Topic Editors

School of Geomatics, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123008, China
Dr. Zhiguo Deng
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Prof. Dr. Guanwen Huang
School of Geological Engineering and Geomatics, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, China
School of Geomatics, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China

Recent Advances in PNT Technology with GNSS as the Core and Its Application in Emerging Fields

Abstract submission deadline
30 June 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 August 2024
Viewed by
18450

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the construction and development of BeiDou and Galileo systems, GNSS technology, as the core technology of achieving positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), has developed rapidly. In order to achieve GNSS precise positioning, there are currently two implementation routes: observation space representation (OSR) and state space representation (SSR). OSR is using observations of a reference station directly or the derived distance-related corrections to eliminate user observation errors based on the high correlation of adjacent GNSS station's observations, while SSR is using actual state-space data, i.e., improved ephemeris (orbit and clock, satellite biases), ionospheric and tropospheric models, etc. to represent the complete GNSS state. The typical OSR technology is real-time kinematic (RTK) relying on double-differenced (DD) ambiguity resolution. The typical SSR technology is precise point positioning (PPP) /PPP-RTK by processing undifferenced (UD) pseudorange and carrier-phase observations from a stand-alone GNSS receiver together with SSR precise ephemeris. Recently, low earth orbit (LEO) enhanced GNSS positioning technology has become an effective means to obtain instant precise positioning. The improvement of application requirements and technological progress directly promotes the application of GNSS high-precision positioning technology from the traditional field to the mass field. Different from traditional GNSS high-precision applications, e.g., surveying and mapping, and GNSS emerging applications, e.g., autonomous driving and drones, have significant application characteristics, including a massive number of users, global wide-area instantaneous positioning, safety-critical operation, location privacy protection, etc.

This Topic is devoted to new advances and research results on GNSS and its application in emerging fields. This Topic includes but is not limited to: GNSS high-precision positioning theories; GNSS precise orbit determination and real-time precise clock estimation; GNSS ionosphere and troposphere modeling; GNSS augmentation messages credible monitoring and assessment; Credible PNT; GNSS+LEO augmentation; GNSS RTK, PPP, PPP-RTK; Multi-sensor fusion; GNSS autonomous driving application.

Dr. Liang Chen
Dr. Zhiguo Deng
Prof. Dr. Guanwen Huang
Prof. Dr. Huizhong Zhu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • GNSS
  • augmentation message monitoring
  • RTK
  • PPP
  • PPP-RTK
  • credible PNT
  • LEO augmentation
  • credible positioning

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Technologies
technologies
3.6 5.5 2013 19.7 Days CHF 1600 Submit
Telecom
telecom
- 3.1 2020 26.1 Days CHF 1200 Submit

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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24 pages, 16989 KiB  
Article
3D Galileo Reference Antenna Pattern for Space Service Volume Applications
by Francesco Menzione and Matteo Paonni
Sensors 2024, 24(7), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24072220 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 331
Abstract
There is an increasing demand for navigation capability for space vehicles. The exploitation of the so-called Space Service Volume (SSV), and hence the extension of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from terrestrial to space users, is currently considered a fundamental step. Knowledge [...] Read more.
