Topic Editors

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
College of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China

Resilient Civil Infrastructure

Abstract submission deadline
31 May 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
1 July 2024
Viewed by
35923

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to their vital role in modern communities and cities, civil infrastructures should be able to resist and recover from natural or human-made disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, fires, blasts, etc. Developing resilient civil infrastructure has garnered significant research attention over the last decade. Although significant advances have been made in this field in recent years, there are still important challenges related to the more effective resilience quantification and resilience enhancement of civil infrastructures to multiple disasters, ranging from the theory aspect (e.g., mechanical principle, interaction effect), to the technology aspect (e.g., material property, system innovation) and the decision aspect (e.g., assessment strategy, decision making). These challenges require further, more comprehensive efforts and more general intervention planning. From the above perspective, this topic aims to improve knowledge and performance in resilient civil infrastructure through enhanced scientific and multi-disciplinary works. The potential topics include (but are not limited to):

  • Methodology for resilience assessment and quantification;
  • Probabilistic theory and method for resilient infrastructure;
  • Resilient construction materials;
  • Innovative resilient structures;
  • Multiple-hazard effects on resilience;
  • Resilient community and smart city;
  • Structural resilience and service life extension;
  • Design optimization for resilient structure;
  • Resilient management and performance improvement;
  • Interaction between resilient structures and environment.

Dr. De-Cheng Feng
Dr. Ji-Gang Xu
Dr. Xuyang Cao
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • life-cycle hazard resilience
  • resilience assessment and enhancement
  • resilience under multiple hazards
  • innovative resilient structures
  • high-performance materials for resilience
  • resilient community and city
  • service life resilience evaluation
  • resilient design optimization
  • resilient probabilistic theory
  • resilient assessment approach
  • resilient management strategy
  • resilient interaction

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Designs
designs
- 3.2 2017 16.4 Days CHF 1600 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Infrastructures
infrastructures
2.6 4.3 2016 16.9 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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41 pages, 9843 KiB  
Article
Urban Resilience Index for Critical Infrastructure: A Scenario-Based Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction in Road Networks
by Seyed M. H. S. Rezvani, Maria João Falcão Silva and Nuno Marques de Almeida
Sustainability 2024, 16(10), 4143; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16104143 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Floods pose a significant threat to road networks globally, disrupting transportation, isolating communities, and causing economic losses. This study proposes a four-stage methodology (avoidance, endurance, recovery, and adaptability) to enhance the resilience of road networks. We combine analysis of constructed assets and asset [...] Read more.
Floods pose a significant threat to road networks globally, disrupting transportation, isolating communities, and causing economic losses. This study proposes a four-stage methodology (avoidance, endurance, recovery, and adaptability) to enhance the resilience of road networks. We combine analysis of constructed assets and asset system performance with multiple disaster scenarios (Reactive Flood Response, Proactive Resilience Planning, and Early Warning Systems). Advanced flood Geospatial-AI models and open data sources pinpoint high-risk zones affecting crucial routes. The study investigates how resilient assets and infrastructure scenarios improve outcomes within Urban Resilience Index (CRI) planning, integrating performance metrics with cost–benefit analysis to identify effective and economically viable solutions. A case study on the Lisbon Road network subjected to flood risk analyzes the effectiveness and efficiency of these scenarios, through loss and gain cost analysis. Scenario 2, Proactive Resilience Planning, demonstrates a 7.6% increase compared to Scenario 1, Reactive Flood Response, and a 3.5% increase compared to Scenario 3, Early Warning Systems Implementation. By considering asset performance, risk optimization, and cost, the study supports resilient infrastructure strategies that minimize economic impacts, while enabling communities to withstand and recover from flood events. Integrating performance and cost–benefit analysis ensures the sustainability and feasibility of risk reduction measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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21 pages, 15827 KiB  
Article
Static Bending Mechanical Properties of Prestressed Concrete Composite Slab with Removable Rectangular Steel-Tube Lattice Girders
by Guangsheng Bian, Haoran Jin, Jiaqi Li, Shuxin Shi and Xuanting Lu
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051187 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
