Topic Editors

1. Department of Ophthalmology, St. Luke's International University and Hospital, Tokyo 104-8560, Japan
2. Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
Prof. Dr. Yasumichi Arai
Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care/Center for Supercentenarian Medical Research, Keio University 35, Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
Dr. Sumihiro Maeda
Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan

Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases

Abstract submission deadline
closed (15 January 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxidative stress is generated daily; however, when it exceeds the capacity of self-limiting mechanism, it causes decompensation of the tissue/organ function. The mechanism may be involved in tissue/organ functional disorders during physiological aging and pathogenesis of age-related diseases. In order to develop novel therapeutic approaches for treating and preventing age-related diseases, as well as preserve healthy aging, both of which lead to a better quality of life, this Interdisciplinary Topic pays special attention to the molecular mechanisms, biomarkers, epidemiology, therapeutic proof of concept, and clinical trials which could open up a new era in the medical fields of aging and age-related diseases.

We invite you to contribute an original paper or a review paper on recent novel concepts based on basic and/or clinical research to understand mechanisms of age-related diseases, metabolic syndrome, neurodegeneration, longevity, and so on.

Prof. Dr. Yoko Ozawa
Prof. Dr. Yasumichi Arai
Dr. Sumihiro Maeda
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • aging
  • age-related diseases
  • metabolic syndrome
  • inflammation
  • epidemiology
  • model animals and cells
  • iPS cells

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Antioxidants
antioxidants
7.0 8.8 2012 13.9 Days CHF 2900
Brain Sciences
brainsci
3.3 3.9 2011 15.6 Days CHF 2200
Medicina
medicina
2.6 3.6 1920 19.6 Days CHF 1800
Metabolites
metabolites
4.1 5.3 2011 13.2 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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11 pages, 1342 KiB  
Article
Sarcopenia with Depression Presents a More Severe Disability Than Only Sarcopenia among Japanese Older Adults in Need of Long-Term Care
by Takahiro Shiba, Ryo Sato, Yohei Sawaya, Tamaki Hirose, Masahiro Ishizaka, Akira Kubo and Tomohiko Urano
Medicina 2023, 59(6), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061095 - 6 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Background and objectives: The combination of depression and sarcopenia, a condition prevalent worldwide, may cause dis-tinct problems that should not be underestimated. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports have investigated the combined effects of depression and sarcopenia. In this [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The combination of depression and sarcopenia, a condition prevalent worldwide, may cause dis-tinct problems that should not be underestimated. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports have investigated the combined effects of depression and sarcopenia. In this study, we compared physical function, nutritional status, and daily functioning among older adults with only depression (OD), those with only sarcopenia (OS), and those with sarcopenia with depression (SD) to examine the effects of the combination of depression and sarcopenia. Materials and Methods: The participants were 186 communi-ty-dwelling older individuals who required support or care. The participants were classified into four groups based on the presence or absence of sarcopenia and depression: Control, OD, OS, and SD. The following parameters were evaluated in the four groups: grip strength, walking speed, skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-sf), and long-term care certification level. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses of the survey results were performed to identify risk factors leading from OS to SD. Results: We found that 31.2% of older participants who needed support or nursing care had SD, which had more pronounced adverse effects on grip strength, walking speed, SMI, MNA-sf, and level of nursing care than OD or OS. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of SD vs. OS showed that decreased grip strength and worsening MNA-sf were independent risk factors. Conclusions: SD is common among older individuals living in the community. Patients with SD require support and care, and the condition has a greater impact on physical function, nutritional status, and decline in life function compared to OD and OS. Therefore, it is desirable to elucidate the process leading to SD and investigate the risk factors and prognosis. It is expected that sarcopenia with depression will be investigated worldwide in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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14 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Effects of Uncertainty, Appraisal of Uncertainty, and Self-Efficacy on the Quality of Life of Elderly Patients with Lung Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy: Based on Mishel’s Theory of Uncertainty
by Min-Kyung Hwang, Hee-Kyung Kim and Ki-Hyeong Lee