There is an increasing demand for navigation capability for space vehicles. The exploitation of the so-called Space Service Volume (SSV), and hence the extension of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from terrestrial to space users, is currently considered a fundamental step. Knowledge of the constellation antenna pattern, including the side lobe signals, is the main input for assessing the expected GNSS signal availability and navigation performance, especially for high orbits. The best way to define and share this information with the final GNSS user is still an open question. This paper proposes a novel methodology for the definition of a high-fidelity and easy-to-use statistical model to represent GNSS constellation antenna patterns. The reconstruction procedure, based on antenna characterization techniques and statistical learning, is presented here through its successful implementation for the “Galileo Reference Antenna Pattern (GRAP)” model, which has been proposed as the reference model for the Galileo programme. The GRAP represents the expected Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) variation for the Galileo FOC satellites, and it is obtained by processing the measurements retrieved during the characterization campaign performed on the Galileo FOC antennas. The mathematical background of the model is analyzed in depth in order to better assess the GRAP with respect to different objectives such as improved resolution, smoothness and proper representation of the antenna pattern statistical distribution. The analysis confirms the enhanced GRAP properties and envisages the possibility of extending the approach to other GNSSs. The discussion is complemented by a preliminary use case characterization of the Galileo performance in SSV. The accessibility, a novel indicator, is defined in order to represent in a quick and compact manner, the expected Galileo SSV quality for different altitudes and target mission requirements. The SSV characterization is performed to demonstrate how simply and effectively the GRAP model can be inserted into user analysis. The work creates the basis for an improved capability for assessing Galileo-based navigation in SSV according to the current knowledge of the antenna pattern. Full article
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18 pages, 5728 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Multi-GNSS Real-Time PPP-AR Positioning Considering SSR Delay
by Xuefeng Mu, Li Wang, Bao Shu, Yunqing Tian, Xinrui Li, Tijun Lei, Guanwen Huang and Qin Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(7), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16071213 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 355
Abstract
For real-time (RT) precise point positioning (PPP), the state space representation (SSR) information is often delayed due to possible communication delays and specific broadcast intervals. In this case, the positioning results will diverge and re-converge due to the increase of SSR products extrapolation [...] Read more.
For real-time (RT) precise point positioning (PPP), the state space representation (SSR) information is often delayed due to possible communication delays and specific broadcast intervals. In this case, the positioning results will diverge and re-converge due to the increase of SSR products extrapolation errors. In addition, RT orbit and clock offset accuracy, as well as their extrapolation errors, will vary in different systems and satellites. We propose a PPP with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) method that combines a time-differenced carrier phase (TDCP) model, in which the characteristics of the orbit and clock are considered. Under normal communication, the PPP-AR solution is obtained by fixing satellites with small SSR product errors. When the communication is abnormal, the TDCP model is utilized to extrapolate user coordinates by considering different extrapolation error characteristics of satellites. The experimental results show that GPS and Galileo SSR products have better accuracy than BDS, with signal-in-space user ranger errors (SISREs) of 2.7, 2.2, and 8.6 cm, respectively. Optimizing the PPP stochastic model based on SISREs can effectively reduce the convergence time. Under 5 min SSR delay, SISREs caused by clock and orbit extrapolation for GPS/Galileo/BDS are 3.5, 1.4, and 2.6 cm, respectively. After optimizing the TDCP stochastic model based on extrapolation errors, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies can be maintained at 0.7 cm and 5.0 cm. For multi-GNSS, the combination of the TDCP and PPP-AR can overcome the influence of short delay. After optimizing the stochastic model, the GPS/Galileo/BDS positioning accuracy can be maintained at about 2.4 cm under 3 min delay, showing an accuracy improvement rate of 59.3% compared with the traditional method using only PPP. Additionally, the rapid PPP convergence results can be obtained by inheriting previous filter state information when the communication recovers normally. Full article
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21 pages, 2810 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Global Performance of the BDS-2 and BDS-3 Joint Real-Time Undifferenced and Uncombined Precise Point Positioning Using RTS Products from Different Analysis Centers
by Ahao Wang, Yize Zhang, Junping Chen, Hu Wang, Tianning Luo, Mingyou Gong and Quanpeng Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(5), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16050788 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Compared to the traditional ionospheric-free (IF) precise point positioning (PPP) model, the undifferenced and uncombined (UU) PPP has the advantages of lower observation noise and the ability to obtain ionospheric information. Thanks to the IGS (International GNSS Service), real-time service (RTS) can provide [...] Read more.
