Topic Editors

Software Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon, N37HD68 Athlone, Ireland
Dr. Seamus Gordon
School of Engineering, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland

Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 December 2022)
Viewed by
64668

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) have dramatically transformed the manufacturing processes and robotics. The key enabling technologies include artificial intelligence, Big Data, 5G, internet of things, edge and cloud computing, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), cybersecurity, and blockchain. This Special Issue aims to publish state-of-the-art research papers and survey articles to present innovative systems, methodologies, and trends on industrial robotic and automation technologies, with a focus on the integration of robotic and automation technologies with the advanced information and communication technologies.

Dr. Yuansong Qiao
Dr. Seamus Gordon
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • AI for robotics and automation
  • AR/VR for robotics and automation
  • Blockchain for robotics and automation
  • Edge and cloud computing for robotics and automation
  • Industrial internet of things for robotics and automation
  • Networking technologies for robotics and automation
  • Robotic vision and sensory data processing
  • Swarm robotics
  • Human–robot interaction
  • Cooperative robots
  • Mobile robots
  • Robotic and automation applications

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Automation
automation
- - 2020 26.3 Days CHF 1000
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
jmmp
3.2 5.5 2017 14.2 Days CHF 1800
Machines
machines
2.6 2.1 2013 15.6 Days CHF 2400
Robotics
robotics
3.7 5.9 2012 17.3 Days CHF 1800
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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20 pages, 8420 KiB  
Article
An Online Distance Tracker for Verification of Robotic Systems’ Safety
by Esra Guclu, Özlem Örnek, Metin Ozkan, Ahmet Yazici and Zekeriyya Demirci
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23062986 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
This paper presents an efficient method for minimum distance calculation between a robot and its environment and the implementation framework as a tool for the verification of robotic systems’ safety. Collision is the most fundamental safety problem in robotic systems. Therefore, robotic system [...] Read more.
This paper presents an efficient method for minimum distance calculation between a robot and its environment and the implementation framework as a tool for the verification of robotic systems’ safety. Collision is the most fundamental safety problem in robotic systems. Therefore, robotic system software must be verified to ensure that there are no risks of collision during development and implementation. The online distance tracker (ODT) is intended to provide minimum distances between the robots and their environments for verification of system software to inspect whether it causes a collision risk. The proposed method employs the representations of the robot and its environment with cylinders and an occupancy map. Furthermore, the bounding box approach improves the performance of the minimum distance calculation regarding computational cost. Finally, the method is applied to a realistically simulated twin of the ROKOS, which is an automated robotic inspection cell for quality control of automotive body-in-white and is actively used in the bus manufacturing industry. The simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Robotic Polishing Process for Complex Violin Surface
by Hosham Wahballa, Jinjun Duan, Wenlong Wang and Zhendong Dai
Machines 2023, 11(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020147 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
This paper presents a robotic polishing process for complex violin surfaces to increase efficiency and minimize the cost and consumed time caused by using labor and traditional polishing machines. The polishing process is implemented based on modeling a smooth path, controlled contact force [...] Read more.
This paper presents a robotic polishing process for complex violin surfaces to increase efficiency and minimize the cost and consumed time caused by using labor and traditional polishing machines. The polishing process is implemented based on modeling a smooth path, controlled contact force embedded with gravity compensation and material removal depth. A cubic Non-Uniform Rational Bases-Spline (NURBS) interpolation curve combined with an S-curve trajectory model is used to generate a smooth polishing path on a complex violin surface to achieve stable motion during the polishing process. An online admittance controller added to the fast gravity compensation algorithm maintains an accurate polishing force for equal removal depth on all polished surface areas. Then, based on Pythagorean theory, the removal depth model is calculated for the violin’s complex surface before and after polishing to estimate the accuracy of the polishing process. Experimental studies were conducted by polishing a wooden surface using the 6DOF robot manipulator to validate this methodology. The experimental results demonstrated that the robot had accurate polishing force based on the online admittance controller with gravity compensation. It also showed a precise proportional uniformity of removal depths at the different normal forces of 10, 15, and 20 N. The final results indicated that the proposed experimental polishing approach is accurate and polishes complex surfaces effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Constraint Definition for Gripper Selection and Grasp Planning for Robotic Assembly Using Product Manufacturing Information from STEP AP242Ed2 Files
by Shafi Khurieshi Mohammed, Mathias Hauan Arbo and Lars Tingelstad
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121230 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
This article uses the Product Manufacturing Information (PMI) from STEP AP242 neutral files for gripper selection and grasp planning in a robotic assembly operation. The PMI, along with the part geometry and dimensions, are used in identifying various handling features of the parts [...] Read more.