In recent years, with the development of building technology, the Chinese construction industry has begun to gradually promote the prefabricated buildings to save on construction costs. Among them, composite slabs, as essential components of prefabricated buildings, have been widely used by designers mainly [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the development of building technology, the Chinese construction industry has begun to gradually promote the prefabricated buildings to save on construction costs. Among them, composite slabs, as essential components of prefabricated buildings, have been widely used by designers mainly in favor of their low cost. However, is it possible to further reduce the cost without affecting the quality? Researchers think so if the operation cycle of support from the bottom of composite slabs can accelerate and the mechanical properties of their bottom plate can be optimized. To prove this hypothesis, researchers proposed a new type of prestressed concrete composite slab with removable rectangular steel-tube lattice girders (referred to as CDB composite slabs), whose bottom plate consists of a temporary structure composed of a prestressed concrete prefabricated plate and removable rectangular steel-tube lattice girders. Through static bending performance tests on three prefabricated bottom plates and one composite slab, researchers measured corresponding load-displacement curves, load-strain curves, crack development, and distribution, etc. The test results show that the top chord rectangular steel tubes connected to the bottom plate concrete through web reinforcement bars significantly improve the rigidity, crack resistance, and load-bearing capacity of the bottom plate and possess better ductility and out-of-plane stability. The number of supports at the bottom of the bottom plate is effectively reduced, with the maximum unsupported span reaching 4.8 m. Beyond 4.8 m, only one additional support is needed, and the maximum support span can be up to 9.0 m, which provides space for cost reduction. The cooperative load-bearing performance of the prefabricated bottom plate and the post-cast composite layer concrete is good. The top chord rectangular steel tubes are easy to dismantle and can be reused, which reduces the steel consumption by about 24% compared to that used for the same size of ordinary steel-tube lattice-girder concrete composite slabs. It can greatly decrease the cost. In conclusion, the results have shown that the new method researchers proposed here is practically applicable and also provides great space to save on financial costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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22 pages, 1537 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Vibration-Based Techniques for Damage Localization and Lifetime Prediction in Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges: A Comprehensive Review
by Raihan Rahmat Rabi, Marco Vailati and Giorgio Monti
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041183 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Bridges are essential to infrastructure and transportation networks, but face challenges from heavier traffic, higher speeds, and modifications like busway integration, leading to potential overloading and costly maintenance. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) plays a crucial role in assessing bridge conditions and predicting failures [...] Read more.
Bridges are essential to infrastructure and transportation networks, but face challenges from heavier traffic, higher speeds, and modifications like busway integration, leading to potential overloading and costly maintenance. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) plays a crucial role in assessing bridge conditions and predicting failures to maintain structural integrity. Vibration-based condition monitoring employs non-destructive, in situ sensing and analysis of system dynamics across time, frequency, or modal domains. This method detects changes indicative of damage or deterioration, offering a proactive approach to maintenance in civil engineering. Such monitoring systems hold promise for optimizing the management and upkeep of modern infrastructure, potentially reducing operational costs. This paper aims to assist newcomers, practitioners, and researchers in navigating various methodologies for damage identification using sensor data from real structures. It offers a comprehensive review of prevalent anomaly detection approaches, spanning from traditional techniques to cutting-edge methods. Additionally, it addresses challenges inherent in Vibration-Based Damage (VBD) SHM applications, including establishing damage thresholds, corrosion detection, and sensor drift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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17 pages, 8622 KiB  
Article
Discharge Coefficients of Standard Spillways at High Altitudes
by Víctor Rendón, Martí Sánchez-Juny, Soledad Estrella, Marcos Sanz-Ramos, Percy Rucano and Alan Huarca Pulcha
Designs 2024, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs8020022 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2666
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental campaign conducted next to the Condoroma dam, in Perú, at 4075 m a.s.l. The tests carried out in this paper were conducted in a 21 m long channel located at the toe of Condoroma dam. The setup consisted [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental campaign conducted next to the Condoroma dam, in Perú, at 4075 m a.s.l. The tests carried out in this paper were conducted in a 21 m long channel located at the toe of Condoroma dam. The setup consisted of a series of standard profile spillways with a vertical upstream face of up to five different dimensionless heights (P/Hd) ranging from 0.5 to 2. The experimental results indicated that, the P/Hd ratio influences the discharge coefficients in Condoroma, and P/Hd ≥ 1 values are recommended for the design of the spillway profile. In addition, for all the P/Hd ratios studied, the discharge coefficients adjusted to the Condoroma altitude were lower than those reported by classical formulations used in conventional spillway designs. Finally, a generalized equation is proposed to estimate the discharge coefficient for standard spillways located in dams at similar elevations above sea level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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19 pages, 9408 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Bearing Strength of Infilled Concrete in Large Diameter CFST Column Reinforced by Shear Stoppers
by My Pham, Ngoc-Hieu Dinh, Cong-Thuat Dang and Hoai-Chinh Truong
Designs 2024, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs8010009 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Ensuring an adequate bond between the steel tube and infilled concrete interface plays an essential role in achieving composite action for concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns. Thus, this study proposes a new type of large diameter CFST column where the steel tube is [...] Read more.