Medicina 2023, 59(6), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061051 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to enhance the quality of life in elderly patients with lung cancer by understanding relations of uncertainty, appraisal of uncertainty, self-efficacy, and quality of life targeting elderly patients with lung cancer receiving anticancer therapy, [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to enhance the quality of life in elderly patients with lung cancer by understanding relations of uncertainty, appraisal of uncertainty, self-efficacy, and quality of life targeting elderly patients with lung cancer receiving anticancer therapy, and also analyzing the factors affecting the quality of life based on Mishel’s theory. Materials and Methods: The subjects were a total of 112 lung cancer patients aged 65 or older receiving anticancer therapy. The data was collected by using self-report questionnaires targeting patients in hemato-oncology at Chungbuk National University Hospital. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test, an analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlational coefficients, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: In stage 1, anticancer therapy (chemotherapy) (β = −0.34, p < 0.001), economic condition (low) (β = −0.30, p < 0.001), the number of anticancer therapies (three times or more) (β = −0.29, p < 0.001), and education (graduation from high school or higher) (β = 0.18, p = 0.033) were influencing factors (F = 0.52, p < 0.001). In stage 2, self-efficacy (β = 0.41, p < 0.001), appraisal of uncertainty: danger (β = −0.29, p < 0.001), appraisal of uncertainty: opportunity (β = 0.18, p = 0.018), the number of anticancer therapies (three times or more) (β = −0.17, p = 0.006), and anticancer therapy (chemotherapy) (β = −0.14, p = 0.031) were influencing factors, which showed 74.2% explanatory power (F = 26.17, p < 0.001). Conclusions: In order to improve the quality of life of subjects, it would be necessary to develop interventions for raising their self-efficacy by considering their degree of education, economic condition, the types and numbers of anticancer therapies, and understanding of the appraisal of uncertainty about the disease is assessed as an opportunity factor or a danger factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
10 pages, 647 KiB  
Article
Total Bilirubin Yields Prognostic Information Following a Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly
by Dennis Winston T. Nilsen, Peder Langeland Myhre, Svein Solheim, Sjur Hansen Tveit, Are Annesønn Kalstad, Kristian Laake, Arnljot Tveit and Ingebjørg Seljeflot
Antioxidants 2023, 12(6), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12061157 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Total bilirubin consists of an unconjugated form, solubilized by its binding to albumin, and a conjugated form representing a minor part of the circulating bilirubin. As total bilirubin in physiological concentrations is a powerful antioxidant, its concentration gradient may reflect the health status [...] Read more.
Total bilirubin consists of an unconjugated form, solubilized by its binding to albumin, and a conjugated form representing a minor part of the circulating bilirubin. As total bilirubin in physiological concentrations is a powerful antioxidant, its concentration gradient may reflect the health status of an individual, and serve as a prognostic indicator of outcome in primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the association between total bilirubin and incident cardiovascular events following a myocardial infarction. Total bilirubin in serum was measured at baseline 2–8 weeks after hospitalization for an MI in 881 patients, aged 70 to 82 years, included in the OMEMI (Omega-3 Fatty acids in Elderly with Myocardial Infarction) study, where patients were followed-up for up to 2 years. The first major adverse clinical event (MACE) was the primary endpoint and consisted of nonfatal MI, unscheduled coronary revascularization, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure or all-cause death. As total bilirubin was non-normally distributed, log-transformed values and quartiles of bilirubin were analyzed using Cox regression models. The median (Q1, and Q3) baseline concentration of bilirubin was 11 (9, and 14) µmol/L, and higher log-transformed concentrations were associated with male sex, lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and non-smoking. MACE occurred in 177 (20.1%) patients during the follow-up. Higher concentrations of bilirubin were associated with a lower risk of MACE: HR 0.67 (95%CI 0.47–0.97) per log-unit increase, p = 0.032. Patients in the lowest quartile of bilirubin (<9 µmol/L) had the highest risk with HR 1.61 (95%CI 1.19–2.18), p = 0.002, compared to quartiles 2–4. This association remained significant even after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, NYHA class and treatment allocation: HR 1.52 (1.21–2.09), p = 0.009. Low concentrations of bilirubin (<9 µmol/L) are associated with increased nonfatal cardiovascular events or death in elderly patients with a recent myocardial infarction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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13 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Learned Irrelevance, Perseveration, and Cognitive Aging: A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitively Unimpaired Older Adults
by Aleksandra Fijałkiewicz, Krzysztof Batko and Aleksandra Gruszka
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13030473 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
The effect of natural aging on physiologic mechanisms that regulate attentional set-shifting represents an area of high interest in the study of cognitive function. In visual discrimination learning, reward contingency changes in categorization tasks impact individual performance, which is constrained by attention-shifting costs. [...] Read more.
