Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Virginia Tancredi
Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy

Sports Medicine

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Viewed by
40726

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is now commonly agreed that exercise is an efficient strategy for preventing a wide variety of pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia and diabetes, as well as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, confirming the powerful beneficial effect of sport on human health, exercise is often indicated as an effective non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy to counteract the health impact and progression of many chronic and/or degenerative diseases. The personalisation of training programmes to the individual’s needs could be the key to optimising the beneficial effects of exercise both in healthy patients and in patients with poor health, facilitating the management of chronic and degenerative diseases. In this context, sports medicine represents a fundamental link between practical exercise and basic science, as it aims to provide a scientific assessment of the effects of sport on health. However, although the effects of exercise are well known and extensively documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms are often elusive, and their complete understanding has yet to be achieved. A better understanding of the physiological adaptations to exercise is crucial for the development of personalised training programmes aimed at maximising the preventive and/or therapeutic role of sport.

Therefore, this Topic aims to bring together the latest evidence in the field of sports medicine to i) deepen our knowledge of biological/molecular adaptations to exercise and ii) understand how a training programme tailored to the individual’s needs can improve sports performance.

Thank you the assistance and support from Dr. Ida Cariati and Dr. Roberto Bonanni.

Prof. Dr. Virginia Tancredi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • exercise
  • training protocol
  • sports performance
  • chronic diseases
  • degenerative diseases
  • prevention and treatment

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
jfmk
- 3.7 2016 17.6 Days CHF 1600
Sports
sports
2.7 5.2 2013 19.3 Days CHF 1800

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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21 pages, 3423 KiB  
Case Report
Clinic and Home-Based Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction Resolves Thigh Muscle Atrophy after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with the Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft: A Case Report
by Braidy S. Solie, Garrett G. Eggleston, Nicole A. Schwery, Christopher P. Doney, Michael T. Kiely and Christopher M. Larson
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131885 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) results in thigh muscle atrophy. Of the various interventions proposed to mitigate thigh muscle atrophy, exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) appears safe and effective. Some literature suggests daily exposure to exercise with BFR may be indicated during [...] Read more.
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) results in thigh muscle atrophy. Of the various interventions proposed to mitigate thigh muscle atrophy, exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) appears safe and effective. Some literature suggests daily exposure to exercise with BFR may be indicated during the early phase of ACLR rehabilitation; this case report outlines the methodology utilized to prescribe clinic- and home-based BFR within an outpatient rehabilitation program. A 15-year-old male soccer player suffered a left knee injury involving the anterior cruciate ligament and both menisci. He underwent ACLR and completed exercise with BFR as part of his clinic- and home-based rehabilitation program, which included practical blood flow restriction during home-based rehabilitation. After 16 weeks of rehabilitation, surgical limb thigh girth values were objectively larger than the non-surgical limb (surgical, 52.25 cm; non-surgical 50 cm), as well as the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of his lower-extremity lean body mass (surgical limb, 10.37 kg; non-surgical limb, 10.02 kg). The findings of this case report suggest that the inclusion of clinic- and home-based BFR within an outpatient rehabilitation program may be indicated to resolve thigh muscle atrophy early after ACLR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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11 pages, 1528 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Training Improves Joint Stiffness Regulation and Function in ACLR Patients Compared to Healthy Controls
by Yong Woo An, Kyung-Min Kim, Andrea DiTrani Lobacz, Jochen Baumeister, Jill S. Higginson, Jeffrey Rosen and Charles Buz Swanik
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131875 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
As cognitive function is critical for muscle coordination, cognitive training may also improve neuromuscular control strategy and knee function following an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the effects of cognitive training on joint stiffness [...] Read more.