Ensuring an adequate bond between the steel tube and infilled concrete interface plays an essential role in achieving composite action for concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns. Thus, this study proposes a new type of large diameter CFST column where the steel tube is reinforced by shear stoppers. The bearing strength of the infilled concrete is the decisive factor in evaluating the overall working efficiency between infilled concrete and steel tube. In this paper, we use nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) to investigate the bearing strength of the infilled concrete concerning the ratio of the steel tube’s diameter to its thickness (D/t), the number of shear stoppers N, the height of the shear stopper hb, and the concrete compressive strength (CCS) fc. Our results show that the influencing factors on the bearing strength of the infilled concrete were arranged in descending order as follows: the number of shear stoppers, the height of shear stopper, the CCS, and the D/t ratio. We also analyze and highlight some significant parameters related to the bearing strength of infilled concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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15 pages, 3773 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Elastoplastic Stable Bearing Capacity of Double-Steering Prestressed Plate Columns
by Yanying Li, Bailong Li, Xinsheng Yin, Zhiying Han and Zhipeng Li
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3083; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123083 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 530
Abstract
This study investigates the elastoplastic stable bearing capacity of prestressed columns. The end restraint of the novel dual-steering plate brace prestressed column is enhanced, augmenting the efficiency of utilizing steel material. The elastoplastic stable bearing capacity of this new prestressed column is 5.41 [...] Read more.
This study investigates the elastoplastic stable bearing capacity of prestressed columns. The end restraint of the novel dual-steering plate brace prestressed column is enhanced, augmenting the efficiency of utilizing steel material. The elastoplastic stable bearing capacity of this new prestressed column is 5.41 times greater than that of a standard non-prestressed column. In contrast, the traditional prestressed columns with identical parameters show only a 2.49 to 3.55 times increase. In addition, this study conducts parameter optimization on the prestressed value, the position of the transverse brace, and the size of the transverse brace in the prestressed column. The buckling load escalates rapidly with an increase in the prestress value within a specific range and then diminishes gradually. The bearing capacity peaks when the transverse brace is positioned at the midpoint. As the size of the transverse brace expands, the load-bearing capacity initially rises linearly and subsequently stabilizes. The findings on the elastoplastic stable bearing capacity and parameter optimization are significantly relevant for practical engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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18 pages, 4513 KiB  
Review
The Application of Bamboo in the Railway Industry: A Sustainable Solution for Track Construction
by Xinrui He, Wenli Jia, Yuxiang Dong and Mohammad Siahkouhi
Infrastructures 2023, 8(12), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8120174 - 7 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
The railway industry has shown a strong interest in utilizing sustainable materials, including recycled materials and composites, in construction. Bamboo, as a highly renewable natural resource, has been proposed as a construction material for the railway industry. This material offers several advantages, such [...] Read more.
The railway industry has shown a strong interest in utilizing sustainable materials, including recycled materials and composites, in construction. Bamboo, as a highly renewable natural resource, has been proposed as a construction material for the railway industry. This material offers several advantages, such as high strength and durability, sustainability, low embodied energy, and ease of handling. It has been used in various construction materials like plywood, scrimber, laminates, and fibers. This paper aims to review the application of bamboo as a material in the railway industry and provide suggestions for its future use as railway sleepers. The mechanical properties of bamboo and its desirable features for sleeper construction, such as versatility, durability, low embodied energy and carbon footprint, lightweight, and ease of handling, are discussed. Bamboo-based products like plywood and scrimber can offer higher mechanical properties compared to traditional timber sleepers. Moreover, due to its rapid growth rate, bamboo is considered an environmentally friendly material. However, there are certain factors that limit the widespread deployment of bamboo in the railway industry. For instance, the lightweight nature of bamboo can reduce the lateral resistance of sleepers. Additionally, long-term performance studies and its performance in regions with varying weather conditions need to be further investigated. This review paper aims to promote the increased utilization of bamboo in the railway industry, contributing to the development of sustainable railway tracks. By considering the mechanical properties and advantageous characteristics of bamboo, it is possible to explore its potential as a viable and eco-friendly material for railway sleepers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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21 pages, 10292 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Renovation of Public Buildings through Seismic–Energy Upgrading: Methodology and Application to an RC School Building
by Giuseppe Santarsiero, Antonio D’Angola, Giuseppe Ventura, Angelo Masi, Vincenzo Manfredi, Valentina Picciano and Andrea Digrisolo
Infrastructures 2023, 8(12), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8120168 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
There are many existing buildings for which seismic rehabilitation interventions are required, especially in earthquake-prone areas like Italy. At the same time, the deep energy crisis that Europe is facing highlights the need for sustainable techniques that are able to increase the energy [...] Read more.