This article uses the Product Manufacturing Information (PMI) from STEP AP242 neutral files for gripper selection and grasp planning in a robotic assembly operation. The PMI, along with the part geometry and dimensions, are used in identifying various handling features of the parts and selecting an appropriate gripper. The required PMI, like material, volume, surface finish, threading and coating information, are added to the STEP AP242 files. The PMI is semantically included in the STEP files following the Model Based Definition (MBD) methodology. Two methods are described to add the PMI to the STEP files, one using a custom string and another using the standard entities defined in ISO 10303 AP242: 2020 standard. The entire process is demonstrated in a use case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
An Equilibrium Decision-Making Approach for Cutting Parameters of a Novel Five-Axis Hybrid Kinematic Machining Unit
by Tengfei Tang, Haiwei Luo, Weimin Tang and Jun Zhang
Machines 2022, 10(9), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090824 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1468
Abstract
To fully disclose the machining potential of a newly developed five-axis hybrid kinematic machining unit (HKMU), an equilibrium decision-making approach for cutting parameters is proposed. With this proposition, a response surface method-based surrogate model is developed to describe the mapping relationships between three [...] Read more.
To fully disclose the machining potential of a newly developed five-axis hybrid kinematic machining unit (HKMU), an equilibrium decision-making approach for cutting parameters is proposed. With this proposition, a response surface method-based surrogate model is developed to describe the mapping relationships between three design objectives and five cutting parameters. A multi-objective optimization model is further established to find feasible Pareto solutions to cutting parameters. Based on this, the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and engineering decision preferences are adopted to make the final decision of cutting parameters. To illustrate the application of the proposed approach, a case study is carried out on face milling of an exemplary HKMU. The equilibrium decisions of three customized machining schemes lead to the machining duration, the cutting force, and the surface roughness reduction by 44%, 43%, and 9%, respectively. This result supports that the proposed equilibrium decision-making approach is able to find the best-compromised solutions for cutting parameters of the HKMU. It is expected that with minor modifications, the proposed approach can be applied to other multi-axis machining devices for finding accurate yet efficient cutting parameter solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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12 pages, 6625 KiB  
Article
Display Line Defect Detection Method Based on Color Feature Fusion
by Wenqiang Xie, Huaixin Chen, Zhixi Wang, Biyuan Liu and Lingyu Shuai
Machines 2022, 10(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090723 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Display color line defect detection is an important step in the production quality inspection process. In order to improve the detection accuracy of low contrast line defects, we propose a display line defect detection method based on color feature fusion. The color saliency [...] Read more.
Display color line defect detection is an important step in the production quality inspection process. In order to improve the detection accuracy of low contrast line defects, we propose a display line defect detection method based on color feature fusion. The color saliency channels in the RG|GR and BY|YB channels were obtained using the relative entropy maximum criterion. Then, RG|GR were combined with the a channel and BY|YB with the b channel to calculate the red-green and the blue-yellow color fusion maps. The fusion color saliency map of the red-green and the blue-yellow color fusion maps was obtained by color feature fusion. Finally, the segmentation threshold was calculated according to the mean and standard deviation of the fusion color saliency map. The fused color saliency map was binarized and segmented to obtain a binary map of color line defects. The experimental results show that for the detection of multi-background offline defects, the detection accuracy of the algorithm in this paper is better than 90%, while other mainstreams fail to detect. Compared with state-of-the-art saliency detection algorithms, our method is capable of real-time low-contrast line defect detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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27 pages, 5561 KiB  
Article
A Novel Collision-Free Homotopy Path Planning for Planar Robotic Arms
by Gerardo C. Velez-Lopez, Hector Vazquez-Leal, Luis Hernandez-Martinez, Arturo Sarmiento-Reyes, Gerardo Diaz-Arango, Jesus Huerta-Chua, Hector D. Rico-Aniles and Victor M. Jimenez-Fernandez
Sensors 2022, 22(11), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22114022 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Achieving the smart motion of any autonomous or semi-autonomous robot requires an efficient algorithm to determine a feasible collision-free path. In this paper, a novel collision-free path homotopy-based path-planning algorithm applied to planar robotic arms is presented. The algorithm utilizes homotopy continuation methods [...] Read more.