As cognitive function is critical for muscle coordination, cognitive training may also improve neuromuscular control strategy and knee function following an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the effects of cognitive training on joint stiffness regulation in response to negative visual stimuli and knee function following ACLR. A total of 20 ACLR patients and 20 healthy controls received four weeks of online cognitive training. Executive function, joint stiffness in response to emotionally evocative visual stimuli (neutral, fearful, knee injury related), and knee function outcomes before and after the intervention were compared. Both groups improved executive function following the intervention (p = 0.005). The ACLR group had greater mid-range stiffness in response to fearful (p = 0.024) and injury-related pictures (p = 0.017) than neutral contents before the intervention, while no post-intervention stiffness differences were observed among picture types. The ACLR group showed better single-legged hop for distance after cognitive training (p = 0.047), while the healthy group demonstrated no improvement. Cognitive training enhanced executive function, which may reduce joint stiffness dysregulation in response to emotionally arousing images and improve knee function in ACLR patients, presumably by facilitating neural processing necessary for neuromuscular control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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42 pages, 1558 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Relationship between Micronutrients and Athletic Performance: A Comprehensive Scientific Systematic Review of the Literature in Sports Medicine
by Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi, Mariam Ali Hussain, Khadija Majdy Raziq, Khawla Khaled Alsendi, Reem Osama Alaamer, Manar Jaradat, Sondos Alobaidi, Raghad Al Aqili, Khaled Trabelsi and Haitham Jahrami
Sports 2023, 11(6), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11060109 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 10255
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review is twofold: (i) to examine the effects of micronutrient intake on athletic performance and (ii) to determine the specific micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, that offer the most significant enhancements in terms of athletic performance, [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review is twofold: (i) to examine the effects of micronutrient intake on athletic performance and (ii) to determine the specific micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, that offer the most significant enhancements in terms of athletic performance, with the goal of providing guidance to athletes and coaches in optimizing their nutritional strategies. The study conducted a systematic search of electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus) using keywords pertaining to micronutrients, athletic performance, and exercise. The search involved particular criteria of studies published in English between 1950 and 2023. The findings suggest that vitamins and minerals are crucial for an athlete’s health and physical performance, and no single micronutrient is more important than others. Micronutrients are necessary for optimal metabolic body’s functions such as energy production, muscle growth, and recovery, which are all important for sport performance. Meeting the daily intake requirement of micronutrients is essential for athletes, and while a balanced diet that includes healthy lean protein sources, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is generally sufficient, athletes who are unable to meet their micronutrient needs due to malabsorption or specific deficiencies may benefit from taking multivitamin supplements. However, athletes should only take micronutrient supplements with the consultation of a specialized physician or nutritionist and avoid taking them without confirming a deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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19 pages, 11719 KiB  
Article
Fine-Grained Motion Recognition in At-Home Fitness Monitoring with Smartwatch: A Comparative Analysis of Explainable Deep Neural Networks
by Seok-Ho Yun, Hyeon-Joo Kim, Jeh-Kwang Ryu and Seung-Chan Kim
Healthcare 2023, 11(7), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11070940 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
The squat is a multi-joint exercise widely used for everyday at-home fitness. Focusing on the fine-grained classification of squat motions, we propose a smartwatch-based wearable system that can recognize subtle motion differences. For data collection, 52 participants were asked to perform one correct [...] Read more.