There are many existing buildings for which seismic rehabilitation interventions are required, especially in earthquake-prone areas like Italy. At the same time, the deep energy crisis that Europe is facing highlights the need for sustainable techniques that are able to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. In order to mitigate the social and cultural obstacles for deep renovations of buildings, effective techniques and methods are required to avoid relocating users, which often discourages such interventions. To this purpose and as the main novelty, this research is aimed at presenting a new strengthening technique for reinforced concrete buildings that is able to integrate structural seismic strengthening and energy efficiency improvements. It is made up of new framed structures connected from the outside to the existing building, thus reducing the intrusiveness and relocation needs of users. At the same time, the seismic strengthening technique is conceived for an optimal coupling with energy saving interventions like high-performance external insulation finishing systems. In this study, these techniques are described and applied to a reinforced concrete (RC) school building designed only for gravity loads, according to outdated standards. The results show that the considered strengthening technique increases the seismic performance of the building with respect to both life safety and damage limitation requirements, avoiding any further local interventions to the building’s interior. On the other hand, the energy renovation allows for significant savings, since the resulting reduction in the total non-renewable energy consumption is larger than 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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33 pages, 7884 KiB  
Article
Study on Wind-Induced Response and Wind Deflection Control of Overhead Sealing Net Structure Spanning Transmission Lines
by Meng Zhang, Guangqing Feng, Xu Zhang and Guifeng Zhao
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13122947 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Sealing net structures are frequently used as protective devices for newly constructed transmission lines that intersect existing lines. They aim to ensure safety during the construction and operation of the intersecting lines. To explore the wind deflection response characteristics of sealing net structures [...] Read more.
Sealing net structures are frequently used as protective devices for newly constructed transmission lines that intersect existing lines. They aim to ensure safety during the construction and operation of the intersecting lines. To explore the wind deflection response characteristics of sealing net structures under wind loads, a model of the sealing net structure was created using ANSYS/APDL software for finite element analysis. This model represents an overhead sealing net structure spanning an existing line. The results obtained from finite element simulations aligned well with the theoretical calculations, indicating the validity of the established finite element model for accurately analyzing the wind-induced response of the sealing net structure. Expanding on this foundation, the study analyzed the impact of various factors on the wind deflection of the sealing net. These factors encompass the span, wind speed, pretension of the catenary cable, wind direction angle, arrangement angle, and method of additional stay cables. The research investigated the influence of these factors on the wind deflection of the sealing net structure. Additionally, a proposal was presented for arranging the closure structure to mitigate wind deflection. This proposal provides valuable guidance for the design and safety considerations of transmission lines and sealing net structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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26 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Factors Impacting Bridge Deterioration in the Gulf Cooperation Council
by Rawan Al-Rashed, Akmal Abdelfatah and Sherif Yehia
Designs 2023, 7(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7060126 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1786
Abstract
The deterioration module (DM) is one of the four major modules necessary for any bridge management system (BMS). Environmental conditions, structural systems, bridge configuration, geographic location, and traffic data are some of the major factors that affect the development of deterioration modules. This [...] Read more.
The deterioration module (DM) is one of the four major modules necessary for any bridge management system (BMS). Environmental conditions, structural systems, bridge configuration, geographic location, and traffic data are some of the major factors that affect the development of deterioration modules. This emphasizes the need for the development of deterioration models that reflect the local conditions. In this article, some of the most important factors that could help in developing deterioration models in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) were identified. The research was conducted in three phases; in the first phase, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify factors adopted in different deterioration models, and in phase two, the most relevant factors to the GCC environment were selected and these factors were further reduced based on input from local bridge experts. The result from the second phase is a list of factors identified by the experts. The identified list was utilized in phase three, which was focused on conducting a survey targeting bridge engineers to help identify the final selection and rank the factors according to their importance level. The results indicate that steel reinforcement protection, design load, chloride attack, type of defect, and age are the most important factors impacting bridge deterioration in the GCC. In addition, the time of rehabilitation; average daily truck traffic, ADTT; and average daily traffic, ADT, are the second most important factors. Factors with medium importance level are deck protection, services under the bridge, and inspection gap. The least important set of factors include temperature and wind load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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23 pages, 7157 KiB  
Article
The Mechanical Response of Structural Elements in Enclosed Structures during Electric Vehicle Fires: A Computational Study
by Armando La Scala, Pierpaolo Loprieno, Dora Foti and Massimo La Scala
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7233; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217233 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
Due to their reduced emissions and environmental benefits, electric vehicles (EVs) have grown in popularity over the past few years. However, EV fires can be a serious threat to nearby buildings, especially in garages where they are parked and charged. In this work, [...] Read more.
Due to their reduced emissions and environmental benefits, electric vehicles (EVs) have grown in popularity over the past few years. However, EV fires can be a serious threat to nearby buildings, especially in garages where they are parked and charged. In this work, the behavior of the steel structural components in garages during electric car fires is computationally analyzed. To simulate the heat transmission and the structural reaction of a typical garage exposed to an EV fire, a finite element model was created. A comparison was made between the risk associated with fires generated by internal combustion vehicles (ICEVs) and EVs, with the elaboration of a risk index based on the deflections reached by a steel column under fire conditions. The model predictions are based on experimental data retrieved from various literature investigations, as well as regulatory simplified methods. The study conclusions provide information on how EV and ICEV fires affected garage performance, which may be used to design more resilient and safer buildings. The method represents a good compromise between the typical performance-based approaches and the tabular ones, characterized by good accuracy and low computational burden. This allows the professional to design optimized structures without wasting material and unnecessary coatings with their additional permanent loads, which could be detrimental in the case of other exceptional actions such as earthquakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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18 pages, 17879 KiB  
Article
Shaking Table Tests on Seismic Capacity Assessment of Basic Unit of Mineral Wool Ceilings Supported by Iron Sheet-Backed Painted Runners
by Duozhi Wang, Yixing Wang, Weikang Lu, Li Xie and Tao Wang
Sustainability 2023, 15(20), 14922; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152014922 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Mineral wool ceilings supported by iron sheet-backed painted runners are commonly used in public buildings without specific seismic design intensity requirement, which is not good for resilient civil infrastructure. However, standard and fundamental seismic capacity data concerned with the use of mineral wool [...] Read more.