Compared to the traditional ionospheric-free (IF) precise point positioning (PPP) model, the undifferenced and uncombined (UU) PPP has the advantages of lower observation noise and the ability to obtain ionospheric information. Thanks to the IGS (International GNSS Service), real-time service (RTS) can provide RT vertical total electron content (VTEC) products, and an enhanced RT UU-PPP based on the RT-VTEC constraints can be achieved. The global performance of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System-2 (BDS-2) and BDS-3 joint RT UU-PPP using different RTS products was investigated. There is not much difference in the RTS orbit accuracy of medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites among all analysis centers (ACs), and the optimal orbit accuracy is better than 5, 9, and 7 cm in the radial, along-track, and cross-track directions, respectively. The orbit accuracy of inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites is worse than that of MEO satellites. Except for CAS of 0.46 ns, the RTS clock accuracy of MEO satellites for other ACs achieves 0.2–0.27 ns, and the corresponding accuracy is about 0.4 ns for IGSO satellites. In static positioning, due to the limited accuracy of RT-VTEC, the convergence time of the enhanced RT UU-PPP is longer than that of RT IF-PPP for most ACs and can be better than 25 and 20 min in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. After convergence, the 3D positioning accuracy of the static RT UU-PPP is improved by no more than 8.7%, and the optimal horizontal and vertical positioning accuracy reaches 3.5 and 7.0 cm, respectively. As for the kinematic mode with poor convergence performance, with the introduction of RT-VTEC constraints, the convergence time of RT UU-PPP can be slightly shorter and reaches about 55 and 60 min in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. Both the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies of the kinematic RT UU-PPP can be improved and achieve around 7.5 and 10 cm, respectively. Full article
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24 pages, 8866 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Undifferenced NRTK Considering Time-Varying Characteristics of Atmosphere
by Jun Li, Huizhong Zhu, Yangyang Lu, Mingze Zhang and Aigong Xu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(19), 4784; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15194784 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Network RTK (NRTK), one of the primary means of high-precision real-time kinematic positioning (RTK), has been widely used. The key to providing highly accurate positioning is the ambiguity of the reference station being correctly fixed, but the atmospheric errors must be handled carefully, [...] Read more.
Network RTK (NRTK), one of the primary means of high-precision real-time kinematic positioning (RTK), has been widely used. The key to providing highly accurate positioning is the ambiguity of the reference station being correctly fixed, but the atmospheric errors must be handled carefully, which seriously affects the efficiency of ambiguity fixing. This paper aims to improve the efficiency of ambiguity fixing by studying the time-varying characteristics of atmospheric errors. Once reasonable constraints are imposed on atmospheric parameters in the uncombined observation model, it can better fix ambiguity. Atmospheric parameters are estimated by random walk at the reference station, and the power spectral density (PSD) of atmosphere is determined by real-time observations, instead of using empirical values or empirical models that do not consider atmospheric variations. The experimental results showed that the real-time estimated PSD can improve the ambiguity fixing time by 18.4% and the ambiguity fixing success rate for the reference station by 11.7%, compared with using empirical PSD for atmospheric parameters. Unlike general NRTK positioning based on differential error correction values, undifferenced NRTK estimates the integer ambiguity and undifferenced error correction value at a single reference station, ensuring the independence of the error correction value of each reference station, and it can be easily broadcast and received through the network, which is more convenient for realizing high-precision RTK positioning for users. Full article
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15 pages, 7574 KiB  
Article
100 Picosecond/Sub-10−17 Level GPS Differential Precise Time and Frequency Transfer
by Wei Song, Fu Zheng, Haoyuan Wang and Chuang Shi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10694; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910694 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 559
Abstract
A Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a high-precision method for comparing clocks and time transfer. The GNSS carrier phase can provide more precise observable information than pseudorange. However, the carrier phase is ambiguous, and only pseudorange can provide the absolute time difference [...] Read more.
A Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a high-precision method for comparing clocks and time transfer. The GNSS carrier phase can provide more precise observable information than pseudorange. However, the carrier phase is ambiguous, and only pseudorange can provide the absolute time difference between two clocks. In our study, by taking full advantage of GNSS pseudorange and carrier-phase observables, a differential precise time transfer (DPT) method with a clustering constraint was employed to estimate the time difference between two clocks, aiming to achieve accurate and precise time and frequency transfer. Using this method, several time transfer results were analyzed for different baselines. For the common clock experiment, the time transfer results showed good consistency across different days, with an intra-day accuracy of within 20 ps. Furthermore, we evaluated the self-consistency of DPT using closure among three stations. DPT closure of the three stations had a peak-to-peak value of closure of about 25 ps. The closure did not change over time, indicating the self-consistency of the DPT processing in time transfer. Moreover, our results were compared to station clock solutions provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS), and the standard deviations (STDs) of the four baselines were all less than 100 ps within one month, confirming the time and frequency stability of the DPT method. In addition, we found that the time stability of DPT was less than 20 ps within one week. As for frequency stability, DPT achieved a 10−16 level of modified Allan deviation (MDEV) at an averaging time of about 1 day and a sub-10−17 level at an averaging time of one week. Full article
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18 pages, 3665 KiB  
Article
Influence of Stochastic Modeling for Inter-Frequency Clock Biases on Multi-Frequency Precise Point Positioning
by Yangyang Lu, Huizhong Zhu, Longjiang Tang, Bo Li, Jun Li and Aigong Xu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(18), 4507; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15184507 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 620
Abstract
The incorporation of multi-frequency signals into global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has presented new possibilities for precise positioning and rapid ambiguity resolution. Inter-frequency clock bias (IFCB) pertains to the time-varying biases among distinct frequencies within carrier phase observations in GNSS signals. [...] Read more.