The squat is a multi-joint exercise widely used for everyday at-home fitness. Focusing on the fine-grained classification of squat motions, we propose a smartwatch-based wearable system that can recognize subtle motion differences. For data collection, 52 participants were asked to perform one correct squat and five incorrect squats with three different arm postures (straight arm, crossed arm, and hands on waist). We utilized deep neural network-based models and adopted a conventional machine learning method (random forest) as a baseline. Experimental results revealed that the bidirectional GRU/LSTMs with an attention mechanism and the arm posture of hands on waist achieved the best test accuracy (F1-score) of 0.854 (0.856). High-dimensional embeddings in the latent space learned by attention-based models exhibit more clustered distributions than those by other DNN models, indicating that attention-based models learned features from the complex multivariate time-series motion signals more efficiently. To understand the underlying decision-making process of the machine-learning system, we analyzed the result of attention-based RNN models. The bidirectional GRU/LSTMs show a consistent pattern of attention for defined squat classes, but these models weigh the attention to the different kinematic events of the squat motion (e.g., descending and ascending). However, there was no significant difference found in classification performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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15 pages, 302 KiB  
Review
Mental Health Disorders in Ultra Endurance Athletes per ICD-11 Classifications: A Review of an Overlooked Community in Sports Psychiatry
by Jill Colangelo, Alexander Smith, Ana Buadze, Nicola Keay and Michael Liebrenz
Sports 2023, 11(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030052 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5897
Abstract
Introduction: Although research suggests that exercise benefits mental health, psychiatric disorders have been acknowledged in the ultra-endurance-athlete population. At present, the mental-health consequences of high-volume training associated with ultra-endurance sports are not well understood. Methods: We conducted a narrative review summarizing primary observations [...] Read more.
Introduction: Although research suggests that exercise benefits mental health, psychiatric disorders have been acknowledged in the ultra-endurance-athlete population. At present, the mental-health consequences of high-volume training associated with ultra-endurance sports are not well understood. Methods: We conducted a narrative review summarizing primary observations about mental disorders per ICD-11 criteria in ultra-endurance athletes using a keyword search in Scopus and PubMed. Results: We identified 25 papers discussing ICD-11-classified psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia in ultra-endurance athletes. Discussion: Although evidence is limited, available papers indicate that there is a sizable incidence of mental-health issues and composite psychopathological vulnerabilities in this community. We contend that ultra-endurance athletes may represent a different, though similar, demographic than elite and/or professional athletes, as they often engage in high-volume training with similarly high motivation. This can have regulatory implications, which we also highlight. Conclusion: Mental illness in ultra-endurance athletes is an underrepresented topic in sports medicine, though psychiatric disorders may be especially prevalent in this population. Further inquiry is necessary to inform athletes and healthcare practitioners about the possible mental-health implications associated with participation in ultra-endurance sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
12 pages, 1470 KiB  
Article
Patient-Reported Measures Associated with the Return to Pre-Injury Levels of Sport 2 Years after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
by Zakariya H. Nawasreh, Mohammad A. Yabroudi, Anan B. Al-Shdifat, Sakher M. Obaidat, Sharf M. Daradkeh, Mohamed N. Kassas and Khaldoon M. Bashaireh
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010028 - 23 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC2000) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are knee-specific measures. However, their association with a return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC2000) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are knee-specific measures. However, their association with a return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between the IKDC2000 and the KOOS subscales and the return to the same pre-injury level of sport two years after ACLR. Forty athletes that were two years post-ACLR participated in this study. Athletes provided demographic information, filled out the IKDC2000 and KOOS subscales, and indicated whether they returned to any sport and whether they returned to the same pre-injury level (same duration, intensity, and frequency). In this study, 29 (72.5%) athletes returned to play any sport and eight (20%) returned to the same pre-injury level. The IKDC2000 (r: 0.306, p = 0.041) and KOOS quality of life (KOOS-QOL) (r: 0.294, p = 0.046) significantly correlated with the return to any sport, but it was age (r: −0.364, p = 0.021), BMI (r: −0.342, p = 0.031), IKDC2000 (r: 0.447, p = 0.002), KOOS-pain (r: 0.317, p = 0.046), KOOS sport and recreation function (KOOS-sport/rec)(r: 0.371, p = 0.018), and KOOS QOL (r: 0.580, p > 0.001) that significantly correlated with a return to the same pre-injury level. High KOOS-QOL and IKDC2000 scores were associated with returning to any sport, and high KOOS-pain, KOOS-sport/rec, KOOS-QOL, and IKDC2000 scores were all associated with returning to the same pre-injury level of sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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10 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