Achieving the smart motion of any autonomous or semi-autonomous robot requires an efficient algorithm to determine a feasible collision-free path. In this paper, a novel collision-free path homotopy-based path-planning algorithm applied to planar robotic arms is presented. The algorithm utilizes homotopy continuation methods (HCMs) to solve the non-linear algebraic equations system (NAES) that models the robot’s workspace. The method was validated with three case studies with robotic arms in different configurations. For the first case, a robot arm with three links must enter a narrow corridor with two obstacles. For the second case, a six-link robot arm with a gripper is required to take an object inside a narrow corridor with two obstacles. For the third case, a twenty-link arm must take an object inside a maze-like environment. These case studies validated, by simulation, the versatility and capacity of the proposed path-planning algorithm. The results show that the CPU time is dozens of milliseconds with a memory consumption less than 4.5 kB for the first two cases. For the third case, the CPU time is around 2.7 s and the memory consumption around 18 kB. Finally, the method’s performance was further validated using the industrial robot arm CRS CataLyst-5 by Thermo Electron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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17 pages, 3397 KiB  
Article
Latent Ergonomics Maps: Real-Time Visualization of Estimated Ergonomics of Human Movements
by Lorenzo Vianello, Waldez Gomes, Freek Stulp, Alexis Aubry, Pauline Maurice and Serena Ivaldi
Sensors 2022, 22(11), 3981; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22113981 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
Improving the ergonomy of working environments is essential to reducing work-related musculo-skeletal disorders. We consider real-time ergonomic feedback a key technology for achieving such improvements. To this end, we present supportive tools for online evaluation and visualization of strenuous efforts and postures of [...] Read more.
Improving the ergonomy of working environments is essential to reducing work-related musculo-skeletal disorders. We consider real-time ergonomic feedback a key technology for achieving such improvements. To this end, we present supportive tools for online evaluation and visualization of strenuous efforts and postures of a worker, also when physically interacting with a robot. A digital human model is used to estimate human kinematics and dynamics and visualize non-ergonomic joint angles, based on the on-line data acquired from a wearable motion tracking device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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19 pages, 6496 KiB  
Article
Research on Theory and a Performance Analysis of an Innovative Rehabilitation Robot
by Junyu Wu, Yubin Liu, Jie Zhao, Xizhe Zang and Yingzi Guan
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3929; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103929 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative application of a 6-DOF robot in the field of rehabilitation training. This robot operates in a parallel fashion for lower limb movement, which adopts a new structure that can help patients to carry out a variety of rehabilitation [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative application of a 6-DOF robot in the field of rehabilitation training. This robot operates in a parallel fashion for lower limb movement, which adopts a new structure that can help patients to carry out a variety of rehabilitation exercises. Traditional parallel robots, such as the Stewart robot, have the characteristics of strong bearing capacity. However, it is difficult to achieve high-speed, high-acceleration and long journey movement. This paper presents a new robot configuration that can address these problems. This paper also conducts an all-around characteristic analysis of this new parallel robot, including kinematics, dynamics and structure, to better study the robot and improve its performance. This paper optimizes an algorithm to make it more suitable for rehabilitation training. Finally, the performance improvements brought by optimization are verified by simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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16 pages, 6815 KiB  
Article
Stiffness-Oriented Placement Optimization of Machining Robots for Large Component Flexible Manufacturing System
by Yuan Xue, Zezhong Sun, Shiwei Liu, Dong Gao and Zefan Xu
Machines 2022, 10(5), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050389 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
A large component flexible manufacturing system provides more application scenarios for industrial robots, and, in turn, these robots exhibit competitive advantages in machining applications. However, the structural characteristic of low stiffness is the main obstacle for the industrial robot. Aiming at obtaining sufficient [...] Read more.
