Topic Editors

Department of Chemical Engineering, Toronto Metropolitan University (Formerly Ryerson University), 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de Cartagena, Sede Piedra de Bolívar, Avenida del Consulado 48-152, Cartagena, Colombia
1. School of Occupational and Public Health, Toronto Metropolitan University (Formerly Ryerson University), 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
2. School of Health Sciences, Seneca Polytechnic, 13990 Dufferin Street, King City, ON L7B 1B3, Canada
Dr. Samira Ghafoori
1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architectural Science, Toronto Metropolitan University (Formelry Ryerson University), Toronto, ON, Canada
2. Sanofi in Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada

Wastewater Treatment by Physical, Chemical, Photochemical, and Biological Processes, and Their Combinations

Abstract submission deadline
30 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
10211

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the limitations of individual physical, chemical, photochemical, or biological processes in their effectiveness or economic feasibility, most processes are not cost-effective or efficient on their own to treat wastewaters, such as high-strength wastewaters. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to treat wastewaters containing non-biodegradable, toxic, inhibitory, and recalcitrant organic contaminants. Although the main advantages of AOPs are their destructive and non-selective nature, as well as their high rates of reactions in comparison to biological processes, they may not be cost-effective on their own. An alternative treatment is the biodegradability enhancement of wastewater by a photochemical pre-treatment or post-treatment using AOPs. Therefore, the focus of this topic is on the latest developments in all AOPs, including photochemical reaction engineering, photoreactor design and kinetics, photocatalyst development, biological processes for wastewater treatment including high-strength actual wastewaters, biokinetics, technical improvements for municipal wastewater treatment plants including process control, and/or combinations of different physical, chemical, photochemical, and biological processes to maximize organic degradation in wastewater while being cost-effective.

Prof. Dr. Mehrab Mehrvar
Dr. Edgar Quiñones-Bolaños
Dr. Ciro Bustillo-Lecompte
Dr. Samira Ghafoori
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • photochemical reaction engineering
  • advanced oxidation technologies
  • biological wastewater treatment
  • biokinetics
  • combined AOPs with other processes including biological processes
  • high-strength wastewater treatment
  • actual wastewater treatment
  • optimization and modelling of combined processes for wastewater treatment
  • industrial wastewater treatment applications

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Bioengineering
bioengineering
4.6 4.2 2014 17.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Catalysts
catalysts
3.9 6.3 2011 14.3 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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13 pages, 3523 KiB  
Article
Optimizing an Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor Series for Effective High-Strength Fresh Leachate Treatment and Biogas Generation
by Sakulrat Sutthiprapa, Sirintornthep Towprayoon, Chart Chiemchaisri, Pawinee Chaiprasert and Komsilp Wangyao
Sustainability 2024, 16(7), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16073076 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Treating high-strength fresh leachate is challenging and of great interest due to the inherent variability in its physical and chemical characteristics. This research aims to enhance the efficiency of the anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) series in treating high-strength fresh leachate and achieving biogas [...] Read more.
Treating high-strength fresh leachate is challenging and of great interest due to the inherent variability in its physical and chemical characteristics. This research aims to enhance the efficiency of the anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) series in treating high-strength fresh leachate and achieving biogas generation from fresh leachate at ambient temperatures. The AHR series used consists of two serially connected reactors termed the first anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR-1) and the secondary anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR-2). AHR-1 treated high-concentration fresh leachate with an organic loading rate (OLR) between 5 and 20 kgCOD/m3·d. AHR-2 treated the effluent from the first tank and removed organic matter from the system. The experiment was conducted for 210 days, showing that an OLR of 10 kgCOD/m3·d resulted in the most suitable COD removal efficiency, ranging from 82 to 91%. The most suitable OLR for biogas production was 15 kgCOD/m3·d. The AHR series proved to be an efficient system for treating high-strength fresh leachate and generating biogas, making it applicable to leachate treatment facilities at waste transfer stations and landfill sites. Treating leachate and utilizing it as a renewable energy source using the AHR series presents a practical and efficient waste management approach. High-strength leachate can be effectively treated with the AHR series; such methods may be integrated into industries treating leachates with high COD values. Full article
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44 pages, 6980 KiB  
Review
Dynamic Modelling, Process Control, and Monitoring of Selected Biological and Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment: A Review of Recent Developments
by Zahra Parsa, Ramdhane Dhib and Mehrab Mehrvar
Bioengineering 2024, 11(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11020189 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
This review emphasizes the significance of formulating control strategies for biological and advanced oxidation process (AOP)-based wastewater treatment systems. The aim is to guarantee that the effluent quality continuously aligns with environmental regulations while operating costs are minimized. It highlights the significance of [...] Read more.