The Sizes of Spine Curvatures of Children That Practice Selected Sports
by Natalia Twarowska-Grybalow and Aleksandra Truszczyńska-Baszak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031826 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shape of the spine curves in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar sections of children that practice selected sports. (2) Methods: The body posture of the examined children was assessed using the digital [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shape of the spine curves in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar sections of children that practice selected sports. (2) Methods: The body posture of the examined children was assessed using the digital photography method, i.e., the Moiré method. Selected parameters characterizing the curvature of the spine (the Alpha, Beta and Gamma angles, the size of kyphosis in the thoracic spine and the size of lordosis in the lumbar spine) were analyzed. (3) Results: The study of the body posture using the Moiré method allowed for the assessment of the angles that determine the size of the spine’s curvature. The analysis of differences among the groups included in the study (football, swimming, biathlon/taekwondo, volleyball) was carried out on the basis of one-dimensional models that take into account the distributions of individual parameters. On the basis of the Alpha, Beta and Gamma angles, it was possible to calculate the size of kyphosis in the thoracic section and the size of lordosis in the lumbar spine. There was a statistically significant difference in the size of the Alpha, Beta and Gamma parameters among the groups. (4) Conclusions: Most of the respondents had the correct body posture in the sagittal plane, regardless of the type of sport they practiced. Our results did not allow us to unequivocally state whether practicing various sports and having different training loads resulting from these sports have a negative or positive effect on the size of the anterior–posterior curvatures of the spine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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13 pages, 1182 KiB  
Article
High-Intensity Interval Training Combined with Different Types of Exercises on Cardiac Autonomic Function. An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in CrossFit® Athletes
by Michelle Teles Morlin, Carlos Janssen Gomes da Cruz, Freddy Enrique Ramos Guimarães, Renato André Sousa da Silva, Luiz Guilherme Grossi Porto and Guilherme Eckhardt Molina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010634 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3107
Abstract
It is well established that endurance exercise has positive effects on cardiac autonomic function (CAF). However, there is still a dearth of information about the effects of regular high-intensity interval training combined with different types of exercises (HIITCE) on CAF. Objective: The aim [...] Read more.
It is well established that endurance exercise has positive effects on cardiac autonomic function (CAF). However, there is still a dearth of information about the effects of regular high-intensity interval training combined with different types of exercises (HIITCE) on CAF. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare CAF at rest, its reactivity, and reactivation following maximal exercise testing in HIITCE and endurance athletes. Methods: An observational study was conducted with 34 male athletes of HIITCE (i.e., CrossFit®) [HG: n = 18; 30.6 ± 4.8 years] and endurance athletes (i.e., triathlon) [TG.: n = 16; 32.8 ± 3.6 years]. We analyzed 5 min of frequency-domain indices (TP, LF, HF, LFn, HFn, and LF/HF ratio) of heart rate variability (HRV) in both supine and orthostatic positions and its reactivity after the active orthostatic test. Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) was assessed at 60, 180, and 300 s. Statistical analysis employed a non-parametric test with a p-value set at 5%. Results: The HG showed reduced HFn and increased LFn modulations at rest (supine). Overall cardiac autonomic modulation (TP) at supine and all indices of HRV at the orthostatic position were similar between groups. Following the orthostatic test, the HG showed low reactivity for all HRV indices compared to TG. After the exercise, HRR does not show a difference between groups at 60 s. However, at 180 and 300 s, an impairment of HRR was observed in HG than in TG. Conclusion: At rest (supine), the HG showed reduced parasympathetic and increased sympathetic modulation, low reactivity after postural change, and impaired HRR compared to TG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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18 pages, 2035 KiB  
Review
Non-Invasive Pulsatile Shear Stress Modifies Endothelial Activation; A Narrative Review
by Jose A. Adams, Arkady Uryash and Jose R. Lopez
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123050 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
The monolayer of cells that line both the heart and the entire vasculature is the endothelial cell (EC). These cells respond to external and internal signals, producing a wide array of primary or secondary messengers involved in coagulation, vascular tone, inflammation, and cell-to-cell [...] Read more.