The effect of natural aging on physiologic mechanisms that regulate attentional set-shifting represents an area of high interest in the study of cognitive function. In visual discrimination learning, reward contingency changes in categorization tasks impact individual performance, which is constrained by attention-shifting costs. Perseveration (PE) and learned irrelevance (LI) are viewed as two different mechanisms that shape responses to stimuli, which are predicated on the shift in stimulus form. To date, only studies examining patients with Parkinson’s disease have provided some insight into the relationship between individual age and performance in PE and LI tasks. We enrolled 60 healthy individuals (mean [SD] age, 63.0 [12.6]) without a history of dementia, a cerebrovascular incident, or a neurodegenerative disease. No association was observed between crystallized intelligence or verbal fluency scores and reaction time in both PE (r = 0.074, p = 0.603; r = −0.124, p = 0.346) and LI (r = −0.076, p = 0.562; r = −0.081, p = 0.536) task conditions, respectively. In contrast, a statistically significant linear relationship was observed between age and reaction time (RT) for PE (r = 0.259, p = 0.046) but not for LI (r = 0.226, p = 0.083). No significant linear relationship was observed for changing RTs in PE and LI (r = 0.209, p = 0.110). The present study is the first report that provides a descriptive overview of age-related differences in PE and LI in a sample of cognitively unimpaired middle- to older-aged adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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10 pages, 866 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between the Presence of an Earlobe Crease and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Case-Controlled Study
by Yasufumi Ueda, Tomohiro Matsuo, Ken Kawada, Hidenori Ito, Kensuke Mitsunari, Kojiro Ohba and Ryoichi Imamura
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030476 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To examine the relationship between the presence of earlobe crease (EC) and overactive bladder (OAB). Materials and Methods: The earlobes of the participants were examined macroscopically. ECs were further divided into four groups (grades 0–3) according to severity. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To examine the relationship between the presence of earlobe crease (EC) and overactive bladder (OAB). Materials and Methods: The earlobes of the participants were examined macroscopically. ECs were further divided into four groups (grades 0–3) according to severity. Subjective symptoms were assessed using the OAB symptom score (OABSS), and objective findings were assessed using uroflowmetry. The relationship between these findings and the presence or absence and severity of EC was also examined. A score of ≥2 points on OABSS question 3 (urinary urgency), with a total score of ≥3 points, indicated OAB. Results: We analyzed 246 participants, including 120 (48.8%) in the EC group and 126 (51.2%) in the non-EC (N-EC) group. On the OABSS, the EC group scored higher than the N-EC group for all questions and for the total score. The total OABSS of EC grade 3 was the highest of all groups. A total of 115 (95.8%) patients in the EC group (100% in grade 3) and 69 (54.8%) in the N-EC group met the OAB criteria (p < 0.001). The voided volume and maximum flow rate of the EC group were significantly lower than those of the N-EC group (both p < 0.001). The post-void residual urine volume in the EC group was significantly higher than that in the N-EC group (p = 0.029). Multivariate analysis revealed that EC was an independent risk factor for OAB (odds ratio, 8.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.84–24.75; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The presence of an earlobe crease may be a predictive marker for OAB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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11 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Sociodemographic, Anthropometric, Body Composition, Nutritional, and Biochemical Factors Influenced by Age in a Postmenopausal Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Héctor Vázquez-Lorente, Lourdes Herrera-Quintana, Jorge Molina-López, Beatriz López-González and Elena Planells
Metabolites 2023, 13(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13010078 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Postmenopausal aging has become relevant for understanding health during the transition life stages—the aging process being involved in several disturbances of the human condition. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between postmenopausal aging and sociodemographic, anthropometric, body composition, nutritional, and biochemical [...] Read more.