The incorporation of multi-frequency signals into global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has presented new possibilities for precise positioning and rapid ambiguity resolution. Inter-frequency clock bias (IFCB) pertains to the time-varying biases among distinct frequencies within carrier phase observations in GNSS signals. The appropriate handling of IFCB is critical in enhancing the accuracy and convergence time of precise point positioning (PPP) solutions. The focus of this study is on the proper modeling of phase IFCB in multi-GNSS multi-frequency PPP. In this paper, the optimal IFCB power spectral density value of 0.6 m/sqrt(s) is first determined. To obtain the optimal stochastic model for IFCB, a thorough comparison and analysis of the product correction and parameter estimation methods is conducted. Additionally, experiments are conducted on the effect of IFCB modeling on the performance of undifferenced and uncombined PPP using data from 130 multi-GNSS experiment stations across the globe over a period of one week in January 2022. The study reveals that the optimal power spectral density for IFCB is within [60, 0.006] m/sqrt(s), modeling IFCB as a random walk is feasible, and the PPP is comparable for the three IFCB processing schemes of product correction, random walk, and white noise. Meanwhile, it is not reasonable to treat IFCB as a random constant or neglect it in the multi-GNSS multi-frequency PPP. In the absence of product correction or for users who require immediate and continuous positioning solutions, modeling IFCBs as random walks can lead to more reliable positioning results and improved convergence performance. Full article
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24 pages, 18150 KiB  
Article
An Efficient BDS-3 Long-Range Undifferenced Network RTK Positioning Algorithm
by Huizhong Zhu, Jie Zhang, Jun Li and Aigong Xu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 4060; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15164060 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 807
Abstract
In 2020, the BeiDou-3 global navigation satellite system (BDS-3) was officially completed and put into service. Currently, network real-time kinematic (RTK) technology is considered the main means through which to improve the positioning accuracy of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS). This paper [...] Read more.
In 2020, the BeiDou-3 global navigation satellite system (BDS-3) was officially completed and put into service. Currently, network real-time kinematic (RTK) technology is considered the main means through which to improve the positioning accuracy of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS). This paper proposes a long-range undifferenced network RTK (URTK) algorithm, based on multi-frequency observation data of the BDS. First, the multi-frequency phase integer ambiguity resolution (AR) model considering atmospheric error parameters is designed, and the multi-frequency phase integer ambiguity of the long-range BDS reference station is determined. Then, the undifferenced integer ambiguity of each reference station is obtained, using linear variation based on the accurately determined phase integer ambiguity between reference stations, and the undifferenced observation error of each reference station is calculated. Considering the weakening spatial correlation of the observation errors between long-range stations, undifferenced classification error corrections of a reference station network are separated, according to different error characteristics. Finally, the inverse distance weighting method is employed to calculate the classification undifferenced error correction of the rover station. The rover station corrects the observation error through applying the undifferenced error correction to achieve high-precision positioning. The measured data of a long-range continuous operation reference station (CORS) network are selected for an experiment. The results show that the proposed algorithm can quickly and accurately realize the resolution of the BDS integer ambiguity of a reference station network and establish an undifferenced area error correction model in order to achieve accurate classification of undifferenced error correction values for a rover station. In China, the BDS-3 is superior to the global positioning system (GPS) in terms of the satellite number, position dilution of precision (PDOP) value, AR success rate, stability, and convergence time. The results show that the AR success rate, stability, and convergence time increase with the operational frequency, and the BDS-3 can achieve centimeter-level positioning of single-system rover stations without relying on the GPS. Full article
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19 pages, 3152 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of Multi-GNSS PPP Ambiguity Resolution with LEO-Augmentation
by Qin Li, Wanqiang Yao, Rui Tu, Yanjun Du and Mingyue Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(12), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15122958 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
The fast motion of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites provides rapid geometric changes in a short time, which can accelerate the initialization of precise point positioning (PPP). The rapid convergence of ambiguity parameters is conducive to the rapid success of ambiguity fixing. This [...] Read more.
