Topic Editors

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l’Energia "NicolaGiordano" (ITAE), 98126 Messina, Italy
Prof. Dr. Sotirios Karellas
Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo PA, Italy
Dr. Alessio Sapienza
Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies "Nicola Giordano" ITAE, Italian National Research Council (CNR), 00118 Rome, Italy
Dr. Jakob energy research GmbH & Co. KG (JER), Pestalozzistrasse 3, 71384 Weinstadt, Germany

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling

Abstract submission deadline
30 April 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
18458

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global energy consumption for air-conditioning, both heating and cooling, is increasing rapidly. An estimated 111 million AC units were sold this year, for new installations and the replacement of waste equipment, and more than 918 million AC units are currently installed in buildings around the world. Conventional AC units typically have a high electricity consumption and use non-environmentally friendly refrigerants. In this context, the know-how capitalised in OECD countries (Europe, US, Australia, etc.) in solar heating and cooling (thermal and PV) is already significant. However, very few efforts have been made to adapt and transfer this know-how to those countries characterized by different operating conditions and markets (Africa, MENA, and Asian countries, which are all dynamic, emerging economies).

Therefore, the present Topic, entitled “Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling”, calls for papers to be a showcase of ideas, research progresses, and innovations for affordable, safe and environmentally friendly heating and cooling systems, based on solar energy, either thermal or PV, for those regions worldwide with favourable climates and growing economies.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Improvements in sorption technologies for heating and cooling;
  • Adapted components for solar-assisted heating and cooling systems;
  • Adapted system for solar heating and cooling in harsh operating conditions;
  • Exergy analysis for solar heating and cooling systems;
  • Accurate dynamic simulation of solar heating and cooling systems in harsh climates;
  • New materials for adsorption chillers;
  • Hybrid chillers for PV/thermal solar heating and cooling systems;
  • Retrofit of solar cooling systems in buildings for increased efficiency;
  • Passive solar cooling systems;
  • Passive solar heating systems;
  • Ground-assisted solar heating and cooling systems;
  • Improvements in solar energy harvesting for air-conditioning purposes;
  • Modelling of solar-assisted AC systems for warm climate;
  • New trends in sustainable heating and cooling.

Dr. Salvatore Vasta
Prof. Dr. Sotirios Karellas
Dr. Marina Bonomolo
Dr. Alessio Sapienza
Prof. Dr. Uli Jakob
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • solar cooling
  • solar heating
  • solar air-conditioning
  • solar AC
  • PV cooling
  • photovoltaic cooling
  • PV heating
  • photovoltaic heating
  • heat pumps
  • efficiency in buildings
  • exergy analysis
  • sunbelt regions
  • harsh summer conditions
  • hot climates
  • building efficiency
  • adsorption
  • absorption
  • thermally driven chiller
  • sorption chiller
  • solar-assisted chillers
  • solar-assisted heat pumps
  • severe summer conditions...

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Entropy
entropy
2.7 4.7 1999 20.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Resources
resources
3.3 7.7 2012 23.8 Days CHF 1600 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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25 pages, 11686 KiB  
Article
Thermal Analysis of Air-Cooled Channels of Different Sizes in Naturally Ventilated Photovoltaic Wall Panels
by Yongxiao Zheng, Jikui Miao, Hongwen Yu, Fang Liu and Qingfeng Cai
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123002 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
In practical engineering applications, natural air cooling is often utilized for photovoltaic (PV) facades. However, the natural-air-cooling method is not effective at cooling PV wall panels, and the high temperatures accumulated on the surface of PV panels not only affect the electrical efficiency [...] Read more.