Postmenopausal aging has become relevant for understanding health during the transition life stages—the aging process being involved in several disturbances of the human condition. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between postmenopausal aging and sociodemographic, anthropometric, body composition, nutritional, and biochemical (i.e., protein and lipid profiles, phosphorous-calcium metabolism, and antioxidant status) factors in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 78 healthy postmenopausal women (44–76 years). The anthropometrical data showed no differences by age. Biochemical parameters, especially those involved in the protein and phosphorous-calcium metabolism, were influenced by age in our cohort of postmenopausal women. In contrast, no associations were found when considering lipid and antioxidant parameters. Height, fiber intake, blood glucose, protein profile and phosphorous-calcium metabolism markers seem to be the most affected nutritional-related factors by age in our cohort of healthy postmenopausal women. Primary prevention strategies focused on parameters at risk of disruption with postmenopausal aging are necessary to ensure the quality of life in older ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
8 pages, 709 KiB  
Case Report
COVID-19 Still Surprising Us—A Rare Movement Disorder Induced by Infection
by Carmen Adella Sirbu, Diana Popescu, Ion Stefan, Constantin Stefani, Marian Mitrica and Daniela Anghel
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(12), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12121733 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Background: Many neurological manifestations are part of COVID-19 infections, including movement disorders, but a clinical picture closely resembling stiff-person syndrome has not yet been described. Case presentation: We report a case of a stiff-person-like syndrome in the context of COVID-19 infection. A 79-year-old [...] Read more.
Background: Many neurological manifestations are part of COVID-19 infections, including movement disorders, but a clinical picture closely resembling stiff-person syndrome has not yet been described. Case presentation: We report a case of a stiff-person-like syndrome in the context of COVID-19 infection. A 79-year-old woman, with no prior history of diseases, presented global reversible stiffness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aim to shed light on several particularities regarding this clinical picture and its evolution in close relationship with the infectious disease progression, with full regression of symptoms and signs once the infectious process ceased. The impairment of speech and motility caused the wrong diagnosis of stroke in the Emergency Room. In addition, we would also like to emphasize the concomitant rhabdomyolysis, closely linked to the grade of muscle rigidity. Conclusions: We would like to raise awareness regarding this clinical setting and its association with SARS-COV-2 infection, to aid in its future recognition and management. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a stiff-person-like syndrome to be described in association with COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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12 pages, 1378 KiB  
Article
Monocyte Phenotypes and Physical Activity in Patients with Carotid Atherosclerosis
by Mathilde Mura, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Nellie Della-Schiava, Erica Chirico, Patrick Lermusiaux, Marie Chambion-Diaz, Camille Faes, Anaelle Boreau, Bénédicte Chazaud, Antoine Millon and Vincent Pialoux
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081529 - 5 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is associated with low-grade inflammation involving circulating monocytes. It has been shown that the levels of intermediate pro-inflammatory monocytes are associated with cardiovascular mortality and risk of ischemic stroke. It also has been shown that physical activity (PA) decreases inflammation markers, incidence [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is associated with low-grade inflammation involving circulating monocytes. It has been shown that the levels of intermediate pro-inflammatory monocytes are associated with cardiovascular mortality and risk of ischemic stroke. It also has been shown that physical activity (PA) decreases inflammation markers, incidence of strokes, and mortality. In this cross-sectional study, we tested the effect of PA on circulating monocytes phenotype rate. A total of 29 patients with a carotid stenosis > 50% were recruited. Levels of physical activity (MET.min/week) were measured by the GPAQ questionnaire, arterial samples of blood were collected to analyze monocyte phenotype (classical, intermediate and non-classical) assessed by flow cytometry, and venous blood samples were used to dose antioxidant activity and oxidative damage. Antioxidant capacity was reduced and oxidative damage increased in patients. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of classical and intermediate monocytes in moderately active patients as compared with non-active and highly active patients. Inversely, the rate of non-classical monocytes increased in moderately active patients. Intense PA appears to blunt the beneficial effects of moderate PA. Our study also suggests that PA could be beneficial in such patients by reducing the rate of intermediate monocytes known to predict the risk of ischemic stroke and by increasing the non-classical monocytes involved in lesions’ healing. Nevertheless, a longitudinal study would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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10 pages, 559 KiB  
Article
Association between Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal Cortex and Olfactory Performance in Parkinson’s Disease
by Wentao Fan, Hui Li, Haoyuan Li, Ying Li, Jing Wang, Xiuqin Jia and Qi Yang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12080963 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the association between the functional connectivity (FC) of the olfactory cortex and olfactory performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Eighty-two early PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans, as well as neuropsychological [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the association between the functional connectivity (FC) of the olfactory cortex and olfactory performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Eighty-two early PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans, as well as neuropsychological assessments from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative database. A whole brain voxel-wise regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the FC of the entorhinal cortex (EC-FC) and olfactory performance. Then, a one-way ANCOVA, based on the regions of interest, was performed with SPSS to investigate the group differences and correlation analysis that were used to analyze the relationships between the FC and neuropsychological assessments. In addition, regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors for the decreased olfactory function. A significantly negative correlation was observed between the olfactory performance and the left EC-FC in the right dorsal cingulate gyrus (dCC) in patients. The PD patients with anosmia exhibited significantly higher FC values than the PD patients with normal olfaction or the PD patients with mild to moderate microsomia. Except for the olfactory performance, no significant correlation was detected between the neuropsychological assessments and the FC values. A linear regression analysis revealed that the increased FC and Geriatric Depression Scale are independently associated with lower the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test scores. The current findings enhanced the understanding of olfactory dysfunction-related pathophysiological mechanisms in early PD and suggested that the left EC-FC in the right dCC may be a potential neuroimaging biomarker for olfactory performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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12 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Orthopedic Surgery on Circulating Metabolite Levels, and their Associations with the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium
by Mijin Jung, Xiaobei Pan, Emma L. Cunningham, Anthony P. Passmore, Bernadette McGuinness, Daniel F. McAuley, David Beverland, Seamus O’Brien, Tim Mawhinney, Jonathan M. Schott, Henrik Zetterberg and Brian D. Green
Metabolites 2022, 12(7), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070616 - 1 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1951
Abstract
The mechanisms underlying the occurrence of postoperative delirium development are unclear and measurement of plasma metabolites may improve understanding of its causes. Participants (n = 54) matched for age and gender were sampled from an observational cohort study investigating postoperative delirium. Participants [...] Read more.