The monolayer of cells that line both the heart and the entire vasculature is the endothelial cell (EC). These cells respond to external and internal signals, producing a wide array of primary or secondary messengers involved in coagulation, vascular tone, inflammation, and cell-to-cell signaling. Endothelial cell activation is the process by which EC changes from a quiescent cell phenotype, which maintains cellular integrity, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties, to a phenotype that is prothrombotic, pro-inflammatory, and permeable, in addition to repair and leukocyte trafficking at the site of injury or infection. Pathological activation of EC leads to increased vascular permeability, thrombosis, and an uncontrolled inflammatory response that leads to endothelial dysfunction. This pathological activation can be observed during ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and sepsis. Shear stress (SS) and pulsatile shear stress (PSS) are produced by mechanical frictional forces of blood flow and contraction of the heart, respectively, and are well-known mechanical signals that affect EC function, morphology, and gene expression. PSS promotes EC homeostasis and cardiovascular health. The archetype of inducing PSS is exercise (i.e., jogging, which introduces pulsations to the body as a function of the foot striking the pavement), or mechanical devices which induce external pulsations to the body (Enhanced External Pulsation (EECP), Whole-body vibration (WBV), and Whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA aka pGz)). The purpose of this narrative review is to focus on the aforementioned noninvasive methods to increase PSS, review how each of these modify specific diseases that have been shown to induce endothelial activation and microcirculatory dysfunction (Ischemia reperfusion injury-myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest and resuscitation), sepsis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis syndrome (LPS)), and review current evidence and insight into how each may modify endothelial activation and how these may be beneficial in the acute and chronic setting of endothelial activation and microvascular dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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14 pages, 1041 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association between Body Weight and Body Mass Index and Patellar Tendinopathy in Elite Basketball and Volleyball Players, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Minghao Deng and Michael Mansfield
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10101928 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
The features of Patellar-Tendinopathy are (1): pain localised to the inferior pole of the patellar; (2): the presence of load-related pain. Body-Weight and Body-Mass-Index, as two easily-measured variables, could potentially aid the prediction of PT. This review aims to establish relationships between Body-Weight [...] Read more.
The features of Patellar-Tendinopathy are (1): pain localised to the inferior pole of the patellar; (2): the presence of load-related pain. Body-Weight and Body-Mass-Index, as two easily-measured variables, could potentially aid the prediction of PT. This review aims to establish relationships between Body-Weight and Body-Mass-Index and Patellar-Tendinopathy via synthesising the evidence from prospective-cohort and cross-sectional studies in elite basketball and volleyball players. Seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Health-Management-Information-Consortium, National-Technical-Information-Service, ClinicalTrial.gov) and citation chasing were used to identify English peer-review articles from 2000 to 2022. An adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for critical appraisal. Two reviewers were involved in literature searching, data extraction, and quality review. Two prospective cohort and five cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria, providing 849 subjects (male:female: 436:413). Five studies found BW is associated with PT. Three studies found a relationship between BMI and PT. Six out of seven studies were classified as very good studies. All studies were level IV evidence. The very low certainty evidence suggests an association between BW and PT. There is moderate certainty evidence that BMI is associated with PT. These preliminary findings should be treated cautiously due to the lack of strong evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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12 pages, 1278 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions on Depression in Korea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungsook Kim and Heetae Cho
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10101886 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Korea has ranked first in the OECD, with a prevalence of 36.8% of depression. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the effect size of physical activity as an alternative tool for depression symptoms using meta-analysis. A [...] Read more.