In practical engineering applications, natural air cooling is often utilized for photovoltaic (PV) facades. However, the natural-air-cooling method is not effective at cooling PV wall panels, and the high temperatures accumulated on the surface of PV panels not only affect the electrical efficiency and service life of the PV modules, but also increase the energy consumption of the building. In this paper, we propose the vertical installation of heat dissipation fins in naturally ventilated PV wall panels. We used ANSYS Fluent to establish the simulation model of naturally ventilated PV wall panels and validate it. By simulating the air-cooled channels in PV wall panels with different sizing parameters, the temperature and flow rate variations were comparatively analyzed in order to optimize the air-cooled-channel sizes. The results show that installing the fins vertically in the air-cooled channel provided better cooling for the PV panels and enhanced the air heat collection effect. Additionally, it improved the airflow rate in the channel. As the thickness of the finned air-cooled channel increased or the width decreased, the temperature on the surface of the PV panels showed a decreasing trend. Compared to the flat-plate air-cooled channel, the finned air-cooled channel, with a thickness of 100 mm and a width of 20 mm, decreased the peak and average temperatures of the PV-panel surface by 3.9 °C and 8.1 °C, respectively, and increased the average temperature of the air at the outlet by 11.2 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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16 pages, 4964 KiB  
Essay
Simulation Study of a Novel Solar Air-Source Heat Pump Heating System Based on Phase-Change Heat Storage
by Panxue Liu, Jianhui Zhao and Jiamei Chen
Sustainability 2023, 15(22), 15684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152215684 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
A traditional solar air-source heat pump heating system cannot effectively utilize solar energy, and it consumes large amounts of energy when operating during cold nights. Accordingly, a conventional heating system has been improved by phase-change heating to form a new phase-change thermal storage [...] Read more.
A traditional solar air-source heat pump heating system cannot effectively utilize solar energy, and it consumes large amounts of energy when operating during cold nights. Accordingly, a conventional heating system has been improved by phase-change heating to form a new phase-change thermal storage solar air-source heat pump heating system. Based on the TRNSYS simulation platform, a heating simulation study of the improved phase-change heating system was carried out in Xi’an City. The results show that the addition of phase-change thermal storage technology allows the heating system to make better use of solar energy, and the efficiency of the solar collector is increased by 5.9%; the presence of the phase-change material effectively reduces the rate of temperature drop inside the water tank, making the water supply temperature more stable; during the whole heating period, the improved phase-change heating system saved 484.91 kWh of operating energy, showing a very good energy-saving effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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18 pages, 2537 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Condenser Performance in Vapor Absorption Refrigeration Systems Operating in Arid Climatic Zones—Selection of Best Option
by Zakariya Kaneesamkandi, Abdulaziz Almujahid, Basharat Salim, Abdul Sayeed and Waleed Mohammed AlFadda
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7416; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217416 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Generators and condensers are the two vital equipment items that determine the output of vapor absorption refrigeration systems. Arid weather conditions produce a significant reduction in the performance of the vapor absorption refrigeration cycle due to low condenser heat dissipation despite high generator [...] Read more.
Generators and condensers are the two vital equipment items that determine the output of vapor absorption refrigeration systems. Arid weather conditions produce a significant reduction in the performance of the vapor absorption refrigeration cycle due to low condenser heat dissipation despite high generator temperatures. Although numerous studies on condenser cooling methods in vapor compression systems have been reported in the literature, solar-operated vapor absorption systems have not been studied. Limitations in generator temperatures of solar-operated vapor absorption systems necessitate a focused study in this area. This study makes the selection of the best choice for condenser cooling from among four different condenser cooling methods which have an impact on the performance of the vapor absorption refrigeration system for effective cooling using solar energy. A solar vapor absorption refrigeration system working with low-grade heat using a compound parabolic collector is considered in this study. Analysis of a vapor absorption refrigeration system for cooling in arid weather conditions is carried out using different condenser cooling methods with Engineering Equation Solver. Initially, the model used in the study is compared with a similar study reported in the literature. Techniques considered are air, water, evaporative, and hybrid cooling techniques. The performance of the vapor absorption cooling system was analyzed using experimental values of a solar compound parabolic collector obtained from real-time measurements for simulating the model. Results show that water cooling can provide suitable condenser cooling and improve the coefficient of performance of the solar vapor absorption refrigeration system using the solar collector. The water-cooled condenser has 1.9%, 3.3%, and 2.1% higher COP when compared to air-cooled condensers for spring, summer, and autumn seasons respectively, whereas the water-cooled condenser cooling recorded 6%, 14%, and 8% higher COP relative to the evaporative cooling method. Cost comparison showed maximum cost for water-cooled condensers and minimum cost for hybrid-cooled condensers. The effect of each cooling method on the environment is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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32 pages, 7253 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution of Future Demand for Space Cooling Applications and Potential of Solar Thermal Cooling Systems
by Michael Strobel, Uli Jakob, Wolfgang Streicher and Daniel Neyer
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129486 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Demand for space cooling systems is growing worldwide. The main reasons are socioeconomic developments such as the growing world population and the rise of economic wealth, especially in developing countries. These developments run simultaneously with global warming effects, increasing the need for cooling. [...] Read more.