This review emphasizes the significance of formulating control strategies for biological and advanced oxidation process (AOP)-based wastewater treatment systems. The aim is to guarantee that the effluent quality continuously aligns with environmental regulations while operating costs are minimized. It highlights the significance of understanding the dynamic behaviour of the process in developing effective control schemes. The most common process control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are explained and listed. It is emphasized that the proper control scheme should be selected based on the process dynamic behaviour and control goal. This study further discusses the challenges associated with the control of wastewater treatment processes, including inadequacies in developed models, the limitations of most control strategies to the simulation stage, the imperative requirement for real-time data, and the financial and technical intricacies associated with implementing advanced controller hardware. It is discussed that the necessity of the availability of real-time data to achieve reliable control can be achieved by implementing proper, accurate hardware sensors in suitable locations of the process or by developing and implementing soft sensors. This study recommends further investigation on available actuators and the criteria for choosing the most appropriate one to achieve robust and reliable control in WWTPs, especially for biological and AOP-based treatment approaches. Full article
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29 pages, 13339 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Construction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent Data for Simulation Studies
by Jens Alex
Water 2024, 16(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040564 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The quality of simulations for wastewater treatment plants is heavily dependent on the quality of the simulation input data. Inflow data from wastewater treatment plants collected by measurement cannot usually be used directly for a wastewater treatment plant simulation. A method is presented [...] Read more.
The quality of simulations for wastewater treatment plants is heavily dependent on the quality of the simulation input data. Inflow data from wastewater treatment plants collected by measurement cannot usually be used directly for a wastewater treatment plant simulation. A method is presented with which dynamic inflow descriptions for simulation studies can be generated from typical operational measurements. These are volume-proportional 24 h composite samples and continuously recorded inflow water flow rates. To derive the method, a deterministic model was first developed to describe typical dry weather daily inflow concentration patterns and validated for a larger number of measured daily inflow measurements (2 h composite samples). In the second part of the article, the method is then developed with which the dynamic wastewater treatment plant inflow can be calculated for a longer period of time from the modelled dry weather daily inflow and a high-resolution time series of measured flow rates. This dynamic inflow can be used to validate wastewater treatment plant models if additional online measurements for effluent concentrations (e.g., NH4-N and NO3-N) are available. The proposed method is highly suitable for calculating an online estimate of the influent concentrations, which can be used as input information for digital twins, such as observer models and predictive controllers, based solely on the online measurement of the influent flow rate. Full article
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37 pages, 931 KiB  
Review
Integrated and Hybrid Processes for the Treatment of Actual Wastewaters Containing Micropollutants: A Review on Recent Advances
by Mina Asheghmoalla and Mehrab Mehrvar
Processes 2024, 12(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12020339 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1626
Abstract
The global concern regarding the release of micropollutants (MPs) into the environment has grown significantly. Considerable amounts of persistent micropollutants are present in industrial discharges. Depending solely on a singular treatment approach is inadequate for the effective removal of MPs from wastewater due [...] Read more.