A large component flexible manufacturing system provides more application scenarios for industrial robots, and, in turn, these robots exhibit competitive advantages in machining applications. However, the structural characteristic of low stiffness is the main obstacle for the industrial robot. Aiming at obtaining sufficient stiffness in the whole machining process, this paper focuses on robot placement optimization in the flexible manufacturing of large components. The geometric center of the machined feature is selected as, firstly, the base point, and the center-reachable placement space of the robot base is obtained by establishing the kinematic model considering a variety of motion constraints. Then, according to the reachability of the machining feature contour, the global placement space meeting all machining boundaries is further extracted. The mapping relationship between joint force and posture is established, and the most suitable robot placement is selected based on the criterion of global stiffness optimization. A series of numerical and finite element simulations verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed optimization strategy. The developed stiffness-oriented placement planning algorithm can provide beneficial references for robotic machining applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 8935 KiB  
Article
Robot-Based Automation for Upper and Sole Manufacturing in Shoe Production
by Min-Gyu Kim, Juhyun Kim, Seong Youb Chung, Maolin Jin and Myun Joong Hwang
Machines 2022, 10(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10040255 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4821
Abstract
(1) Background: Conventional shoe manufacturing involves many processes that most workers avoid because of loud noises and harmful environments. Therefore, a robot-based shoe manufacturing system is needed to implement an automated process. (2) Aim: We propose a new robot-based shoe manufacturing automation system [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Conventional shoe manufacturing involves many processes that most workers avoid because of loud noises and harmful environments. Therefore, a robot-based shoe manufacturing system is needed to implement an automated process. (2) Aim: We propose a new robot-based shoe manufacturing automation system that includes an automatic robotic solution for replacing the manual manufacturing processes of the upper and sole. (3) Methods: For the upper manufacturing process, a new trajectory acquisition system with a digitizer and a shoe last turning device is proposed. A method to plan the robot’s tool path for roughing and cementing by industrial robot manipulators is also presented. For the sole manufacturing process, we adopted an industrial robot manipulator with a 3-D scanning system and a cementing tool. A trajectory generation algorithm for cementing the outer and inner sides of the sole by transforming 3-D information of the sole into a 6-D posture for the robot is proposed. (4) Results: All developed systems and proposed algorithms are applied to an automated production testbed, and their performances are experimentally verified. (5) Conclusions: The proposed system and methods can be applied for upper and sole manufacturing processes according to evaluation experiments in a demonstrative production line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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23 pages, 5074 KiB  
Article
A Sampling-Based Unfixed Orientation Search Method for Dual Manipulator Cooperative Manufacturing
by Chang Su and Jianfeng Xu
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072502 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The case of dual manipulators with shared workspace, asynchronous manufacturing tasks, and independent objects is named a dual manipulator cooperative manufacturing system, which requires collision-free path planning as a vital issue in terms of safety and efficiency. This paper combines the mathematical modeling [...] Read more.
The case of dual manipulators with shared workspace, asynchronous manufacturing tasks, and independent objects is named a dual manipulator cooperative manufacturing system, which requires collision-free path planning as a vital issue in terms of safety and efficiency. This paper combines the mathematical modeling method with the time sampling method in the classification of robot path-planning algorithms. Through this attempt we can achieve an optimal local search path during each sampling period interval. Our strategy is to build the corresponding non-linear optimization functions set based on the motion characteristics of the dual manipulator system. In this way, the path-planning problem can be turned into a purely mathematical problem of solving the non-linear optimization programming equations set. The spatial geometric analysis is used to linearize the predicted dual-manipulator minimum distance equation, thus linearizing the non-linear optimization equations set. Finally, this system of linear optimization equations will be mapped directly into a virtual Euclidean space and then solved intuitively using the spatial geometry theory. By simulation and comparing with the previous strategies, we find that the planning results of the newly proposed planning strategy are smoother and have shorter deviations as well as a higher algorithmic efficiency in terms of spatial geometric properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 6442 KiB  
Article
Texture Identification and Object Recognition Using a Soft Robotic Hand Innervated Bio-Inspired Proprioception
by Yadong Yan, Chang Cheng, Mingjun Guan, Jianan Zhang and Yu Wang
Machines 2022, 10(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10030173 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3120
Abstract
In this study, we innervated bio-inspired proprioception into a soft hand, facilitating a robust perception of textures and object shapes. The tendon-driven soft finger with three joints, inspired by the human finger, was detailed. With tension sensors embedded in the tendon that simulate [...] Read more.