Demand for space cooling systems is growing worldwide. The main reasons are socioeconomic developments such as the growing world population and the rise of economic wealth, especially in developing countries. These developments run simultaneously with global warming effects, increasing the need for cooling. This study introduces the development of the Cooling Demand Market Index (CDMI), which indicates the demand for cooling appliances worldwide at a spatial resolution of 1 km. It is based on population density, Gross Domestic Product (GDP)/capita and Cooling Degree Days (CDD) per climate zone. The CDMI is calculated for 2020 and 2050 in four different future scenarios in accordance with the Spatial Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Further, the Solar Thermal Cooling Index (STCI) was developed to spatially estimate the worldwide potential to use solar thermal cooling systems based on solar availability and limitations due to maximum heat rejection temperature. Results of the CDMI show that the economic demand for cooling solutions is increasing, especially in developing countries, and that India will be by far the largest market by 2050. Countries such as Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo show the strongest national increases in CDMI. The STCI indicates that ammonia absorption chillers and zeolite adsorption chillers can serve the vast majority of the market thanks to their capability to run at high condenser temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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22 pages, 4647 KiB  
Article
Impact of Geometry on a Thermal-Energy Storage Finned Tube during the Discharging Process
by Emanuela Privitera, Riccardo Caponetto, Fabio Matera and Salvatore Vasta
Energies 2022, 15(21), 7950; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15217950 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
This work focused on the modelling of latent heat thermal energy storage systems. The mathematical modelling of a melting and solidification process has time-dependent boundary conditions because the interface between solid and liquid phases is a moving boundary. The heat transfer analysis needs [...] Read more.
This work focused on the modelling of latent heat thermal energy storage systems. The mathematical modelling of a melting and solidification process has time-dependent boundary conditions because the interface between solid and liquid phases is a moving boundary. The heat transfer analysis needs the interface position over time to predict the temperature inside the liquid and the solid regions. This work started by solving the classical two-phase (one-dimensional) Stefan problem through a Matlab implementation of the analytical model. The same physical problem was numerically simulated using ANSYS FLUENT, and the good match of analytical and numerical results validated the numerical model, which was used for a more interesting problem: comparing three different latent heat TES configurations during the discharging process to evaluate the most efficient in terms of maximum average discharging power. The three axial heat conduction structures changed only for the fin shape (rectangular, trapezoidal and fractal), keeping constant the volume fractions of steel, aluminium and PCM to perform a proper comparison. Results showed that the trapezoidal fin profile performs better than the rectangular one, and the fractal fin profile geometry was revealed as the best for faster thermal exchange when the solidifying frontier moves away from the steel ring. In conclusion, the average discharging power for the three configurations was evaluated for a time corresponding to a reference value (10%) of the liquid fraction: the rectangular fin profile provided 950.8 W, the trapezoidal fin profile 979.4 W and the fractal fin profile 1136.6 W, confirming its higher performance compared with the other two geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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18 pages, 8937 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Performance of a Space Radiation Cooling System under Different Environmental Factors
by Zhaoyi Zhuang, Yanbiao Xu, Qian Wu, Bing Liu, Bowen Li, Jin Zhao and Xuebin Yang
Energies 2022, 15(19), 7404; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197404 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
As a new passive cooling technology, space radiation cooling has great potential for development because the cooling itself has no energy consumption, and the radiation heat exchanger does not affect the appearance, with low noise and low cost. Several rectangular stainless steel plates [...] Read more.
