Topic Editors

STEM|School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Innovative Fire and Façade Engineering Group, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia

Smart Material and Smart Construction Technologies for Urban Development

Abstract submission deadline
closed (14 July 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
14 May 2024
Viewed by
39220

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continued growth of populations in cities demands more infrastructure. Consequently, this increases the energy demand, construction cost, construction and demolition waste and risk to environmental sustainability as it produces significant amounts of greenhouse gas emissions to the environment. Thus, the governments and the construction industries should focus on sustainable construction materials and smart and rapid construction technology to enable sustainable cities. However, applications of smart materials and smart construction in the buildings are limited due to the lack of knowledge of their capabilities and constraints. The present Special Topic aims to increase the knowledge by exploring the recent advancement, current thinking and constraints of smart material and smart construction technologies to overcome the challenges facing urban city development and enable a sustainable construction industry. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Smart construction technology to improve the construction performance.
  • Energy-efficient building design for a sustainable urban city.
  • Additive manufacturing in offsite construction to enable rapid construction.
  • Robotic technology to improve the construction performance.
  • Smart materials that enable sustainable construction.
  • Sustainable construction materials that reduce the embodied energy and enhance building energy efficiency.

Dr. Sathees Nava
Dr. Kate Nguyen
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • prefabricated construction
  • automation in construction
  • modular construction
  • additive manufacturing in offsite construction
  • 3D printing building construction
  • smart materials
  • sustainable construction materials
  • green buildings
  • healthy buildings
  • wearable robots

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Infrastructures
infrastructures
2.6 4.3 2016 16.9 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Smart Cities
smartcities
6.4 8.5 2018 20.2 Days CHF 2000 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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13 pages, 4315 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Aggregate Distribution Heterogeneity in 3D Printed Concrete by Means of X-ray CT
by Rei Yoshihara, Kota Nakase, Katsufumi Hashimoto, Takafumi Sugiyama and Yoshiki Honda
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041132 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 156
Abstract
The mechanical performance of a printed object in 3D concrete printing is influenced by the interfacial bonding strength between the deposited filaments. Hence, the physical properties of the layer interface and the influential factors have been studied. This study aims to clarify the [...] Read more.
The mechanical performance of a printed object in 3D concrete printing is influenced by the interfacial bonding strength between the deposited filaments. Hence, the physical properties of the layer interface and the influential factors have been studied. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of aggregate distribution heterogeneity as well as the influence of printing material extrusion speed on the heterogeneity inside the filament. A laboratory-scale material extruder is developed and used in this study. The aggregate distribution is evaluated in a quantitative manner with the cross-sectional image obtained by X-ray computed tomography. The images were taken in the deposited filament and the material extrusion nozzle for printing. Results show that large aggregate moves from the outside of the printing nozzle toward the center with increasing extrusion speed from 1.8 to 7.1 mm/s. As extrusion speed increases, it is inferred that a lubrication layer forms on the inner surface of the nozzle, causing the transition of material extrusion behavior from laminate flow to plug flow. Thus, the aggregate distribution appears differently inside the filament. This finding indicates that the magnitude of friction against the nozzle wall alters the die swell during discharge as well as the aggregate distribution before and after extrusion. Full article
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17 pages, 4485 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Emerging Perovskite Photovoltaic Energy-Harvesting System for BIPV Applications
by Yerassyl Olzhabay, Muhammad N. Hamidi, Dahaman Ishak, Arjuna Marzuki, Annie Ng and Ikechi A. Ukaegbu
Smart Cities 2023, 6(5), 2430-2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6050110 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are emerging photovoltaics (PVs) with promising optoelectronic characteristics. PSCs can be semitransparent (ST), which is beneficial in many innovative applications, including building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs). While PSCs exhibit excellent performance potential, enhancements in their stability and scalable manufacturing are required [...] Read more.