Mineral wool ceilings supported by iron sheet-backed painted runners are commonly used in public buildings without specific seismic design intensity requirement, which is not good for resilient civil infrastructure. However, standard and fundamental seismic capacity data concerned with the use of mineral wool ceilings are lacking. Accordingly, in this study, nine groups of prototype specimens of basic ceiling units were designed based on construction requirements, and 90 different test scenarios were conducted. The PGAx input increased from 0.10 g to 1.50 g over ten runs for each group of specimens. Two failure processes and six types of damage phenomena as well as their corresponding repair measures were identified. Moreover, the influence of suspension devices, panel specifications, boundary conditions, and other construction features on the seismic response was investigated. When peak floor acceleration (PFA) was low, the hanger rod and hanger rod–diagonal wire effectively reduced the percentage of fallen ceiling panels. However, when the PFA was high, the hanger rod–diagonal wire aggravated the damage. The use of an additional wire hanger on the main runners, a large lightweight ceiling panel, a high suspension height, and a fixed boundary effectively reduced the percentage of panels falling from the basic ceiling unit and improved the seismic capacity. The use of a large panel in which the amount of material was increased by 1.7% effectively reduced the percentage of fallen ceiling panels. Moreover, fixing the boundary joints with adhesive was a convenient method for improving seismic capacity at a low cost. The results contribute to enhancing resilient civil infrastructure and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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18 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Prioritizing Riverine Bridge Interventions: A Hydrological and Multidimensional Approach
by Alan Huarca Pulcha, Alain Jorge Espinoza Vigil and Julian Booker
Designs 2023, 7(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7050117 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2328
Abstract
Globally, most bridges fail due to hydrological causes such as scouring or flooding. Therefore, using a hydrological approach, this study proposes a methodology that contributes to prioritizing the intervention of bridges to prevent their collapse. Through an exhaustive literature review, an evaluation matrix [...] Read more.
Globally, most bridges fail due to hydrological causes such as scouring or flooding. Therefore, using a hydrological approach, this study proposes a methodology that contributes to prioritizing the intervention of bridges to prevent their collapse. Through an exhaustive literature review, an evaluation matrix subdivided into four dimensions was developed and a total of 18 evaluation parameters were considered, distributed as follows: four environmental, six technical, four social, and four economic. This matrix was applied to eight bridges with a history of hydrological problems in the same river and validated through semi-structured interviews with specialists. Data were collected through field visits, journalistic information, a review of the gauged basin’s historical hydrological flow rates, and consultations with the population. Modeling was then conducted, which considered the influence of gullies that discharge additional flow using HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS, before being calibrated. The application of the matrix, which is an optimal tool for prioritizing bridge interventions, revealed that five bridges have a high vulnerability with scores between 3 and 3.56, and three bridges have a medium vulnerability with scores between 2.75 and 2.94. The hydrological multidimensional approach, which can be adapted for similar studies, contributes to a better decision-making process for important infrastructure interventions such as riverine bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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23 pages, 6160 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Approach to Earthquake-Resilient Infrastructure: Integrating Maintenance with Seismic Fragility Curves
by Alon Urlainis and Igal M. Shohet
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092265 - 6 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
A severe seismic event can cause significant damage to infrastructure systems, resulting in severe direct and indirect consequences. A comprehensive risk-management approach is required for earthquake-resilient infrastructure. This study presents an innovative approach to seismic risk assessment and aims to integrate maintenance considerations [...] Read more.