The fast motion of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites provides rapid geometric changes in a short time, which can accelerate the initialization of precise point positioning (PPP). The rapid convergence of ambiguity parameters is conducive to the rapid success of ambiguity fixing. This paper presents the performance of single- and four-system combined PPP Ambiguity Resolution (AR), enhanced with an ambiguity-float solution LEO. Two LEO constellations were designed: L was a typical polar orbit constellation, with a higher number of visible satellites at high latitudes than at low and middle latitudes; and M was designed to compensate for the lack of visible satellites at low and middle latitudes. The ground observation data of the LEO satellites at the MGEX stations were simulated. Because the global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) were fully operational, the GNSS data were real observation data from the MGEX stations. Based on the daily observation datasets collected at 258 stations in the global MGEX observation network over three days (from 1 January to 3 January 2022), in addition to the LEO simulation data, we evaluated the positioning performance of LEO ambiguity-float solution-enhanced PPP ambiguity resolution and compared it with LEO-enhanced PPP. The L+M mixed constellation was able to reduce the time to first fix (TTFF) of the four-system combined PPP-AR to 5 min, and four LEO satellites were sufficient to achieve this. L+M mixed constellation was able to reduce the convergence time of the four-system combined PPP to 2 min. Unlike PPP-AR, PPP required more LEO satellites for augmentation to saturate. Full article
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25 pages, 34608 KiB  
Article
GNSS Real-Time Warning Technology for Expansive Soil Landslide—A Case in Ningming Demonstration Area
by Zi Chen, Guanwen Huang, Wei Xie, Yongzhi Zhang and Le Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112772 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Efficient monitoring and early warning are the preconditions of realizing expansive soil landslide hazard prevention and control. Previous early warning of expansive soil landslides was evaluated through soil sampling experiments to analyze the stability coefficient. However, the existing methods lack timeliness and ignore [...] Read more.
Efficient monitoring and early warning are the preconditions of realizing expansive soil landslide hazard prevention and control. Previous early warning of expansive soil landslides was evaluated through soil sampling experiments to analyze the stability coefficient. However, the existing methods lack timeliness and ignore the inconsistent deformation characteristics of different parts of the landslide mass. There are still difficulties in the dynamic numerical early warning of landslides at multiple points. Considering that the degradation of expansive soil landslides’ strength is directly reflected by surface displacement, for the Ningming expansive soil demonstration area and based on the GNSS shallow real-time displacement monitoring sequence, a landslide early-warning method based on the GNSS displacement rate combined with the GNSS displacement tangent angle model was proposed, and we thus designed early-warning thresholds for different warning levels. Combined with multi-source data such as soil moisture, soil pressure, and rainfall, the feasibility of accurate early warning of expansive soil landslides based on GNSS real-time surface displacement was verified. The proposed method does not require numerical calculation of internal stress and achieved two successful early warnings of landslides in the test area, which has a certain promotional value. Full article
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16 pages, 4975 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Characteristics for Inter-System Bias on Multi-GNSS Undifferenced and Uncombined Precise Point Positioning
by Yangyang Lu, Hu Yang, Bo Li, Jun Li, Aigong Xu and Mingze Zhang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(9), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15092252 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Multi Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become the mainstream of PPP technology. Due to the differences in the coordinates and time references of each GNSS, multi-GNSS PPP must include additional Inter-System Bias (ISB) parameters to ensure compatibility between [...] Read more.