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are emerging photovoltaics (PVs) with promising optoelectronic characteristics. PSCs can be semitransparent (ST), which is beneficial in many innovative applications, including building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs). While PSCs exhibit excellent performance potential, enhancements in their stability and scalable manufacturing are required before they can be widely deployed. This work evaluates the real-world effectiveness of using PSCs in BIPVs to accelerate the development progress toward practical implementation. Given the present constraints on PSC module size and efficiency, bus stop shelters are selected for investigation in this work, as they provide a suitably scaled application representing a realistic near-term test case for early-stage research and engineering. An energy-harvesting system for a bus stop shelter in Astana, Kazakhstan, demonstrates the potential performance evaluation platform that can be used for perovskite solar cell modules (PSCMs) in BIPVs. The system includes maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and charge controllers, which can supply PSCM energy to the electronic load. Based on our design, the bus stop shelter has non-transparent and ST PSCMs on the roof and sides, respectively. May (best-case) and December (worst-case) scenarios are considered. According to the results, the PSCMs-equipped bus stop shelter can generate sufficient daily energy for load even in a worst-case scenario. Full article
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18 pages, 1560 KiB  
Article
A Review of the Effect of Nano-Silica on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Cementitious Composites
by Haneen AlTawaiha, Fadi Alhomaidat and Tamer Eljufout
Infrastructures 2023, 8(9), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8090132 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
The incorporation of nanotechnology has led to significant strides in the concrete industry, ushering in innovative construction methodologies. Various nanomaterials, including nano-silica (NS), have undergone comprehensive scrutiny as potential partial substitutes for cement in concrete formulations. This article aims to provide a comprehensive [...] Read more.
The incorporation of nanotechnology has led to significant strides in the concrete industry, ushering in innovative construction methodologies. Various nanomaterials, including nano-silica (NS), have undergone comprehensive scrutiny as potential partial substitutes for cement in concrete formulations. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the impacts of NS on several mechanical properties of concrete, encompassing compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths. Additionally, the review delves into the influence of NS on the concrete’s durability, including microstructural characterization and the eradication of structural micropores. NS has demonstrated the capacity to bolster both strength and durability while concurrently diminishing structural micropores. Moreover, this review explores the contemporary status of NS application in cement concrete and presents avenues for prospective research. The assessment of engineering attributes becomes imperative for concrete infused with nano-silica. This encompasses aspects like bond strength, creep, shrinkage, and more. A rigorous evaluation of fresh and hardened properties is necessary to discern the material’s thermal and acoustical characteristics. Such a comprehensive understanding contributes to a holistic evaluation of the material’s adaptability across diverse applications. Full article
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18 pages, 3142 KiB  
Review
Review on the Application of Organic Fibers as Substitutes for Asbestos in Thin Fiber Cement Sheets from a Sri Lankan Perspective
by Isuru Deegoda, Samith Buddika, Hiran Yapa, Satheeskumar Navaratnam and Guomin Zhang
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10235; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310235 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1580
Abstract
In the past, asbestos siding, roofing, and ceiling sheets became more popular than conventional materials due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, durability, and low cost. However, it was later identified that most types of asbestos are carcinogenic and are responsible for major lethal [...] Read more.
In the past, asbestos siding, roofing, and ceiling sheets became more popular than conventional materials due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, durability, and low cost. However, it was later identified that most types of asbestos are carcinogenic and are responsible for major lethal diseases. In terms of developing a substitute for asbestos, different alternative organic fibers have been investigated as sustainable solutions. Therefore, this article reviewed the usability of organic fibers from wood, banana, bamboo, and coconut coir, which are locally available and abundant in the region, as a substitute for asbestos in the fiber cement industry in Sri Lanka. The quantitative physicomechanical properties of organic fiber and fiber cement composites were evaluated, and the effect of treatment methods on durability was discussed. The previous literature revealed that organic fiber cement thin sheets have comparable mechanical properties in comparison to composites reinforced with asbestos. Furthermore, this study found that these organic-fiber-based composites are energy-efficient and have improved fire resistance. However, the long-term performance is questionable. Hence, further studies on fiber treatment methods and composite durability are needed. Additionally, a comprehensive cost analysis of organic fiber cement composite is recommended to introduce organic fibers into commercial products. Full article
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23 pages, 3808 KiB  
Article
A Reliability-Based Framework for Damage Accumulation Due to Multiple Earthquakes: A Case Study on Bridges
by Nilupa Herath, Lihai Zhang, Priyan Mendis, Satheeskumar Navaratnam, Weena Lokuge and Sujeeva Setunge
Infrastructures 2023, 8(6), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8060106 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Damage accumulation due to multiple seismic impacts over time has a significant effect on the residual service life of the bridge. A reliability-based framework was developed to make decisions in bridge maintenance activities. The feature of the framework enables quantifying the time-dependent probability [...] Read more.
