stănuşi, Veronica Mercuț and Eugen Osiac
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050772 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are considered the irreversible losses of dental hard tissues at the cemento–enamel junction, in the absence of acute trauma and dental caries. The aim of this study was to highlight the presence of NCCLs in cervical areas based on [...] Read more.
Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are considered the irreversible losses of dental hard tissues at the cemento–enamel junction, in the absence of acute trauma and dental caries. The aim of this study was to highlight the presence of NCCLs in cervical areas based on specific macroscopic aspects in order to establish their clinical form, size and location and to confirm the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination in the early diagnosis of these lesions. For this study, 52 extracted teeth were used, which did not have endodontic treatments, fillings or carious lesions in the cervical area. All teeth were examined macroscopically and OCT was used to evaluate the degree of occlusal wear, the presence and clinical form of NCCLs. Most NCCLs were identified on the buccal surfaces of the premolars. The most frequently encountered clinical form was the wedge-shaped form, with a radicular location. NCCLs present most frequently in the wedge-shaped form. Teeth that presented several NCCLs were identified. The OCT examination is an adjunct method to evaluate the clinical forms of NCCL. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4416 KiB  
Review
Prognostic Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
by Baraa Nawash, Joshua Ong, Matthew Driban, Jonathan Hwang, Jeffrey Chen, Amrish Selvam, Sashwanthi Mohan and Jay Chhablani
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093049 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
Optical coherence tomography has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. OCT-derived biomarkers have the potential to further guide therapeutic advancements with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor; however, the clinical convergence between these two tools remains suboptimal. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
Optical coherence tomography has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. OCT-derived biomarkers have the potential to further guide therapeutic advancements with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor; however, the clinical convergence between these two tools remains suboptimal. Therefore, the aim of this review of literature was to examine the current data on OCT biomarkers and their prognostic value. Thirteen biomarkers were analyzed, and retinal fluid had the strongest-reported impact on clinical outcomes, including visual acuity, clinic visits, and anti-VEGF treatment regimens. In particular, intra-retinal fluid was shown to be associated with poor visual outcomes. Consistencies in the literature with regard to these OCT prognostic biomarkers can lead to patient-specific clinical decision making, such as early-initiated treatment and proactive monitoring. An integrated analysis of all OCT components in combination with new efforts toward automated analysis with artificial intelligence has the potential to further improve the role of OCT in nAMD therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop