Topic Editors

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences (BIOMETEC), University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy

Application of Probiotics and Their Potential Health Benefits

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closed (30 January 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this topic, “Application of Probiotics and Their Potential Health Benefits”, we would like to explore the ability of some bacteria to interfere with biochemical and physiological reactions in humans, favoring an equilibrium called eubiosis. In our organism, this delicate balance not only concerns the microbial composition, but also what contributes to their functionality. It follows that a break in this equilibrium can cause an uncontrolled proliferation of pathogenic species with consequent damage to the surrounding environment. To cause such dysbiosis, there is the reckless use of antibiotics, but also sexual activity, personal hygiene, and nutrition such as alcohol misuse. Restoring the balance of the microbiota can favor the conditions so that diseases associated with dysbiosis such as IBD, ulcerative colitis, allergies and neurological conditions, including autism, depression, anxiety, and stroke, do not develop. Nowadays, probiotic-containing foods, supplements, and medications have become a large part of our industry and are proven to offer potential health benefits. Medical colleagues, as well as biologists and chemists, are invited to disclose their preclinical and clinical studies to contribute to the characterization of these functional foods useful for manipulating the microbiota, contributing to the fight against certain diseases such as those mentioned above.

Dr. Pio Maria Furneri
Dr. Virginia Fuochi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • dysbiosis
  • microbiota
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • microbial modulation effects
  • postbiotics
  • synbiotics

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Microbiology
applmicrobiol
- - 2021 13.3 Days CHF 1000
Biology
biology
4.2 4.0 2012 18.7 Days CHF 2700
Biomolecules
biomolecules
5.5 8.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2700
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.5 6.4 2013 15.1 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (22 papers)

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4 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Applications of Probiotics and Their Potential Health Benefits
by Virginia Fuochi and Pio Maria Furneri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(21), 15915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242115915 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Probiotics have garnered significant attention in recent years due to their potential health benefits and their role in promoting a balanced gut microbiome [...] Full article
20 pages, 4562 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D1 Soy Milk Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Indexes and Intestinal Health of Bearded Chickens
by Liyu Du, Weizhe Chen, Jie Wang, Lingzhu Huang, Qikai Zheng, Junjie Chen, Linhao Wang, Changyu Cai, Xiangbin Zhang, Li Wang, Qingping Zhong, Wujie Zhong, Xiang Fang and Zhenlin Liao
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071660 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D1 (B. amyloliquefaciens D1) on growth performance, serum anti-inflammatory cytokines, and intestinal microbiota composition and diversity in bearded chickens. To investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciensa and fermented soy milk, 7-day-old [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D1 (B. amyloliquefaciens D1) on growth performance, serum anti-inflammatory cytokines, and intestinal microbiota composition and diversity in bearded chickens. To investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciensa and fermented soy milk, 7-day-old broilers were orally fed different doses of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D1 fermented soy milk for 35 days, with the unfermented soy milk group as the Placebo group. This study found that B. amyloliquefaciens D1 fermented soy milk improved the intestinal microbiota of broilers, significantly increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria and decreasing the abundance of harmful bacteria in the gut. B. amyloliquefaciens D1 fermented soy milk also significantly reduced the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content. The body weight and daily weight gain of broilers were increased. In conclusion, the results of this study are promising and indicate that supplementing the diets of bearded chickens with B. amyloliquefaciens D1 fermented soy milk has many beneficial effects in terms of maintaining intestinal microbiota balance and reducing inflammation in chickens. Full article
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17 pages, 3416 KiB  
Article
Functional Characterization of Fermented Beverages Based on Soy Milk and Sea Buckthorn Powder
by Nicoleta-Maricica Maftei, Alina-Viorica Iancu, Alina Mihaela Elisei, Tudor Vladimir Gurau, Ana Yndira Ramos-Villarroel and Elena Lacramioara Lisa
Microorganisms 2023, 11(6), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11061493 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Limitations of dairy products, such as lactose intolerance, problems related to a high cholesterol intake in diet, malabsorption, and the requirement for cold storage facilities, as well as an increasing demand for new foods and tastes, have initiated a trend in the development [...] Read more.
Limitations of dairy products, such as lactose intolerance, problems related to a high cholesterol intake in diet, malabsorption, and the requirement for cold storage facilities, as well as an increasing demand for new foods and tastes, have initiated a trend in the development of non-dairy probiotic products. The possibility of producing beverages based on soy milk, sea buckthorn powder, and fermented by Bifidobacterium bifidus (Bb-12®, Bb) strain at different temperatures (30 °C and 37 °C) was examined. Strain viability, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity, and water holding capacity were determined during the storage time at 4 °C ± 1 °C within 14 days. Additionally, the survival and stability of Bb-12®, inoculated into a functional beverage when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, were assessed. The results obtained in this study revealed that the content of potent bioactive compounds in fermented soy milk and sea buckthorn powder depends on the processing conditions, the bacteria used in the fermentation step, and storage time. Full article
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25 pages, 1560 KiB  
Article
Sow-Offspring Diets Supplemented with Probiotics and Synbiotics Are Associated with Offspring’s Growth Performance and Meat Quality
by Qian Zhu, Md. Abul Kalam Azad, Haibo Dong, Chenjian Li, Ruixuan Li, Yating Cheng, Yang Liu, Yulong Yin and Xiangfeng Kong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087668 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Probiotics and synbiotics supplementation have been shown to play potential roles in animal production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics and synbiotics supplementation to sows during gestation and lactation and to offspring pigs (sow-offspring) on offspring pigs’ growth [...] Read more.
Probiotics and synbiotics supplementation have been shown to play potential roles in animal production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics and synbiotics supplementation to sows during gestation and lactation and to offspring pigs (sow-offspring) on offspring pigs’ growth performance and meat quality. Sixty-four healthy Bama mini-pigs were selected and randomly allocated into four groups after mating: the control, antibiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics groups. After weaning, two offspring pigs per litter were selected, and four offspring pigs from two litters were merged into one pen. The offspring pigs were fed a basal diet and the same feed additive according to their corresponding sows, representing the control group (Con group), sow-offspring antibiotics group (S-OA group), sow-offspring probiotics group (S-OP group), and sow-offspring synbiotics group (S-OS group). Eight pigs per group were euthanized and sampled at 65, 95, and 125 d old for further analyses. Our findings showed that probiotics supplementation in sow-offspring diets promoted growth and feed intake of offspring pigs during 95–125 d old. Moreover, sow-offspring diets supplemented with probiotics and synbiotics altered meat quality (meat color, pH45min, pH24h, drip loss, cooking yield, and shear force), plasma UN and AMM levels, and gene expressions associated with muscle-fiber types (MyHCI, MyHCIIa, MyHCIIx, and MyHCIIb) and muscle growth and development (Myf5, Myf6, MyoD, and MyoG). This study provides a theoretical basis for the maternal-offspring integration regulation of meat quality by dietary probiotics and synbiotics supplementation. Full article
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24 pages, 2606 KiB  
Review
Can Probiotics, Particularly Limosilactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus UCO-25A, Be Preventive Alternatives against SARS-CoV-2?
by Héctor Valdebenito-Navarrete, Victor Fuentes-Barrera, Carlos T. Smith, Alexis Salas-Burgos, Felipe A. Zuniga, Leonardo A. Gomez and Apolinaria García-Cancino
Biology 2023, 12(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12030384 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
COVID-19, an infection produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in humans, has rapidly spread to become a high-mortality pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus characterized by infecting epithelial cells of the intestine and lungs, binding to the ACE2 receptor present on epithelial cells. [...] Read more.
COVID-19, an infection produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in humans, has rapidly spread to become a high-mortality pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus characterized by infecting epithelial cells of the intestine and lungs, binding to the ACE2 receptor present on epithelial cells. COVID-19 treatment is based on antivirals and antibiotics against symptomatology in addition to a successful preventive strategy based on vaccination. At this point, several variants of the virus have emerged, altering the effectiveness of treatments and thereby attracting attention to several alternative therapies, including immunobiotics, to cope with the problem. This review, based on articles, patents, and an in silico analysis, aims to address our present knowledge of the COVID-19 disease, its symptomatology, and the possible beneficial effects for patients if probiotics with the characteristics of immunobiotics are used to confront this disease. Moreover, two probiotic strains, L. fermentum UCO-979C and L. rhamnosus UCO-25A, with different effects demonstrated at our laboratory, are emphasized. The point of view of this review highlights the possible benefits of probiotics, particularly those associated with immunomodulation as well as the production of secondary metabolites, and their potential targets during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
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14 pages, 2384 KiB  
Article
Culturing the Chicken Intestinal Microbiota and Potential Application as Probiotics Development
by Ke Ma, Wei Chen, Xiao-Qi Lin, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Tao Wang, Jia-Bao Zhang, Jian-Gang Zhang, Cheng-Kai Zhou, Yu Gao, Chong-Tao Du and Yong-Jun Yang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24033045 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Pure cultures of chicken intestinal microbial species may still be crucial and imperative to expound on the function of gut microbiota, and also contribute to the development of potential probiotics and novel bioactive metabolites from gut microbiota. In this study, we isolated and [...] Read more.
Pure cultures of chicken intestinal microbial species may still be crucial and imperative to expound on the function of gut microbiota, and also contribute to the development of potential probiotics and novel bioactive metabolites from gut microbiota. In this study, we isolated and identified 507 chicken intestinal bacterial isolates, including 89 previously uncultured isolates. Among these, a total of 63 Lactobacillus strains, belonging to L. vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. reuteri, L. salivarius, and L. saerimneri, exhibited antibacterial activity against S. Pullorum. Acid tolerance tests showed Limosilactobacillus reuteri strain YPG14 (L. reuteri strain YPG14) has a particularly strong tolerance to acid. We further characterized other probiotic properties of L. reuteri strain YPG14. In simulated intestinal fluid, the growth of L. reuteri strain YPG14 remained stable after incubation for 4 h. The auto-aggregation test showed the auto-aggregation percentage of L. reuteri strain YPG14 was recorded as 15.0  ±  0.38%, 48.3  ±  2.51%, and 75.1  ±  4.44% at 3, 12, and 24 h, respectively. In addition, the mucin binding assay showed L. reuteri strain YPG14 exhibited 12.07 ±  0.02% adhesion to mucin. Antibiotic sensitivity testing showed that L. reuteri strain YPG14 was sensitive to the majority of the tested antibiotics. The anti-Salmonella Pullorum (S. Pullorum) infection effect in vivo revealed that the consumption of L. reuteri strain YPG14 could significantly improve body weight loss and survival rate of chicks infected by S. Pullorum; reduce the loads of S. Pullorum in the jejunum, liver, spleen, and feces; and alleviate the jejunum villi morphological structure damage, crypt loss, and inflammatory cell infiltration caused by S. Pullorum. Overall, this study may help us to understand the diversity of chicken intestinal microflora and provide some insights for potential probiotic development from gut microbiota and may find application in the poultry industry. Full article
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14 pages, 1927 KiB  
Article
Stimulation of Heme-Dependent Catalase Enhanced the Cytoprotective Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum against Oxidative Stress
by Xingfang Tian, Xiaoce Zhu, Meng Wang, Tingting Guo and Jian Kong
Appl. Microbiol. 2023, 3(1), 131-144; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmicrobiol3010011 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Lactobacillus plantarum is a catalase-negative species and distributes in human intestinal tracts. However, the cytoprotective effects of the catalase-activated L. plantarum strain have yet to be exploited against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, a catalase-activated L. plantarum CGMCC 6888 (CatA+) was obtained [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus plantarum is a catalase-negative species and distributes in human intestinal tracts. However, the cytoprotective effects of the catalase-activated L. plantarum strain have yet to be exploited against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, a catalase-activated L. plantarum CGMCC 6888 (CatA+) was obtained using exogenous added heme. The scavenging free radical abilities of this strain were obviously increased. Moreover, the activated catalase A in L. plantarum CGMCC 6888 endowed the intestinal epithelium NCM460 with lower ROS content after degrading H2O2. In addition, the transcription levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-related antioxidant enzyme genes (HO-1, GCLC, NQO-1 and TXNRD1) and tight junction protein genes (ZO-1, OCLN, and JAM-1) were upregulated significantly when co-incubated with CGMCC 6888/CatA+. This work confirmed that the catalase A conferred L. plantarum with the strong protection effects in the intestinal epithelial cells against ROS. Full article
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19 pages, 7728 KiB  
Article
Supplementation of Weizmannia coagulans BC2000 and Ellagic Acid Inhibits High-Fat-Induced Hypercholesterolemia by Promoting Liver Primary Bile Acid Biosynthesis and Intestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice
by Long Jin, Hongyang Dang, Jinyong Wu, Lixia Yuan, Xiangsong Chen and Jianming Yao
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020264 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
The probiotic Weizmannia coagulans (W. coagulans) BC2000 can increase the abundance of intestinal transforming ellagic acid (EA) bacteria and inhibit metabolic disorders caused by hyperlipidemia by activating liver autophagy. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of W. coagulans BC2000 [...] Read more.
The probiotic Weizmannia coagulans (W. coagulans) BC2000 can increase the abundance of intestinal transforming ellagic acid (EA) bacteria and inhibit metabolic disorders caused by hyperlipidemia by activating liver autophagy. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of W. coagulans BC2000 and EA on hyperlipidemia-induced cholesterol metabolism disorders. C57BL/6J mice (n = 10 in each group) were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with EA, HFD supplemented with EA and W. coagulans BC77, HFD supplemented with EA, and W. coagulans BC2000. EA and W. coagulans BC2000 supplementation prevented HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia and promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Transcriptome analysis showed that primary bile acid biosynthesis in the liver was significantly activated by EA and W. coagulans BC2000 treatments. EA and W. coagulans BC2000 treatment also significantly increased the intestinal Eggerthellaceae abundance and the liver EA metabolites, iso-urolithin A, Urolithin A, and Urolithin B. Therefore, W. coagulans BC2000 supplementation promoted the intestinal transformation of EA, which led to the upregulation of liver bile synthesis, thus preventing hypercholesterolemia. Full article
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36 pages, 2313 KiB  
Review
Journey of the Probiotic Bacteria: Survival of the Fittest
by Allyson Andrade Mendonça, Walter de Paula Pinto-Neto, Giselle Alves da Paixão, Dayane da Silva Santos, Marcos Antonio De Morais, Jr. and Rafael Barros De Souza
Microorganisms 2023, 11(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11010095 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6582
Abstract
This review aims to bring a more general view of the technological and biological challenges regarding production and use of probiotic bacteria in promoting human health. After a brief description of the current concepts, the challenges for the production at an industrial level [...] Read more.
This review aims to bring a more general view of the technological and biological challenges regarding production and use of probiotic bacteria in promoting human health. After a brief description of the current concepts, the challenges for the production at an industrial level are presented from the physiology of the central metabolism to the ability to face the main forms of stress in the industrial process. Once produced, these cells are processed to be commercialized in suspension or dried forms or added to food matrices. At this stage, the maintenance of cell viability and vitality is of paramount for the quality of the product. Powder products requires the development of strategies that ensure the integrity of components and cellular functions that allow complete recovery of cells at the time of consumption. Finally, once consumed, probiotic cells must face a very powerful set of physicochemical mechanisms within the body, which include enzymes, antibacterial molecules and sudden changes in pH. Understanding the action of these agents and the induction of cellular tolerance mechanisms is fundamental for the selection of increasingly efficient strains in order to survive from production to colonization of the intestinal tract and to promote the desired health benefits. Full article
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17 pages, 1786 KiB  
Article
Antibiotic Susceptibility, Resistance Gene Determinants and Corresponding Genomic Regions in Lactobacillus amylovorus Isolates Derived from Wild Boars and Domestic Pigs
by Monika Moravkova, Iveta Kostovova, Katerina Kavanova, Radko Pechar, Stanislav Stanek, Ales Brychta, Michal Zeman and Tereza Kubasova
Microorganisms 2023, 11(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11010103 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Restrictions on the use of antibiotics in pigs lead to the continuous search for new probiotics serving as an alternative to antibiotics. One of the key parameters for probiotic bacteria selection is the absence of horizontally transmissible resistance genes. The aim of our [...] Read more.
Restrictions on the use of antibiotics in pigs lead to the continuous search for new probiotics serving as an alternative to antibiotics. One of the key parameters for probiotic bacteria selection is the absence of horizontally transmissible resistance genes. The aim of our study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility profiles in 28 Lactobacillus amylovorus isolates derived from the digestive tract of wild boars and farm pigs by means of the broth microdilution method and whole genome sequencing (WGS). We revealed genetic resistance determinants and examined sequences flanking resistance genes in these strains. Our findings indicate that L. amylovorus strains from domestic pigs are predominantly resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin and ampicillin. WGS analysis of horizontally transmissible genes revealed only three genetic determinants (tetW, ermB and aadE) of which all tetW and ermB genes were present only in strains derived from domestic pigs. Sequence analysis of coding sequences (CDS) in the neighborhood of the tetW gene revealed the presence of site-specific recombinase (xerC/D), site-specific DNA recombinase (spoIVCA) or DNA-binding transcriptional regulator (xre), usually directly downstream of the tetW gene. In the case of ermB, CDS for omega transcriptional repressor or mobilization protein were detected upstream of the ermB gene. Full article
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17 pages, 3208 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Lactobacillus rhamnosus SCB0119 against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
by Huan Peng, Gang Zhou, Xi-Miao Yang, Guo-Jun Chen, Hai-Bin Chen, Zhen-Lin Liao, Qing-Ping Zhong, Li Wang, Xiang Fang and Jie Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315159 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria were reported as a promising alternative to antibiotics against pathogens. Among them, Lactobacillus rhamnosus could be used as probiotics and inhibit several pathogens, but its antibacterial mechanisms are still less known. Here, L. rhamnosus SCB0119 isolated from fermented pickles could [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria were reported as a promising alternative to antibiotics against pathogens. Among them, Lactobacillus rhamnosus could be used as probiotics and inhibit several pathogens, but its antibacterial mechanisms are still less known. Here, L. rhamnosus SCB0119 isolated from fermented pickles could inhibit bacterial growth or even cause cell death in Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538, which was mainly attributed to the cell-free culture supernatant (CFS). Moreover, CFS induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and destroyed the structure of the cell wall and membrane, including the deformation in cell shape and cell wall, the impairment of the integrity of the cell wall and inner membrane, and the increases in outer membrane permeability, the membrane potential, and pH gradient in E. coli and S. aureus. Furthermore, the transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that CFS altered the transcripts of several genes involved in fatty acid degradation, ion transport, and the biosynthesis of amino acids in E. coli, and fatty acid degradation, protein synthesis, DNA replication, and ATP hydrolysis in S. aureus, which are important for bacterial survival and growth. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus SCB0119 and its CFS could be used as a biocontrol agent against E. coli and S. aureus. Full article
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16 pages, 3311 KiB  
Article
Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici Reversed ETEC-Inducing Intestinal Inflammation in Mice
by Wentao Li, Lixia Kai, Zipeng Jiang, Huan He, Mingzhi Yang, Weifa Su, Yizhen Wang, Mingliang Jin and Zeqing Lu
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122350 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Microecological preparation could relieve Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88-induced diarrhea in piglets, but which bacteria play a key role and the mitigation mechanism have not been fully clarified. In this study, 36 male mice were randomly divided into six groups (CON, K88, BK [...] Read more.
Microecological preparation could relieve Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88-induced diarrhea in piglets, but which bacteria play a key role and the mitigation mechanism have not been fully clarified. In this study, 36 male mice were randomly divided into six groups (CON, K88, BK (Bifidobacterium longum + K88), LK (Lactobacillus plantarum + K88), PK (Pediococcus acidilactici + K88), and MK (mixed strains + K88)) to explore the prevention mechanisms. Three probiotic strains and their mixtures (TPSM) significantly relieved the weight loss and restored the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum. Except for Bifidobacterium longum, other strains significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in mice serum. The TPSM treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines and the Toll-like receptor and downstream gene (TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB) in jejunum induced by ETEC. Furthermore, the TPSM could restore dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota caused by ETEC. The intestinal microbiota analysis demonstrated that Bifidobacterium longum enriched the Bifidobacterium genus (p < 0.05), Lactobacillus plantarum enriched the Lactobacillus genus (p < 0.05), Pediococcus acidilactici enriched the Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002 and Christensenellaceae_R-7_group genus (p < 0.05), mixed bacteria enriched the Akkermansia genus (p < 0.05), but ETEC enriched the Desulfovibrio genus (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose and fructose metabolism, mannose metabolism and ABC transporters were increased with probiotics pre-treatment (p < 0.05). To sum up, the microecological preparation alleviated ETEC-induced diarrhea by regulating the immune response, rebalancing intestinal microbiota and improving carbohydrate metabolism. Full article
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16 pages, 3233 KiB  
Article
The Mucus Binding Factor Is Not Necessary for Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 to Exert Its Immunomodulatory Activities in Local and Distal Mucosal Sites
by Kae Tomotsune, Fernanda Raya Tonetti, Hiroya Mizuno, Mariano Elean, Kohtaro Fukuyama, Binghui Zhou, Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Keita Nishiyama, Akihiro Yamamura, Hideaki Karasawa, Shinobu Ohnuma, Akira Horii, Tadao Saito, Haruki Kitazawa and Julio Villena
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214357 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Both viable and non-viable orally administered Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 modulate immunity in local (intestine) and distal (respiratory) mucosal sites. So, intestinal adhesion and colonization are not necessary for this probiotic strain to exert its immunomodulatory effects. In this work, a mucus-binding factor knockout [...] Read more.
Both viable and non-viable orally administered Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 modulate immunity in local (intestine) and distal (respiratory) mucosal sites. So, intestinal adhesion and colonization are not necessary for this probiotic strain to exert its immunomodulatory effects. In this work, a mucus-binding factor knockout CRL1505 strain (ΔmbfCRL1505) was obtained and the lack of binding ability to both intestinal epithelial cells and mucin was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, two sets of in vivo experiments in 6-week-old Balb/c mice were performed to evaluate ΔmbfCRL1505 immunomodulatory activities. (A) Orally administered ΔmbfCRL1505 prior to intraperitoneal injection of the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly(I:C) significantly reduced intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD3+NK1.1+CD8αα+) and pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-15) in the intestinal mucosa. (B) Orally administered ΔmbfCRL1505 prior to nasal stimulation with poly(I:C) significantly decreased the levels of the biochemical markers of lung tissue damage. In addition, reduced recruitment of neutrophils and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8) as well as increased IFN-β and IFN-γ in the respiratory mucosa were observed in ΔmbfCRL1505-treated mice when compared to untreated control mice. The immunological changes induced by the ΔmbfCRL1505 strain were not different from those observed for the wild-type CRL1505 strain. Although it is generally accepted that the expression of adhesion factors is necessary for immunobiotics to induce their beneficial effects, it was demonstrated here that the mbf protein is not required for L. rhamnosus CRL1505 to exert its immunomodulatory activities in local and distal mucosal sites. These results are a step forward towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory capabilities of L. rhamnosus CRL1505. Full article
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14 pages, 3090 KiB  
Article
Immunostimulatory Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Cell-Free Supernatants through the Activation of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells
by Jaekoo Lee, Seonyoung Kim and Chang-Ho Kang
Microorganisms 2022, 10(11), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10112247 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can improve host health and has strong potential for use as a health functional food. Specific strains of LAB have been reported to exert immunostimulatory effects. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activities of [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can improve host health and has strong potential for use as a health functional food. Specific strains of LAB have been reported to exert immunostimulatory effects. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activities of novel LAB strains isolated from humans and foods and to investigate the probiotic properties of these strains. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) obtained from selected LAB strains significantly increased phagocytosis and level of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which are immunomodulators, was also upregulated by CFS treatment. CFS markedly induced the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38). In addition, the safety of the LAB strains used in this study was demonstrated by hemolysis and antibiotic resistance tests. Their stability was confirmed under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that the LAB strains selected in this study could be useful as probiotic candidates with immune-stimulating activity. Full article
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16 pages, 2782 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Single and Multi-Strain Probiotics on In Vitro Strain Compatibility, Pathogen Inhibition, Biofilm Formation Capability, and Stress Tolerance
by Puvaneswari Puvanasundram, Chou Min Chong, Suriana Sabri, Md Sabri Mohd Yusoff, Keng Chin Lim and Murni Karim
Biology 2022, 11(11), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11111644 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
Compatibility of each strain in a multi-strain probiotic (MSP), along with its properties, becomes a strong base for its formulation. In this study, single-strain probiotics (SSPs) and multi-strain probiotics (MSPs) were evaluated in vitro for strain compatibility, microbial antagonism, biofilm formation capacity, and [...] Read more.