Damage accumulation due to multiple seismic impacts over time has a significant effect on the residual service life of the bridge. A reliability-based framework was developed to make decisions in bridge maintenance activities. The feature of the framework enables quantifying the time-dependent probability of failure of bridges due to the impact of multiple earthquakes and progressive deterioration. To estimate the reliability of the bridge systems, the probability of failure of the bridge was used. Two case studies were utilised to demonstrate how the method can be applied to the real world. Results show that the accumulated damage caused by multiple earthquakes and progressive deterioration significantly impact the remaining useful life of the bridge. Furthermore, the soil conditions predominantly influence the progressive deterioration and reduce the service life of the bridge. Overall, the proposed framework enables the sustainable decision-making process for bridge maintenance activities. The results reveal the necessity of including the combined impact in the bridge maintenance system and that there is a more than 40% increase in the probability of failure, due to the combined effect of progressive deterioration and earthquake impacts, compared to the impact only due to seismic loads for the considered case study bridge. Full article
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17 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Provincial Policies on the Development of Prefabricated Construction in China
by Kangkang Yan, Huer Shuang, Yongtao Tan, Shuang Xiang and Xiaolong Gan
Infrastructures 2023, 8(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8050087 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Currently, China has launched an ambitious governmental initiative to promote the development of prefabricated construction (PC). As the target of PC development has been allocated to lower-level government, the responsibility for PC development rests at the provincial level. Therefore, provincial policies are extremely [...] Read more.
Currently, China has launched an ambitious governmental initiative to promote the development of prefabricated construction (PC). As the target of PC development has been allocated to lower-level government, the responsibility for PC development rests at the provincial level. Therefore, provincial policies are extremely crucial for the development of PC. Despite this, few studies have been conducted to examine the role of provincial policies in promoting the development of PC. With the aim of filling this knowledge gap, a comprehensive analysis of provincial policies on the development of PC was conducted in this study. Firstly, 443 provincial policies for PC development issued by 31 regions were collected and divided into different types according to the policy instrument framework, including environment instruments, demand instruments and supply instruments. By using the approach of content analysis, the spatial and temporal distribution of provincial policies was explored, as well as the similarities and differences in different regions. The results indicate that China initially developed a policy system for PC development with the characteristics of multiple levels, multiple stakeholders and multiple instruments; meanwhile, provincial policy relies heavily on environmental instruments, and the use of supply and demand instruments is grossly inadequate. The existing problems of each policy instrument for PC development have been discussed, and corresponding countermeasures have been put forward. The research findings provide valuable information for policy adjustments in the future and shed light on the effective delivery of policies to promote the development of PC in developing countries. Full article
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31 pages, 3466 KiB  
Review
Ultra-High-Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concrete for Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Concrete Structures: A Suitability Assessment
by Sahan Bandara, Kushan Wijesundara and Pat Rajeev
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030614 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2904
Abstract
Ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a cementitious composite which contains fibres. UHPFRC has emerged as an effective structural retrofitting material due to its superior mechanical properties. In addition, UHPFRC has outstanding durability, ductility and workability; a low permeability; and a high abrasion and [...] Read more.
Ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a cementitious composite which contains fibres. UHPFRC has emerged as an effective structural retrofitting material due to its superior mechanical properties. In addition, UHPFRC has outstanding durability, ductility and workability; a low permeability; and a high abrasion and fire resistance. These improved characteristics of UHPFRC are obtained by reducing the content of free water in the concrete matrix (leading to less air voids), introducing high strength ductile steel fibres, replacing coarse aggregates with well graded fine aggregates and introducing highly active pozzolanic materials. UHPFRC has excellent bonding with normal strength concrete and it eliminates the issue of debonding which is common in other retrofitting techniques employing fibre-reinforced polymers or externally bonded steel plates. Therefore, considering various aspects, UHPFRC-based structural retrofitting possesses a number of advantages. This paper presents a review of previous studies employing UHPFRC for structural retrofitting applications, highlighting its advantages, limitations and challenges. Aspects of flexural strengthening, combined axial and flexural strengthening, shear strengthening, impact resistance and torsional strengthening are considered for this review. Altogether, the paper aims to enhance the awareness of UHPFRC for structural retrofitting as a step forward towards effective field applications and to outline the potential future directions of research. Full article
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18 pages, 3199 KiB  
Review
Circular-Economy-Based Approach to Utilizing Cardboard in Sustainable Building Construction
by Srikanth Venkatesan, Mahzabin Afroz, Satheeskumar Navaratnam and Rebecca Gravina
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010181 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5913
Abstract
Circular-economy-based sustainability approaches in construction are gaining wide acceptance due to the volume of waste generation and increasing demand for natural materials. Propelled by the recent timber shortage in Australia and the issues of waste management of cardboard, this study aims to analyse [...] Read more.
Circular-economy-based sustainability approaches in construction are gaining wide acceptance due to the volume of waste generation and increasing demand for natural materials. Propelled by the recent timber shortage in Australia and the issues of waste management of cardboard, this study aims to analyse the possibilities of using cardboard as a construction material, based on its initial strength and multiple recycling options. A systematic review of research papers published in the last 40 years has been undertaken using a single keyword search to select the database. The review is presented in terms of the characteristics of the cardboard, dimensional stability, durability, structural strength, design, and analysis of cardboard. Recurring themes are evaluated using a latent Dirichlet allocation approach to identify the factors that ascertain the suitability of cardboard. Analysis reveals that despite certain constraints, such as water absorption and fire resistance, cardboard can be used as a replacement for timber by overcoming such limitations. This observation has benefits for the construction industry and the recycling industry. This study found that cardboard adheres to the circular economy principles, which should inspire policymakers. The paper concludes by highlighting the current circumstances and scientific challenges that impede the usage of cardboard in construction and recommends potential works needed to address these challenges for the benefit of practitioners and researchers. Full article
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22 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Retrofit of Building Façade Using Precast Sandwich Panel: An Integrated Thermal and Environmental Assessment on BIM-Based LCA
by Quddus Tushar, Guomin Zhang, Muhammed A. Bhuiyan, Satheeskumar Navaratnam, Filippo Giustozzi and Lei Hou
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122098 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4010
Abstract
The study conducts a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of precast sandwich panels by integrating operational and embodied phases detailing thermal efficiency and environmental impacts. The analytical regression model is developed for climatic diversity and design variables using the energy rating tool FirstRate5 [...] Read more.
The study conducts a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of precast sandwich panels by integrating operational and embodied phases detailing thermal efficiency and environmental impacts. The analytical regression model is developed for climatic diversity and design variables using the energy rating tool FirstRate5 to compare with a conventional brick veneer construction. LCA is performed on the building information modeling (BIM) platform to connect operational energy and express the relative embodied impacts of insulation constituents, compressive strength, reinforcement, and mix design. Monte Carlo simulation shows significant advantages of concrete sandwich panels in reducing operational H/C loads over building service life. LCA reveals a 100 mm thick external precast concrete wall with 50% fly ash reduces CO2 emission and energy demand by 54.7% and 75.9% consecutively against the benchmark. Moreover, it comprises 84.31% of the total building mass, accountable for only 53.27% of total CO2 emission and 27.25% of energy demand, which is comparatively lower than other materials. In the case of selecting lining insulation, a broader benefit is identified for extruded polystyrene (XPS) and expanded polystyrene (EPS) boards due to their relative weight, thickness, and environmental impacts. Representative equations of energy efficiency and impact assessment will assist in adopting sandwich panels for new construction and refurbishment with relative dimensions. Full article
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19 pages, 3778 KiB  
Article
Developing A Rule-Based Dynamic Safety Checking Method for Enhancing Construction Safety
by Quanxi Bao, Jianliang Zhou, Yueqin Zhao, Xinyao Li, Shiwei Tao and Pinsheng Duan
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14130; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114130 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Safety code compliance checking before construction is a key step in risk control. However, the conventional safety compliance checking methods are static model-oriented, which can lead to both the low adaptability of the model to the dynamic construction process, and low checking efficiency. [...] Read more.