As a new passive cooling technology, space radiation cooling has great potential for development because the cooling itself has no energy consumption, and the radiation heat exchanger does not affect the appearance, with low noise and low cost. Several rectangular stainless steel plates coated with RLHY-2 material are used as the transmitter for the field test. The experimental results show that, in the case of no windscreen, the increase of outdoor humidity will reduce the cooling effect, and the greater the humidity, the more pronounced the reduction effect. Significantly when the humidity increases from 78% to 90%, the cooling power of the cooler reduces from 102 to 67 W/m2. The thickness of the cloud layer also affects the cooling effect of the space radiative cooler. Compared with the clear weather, the cooling power of the cooler is reduced by 11.65 W/m2 on average under foggy weather conditions. Compared with the force-1 wind and the force-3 wind, the cooling effect of the cooler is the worst under the condition of the force-2 wind, and the average cooling power is only 49.76 W/m2. In addition, laying polyethylene (PE) film as a windscreen is beneficial to improving the radiative cooling effect, and the difference in surface temperature between the two is up to 3 °C. This research provides a theoretical basis and practical reference for applying radiative cooling technology in different regions and seasons and adjusting and improving its effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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28 pages, 7206 KiB  
Article
Compact Ammonia/Water Absorption Chiller of Different Cycle Configurations: Parametric Analysis Based on Heat Transfer Performance
by Xuan Tao, Dhinesh Thanganadar and Kumar Patchigolla
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6511; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186511 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Ammonia/water absorption chillers are driven by low-grade heat and cover wide refrigeration temperatures. This paper analyses single-stage ammonia/water absorption chillers. A numerical model was developed based on the heat exchanger performance. The model captures variational heat exchanger performances and describes the actual cycle [...] Read more.
Ammonia/water absorption chillers are driven by low-grade heat and cover wide refrigeration temperatures. This paper analyses single-stage ammonia/water absorption chillers. A numerical model was developed based on the heat exchanger performance. The model captures variational heat exchanger performances and describes the actual cycle with varying boundary conditions. The detrimental effects of refrigerant impurity were analysed quantitatively under different operating conditions. The model was validated with experimental data. A basic cycle and three advanced cycles were analysed for sub-zero refrigeration by comparing the thermodynamic performances. A compression-assisted cycle extended the activation temperature from 80 to 60 °C. At the heat source of 120 °C, when a counter-current desorber or bypassed rich solution was used, the COP increased from 0.51 to 0.58 or 0.57, respectively. The operating parameters included the heat source temperatures, heat sink temperatures, the mass flow rates and mass concentrations of rich solutions. Higher heat source temperatures increase cooling capacity. The increase was around 20 kW for the basic cycle of sub-zero refrigeration. There is an optimum heat source temperature maximising the COP. Higher heat source temperatures increased the refrigerant mass flow rate and reduced the mass concentration. The mass concentration can decrease from 0.999 to 0.960. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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16 pages, 2335 KiB  
Article
Lightning Protection, Cost Analysis and Improved Efficiency of Solar Power Plant for Irrigation System
by Waqas Rahim, Irshad Ullah, Nasim Ullah and Ahmad Aziz Alahmadi
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6235; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106235 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4962
Abstract
The constraints in the path of sustainable, cost-effective, and efficient photovoltaic power supply to the irrigation system in remote areas are addressed in this work. The intrinsic thermal losses in the PV system due to high working temperature and shading losses that are [...] Read more.