A severe seismic event can cause significant damage to infrastructure systems, resulting in severe direct and indirect consequences. A comprehensive risk-management approach is required for earthquake-resilient infrastructure. This study presents an innovative approach to seismic risk assessment and aims to integrate maintenance considerations with seismic fragility curves. The proposed methodology uniquely quantifies the impact of maintenance conditions on seismic risk, presenting a dynamic perspective of risk changes attributable to maintenance and deterioration. The methodology hinges on the hypothesis that the maintenance condition of the infrastructure and the level of deterioration impacts the seismic resilience of the infrastructure. The methodology synergizes the Building Performance Index (BPI) and the deterioration over time to evaluate their cumulative effect on fragility curves to estimate the infrastructure’s total risk over the lifecycle (TRLC). This proposed methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a low-voltage substation in Bik’at HaYarden, Israel. A Monte Carlo simulation was carried out for the specific conditions of the analyzed substation. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed to understand better the effect of maintenance conditions over time on the TRLC. Key insights reveal a statistically significant correlation between infrastructure performance and maintenance and their consequential impact on the TRLC. Notably, declining maintenance conditions intensify seismic risk uncertainties. The research proposes to researchers, stakeholders, and decision-makers a novel comprehensive perspective on the indispensability of maintenance for seismic risk management and mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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24 pages, 3086 KiB  
Article
Exploring Cross-Section Risk Governance Mechanisms for Transportation and Energy Infrastructures in China
by Tong Wang, Linyan Chen, Xin Gao and Shitao Gong
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092243 - 4 Sep 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
This study aims to examine the national risk governance mechanism of critical infrastructure in China from a cross-section perspective. The first research objective is to identify whether horizontal collaboration exists in the risk governance of critical infrastructure. Building on this, the second research [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the national risk governance mechanism of critical infrastructure in China from a cross-section perspective. The first research objective is to identify whether horizontal collaboration exists in the risk governance of critical infrastructure. Building on this, the second research objective is to investigate the extent of cross-section collaboration in the transportation and energy domains. The third research objective is to identify the pathways of horizontal collaboration at various levels. The data for this research consists of policy documents retrieved from the official websites of the Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China, the National Energy Administration, and the Peking University Legal Information Website. A total of 127 documents were collected using specific search keywords. To analyze data, content analysis is adopted to generate a co-word matrix so that semantic network centrality can be explored. The result indicates that in the transportation domain “engineering” and “road” feature in the top 10 for both standardized degree and degree proportion, while “administration” ranks third highest in share proportion. In the energy infrastructure risk governance keyword network, the fourth highest closeness centrality value is 54.762, associated with keywords such as “administration” and “engineering”. These findings suggest that horizontal collaboration is evident at both institutional and personal levels. Moreover, the results imply that the inner collaboration within national risk governance is intricate and interdependent. The study reveals interconnections between different industries and administration levels, contributing a fresh perspective to urban risk governance theory exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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17 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
A Laminated Spherical Tsunami Shelter with an Elastic Buffer Layer and Its Integrated Bulge Processing Method
by Junfu Hou, Li Chen, Jingchao Guan, Wei Zhao, Ichirou Hagiwara and Xilu Zhao
Designs 2023, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7040095 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
When a tsunami occurs, people can enter floating shelters and save their lives. Tsunami shelters consisting of thin-walled fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) spherical shells have been developed and are currently in use. In this study, a novel three-layer laminated spherical tsunami shelter and its [...] Read more.
When a tsunami occurs, people can enter floating shelters and save their lives. Tsunami shelters consisting of thin-walled fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) spherical shells have been developed and are currently in use. In this study, a novel three-layer laminated spherical tsunami shelter and its fabrication method have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional thin-walled spherical FRP tsunami shelter. First, the inner and outer layers were made of thin-walled stainless-steel spherical shells using the integral hydro-bulge-forming (IHBF) method. The inter-layers between the inner and outer layers were filled with elastic rubber to provide a laminated spherical tsunami shelter with elastic cushioning layers. After the fabrication process was developed, a laminated spherical tsunami shelter with a plate thickness of 1.0 mm, an inner spherical shell design radius of 180 mm, and an outer spherical shell design radius of 410 mm was fabricated. The shape accuracy of the process was determined. The roundness values of the inner and outer layers of the spherical shell were 0.88 and 0.85 mm, respectively. The measured radii of the actual inner and outer spherical shells were 180.50 and 209.97 mm, respectively, and the errors between the design and measured radii were 0.28% and −0.01%. In this study, acceleration sensors were attached to the inner and outer layers of the processed, laminated spherical tsunami shelter. A hammer impact load was applied to the outer layer, and the response acceleration values measured by the acceleration sensors in the inner and outer layers were compared. It was confirmed that the response acceleration value of the inner layer was 10.17% smaller than that of the outer layer. It was then verified that the spherical tsunami shelter proposed in this study has a good cushioning effect and processing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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12 pages, 12285 KiB  
Review
Review of Recent Progress on the Effects of High Temperatures on the Mechanical Behavior of Masonry Prisms
by Gustavo Henrique Nalon, José Carlos Lopes Ribeiro, Leonardo Gonçalves Pedroti, Roberto Marcio da Silva, Eduardo Nery Duarte de Araújo, Rodrigo Felipe Santos and Gustavo Emilio Soares de Lima
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070112 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
The structural performance of civil engineering infrastructures exposed to elevated temperatures has been investigated in many recent works. Some of these studies evaluated the residual mechanical behavior of masonry prisms subjected to high temperatures, as these specimens are simplified models (2–5 units in [...] Read more.