Multi Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become the mainstream of PPP technology. Due to the differences in the coordinates and time references of each GNSS, multi-GNSS PPP must include additional Inter-System Bias (ISB) parameters to ensure compatibility between different GNSSs. Therefore, research on the characteristics of ISB is also essential. To analyze the short- and long-term time characteristics of multi-GNSS ISBs, as well as their relationship with receiver type and receiver antenna type, the Undifferenced and Uncombined (UDUC) PPP model of Global Positioning System (GPS), BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS), and Galileo satellite navigation system (Galileo) was rigorously derived, and the physical of ISBs was elaborated in depth. ISB parameters were estimated and analyzed using 31 days of data from the 31 Multi-GNSS Experimental stations (MGEX). The results indicate that: (1) the ISB value is dependent on the station receiver type, receiver antenna type, analysis center product utilized, and GNSS system. (2) The short-term time characteristics of ISB-COM, ISB-WUM, and ISB-GBM are similar for the same station but not for the long term. In addition, ISBs are more stable in the short term. (3) There is little correlation between the ISB time characteristics, the receiver type, and the receiver antenna type, and the day-boundary discontinuity(DBD) on the ISB can be ignored for the concussive days’ process. Full article
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16 pages, 7662 KiB  
Article
A Real-Time Linear Prediction Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal BDS-2/BDS-3 Satellite Clock Offsets
by Yaping Gao, Guo Chen, Wenju Fu, Xi Chen, Liangliang Ma, Tong Luo and Dongdong Xue
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071831 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Due to space environment interference, imperfect data processing model, and the performance of atomic clocks, real-time satellite clock products often contain outliers or irregular biases. We propose a real-time linear moving short-term prediction algorithm to predict clock offsets and detect abnormalities. The proposed [...] Read more.
Due to space environment interference, imperfect data processing model, and the performance of atomic clocks, real-time satellite clock products often contain outliers or irregular biases. We propose a real-time linear moving short-term prediction algorithm to predict clock offsets and detect abnormalities. The proposed algorithm mainly includes phase/frequency anomaly detection and real-time prediction part. Both the phase and frequency domains are used to detect abnormal clock offsets with previous epochs for building the clock prediction model accurately. The real-time moving prediction module utilizes the high short-term prediction performance to check the clock abnormality. The performance of the algorithm is then evaluated for all satellites with real-time estimated satellite clock offsets. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed linear moving model and algorithm, the results of the grey model GM(1,1) and the ARIMA model are also compared. The experimental results indicated that the algorithm can detect clock outliers, frequency modulation, and phase jumps, and the linear model has a better clock performance improvement. After the abnormalities are removed with the proposed algorithm, the average STD accuracy of the real-time clock offsets for all satellites is improved by 15.5%, compared to an improvement of 11.4% by the GM(1,1) model and 11.5% by the ARIMA model. The PPP results demonstrate that the proposed clock prediction algorithm improves the positioning accuracy by 8.1%, 13.3%, and 16.9% in the east, north, and up components, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 5012 KiB  
Article
Rapid Estimation of Undifferenced Multi-GNSS Real-Time Satellite Clock Offset Using Partial Observations
by Wei Xie, Guanwen Huang, Wenju Fu, Shi Du, Bobin Cui, Mengyuan Li and Yue Tan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071776 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Real-time satellite clock offset is a crucial element for real-time precise point positioning (RT-PPP). However, the elapsed time for undifferenced (UD) multi-global navigation satellite system (GNSS) real-time satellite clock offset estimation at each epoch is increased with the growth of stations, which may [...] Read more.