The global concern regarding the release of micropollutants (MPs) into the environment has grown significantly. Considerable amounts of persistent micropollutants are present in industrial discharges. Depending solely on a singular treatment approach is inadequate for the effective removal of MPs from wastewater due to their complex composition. The performance of different treatment methods to meet the discharge standards has been widely studied. These efforts are classified as hybrid and sequential processes. Despite their adequate performance, the optimization and industrial application of these methods could be challenging and costly. This review focuses on integrated (sequential) and hybrid processes for MP removal from actual wastewater. Furthermore, to provide a thorough grasp of the treatment approaches, the operational conditions, the source of wastewater containing MPs, and its characteristics are detailed. It is concluded that the optimal sequence to achieve the removal of MPs involves biological treatment followed by an advanced oxidation process (AOP) with a final passage through an activated carbon column. To refine this process further, a membrane unit could be added based on the desired effluent quality. Nevertheless, considering practical feasibility, this study identifies specific areas requiring additional research to implement this integrated treatment strategy effectively. Full article
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17 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Acid Leaching Post-Consumer Gypsum Purification Wastewater
by Miguel Castro-Díaz, Sergio Cavalaro, Mohamed Osmani, Saeed Morsali, Matyas Gutai, Paul Needham, Bill Parker and Tatiana Lovato
Sustainability 2024, 16(1), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16010425 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Industries are required to utilize treatment technologies to reduce contaminants in wastewater prior to discharge and to valorize by-products to increase sustainability and competitiveness. Most acid leaching gypsum purification studies have obviated the treatment of the highly acidic wastewater produced. In this work, [...] Read more.
Industries are required to utilize treatment technologies to reduce contaminants in wastewater prior to discharge and to valorize by-products to increase sustainability and competitiveness. Most acid leaching gypsum purification studies have obviated the treatment of the highly acidic wastewater produced. In this work, acidic wastewater from acid leaching purification of post-consumer gypsum was treated to recover a valuable solid product and reusable water. The main aims of this work were to determine the impact of recirculating acidic and treated wastewaters on the efficiency of the acid leaching purification process and to valorize the impurities in the wastewater. Samples were characterized through X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. SimaPro 9.5 and the ReCiPe 2016 midpoint method were used for the life cycle assessment of three sustainable wastewater management approaches. The reuse of the acidic wastewater did not improve the chemical purity of gypsum. Soluble impurities were precipitated at pH 10.5 as a magnesium-rich gypsum that could be commercialized as fertilizer or soil ameliorant. The alkaline-treated water was reused for six acid leaching purification cycles without impacting the efficiency of the purification process. An acid leaching–neutralization–filtration–precipitation approach demonstrated superior overall environmental performance. Barriers and enabling measures for the implementation of an in-house wastewater treatment were identified. Full article
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13 pages, 4416 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting the Morphology of Granular Sludge in Phosphorus-Accumulating Organism (PAO) and Denitrifying PAO (DPAO) Sequencing Batch Reactors
by Geumhee Yun, Zuwhan Yun, Young Kim and Kyungjin Han
Water 2023, 15(23), 4108; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234108 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors and characteristics of granule morphology through approximately 500 d of long-term monitoring of two types of anaerobic–aerobic phosphorus-accumulating organism (PAO) and anaerobic–anoxic denitrifying PAO (DPAO) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The results show that granules were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors and characteristics of granule morphology through approximately 500 d of long-term monitoring of two types of anaerobic–aerobic phosphorus-accumulating organism (PAO) and anaerobic–anoxic denitrifying PAO (DPAO) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The results show that granules were present in the DPAO SBR and PAO SBR after 200 d and 250 d of operation, respectively. The average diameters of the granules were 2.2 ± 0.7 mm in the DPAO SBR and 0.4 ± 0.3 mm in the PAO SBR, respectively. The DPAO granular sludge contained rod-shaped microorganisms, whereas the PAO granular sludge contained cocci-type microorganisms. A precipitated core consisting of hydroxyapatite was found in the DPAO granules. A comparative analysis conducted under various operating conditions revealed that the availability and type of the electron acceptors (EAs) may have a significant impact on granulation. This observation suggests that the presence and diversity of EAs are crucial factors for the development of different granule sizes and morphologies. Full article
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21 pages, 2412 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Leachate Characteristics via an Analysis of the Solubilized Extract of the Organic Fraction of Domestic Solid Waste from the Municipality of Belém, PA
by Diogo Oliveira Pereira, Fernanda Paula da Costa Assunção, Jéssica Cristina Conte da Silva, Jorge Fernando Hungria Ferreira, Raise Brenda Pinheiro Ferreira, Ádila Lima Lola, Ísis Costa Pereira do Nascimento, Jean Pinheiro Chaves, Mel Safira Cruz do Nascimento, Thalia da Silva Gouvêa, Neyson Martins Mendonça, Isaque Wilkson de Sousa Brandão, José Almir Rodrigues Pereira and Nélio Teixeira Machado
Sustainability 2023, 15(21), 15456; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152115456 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 946
Abstract
This work aimed to predict the physical–chemical characteristics of leachate according to the analysis of the solubilized extract from urban household solid waste (UHSW), on a laboratory scale, in the city of Belém/PA, Brazil. The neighborhoods where the waste was collected were sectorized [...] Read more.