The structural performance of civil engineering infrastructures exposed to elevated temperatures has been investigated in many recent works. Some of these studies evaluated the residual mechanical behavior of masonry prisms subjected to high temperatures, as these specimens are simplified models (2–5 units in height) that can be easily produced and tested, in terms of operational and economic factors. However, there is no previous literature review on the mechanical properties of fire-damaged masonry prisms. Therefore, this paper presents an investigation of the current state-of-the-art on this topic. It provides a careful review of recent knowledge on the failure mechanisms, residual compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress–strain behavior of masonry prisms made with different types of units, mortars, and/or grout after exposure to different types of thermal treatments. Based on the revised information, future research directions on the scientific field of masonry infrastructures are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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10 pages, 1176 KiB  
Perspective
Seismic Design Codes—Key Elements for Seismic Risk Perception and Reduction in Europe
by Florin Pavel
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010158 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Earthquakes are one of the most costly and deadliest natural disasters. This perspective paper presents a discussion focused on the role of seismic design codes in risk perception and seismic risk reduction in Europe. The seismic design codes are a key component for [...] Read more.
Earthquakes are one of the most costly and deadliest natural disasters. This perspective paper presents a discussion focused on the role of seismic design codes in risk perception and seismic risk reduction in Europe. The seismic design codes are a key component for both the design of new buildings, as well as for the vulnerability assessment of existing ones. The impact of seismic design codes on seismic risk reduction is discussed using as case-study countries, Italy, Turkey, Greece, and Romania, which according to the recent European seismic risk model 2020 have the largest expected mean annual losses due to earthquakes. The evaluation of the seismic exposure of the four countries shows that from the entire population of more than 170 million people, about 130 million live in buildings designed using no or low level seismic design. The mean annual expected losses due to earthquakes are of the order of 0.1–0.2% of the national GDP. Moreover, the mean annual death probability due to earthquakes is 10−6 which represents a risk level not of great concern to the average people. However, large earthquakes in Europe from the past 50 years have produced losses in excess of 10 billion Euros and several hundred thousand affected people. A solution for a better communication of seismic risk in order to increase seismic risk perception might be to provide exceedance probabilities of specific macroseismic intensity levels for time frames of 10 or 20 years, instead of annual values. Macroseismic levels from past earthquakes might be used in order to have a better understanding of the results and should complement the seismic design maps. In addition, in the case of seismic vulnerability, the use of simple terms (e.g., inhabitable or uninhabitable) along with their associated occurrence probabilities in the same time frame as in the case of the seismic hazard, might be a solution. Financial incentives for seismic strengthening, as well as a clear definition of an earthquake-prone building are also very useful for increasing seismic risk perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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30 pages, 17028 KiB  
Article
A Geotechnical Perspective on a Complex Geological Environment in a High-Speed Railway Tunnel Excavation (A Case Study from Türkiye)
by Candan Gokceoglu, Ebu Bekir Aygar, Hakan A. Nefeslioglu, Servet Karahan and Suat Gullu
Infrastructures 2022, 7(11), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7110155 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
The T26 tunnel was designed within the scope of the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway in accordance with the speed of 250 km/h. Some serious problems and excessive deformations were encountered during the excavation works. The deformations in the tunnel caused subsidence on the surface [...] Read more.
The T26 tunnel was designed within the scope of the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway in accordance with the speed of 250 km/h. Some serious problems and excessive deformations were encountered during the excavation works. The deformations in the tunnel caused subsidence on the surface and the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) became stuck; therefore, tunnel excavation works were suspended. Design works for re-excavation in the T26 tunnel and extracting of the TBM were carried out and the tunnel was re-designed by the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) system. The main purposes of the present study are to describe the problems encountered during the T26 tunnel and to discuss the sources of the problems. The advantages and disadvantages of TBM and NATM methods for the tunnel having difficult ground conditions were discussed. Critical points needing to be considered for the tunnels excavated with TBM through weak ground conditions and the effect of the TBM selection process were discussed. Considering the complex geological and geotechnical structure of the tunnel route, it is possible to say that the T26 case is an interesting case for tunnel engineering. Along the tunnel route, landslides, high seismic activity, groundwater conditions, and extremely weak rock mass features coexist. Therefore, the tunnel route is a very complex environment. However, due to the geometric limitations of the high-speed railways, relocation of the route is not possible. The experiences gained from tunnel excavations under difficult conditions are capable of bringing new horizons to future tunneling studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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20 pages, 9562 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Precast Bolt-Connected Steel-Members End-Embedded Concrete (PBSEC) Beam-Column Connections
by Zhun Wang, De-Cheng Feng and Gang Wu
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101652 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
With the rapid development and research of precast concrete frame structures, it is not difficult to find that the structural form and seismic performance of dry-connected precast joints have always been the focus of research. Since this type of structural system is complex, [...] Read more.