Safety code compliance checking before construction is a key step in risk control. However, the conventional safety compliance checking methods are static model-oriented, which can lead to both the low adaptability of the model to the dynamic construction process, and low checking efficiency. This paper develops a dynamic safety checking method based on BIM and topology for enhancing construction safety management, by incorporating actual construction processes. Firstly, based on the four stages of automatic safety checking, a comprehensive dynamic safety checking framework is proposed. Secondly, the object attributes and spatial location in the BIM model are extracted to form a dynamic topological relationship database. Following this, the dynamic safety checking method is designed, and the checking results are intuitively reported to users based on BIM software. An actual construction scenery is taken as an example to verify the feasibility of the method in the final stage. The results showed that the dynamic safety checking method, based on topology and rules, can help to accurately identify safety risks in the pre-construction stage and reduce the safety risks due to poor design considerations or construction process modification. Full article
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24 pages, 1742 KiB  
Article
Effect of Star Rating Improvement of Residential Buildings on Life Cycle Environmental Impacts and Costs
by Hamidul Islam, Muhammed Bhuiyan, Quddus Tushar, Satheeskumar Navaratnam and Guomin Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101605 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
A diagnostic framework is proposed to assess the influence of star rating improvement for residential buildings on life cycle environmental impacts and life cycle costs (LCEI and LCC) using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing methods, respectively, on all life cycle [...] Read more.
A diagnostic framework is proposed to assess the influence of star rating improvement for residential buildings on life cycle environmental impacts and life cycle costs (LCEI and LCC) using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing methods, respectively, on all life cycle phases (i.e., construction, operation, maintenance, and disposal). A reference house was modified on the basis of six alternative designs to deliver a particular star rating in order to demonstrate the analysis framework. Two LCIA methods (i.e., material flows/add masses and eco-indicator 99 Australian substances) were used to estimate ten LCEI indicators under two categories: seven from problem-oriented (i.e., raw material, air emission, water emission, eco-toxicity, acidification/eutrophication potential, ozone depletion, and climate change) and three from damage-oriented (i.e., resource depletion, ecosystem quality, and effect on human health) categories. The three damage-oriented indicators were combined to evaluate environmental and economic wellbeing on a single eco-point basis. All these combinations of impact indicators can offer three lines of analytical options along with star rating: problem-oriented, damage-oriented, and a variety of problem and damage-oriented LCEIs with LCCs. Hence, the optimum house selection is-based not only on cost or star rating, but also on LCEIs. Full article
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20 pages, 2635 KiB  
Article
Experts’ Perceptions of the Management and Minimisation of Waste in the Australian Construction Industry
by Israt Jahan, Guomin Zhang, Muhammed Bhuiyan, Satheeskumar Navaratnam and Long Shi
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11319; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811319 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Effective waste management has become a crucial factor in Australia because, from 1996 to 2015, the population increased by 28%, while Australia’s annual waste increased by 170%. In the period 2018–2019, Australia generated 27 Mt of construction demolition waste (44% of all waste). [...] Read more.