Compatibility of each strain in a multi-strain probiotic (MSP), along with its properties, becomes a strong base for its formulation. In this study, single-strain probiotics (SSPs) and multi-strain probiotics (MSPs) were evaluated in vitro for strain compatibility, microbial antagonism, biofilm formation capacity, and stress tolerance. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L11, Enterococcus hirae LAB3, and Lysinibacillus fusiformis SPS11 were chosen as MSP1 candidates because they showed much stronger antagonism to Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae than a single probiotic. MSP 2 candidates were Lysinibacillus fusiformis strains SPS11, A1, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain NAS32 because the inhibition zone produced by MSP 2 against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was much higher than that produced by its constituent SSPs. MSP1 in the co-culture assay reduced (p < 0.05) A. hydrophila count from 9.89 ± 0.1 CFU mL−1 to 2.14 ± 0.2 CFU mL−1. The biofilm formation of both MSPs were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than its constituent SSPs and the pathogens. The SSPs in both MSPs generally showed resistance to high temperatures (80, 90, and 100 °C) and a wide range of pH (2 to 9). This in vitro assessment study demonstrates that MSP1 and 2 have the potential to be further explored as multi-strain probiotics on selected aquatic species. Full article
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15 pages, 2070 KiB  
Article
Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactoferrin-Expressing Probiotics Ameliorates Diet-Induced Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice
by Zhen-Shu Liu, Pei-Lin Li, Yu-We Ku and Po-Wen Chen
Microorganisms 2022, 10(11), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10112215 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
We have recently developed probiotics that can express bovine, human, or porcine lactoferrin (LF), and the present study evaluated the effect of these probiotics in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Three kinds of probiotic supplements, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB), LAB/LF, and [...] Read more.
We have recently developed probiotics that can express bovine, human, or porcine lactoferrin (LF), and the present study evaluated the effect of these probiotics in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Three kinds of probiotic supplements, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB), LAB/LF, and inactivated LAB/LF, were prepared. The LAB supplement was prepared from 10 viable LAB without recombinant LF-expression, the LAB/LF supplement was prepared from 10 viable probiotics expressing LF, and the inactivated LAB/LF supplement was prepared from 10 inactivated probiotics expressing LF. A model of obese/NAFLD mice induced by a high-fat diet was established, and the mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed with a placebo, LAB, LAB/LF, or inactivated LAB daily for four weeks via oral gavage. The body weight, food intake, organ weight, biochemistry, and hepatic histopathological alterations and severity scoring were measured. The results revealed that the obese mice fed with any one of the three probiotic mixtures prepared from recombinant probiotics for four weeks exhibited considerably improved hepatic steatosis. These findings confirmed the assumption that specific probiotic strains or LF supplements could help to control NAFLD, as suggested in previous reports. Our data also suggest that the probiotics and LFs in probiotic mixtures contribute differently to improving the efficacy against NAFLD, and the expressed LF content in probiotics may help to boost their efficacy in comparison with the original probiotic mixtures. Moreover, when these LF-expressing probiotics were further inactivated by sonication, they displayed better efficacies than the viable probiotics against NAFLD. This study has provided intriguing data supporting the potential of recombinant probiotics in improving hepatic steatosis. Full article
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21 pages, 1667 KiB  
Article
Lacticaseibacillus casei Strain Shirota Modulates Macrophage-Intestinal Epithelial Cell Co-Culture Barrier Integrity, Bacterial Sensing and Inflammatory Cytokines
by Andrew Foey, Neama Habil, Alex Strachan and Jane Beal
Microorganisms 2022, 10(10), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10102087 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Probiotic bacteria modulate macrophage immune inflammatory responses, with functional cytokine responses determined by macrophage subset polarisation, stimulation and probiotic strain. Mucosal macrophages exhibit subset functional heterogeneity but are organised in a 3-dimensional tissue, over-laid by barrier epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Probiotic bacteria modulate macrophage immune inflammatory responses, with functional cytokine responses determined by macrophage subset polarisation, stimulation and probiotic strain. Mucosal macrophages exhibit subset functional heterogeneity but are organised in a 3-dimensional tissue, over-laid by barrier epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on macrophage-epithelial cell cytokine responses, pattern recognition receptor (PRR) expression and LPS responses and the impacts on barrier integrity. THP-1-derived M1 and M2 subset macrophages were co-cultured in a transwell system with differentiated Caco-2 epithelial cells in the presence or absence of enteropathogenic LPS. Both Caco-2 cells in monoculture and macrophage co-culture were assayed for cytokines, PRR expression and barrier integrity (TEER and ZO-1) by RT-PCR, ELISA, IHC and electrical resistance. Caco-2 monocultures expressed distinct cytokine profiles (IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, endogenous IL-10), PRRs and barrier integrity, determined by inflammatory context (TNFα or IL-1β). In co-culture, LcS rescued ZO-1 and TEER in M2/Caco-2, but not M1/Caco-2. LcS suppressed TLR2, TLR4, MD2 expression in both co-cultures and differentially regulated NOD2, TLR9, Tollip and cytokine secretion. In conclusion, LcS selectively modulates epithelial barrier integrity, pathogen sensing and inflammatory cytokine profile; determined by macrophage subset and activation status. Full article
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19 pages, 4085 KiB  
Article
Screening of Bacteria Inhibiting Clostridium perfringens and Assessment of Their Beneficial Effects In Vitro and In Vivo with Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis
by Zipeng Jiang, Weifa Su, Mingzhi Yang, Wentao Li, Tao Gong, Yu Zhang, Chaoyue Wen, Xinxia Wang, Yizhen Wang, Mingliang Jin and Zeqing Lu
Microorganisms 2022, 10(10), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10102056 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
Various countries and organizations call for banning the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) as prophylaxis and for growth promotion in the livestock industry. Hence, seeking a substitute for antibiotics is strongly required by the livestock industry to maintain the productivity level and [...] Read more.