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Korea has ranked first in the OECD, with a prevalence of 36.8% of depression. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the effect size of physical activity as an alternative tool for depression symptoms using meta-analysis. A meta-analysis on depressive symptoms was performed on 18 studies published in Korean domestic journals. The moderating variables hypothesized in this study included age groups of participants; depressive symptoms; and frequency, intensity, time, type, and duration of the intervention. The overall effect size of physical activity on depression was moderate (0.56 [95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91]). Specifically, physical activity was slightly more effective in reducing depression in participants with an 18–64 age group compared to older people over 65 years old, while it was most effective for participants without depressive symptoms compared to participants with mild and severe symptoms. Further, the subgroup analysis revealed that performing two times a week for 30 to 60 min with progressive intensity for 1–8 weeks may be the most effective for Koreans. The results of this study can provide guidelines for the most effective physical activity program for Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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13 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
Correlation and Change in Physical Activity and Physical Fitness across Four Years of College Students after One Year of COVID-19 Lockdown
by Hongyan Yu, Shicheng An, Yiming Tao and Larry Austin
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091691 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
The relationship between physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) has been well established among college students. However, the impact of this relationship after 1 year of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown measures is unclear. This study aimed to test the relationship between PA and [...] Read more.
The relationship between physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) has been well established among college students. However, the impact of this relationship after 1 year of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown measures is unclear. This study aimed to test the relationship between PA and PF, exploring the trend across four years, the different components of PF related to PA, and their determinants, by analyzing specific items. A total of 1506 university students (19.48 ± 1.35 years old, 55.8% male) in years 1–4 at two comprehensive universities in Shanghai were recruited after one year of COVID restrictions and asked to complete the PF measurements and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ Chinese Short version). The PA level is categorized into three types of intensity (low-moderate-high), and the level of PF is represented by the total test score of each item. Results show that PA was significantly positively correlated with PF; PA levels significantly predicted 1000m-run, 50m-sprint, and standing-long-jump in males, and 800m-sprint and sit-ups in females. Males predominantly had high-intensity PA, whereas females maintained moderate-intensity PA over four academic years. Meanwhile, PA and PF both trended downward as academic years increased in males and females, which could be attributed to a decline in high-intensity PA. The following two recommendations were obtained from the study: first, college students should engage in high-intensity PA activities after the end of the epidemic. Second, colleges offer physical education classes for four academic years of college students to promote PA and PF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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11 pages, 602 KiB  
Review
Lower Limbs Wearable Sports Garments for Muscle Recovery: An Umbrella Review
by João P. Duarte, Ricardo J. Fernandes, Gonçalo Silva, Filipa Sousa, Leandro Machado, João R. Pereira and João P. Vilas-Boas
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081552 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
This review aims to understand the different technologies incorporated into lower limbs wearable smart garments and their impact on post-exercise recovery. Electronic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane electronic databases. Eligibility criteria considered meta-analyses that examined the effects [...] Read more.
This review aims to understand the different technologies incorporated into lower limbs wearable smart garments and their impact on post-exercise recovery. Electronic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane electronic databases. Eligibility criteria considered meta-analyses that examined the effects of wearable smart garments on physical fitness in healthy male and female adults. Seven meta-analyses were considered in the current umbrella review, indicating small effects on delayed-onset muscle soreness ([0.40–0.43]), rate of perceived exertion (0.20), proprioception (0.49), anaerobic performance (0.27), and sprints ([0.21–0.37]). The included meta-analyses also indicated wearable smart garments have trivial to large effects on muscle strength and power ([0.14–1.63]), creatine kinase ([0.02–0.44]), lactate dehydrogenase (0.52), muscle swelling (0.73), lactate (0.98) and aerobic pathway (0.24), and endurance (0.37), aerobic performance (0.60), and running performance ([0.06–6.10]). Wearing wearable smart garments did not alter the rate of perceived exertion and had a small effect on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Well-fitting wearable smart garments improve comfort and kinesthesia and proprioception and allow a reduction in strength loss and muscle damage after training and power performance following resistance training or eccentric exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
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