In this study, we innervated bio-inspired proprioception into a soft hand, facilitating a robust perception of textures and object shapes. The tendon-driven soft finger with three joints, inspired by the human finger, was detailed. With tension sensors embedded in the tendon that simulate the Golgi tendon organ of the human body, 17 types of textures can be identified under uncertain rotation angles and actuator displacements. Four classifiers were used and the highest identification accuracy was 98.3%. A three-fingered soft hand based on the bionic finger was developed. Its basic grasp capability was tested experimentally. The soft hand can distinguish 10 types of objects that vary in shape with top grasp and side grasp, with the highest accuracies of 96.33% and 96.00%, respectively. Additionally, for six objects with close shapes, the soft hand obtained an identification accuracy of 97.69% with a scan-grasp method. This study offers a novel bionic solution for the texture identification and object recognition of soft manipulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 11559 KiB  
Article
A 6D Pose Estimation for Robotic Bin-Picking Using Point-Pair Features with Curvature (Cur-PPF)
by Xining Cui, Menghui Yu, Linqigao Wu and Shiqian Wu
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051805 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3560
Abstract
Pose estimation is a particularly important link in the task of robotic bin-picking. Its purpose is to obtain the 6D pose (3D position and 3D posture) of the target object. In real bin-picking scenarios, noise, overlap, and occlusion affect accuracy of pose estimation [...] Read more.
Pose estimation is a particularly important link in the task of robotic bin-picking. Its purpose is to obtain the 6D pose (3D position and 3D posture) of the target object. In real bin-picking scenarios, noise, overlap, and occlusion affect accuracy of pose estimation and lead to failure in robot grasping. In this paper, a new point-pair feature (PPF) descriptor is proposed, in which curvature information of point-pairs is introduced to strengthen feature description, and improves the point cloud matching rate. The proposed method also introduces an effective point cloud preprocessing, which extracts candidate targets in complex scenarios, and, thus, improves the overall computational efficiency. By combining with the curvature distribution, a weighted voting scheme is presented to further improve the accuracy of pose estimation. The experimental results performed on public data set and real scenarios show that the accuracy of the proposed method is much higher than that of the existing PPF method, and it is more efficient than the PPF method. The proposed method can be used for robotic bin-picking in real industrial scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 4502 KiB  
Article
Robotic Manipulation Planning for Automatic Peeling of Glass Substrate Based on Online Learning Model Predictive Path Integral
by Liwei Hou, Hengsheng Wang, Haoran Zou and Yalin Zhou
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031292 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Autonomous planning robotic contact-rich manipulation has long been a challenging problem. Automatic peeling of glass substrates of LCD flat panel displays is a typical contact-rich manipulation task, which requires extremely high safe handling through the manipulation process. To this end of peeling glass [...] Read more.
Autonomous planning robotic contact-rich manipulation has long been a challenging problem. Automatic peeling of glass substrates of LCD flat panel displays is a typical contact-rich manipulation task, which requires extremely high safe handling through the manipulation process. To this end of peeling glass substrates automatically, the system model is established from data and is used for the online planning of the robot motion in this paper. A simulation environment is designed to pretrain the process model with deep learning-based neural network structure to avoid expensive and time-consuming collection of real-time data. Then, an online learning algorithm is introduced to tune the pretrained model according to the real-time data from the peeling process experiments to cover the uncertainties of the real process. Finally, an Online Learning Model Predictive Path Integral (OL-MPPI) algorithm is proposed for the optimal trajectory planning of the robot. The performance of our algorithm was validated through glass substrate peeling tasks of experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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14 pages, 29924 KiB  
Article
Screwdriving Gripper That Mimics Human Two-Handed Assembly Tasks
by Sangchul Han, Myoung-Su Choi, Yong-Woo Shin, Ga-Ram Jang, Dong-Hyuk Lee, Jungsan Cho, Jae-Han Park and Ji-Hun Bae
Robotics 2022, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11010018 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4263
Abstract
Conventional assembly methods using robots need to change end-effectors or operate two robot arms for assembly. In this study, we propose a screwdriving gripper that can perform the tasks required for the assembly using a single robot arm. The proposed screwdriving gripper mimics [...] Read more.