Various countries and organizations call for banning the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) as prophylaxis and for growth promotion in the livestock industry. Hence, seeking a substitute for antibiotics is strongly required by the livestock industry to maintain the productivity level and profits. Probiotics could represent one viable solution because of their beneficial effects on host health and maintaining the intestinal microbiota balance. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacterial strains with probiotics properties from JinHua pig (a Chinese native pig breed) gastrointestinal tract that have antagonistic activity against to common disease-causing bacteria on farms. The four most potent strains were isolated (PP31, BA11, BA40, BV5) by the agar well diffusion method and further characterized by acid, bile salt, trypsin tolerance, whole genome sequencing (WGS), and suppressing Clostridium perfringens adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells. According to these results, BA40 had the highest number and variety of probiotic secondary metabolic secretion genes and capacity to exclude the attachment of Clostridium perfringens to IPEC-J2 cells as same as PB6. The animal experiment in vivo illustrated that BA40 and PB6 could reduce the phenomenon induced by Clostridium perfringens challenge of body weight loss, colon length decrease, pro-inflammatory cytokine increase, and Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli increase. The present study provides evidence that BA40 could represent a novel probiotic candidate as PB6, which exhibited some probiotic features and mitigated the burden of Clostridium perfringens associated gut disease. Full article
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10 pages, 1476 KiB  
Article
A Heat-Killed Probiotic Mixture Regulates Immune T Cells Balance and IgE Production in House Dust Mite Extraction-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Mice
by Hsin-Yu Chen, Yung-Tsung Chen, Kuan-Yi Li, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Yu-Chun Lin and Ming-Ju Chen
Microorganisms 2022, 10(10), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10101881 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease accompanied with severe itching and skin lesions. Current studies have demonstrated that probiotics can exert an immunomodulatory effect, improve epithelial barrier function, and normalize the composition of gut microbiota. Thus, the aim [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease accompanied with severe itching and skin lesions. Current studies have demonstrated that probiotics can exert an immunomodulatory effect, improve epithelial barrier function, and normalize the composition of gut microbiota. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on the immune balance of AD in vivo. We first screened two lactic acid bacteria strains, which were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MP01 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei MP02, from 10 strains isolated from traditional fermented milk with inflammation regulating activities in vitro. In the house dust mite (HDM) extraction-induced AD mouse model, mice were assigned randomly to four groups: control group (PC), HDM-induced AD group (NC), HDM-induced AD mice with administration of a mixture of heat-killed MP01 and MP02 at a low concentration (LD), and high concentration (HD) groups. Compared with the NC group, the probiotic treatments could relieve the AD symptoms. Moreover, the LD group significantly decreased total and HDM-specific IgE concentration. These results indicated that a combination of heat-killed MP01 and MP02 strains modulated the proportion of IL4+CD4+ T cells and IFNγ+CD4+ T cells in the spleen of HDM extraction-induced AD mice. In conclusion, administration of the heat-killed MP01 and MP02 mixtures appeared to relieve the classic AD signs, decrease serum IgE concentration, and rebalance the population of Th1/Th2 cells in HDM extraction-induced AD mice. The immunomodulatory activities of a combination of heat-killed MP01 and MP02 provided a potential new therapeutic strategy against AD. Full article
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14 pages, 5939 KiB  
Article
Anti-Tumor Effect of Heat-Killed Bifidobacterium bifidum on Human Gastric Cancer through Akt-p53-Dependent Mitochondrial Apoptosis in Xenograft Models
by SukJin Kim, Hwan Hee Lee, Wonhyeok Choi, Chang-Ho Kang, Gun-Hee Kim and Hyosun Cho
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 9788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23179788 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
Paraprobiotics, inactivated microbial cells, regulate immune system and exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in patients with weakened immunity or the elderly. This study evaluated the anti-tumor effects of heat-killed Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on human gastric cancer MKN1 cells in vitro and in vivo [...] Read more.