This work aimed to predict the physical–chemical characteristics of leachate according to the analysis of the solubilized extract from urban household solid waste (UHSW), on a laboratory scale, in the city of Belém/PA, Brazil. The neighborhoods where the waste was collected were sectorized based on geographic and socioeconomic data, with family income as the main parameter. After collection, the material was sent to the segregation area, where a gravimetric analysis of the UHSW was performed and fractions (paper, cardboard, Tetra Pak, rigid plastic, malleable plastic, metals, glass, organic matter, sanitary waste, fabrics and rejects) were segregated. After the gravimetric characterization, it was found that the highest average proportions were 55.57% organic matter, 14.26% sanitary waste and 9.97% malleable plastic. The organic fraction was selected and subjected to drying, crushing, sieving and packaging pretreatment, and then the solubilized extract of this fraction was obtained according to NBR No. 10.006/2004 of the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards. In the analyses of the solubilized extract, values for total nitrogen (201.80 to 359.90 mg·L−1), ammonia nitrogen (161 to 289 mg·L−1), nitrate (10 to 40 mg·L−1) and chemical oxygen demand were obtained (28,701 mg·L−1 to 38,608 mg·L−1), indicating the similarity of the waste solubilization conditions to those of leachate from landfills, in addition to being in noncompliance with environmental and health legislation, thus making it necessary to have an efficient waste management system, which avoids the release of waste into the environment that would result in environmental impacts similar to those of leachate contact with the environment. Full article
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20 pages, 2447 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Direct Red 28 Dye through Phoenix dactylifera L. Fruit Seed Biochar: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Phytotoxicity Studies
by Riti Thapar Kapoor, Mohd Rafatullah, Husnul Azan Tajarudin, Masoom Raza Siddiqui and Mahboob Alam
Sustainability 2023, 15(21), 15266; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152115266 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Wastewater discharge into aquatic systems has become a severe threat to the ecosystem. Herein, Direct Red 28 (DR28) dye removal from an aqueous solution was executed with the application of date fruit seed biochar (DFSB). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron [...] Read more.
Wastewater discharge into aquatic systems has become a severe threat to the ecosystem. Herein, Direct Red 28 (DR28) dye removal from an aqueous solution was executed with the application of date fruit seed biochar (DFSB). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized for the identification of functional groups and characteristics of the DFSB surface. A series of batch investigations were conducted to analyze pH, contact duration, biochar amount, dye concentration, temperature, and agitation speed on DR28 dye elimination from an aqueous medium by DFSB. The highest dye elimination, 97%, was recorded at a pH of 3 by DFSB at 250 mg/L DR28 dye concentration. The equilibrium data indicated the best fit with the Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.99, showing 5.83 mg/g monolayer DR28 uptake potential. The best correlation coefficient of the sorption procedure was observed with a pseudo-second-order kinetic study. Investigations on thermodynamic variables disclosed favorable, impetuous exothermic processes. The sorption process was spontaneous as well as exothermic, which was reflected by analyses of thermodynamic parameters. DFSB showed a 33% DR28 dye adsorption ability for up to five successive cycles. DFSB-treated DR28 dye solution increased seedling growth and biochemical components of pigeon pea. The results of the present investigation revealed the significant capacity of DFSB for DR28 dye elimination. Date fruit seed biochar can be applied as an environmentally benign, sustainable adsorbent for DR28 dye removal from industrial effluent, as it is available at zero cost and converts wastewater into reusable biomaterial. Thus, the application of DFSB can assist in wastewater treatment, carbon sequestration, and waste management for a sustainable future. Full article
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