Conventional assembly methods using robots need to change end-effectors or operate two robot arms for assembly. In this study, we propose a screwdriving gripper that can perform the tasks required for the assembly using a single robot arm. The proposed screwdriving gripper mimics a human-two-handed operation and has three features: (1) it performs pick-and-place, peg-in-hole, and screwdriving tasks required for assembly with a single gripper; (2) it uses a flexible link that complies with the contact force in the environment; and (3) it employs the same joints as the pronation and supination of the wrist, which help the manipulator to create a path. We propose a new gripper with 3 fingers and 12 degrees of freedom to implement these features; this gripper is composed of grasping and screwdriving parts. The grasping part has two fingers with a roll-yaw-pitch-pitch joint configuration. Its pitch joint implements wrist pronation and supination. The screwdriving part includes one finger with a roll-pitch-pitch joint configuration and a flexible link that can comply with the environment; this facilitates compliance based on the direction of the external force. The end of the screwdriving finger has a motor with a hex key attached, and an insert tip is attached to the back of the motor. A prototype of the proposed screwdriving gripper is manufactured, and a strategy for assembly using a prototype is proposed. The features of the proposed gripper are verified through screwdriving task experiments using a cooperative robotic arm. The experiments showed that the screwdriving gripper can perform tasks required for the assembly such as pick and place, peg-in-hole, and screwdriving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
A Design of FPGA-Based Neural Network PID Controller for Motion Control System
by Jun Wang, Moudao Li, Weibin Jiang, Yanwei Huang and Ruiquan Lin
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030889 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5627
Abstract
In the actual industrial production process, the method of adaptively tuning proportional–integral–derivative (PID) parameters online by neural network can adapt to different characteristics of different controlled objects better than the controller with PID. However, the commonly used microcontroller unit (MCU) cannot meet the [...] Read more.
In the actual industrial production process, the method of adaptively tuning proportional–integral–derivative (PID) parameters online by neural network can adapt to different characteristics of different controlled objects better than the controller with PID. However, the commonly used microcontroller unit (MCU) cannot meet the application scenarios of real time and high reliability. Therefore, in this paper, a closed-loop motion control system based on BP neural network (BPNN) PID controller by using a Xilinx field programmable gate array (FPGA) solution is proposed. In the design of the controller, it is divided into several sub-modules according to the modular design idea. The forward propagation module is used to complete the forward propagation operation from the input layer to the output layer. The PID module implements the mapping of PID arithmetic to register transfer level (RTL) and is responsible for completing the output of control amount. The main state machine module generates enable signals that control the sequential execution of each sub-module. The error backpropagation and weight update module completes the update of the weights of each layer of the network. The peripheral modules of the control system are divided into two main parts. The speed measurement module completes the acquisition of the output pulse signal of the encoder and the measurement of the motor speed. The pulse width modulation (PWM) signal generation module generates PWM waves with different duty cycles to control the rotation speed of the motor. A co-simulation of Modelsim and Simulink is used to simulate and verify the system, and a test analysis is also performed on the development platform. The results show that the proposed system can realize the self-tuning of PID control parameters, and also has the characteristics of reliable performance, high real-time performance, and strong anti-interference. Compared with MCU, the convergence speed is far more than three orders of magnitude, which proves its superiority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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12 pages, 3992 KiB  
Article
Design, Development and Control of a Forming Robot for an Internally Fixed Titanium Alloy Strip
by Jiaji Zhang, Binjun Shi, Guang Feng, Guokun Zuo and Ye Liang
Machines 2022, 10(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10020068 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
Medical titanium alloys are widely used in surgery, orthopedics, stomatology and other medical specialties because of their good biocompatibility. In traditional rigid internal fixation applications, titanium alloy strips or plates must be bent to fit the supported surface. Currently, the common practice is [...] Read more.
Medical titanium alloys are widely used in surgery, orthopedics, stomatology and other medical specialties because of their good biocompatibility. In traditional rigid internal fixation applications, titanium alloy strips or plates must be bent to fit the supported surface. Currently, the common practice is to bend titanium alloy bars in three degrees of freedom manually. However, it is difficult to ensure bending accuracy and achieve the best shape. In this study, we introduce a forming robot for internally fixed titanium alloy strips (FRIFTAS). The forming robot is a device that automatically reshapes the titanium strip with various specifications according to medical needs. Here, the design of mechanical and electrical systems and the development of the overall system are described to illustrate how a FRIFTAS is structured and designed. Three bending experimental tests are conducted. In the bending experiments, the robot bends an initial strip on the roll, pitch and yaw directions independently. The results show that the robot can bend a section of the alloy strip at the desired angle. Then, an overall reshaped titanium alloy strip experiment is discussed. The results show that the titanium-strip-forming robot is capable of automatically reshaping an internally fixed titanium strip. The proposed robot can perform the numerically controlled bending of the medical titanium strip according to physicians’ personalized requirements for surgery to improve the accuracy and efficiency of preoperative preparation and provide a better postoperative appearance and more effectively functioning treatment scheme for patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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17 pages, 2987 KiB  
Article
Payload Identification and Gravity/Inertial Compensation for Six-Dimensional Force/Torque Sensor with a Fast and Robust Trajectory Design Approach
by Jinjun Duan, Zhouchi Liu, Yiming Bin, Kunkun Cui and Zhendong Dai
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020439 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
In the robot contact operation, the robot relies on the multi-dimensional force/torque sensor installed at the end to sense the external contact force. When the effective load and speed of the robot are large, the gravity/inertial force generated by it will have a [...] Read more.