Effective waste management has become a crucial factor in Australia because, from 1996 to 2015, the population increased by 28%, while Australia’s annual waste increased by 170%. In the period 2018–2019, Australia generated 27 Mt of construction demolition waste (44% of all waste). Although 76% of this waste is recycled, there has been a 61% increase in the rate of waste since 2006–2007. Therefore, minimising waste and prioritising waste management are necessary to build a circular economy. This study aims to identify the current waste minimisation perceptions in the Australian construction industry. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 50 industry experts focusing on four sectors (design/planning, building information modelling (BIM), material logistics, and prefabrication). The data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively (Severity index). The result disclosed that the designers are the first contributor to waste minimisation, followed by the material suppliers/manufacturers. It is revealed that subjective attitude and the personal reluctance to exercise waste mitigation strategies are crucial. The outcome also indicated that BIM has the potential to minimise waste significantly. Overall, 15 key points were highlighted to consider for waste minimisation, and a conceptual framework was proposed. Therefore, identifying waste management’s current practices and the responsibility of industry personnel will help minimise waste and bring sustainable development. Full article
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24 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Current State of Using Prefabricated Construction in Australia
by Zhiming Zhang, Yongtao Tan, Long Shi, Lei Hou and Guomin Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091355 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5741
Abstract
The Australian prefabricated construction market has been developing rapidly in recent years. New prefabrication-related technologies, materials, systems and services are also emerging in the current Australian market. Although some studies have been undertaken to explore the benefits and challenges of implementing prefabrication in [...] Read more.
The Australian prefabricated construction market has been developing rapidly in recent years. New prefabrication-related technologies, materials, systems and services are also emerging in the current Australian market. Although some studies have been undertaken to explore the benefits and challenges of implementing prefabrication in Australia over the past 15 years, they do not reflect the recent changes in the industry. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap and identify the major changes in the current Australian prefabricated construction industry from industrial perceptions. Through literature reviews and industry interviews, factors reflecting major changes in the current Australian prefabricated construction, including prefabrication industry development, emerging benefits and challenges, were identified and discussed in this study. The challenges identified from interviews were classified into eight aspects related to feasibility, design, manufacturing, transportation, on-site construction, standardisation, skills and knowledge, finance and market. Furthermore, 21 recommendations and related key responsible parties were identified to tackle these challenges. The findings will provide useful references for various stakeholders to have a better understanding of the current prefabrication industry development in the Australian context and re-think how to adapt to future changes for the uptake of prefabricated construction in Australia. Full article
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46 pages, 8189 KiB  
Review
Rheometry for Concrete 3D Printing: A Review and an Experimental Comparison
by Roshan Jayathilakage, Pathmanathan Rajeev and Jay Sanjayan
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081190 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4389
Abstract
The rapid advancement of 3D concrete printing (3DCP) and the development of relevant cementitious material compositions can be seen in the last few decades. The commonly used 3DCP method is to build the structure layer by layer after extruding the material through a [...] Read more.
The rapid advancement of 3D concrete printing (3DCP) and the development of relevant cementitious material compositions can be seen in the last few decades. The commonly used 3DCP method is to build the structure layer by layer after extruding the material through a nozzle. Initially, the pumping and extrusion of the material should be done with considerable fluidity and workability. The extruded layers should retain their shape immediately after extruding and depositing. While constructing the structure in a layerwise manner, the bottom layers should have enough early age strength to support the layers at the top. Therefore, at different processes in 3DCP, the rheological requirement is contradictory. As the rheology of the material is the deterministic factor which decides the fluidity or workability of the mix, proper rheological characterization should be completed accurately. In some instances, due to the higher stiffness, and higher time and rate-dependent material behavior (thixotropic behavior) compared to the conventional concrete, standard rheology measurement techniques have many limitations when used for 3DCP material. Therefore, non-conventional and novel techniques can be implemented with suitable material models to characterize the rheology of 3DCP material. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted on conventional and non-conventional methods used for characterizing the rheological parameters for 3DCP material. The previously conducted studies were highlighted with the targeted 3DCP processes in the study (if applicable), and rheological parameters achieved from the test (i.e., yield stress, viscosity, and thixotropy). In addition, some experimental studies were conducted to compare several selected testing methods. The rheological parameters achieved from different test methods were compared to identify the similarities, dissimilarities, pros, and cons between the test methods. Furthermore, the extrudability and buildability studies were conducted for the mixes to demonstrate the usage of the mixes in 3DCP applications and to correlate the achieved rheological parameters with these processes. Full article
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