With the rapid development and research of precast concrete frame structures, it is not difficult to find that the structural form and seismic performance of dry-connected precast joints have always been the focus of research. Since this type of structural system is complex, the construction is inconvenient in practical application, and many additional parts need to be installed, this paper develops a kind of precast bolt-connected steel-members end-embedded concrete (PBSEC) beam-column connection to solve the shortcomings of the current dry-connected precast joints. There is no wet work in the assembly process, and all-dry construction and assembly methods are used. There is no need to pour concrete and support formwork, which significantly improves construction efficiency compared to wet and cast-in-situ connections. Low cyclic reversed loading tests were conducted to obtain test data, such as failure mode, hysteresis curve, skeleton curve, stiffness, ductility, and deformation capacity of the precast concrete joint. The failure mode of the PBSEC joints is the buckling failure of the connecting steel plate, leading to a perfect seismic capacity and collapse resistance of the structure. The hysteresis curves of the PBSEC joints are bow-shaped and full in shape, showing high energy dissipation capacity. The bearing capacity of the joints begins to rise rapidly at the initial loading stage and then decreases slowly after reaching the peak, which is an ideal shape. By summarizing the average peak load, strength degradation coefficient, loop energy per cycle, loop energy per level, and cumulative energy damping coefficient, it is found that the joint using 10 mm thick Q235 steel can obtain the most suitable failure mode and obtain the best energy dissipation performance. When the strength of the steel plate material increases, the energy dissipation performance of the joint drops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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18 pages, 8500 KiB  
Article
Compressive Performance of RC Columns Strengthened with High-Strength Stainless Steel Wire Mesh-ECC under Small Eccentric Compression Load
by Xinling Wang, Yunpu Li, Yaokang Zhao, Yaoxin Wei and Jiajun Fan
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101628 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
In this research, a novel composite material, high-strength stainless steel wire mesh-ECC, is proposed and designed to strengthen RC columns. The small eccentric compressive performance of RC columns strengthened with high-strength stainless steel wire mesh-ECC was investigated through compression tests and compared with [...] Read more.
In this research, a novel composite material, high-strength stainless steel wire mesh-ECC, is proposed and designed to strengthen RC columns. The small eccentric compressive performance of RC columns strengthened with high-strength stainless steel wire mesh-ECC was investigated through compression tests and compared with unstrengthened columns and RC columns strengthened with ECC. Six columns were designed and tested, and the test parameters contained different strengthened methods, eccentricity ratios, and reinforcement ratios of longitudinal high-strength stainless steel strand. The failure patterns, load-carrying capacity, strain of concrete/ECC and reinforcement, etc., were analyzed based on the test results. The high performance of the high-strength stainless steel wire mesh-ECC and the advantages of the proposed strengthened method, including good ductility, excellent crack-control ability and satisfactory failure patterns, were demonstrated when compared with the specimens strengthened with ECC. The stainless steel wire mesh-ECC-reinforced layer can have effective constraint columns and can control the crack ability. The cracking load of the stainless steel wire mesh-ECC-reinforced column is 100.0–113.3% higher than that of the unreinforced column, and the peaking load is 99.8–108.0% higher than that of the unreinforced column. The stainless steel wire mesh-ECC-reinforced column shows good ductile failure characteristics, and compared with the unreinforced column, the ductility is increased by 75.6–77.8%. Based on the analysis of the strain distribution and failure patterns, the mechanical mechanism of RC columns strengthened with the novel composite material high-strength stainless steel wire mesh-ECC is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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15 pages, 2375 KiB  
Article
Exploring Natural and Social Factors Affecting Road Disruption Patterns and the Duration of Recovery: A Case from Hiroshima, Japan
by Rodelia Sansano and Makoto Chikaraishi
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11634; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811634 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
For the past few decades, the occurrence and severity of disasters have been increasing. This study empirically explores factors affecting road disruption patterns and the duration of road recovery based on the road network disruption and recovery record in Hiroshima, Japan, over the [...] Read more.
For the past few decades, the occurrence and severity of disasters have been increasing. This study empirically explores factors affecting road disruption patterns and the duration of road recovery based on the road network disruption and recovery record in Hiroshima, Japan, over the last 19 years, using (1) a binary logit model to identify factors affecting the disruption probability of each road link, and (2) a survival model to identify the factors affecting the recovery duration. We divided the factors into social and natural factors, where the former might be easier for policy makers to control. Results show that not only natural factors, but also social factors, particularly who manages the road, significantly affect both the probability of road disruptions and road recovery duration. This implies that the ability and available resources that each road manager has firstly affects the quality of the road, which in turn affects the probability of it being disrupted, and secondly affects the quickness of taking recovery actions. This points to potential avenues for improving coordination across cities, prefectures, and national road managers in managing roads during disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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5 pages, 178 KiB  
Editorial
Infrastructure Safety from the Perspective of Resilience Theory
by Xu-Yang Cao, Ji-Gang Xu and De-Cheng Feng
Energies 2022, 15(16), 5778; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15165778 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
With the rapid development of urbanization, the scales of urban population and land use are tremendously expanding [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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