In the robot contact operation, the robot relies on the multi-dimensional force/torque sensor installed at the end to sense the external contact force. When the effective load and speed of the robot are large, the gravity/inertial force generated by it will have a non-negligible impact on the output of the force sensor, which will seriously affect the accuracy and effect of the force control. The existing identification algorithm time is often longer, which also affects the efficiency of force control operations. In this paper, a self-developed multi-dimensional force sensor with integrated gravity/inertial force sensing function is used to directly measure the resultant force. Further, a method for the rapid identification of payload based on excitation trajectory is proposed. Firstly, both a gravity compensation algorithm and an inertial force compensation algorithm are introduced. Secondly, the optimal spatial recognition pose based on the excitation trajectory was designed, and the excitation trajectory of each joint is represented by a finite Fourier series. The least square method is used to calculate the identification parameters of the load, the gravity, and inertial force. Finally, the experiment was verified on the robot. The experimental results show that the algorithm can quickly identify the payload, and it is faster and more accurate than other algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 20782 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Stretch-Forming Process: A Computer Vision and Statistical Analysis Approach
by Cosmin Constantin Grigoras, Valentin Zichil, Bogdan Chirita and Vlad Andrei Ciubotariu
Machines 2021, 9(12), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120357 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4283
Abstract
An industrial process is defined through its quality of parts and their production costs. Labour-intensive operations must be applied to produce high-quality components with inexpensive resources. Recent development in dedicated software allows the industrial sector to rely on more and more autonomous solutions [...] Read more.
An industrial process is defined through its quality of parts and their production costs. Labour-intensive operations must be applied to produce high-quality components with inexpensive resources. Recent development in dedicated software allows the industrial sector to rely on more and more autonomous solutions to obtain an optimum ratio between part quality and cost. The stretch forming process is an operation that has a high degree of difficulty, due to the process parameters and the spring-back effect of materials. Our approach to solving several of the shortcomings of this process was to develop a self-adaptive algorithm with computer vision capabilities that adapts to the process in real-time. This experimental study highlights the results obtained using this method, as well as a comparison to a classical method for the stretch-forming process (SFP). The results have noted that the stretch-forming algorithm improves the process, while adapting its decisions with each step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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27 pages, 11280 KiB  
Article
Formation Control of a Multi-Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Event-Triggered Mechanism Based on the Hungarian Algorithm
by Juan Li, Yanxin Zhang and Wenbo Li
Machines 2021, 9(12), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120346 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Among the key technologies of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) leader–follower formations control, formation reconfiguration technology is one of the main technologies to ensure that multiple AUVs successfully complete their tasks in a complex operating environment. The biggest drawback of the leader–follower formations technology [...] Read more.