Paraprobiotics, inactivated microbial cells, regulate immune system and exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in patients with weakened immunity or the elderly. This study evaluated the anti-tumor effects of heat-killed Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on human gastric cancer MKN1 cells in vitro and in vivo in xenograft animal models. First, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MKN1 cells of 11 different heat-killed Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus strains were examined using the MTT assay or flow cytometry, respectively. Then, BALB/c nude mice xenograft animal models were implanted with human gastric cancer MKN1 cells and orally administered a selected single or a mixture of heat-killed bacterial strains to investigate their inhibitory effect on tumor growth. In addition, the expression of p-Akt, p53, Bax, Bak, cleaved caspase-9, -3, and PARP in the tumor tissues was analyzed using Western blotting assay or immunohistochemistry staining. The results show that heat-killed B. bifidum MG731 (MG731), L. reuteri MG5346 (MG5346), and L. rhamnosus MG5200 (MG5200) induced relatively greater apoptosis than other strains in MKN1 cells. Oral administration of a single dose or a mixture of MG731, MG5346, or MG5200 significantly delayed tumor growth, and MG731 had the most effective anti-tumor effect in the xenograft model. Protein expression of p-Akt, p53, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and PARP in tumors derived from the xenograft model correlated with the results of the immunohistochemistry staining. Full article
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13 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Limosilactobacillus reuteri Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis via Changes in Gut Bacteria and Indole Derivatives from Tryptophan Metabolism
by Zhifeng Fang, Tong Pan, Hongchao Wang, Jinlin Zhu, Hao Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Wei Chen and Wenwei Lu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147735 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2626
Abstract
Gut bacteria are closely associated with the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) due to their immunoregulatory function. Indole derivatives, produced by gut bacteria metabolizing tryptophan, are ligands to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which plays a critical role in attenuating AD symptoms. [...] Read more.
Gut bacteria are closely associated with the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) due to their immunoregulatory function. Indole derivatives, produced by gut bacteria metabolizing tryptophan, are ligands to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which plays a critical role in attenuating AD symptoms. Limosilactobacillus reuteri, a producer of indole derivatives, regulates mucosal immunity via activating the AHR signaling pathway. However, the effective substance and mechanism of L. reuteri in the amelioration of AD remain to be elucidated. In this research, we found that L. reuteri DYNDL22M62 significantly improved AD-like symptoms in mice by suppressing IgE levels and the expressions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-4, and IL-5. L. reuteri DYNDL22M62 induced an increase in the production of indole lactic acid (ILA) and indole propionic acid (IPA) via targeted tryptophan metabolic analysis and the expression of AHR in mice. Furthermore, L. reuteri DYNDL22M62 increased the proportions of Romboutsia and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group, which were positively related to ILA, but decreased Dubosiella, which was negatively related to IPA. Collectively, L. reuteri DYNDL22M62 with the role of modulating gut bacteria and the production of indole derivatives may attenuate AD via activating AHR in mice. Full article
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12 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Algorithms Highlight tRNA Information Content and Chargaff’s Second Parity Rule Score as Important Features in Discriminating Probiotics from Non-Probiotics
by Carlo M. Bergamini, Nicoletta Bianchi, Valerio Giaccone, Paolo Catellani, Leonardo Alberghini, Alessandra Stella, Stefano Biffani, Sachithra Kalhari Yaddehige, Tania Bobbo and Cristian Taccioli
Biology 2022, 11(7), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11071024 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Probiotic bacteria are microorganisms with beneficial effects on human health and are currently used in numerous food supplements. However, no selection process is able to effectively distinguish probiotics from non-probiotic organisms on the basis of their genomic characteristics. In the current study, four [...] Read more.
Probiotic bacteria are microorganisms with beneficial effects on human health and are currently used in numerous food supplements. However, no selection process is able to effectively distinguish probiotics from non-probiotic organisms on the basis of their genomic characteristics. In the current study, four Machine Learning algorithms were employed to accurately identify probiotic bacteria based on their DNA characteristics. Although the prediction accuracies of all algorithms were excellent, the Neural Network returned the highest scores in all the evaluation metrics, managing to discriminate probiotics from non-probiotics with an accuracy greater than 90%. Interestingly, our analysis also highlighted the information content of the tRNA sequences as the most important feature in distinguishing the two groups of organisms probably because tRNAs have regulatory functions and might have allowed probiotics to evolve faster in the human gut environment. Through the methodology presented here, it was also possible to identify seven promising new probiotics that have a higher information content in their tRNA sequences compared to non-probiotics. In conclusion, we prove for the first time that Machine Learning methods can discriminate human probiotic from non-probiotic organisms underlining information within tRNA sequences as the most important genomic feature in distinguishing them. Full article
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