The constraints in the path of sustainable, cost-effective, and efficient photovoltaic power supply to the irrigation system in remote areas are addressed in this work. The intrinsic thermal losses in the PV system due to high working temperature and shading losses that are caused by dirt are mitigated through water cleaning mechanisms. Moreover, the protection against lightning strikes and surges is assimilated in the system to ensure the durability of the PV system. Lastly, cost analysis of 0.4 MW PV plant for the Area of 7444.69 m2 has been performed by the Homer Pro, and comparison is made with the same size of a Hydro power plant to estimate the economic feasibility of power generation for the purpose of irrigation through the pump house. The water-cooling mechanism resulted in the gain of one volt per panel of 260 W, which is a significant improvement with regard to collective PV plant generation. As the water cleaning mechanism for dust removal is accompanied with the cooling process, it results in the two volts rise per panel. Additionally, a cost analysis of 0.4 MW PV system provided a significant budget saving estimating USD ~2 million as compared to that of a Hydel power plant of the same size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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13 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Dual–Pass Inclined Oscillating Bed Solar Dryer for Drying of Non-Parboiled Paddy Grains
by Ganapathy Ponnambalam Arul, Selvam Thulasi, Pitchaipillai Kumar, Veeranan Arunprasad, Saboor Shaik, Mohamed Abbas, Parvathy Rajendran, Sher Afghan Khan and C. Ahamed Saleel
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5558; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095558 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 1668
Abstract
This Paper determines an experimental study of dual-pass solar dryer with a bed tilt of 0.5° and varying oscillating frequency of drying chamber namely 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 Hz for drying an agricultural produce namely non–parboiled paddy grains. The oscillations and bed tilt [...] Read more.
This Paper determines an experimental study of dual-pass solar dryer with a bed tilt of 0.5° and varying oscillating frequency of drying chamber namely 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 Hz for drying an agricultural produce namely non–parboiled paddy grains. The oscillations and bed tilt are provided to move the grains from entry to exit of the top bed and moving down to bottom bed and finally exits from the dryer. The new technology has been used in the solar dryer for drying of agricultural produce such as non–parboiled paddy grains to increase the quality and to decrease the loss of the dried produce. The present dryer model was used for drying 45 kg of non–parboiled paddy grains from 19% (w.b) to the approved range of 12–14% of moisture content obtained in a single experimental day. The dried paddy grains obtained an average moisture content are 13.03, 13.22 and 13.51% at the frequency of oscillation of 1.25, 1.75, 2.25 Hz, respectively. The maximum thermal and pick-up efficiency of the model were obtained at 1.00 p.m. in all cases. For the frequency of oscillation of 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 Hz, the maximum dryer thermal efficiency was 44.47, 43.39 and 41.39%, respectively, and the maximum pick–up efficiency was 80.41, 79.19 and 76.21%, respectively. The optimum drying performance was obtained at the oscillating frequency of 1.75 Hz with the bed tilt of 0.5°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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22 pages, 6800 KiB  
Article
Thermal Characteristics Simulation of an Energy-Conserving Facade: Water Flow Window
by Yuanli Lyu, Sihui Chen, Can Liu, Jun Li, Chunying Li and Hua Su
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052737 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
In this paper, a 3D numerical simulation was completed to explore the thermal characteristics in a water flow window in-depth. CFD was used to carry out the analysis on top of successful validation. By changing the solar intensity, water supply temperature and velocity, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a 3D numerical simulation was completed to explore the thermal characteristics in a water flow window in-depth. CFD was used to carry out the analysis on top of successful validation. By changing the solar intensity, water supply temperature and velocity, the temperature distribution and flow field in the window cavity, as well as the water heat gain, were analyzed and compared. This is meaningful for improving the energy-conserving performance in building applications. Simulation results reveal that the variation of solar intensity and water supply temperature affects directly the temperature distribution and the water heat gain but has little impact on the overall velocity field. Local vortices are generated in the window cavity, and their formation and location are largely affected by the varied temperature rise in the water layer. The water heat gain increases and then decreases with the increase in water supply velocity. In addition, a large-enough water supply velocity can disorder the uniform upward flow. These are detrimental to effective thermal extraction. Therefore, in practical application, the vortex should be eliminated, and the flow velocity should be determined properly to maximize the water heat gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling)
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