Among the key technologies of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) leader–follower formations control, formation reconfiguration technology is one of the main technologies to ensure that multiple AUVs successfully complete their tasks in a complex operating environment. The biggest drawback of the leader–follower formations technology is the failure of the leader and the excessive communication pressure of the leader. Aiming at the problem of leader failure in multi- AUV leader–follower formations, the Hungarian algorithm is used to reconstruct the failed formation with a minimum cost, and the improvement of the Hungarian algorithm can solve the problem of a non-standard assignment. In order to solve the problem of an increased leader communication task after formation reconfiguration, the application of an event-triggered mechanism (ETM) can reduce unnecessary and useless communication, while the efficiency of the ETM can be improved through increasing the event-triggered conditions of the sampling error threshold. The simulation results of multi-AUV formation control show that the Hungarian algorithm proposed in this paper can deal with the leader failure in the multi-AUV leader–follower formation, and the ETM designed in this paper can reduce about 90% of the communication traffic of the formation which also proves the highly efficient performance of the improved ETM in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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24 pages, 862 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Population NSGA-III with Dual Control Strategy for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with the Consideration of Energy Consumption and Weight
by Mingliang Wu, Dongsheng Yang, Bowen Zhou, Zhile Yang, Tianyi Liu, Ligang Li, Zhongfeng Wang and Kunyuan Hu
Machines 2021, 9(12), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120344 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2855
Abstract
The flexible job shop scheduling problem has always been the focus of research in the manufacturing field. However, most of the previous studies focused more on efficiency and ignored energy consumption. Energy, especially non-renewable energy, is an essential factor affecting the sustainable development [...] Read more.
The flexible job shop scheduling problem has always been the focus of research in the manufacturing field. However, most of the previous studies focused more on efficiency and ignored energy consumption. Energy, especially non-renewable energy, is an essential factor affecting the sustainable development of a country. To this end, this paper designs a flexible job shop scheduling problem model with energy consideration more in line with the production field. Except for the processing stage, the energy consumption of the transport, set up, unload, and idle stage are also included in our model. The weight property of jobs is also considered in our model. The heavier the job, the more energy it consumes during the transport, set up, and unload stage. Meanwhile, this paper invents an adaptive population non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm III (APNSGA-III) that combines the dual control strategy with the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm III (NSGA-III) to solve our flexible job shop scheduling problem model. Four flexible job shop scheduling problem instances are formulated to examine the performance of our algorithm. The results achieved by the APNSGA-III method are compared with five classic multi-objective optimization algorithms. The results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient and powerful when dealing with the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem model that includes energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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13 pages, 4027 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Anesthesia Airway Management Robot
by Xuesong Ma, Bo Pan, Tao Song, Yanwen Sun and Yili Fu
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238144 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation has attracted increasing attention for air management in general anesthesia. This work proposes a novel robot equipped with two snake arms and a mask-fastening mechanism to facilitate trachea airway management for anesthesia as well as deep sedation and to [...] Read more.
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation has attracted increasing attention for air management in general anesthesia. This work proposes a novel robot equipped with two snake arms and a mask-fastening mechanism to facilitate trachea airway management for anesthesia as well as deep sedation and to improve surgical outcomes. The two snake arms with supporting terminals have been designed to lift a patient’s jaw with design optimization, and the mask-fastening mechanism has been utilized to fasten the mask onto a patient’s face. The control unit has been developed to implement lifting and fastening force control with safety and robustness. Loading experiments on the snake arm and tension experiments on the mask-fastening mechanism have been performed to investigate and validate the performances of the proposed anesthesia airway management robot. Experiments on a mock person have also been employed to further verify the effectiveness and reliability of the developed robot system. As an early study of an anesthesia airway management robot, it was verified as a valid attempt to perform mask non-invasive positive pressure ventilation technology by taking advantage of a robotic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 7251 KiB  
Article
Hole Repairing Algorithm for 3D Point Cloud Model of Symmetrical Objects Grasped by the Manipulator
by Linyan Cui, Guolong Zhang and Jinshen Wang
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7558; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227558 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
For the engineering application of manipulator grasping objects, mechanical arm occlusion and limited imaging angle produce various holes in the reconstructed 3D point clouds of objects. Acquiring a complete point cloud model of the grasped object plays a very important role in the [...] Read more.
For the engineering application of manipulator grasping objects, mechanical arm occlusion and limited imaging angle produce various holes in the reconstructed 3D point clouds of objects. Acquiring a complete point cloud model of the grasped object plays a very important role in the subsequent task planning of the manipulator. This paper proposes a method with which to automatically detect and repair the holes in the 3D point cloud model of symmetrical objects grasped by the manipulator. With the established virtual camera coordinate system and boundary detection, repair and classification of holes, the closed boundaries for the nested holes were detected and classified into two kinds, which correspond to the mechanical claw holes caused by mechanical arm occlusion and the missing surface produced by limited imaging angle. These two kinds of holes were repaired based on surface reconstruction and object symmetry. Experiments on simulated and real point cloud models demonstrate that our approach outperforms the other state-of-the-art 3D point cloud hole repair algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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