Real-time satellite clock offset is a crucial element for real-time precise point positioning (RT-PPP). However, the elapsed time for undifferenced (UD) multi-global navigation satellite system (GNSS) real-time satellite clock offset estimation at each epoch is increased with the growth of stations, which may fall short of real-time application requirements. Therefore, a rapid estimation method for UD multi-GNSS real-time satellite clock offset is proposed to improve the computation efficiency, in which both the dimension of the normal equation (NEQ) and the number of redundant observations are calculated before adjustment; if these two values are larger than the predefined thresholds, the elevation mask is gradually increased until they are less than the predefined thresholds. Then, the clock offset estimation is conducted; this method is called clock offset estimation using partial observations. Totals of 50, 60, 70 and 80 stations are applied to perform experiments. Compared to clock offset estimation using all observations, the elapsed times of clock offset estimation using partial observations can be reduced from 6.80 to 3.10 s, 7.93 to 2.97 s, 12.04 to 3.14 s for 60, 70 and 80 stations, respectively. By using the proposed method, the elapsed time of the clock offset estimation at each epoch is less than 5 s. The estimated clock offset accuracy for GPS, BDS-3, Galileo and GLONASS satellites are better than 0.04, 0.05, 0.03 and 0.16 ns when using the partial observations to estimate clock offset with 50, 60, 70 and 80 stations, respectively. For the multi-GNSS kinematic PPP using the estimated clock offset from 50, 60, 70 and 80 stations with partial observations, the positioning accuracy at 95% confidence level in the east, north and up direction are better than 2.70, 2.20 and 5.60 cm, respectively. Full article
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20 pages, 3107 KiB  
Technical Note
GNSS High-Precision Augmentation for Autonomous Vehicles: Requirements, Solution, and Technical Challenges
by Liang Chen, Fu Zheng, Xiaopeng Gong and Xinyuan Jiang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(6), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15061623 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Autonomous driving is becoming a pivotal technology that can realize intelligent transportation and revolutionize the future of mobility. Various types of sensors, including perception sensors and localization sensors, are essential for high-level autonomous and intelligent vehicles (AIV). In this paper, the characteristics of [...] Read more.
Autonomous driving is becoming a pivotal technology that can realize intelligent transportation and revolutionize the future of mobility. Various types of sensors, including perception sensors and localization sensors, are essential for high-level autonomous and intelligent vehicles (AIV). In this paper, the characteristics of different sensors are compared, and the application characteristics and requirements of AIV are analyzed in depth. These analyses indicate that: GNSS, as the unique localization sensor that can obtain an absolute position, can not only provide all-weather position and time information for internal multi-sensor fusion but also act as a standard spatiotemporal reference for all autonomous systems; Furthermore, AIVs aim to provide safety for a mass user base ranging from tens to hundreds of millions; for this, AIVs require a global wide-area and instantaneous precise positioning service with location privacy protection. Based on a “geometry-bound” description of road grade and vehicle size, it has been found that GNSS requirements in autonomous vehicles include decimeter-level positioning with the assurance of high integrity. Combined with high-integrity GNSS implementation in the civil aviation field, GNSS different technology routes, and commercial solutions, a state space representation (SSR)-based GNSS high-precision augmentation positioning solution for AIV is summarized and introduced. The solution can achieve instantaneous, precise positioning with high integrity in a wide area by utilizing passive positioning mode with location privacy protection. In addition, the research progress on key technologies in the solution and existing challenges is investigated in detail by reviewing a series of publications. Full article
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22 pages, 3805 KiB  
Review
Satellite Navigation Signal Authentication in GNSS: A Survey on Technology Evolution, Status, and Perspective for BDS
by Xiao Chen, Ruidan Luo, Ting Liu, Hong Yuan and Haitao Wu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(5), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051462 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3669
Abstract
As the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is widely used in all walks of life, the signal structure of satellite navigation is open, and the vulnerability to spoofing attacks is also becoming increasingly prominent, which will seriously affect the credibility of navigation, positioning, [...] Read more.
As the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is widely used in all walks of life, the signal structure of satellite navigation is open, and the vulnerability to spoofing attacks is also becoming increasingly prominent, which will seriously affect the credibility of navigation, positioning, and timing (PNT) services. Satellite navigation signal authentication technology is an emerging technical means of improving civil signal anti-spoofing on the satellite navigation system side, and it is also an important development direction and research focus of the GNSS. China plans to carry out the design and development of the next-generation Beidou navigation satellite system (BDS), and one of its core goals is to provide more secure and credible PNT services. This paper first expounds on the principles and technical architecture of satellite navigation signal authentication, then clarifies the development history of satellite navigation signal authentication, and finally proposes the BDS authentication service system architecture. It will provide technical support for the construction and development of the follow-up Beidou authentication service. Full article
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