The mechanisms underlying the occurrence of postoperative delirium development are unclear and measurement of plasma metabolites may improve understanding of its causes. Participants (n = 54) matched for age and gender were sampled from an observational cohort study investigating postoperative delirium. Participants were ≥65 years without a diagnosis of dementia and presented for primary elective hip or knee arthroplasty. Plasma samples collected pre- and postoperatively were grouped as either control (n = 26, aged: 75.8 ± 5.2) or delirium (n = 28, aged: 76.2 ± 5.7). Widespread changes in plasma metabolite levels occurred following surgery. The only metabolites significantly differing between corresponding control and delirium samples were ornithine and spermine. In delirium cases, ornithine was 17.6% higher preoperatively, and spermine was 12.0% higher postoperatively. Changes were not associated with various perioperative factors. In binary logistic regression modeling, these two metabolites did not confer a significantly increased risk of delirium. These findings support the hypothesis that disturbed polyamine metabolism is an underlying factor in delirium that warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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20 pages, 1448 KiB  
Review
Physical Activity and Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Aging Decay: Modulation of Pathways in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
by Federica Vita, Sebastiano Gangemi, Giovanni Pioggia, Fabio Trimarchi and Debora Di Mauro
Medicina 2022, 58(6), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58060767 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3161
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Bones and the skeletal muscle play a key role in human physiology as regulators of metabolism in the whole organism. Bone tissue is identified as a complex and dynamic living unit that could react to physical activity. Hormones, growth [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Bones and the skeletal muscle play a key role in human physiology as regulators of metabolism in the whole organism. Bone tissue is identified as a complex and dynamic living unit that could react to physical activity. Hormones, growth factors, signaling factors, and environmental factors control osteogenesis, and it could be regulated at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can interfere with mRNAs translation. Increasing data suggest that miRNAs, through different pathways, are involved in the regulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation and physical activity-induced bone remodeling. The purpose of this narrative review is to investigate the potential protective role played by physical activity in affecting miRNAs expression in close tissues and elaborate on the complex network of interplay that could drive various metabolic responses of the bone to physical activity. Materials and Methods: A bibliographic search of the scientific literature was carried out in scientific databases to investigate the possible effect of physical activity on age-related features detected in the musculoskeletal system. Results: Several studies suggested that the musculoskeletal system interacting at a biomolecular level could establish crosstalk between bone and muscle in an endocrine or paracrine way through myokines released by muscle at the periosteal interface or in the bloodstream, such as irisin. Mechanical stimuli have a key role in bone formation and resorption, increasing osteogenesis and downregulating adipogenesis of BMSC via regulation of expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), respectively. Conclusions: Increasing data suggest that miRNAs, through different pathways, are involved in the regulation of BMSCs differentiation and physical activity-induced bone remodeling. Modulation of miRNAs following physical exercise represents an interesting field of investigation since these non-coding RNAs may be considered defenders against degenerative diseases and as well as useful prognostic markers in skeletal and muscle-skeletal diseases, such as osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Assess of Combinations of Non-Pharmacological Interventions for the Reduction of Irritability in Patients with Dementia and their Caregivers: A Cross-Over RCT
by Tatiana Dimitriou, John Papatriantafyllou, Anastasia Konsta, Dimitrios Kazis, Loukas Athanasiadis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Efrosini Koutsouraki, Thomas Tegos and Magda Tsolaki
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060691 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 3608
Abstract
Introduction: Dementia is a very common disorder that affects people over 65 years old all over the world. Apart from the cognitive decline, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a crucial matter in dementia, because they affect up to 90% of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Dementia is a very common disorder that affects people over 65 years old all over the world. Apart from the cognitive decline, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a crucial matter in dementia, because they affect up to 90% of the patients during the course of their illness. Irritability has been found to be a common BPSD and one of the most distressing behaviors for the caregivers. The aim of the current study was to explore the efficacy of a combination of non-pharmacological interventions to treat irritability. Methods: Sixty patients with different types and stages of dementia with irritability were participated in a cross-over RCT. Three non-pharmacological interventions were used; (a) Validation Therapy (VT)/Psycho-educational program, (b) Aromatherapy/massage and (c) Music Therapy (MT). The study assessed the three non-pharmacological interventions in order to find the most effective combination of the interventions. This study did not compare pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The interventions lasted for five days. There was no drop-out rate. All patients were assessed at baseline using Mini Mental State of Examination (MMSE), Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Functional Rating Scale for symptoms in dementia (FRSSD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (sub questions for irritability). Only NPI used for the assessment after each intervention. The analyses used categorical variables, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Chi-square test and z value score. Results: The most effective combination of non-pharmacological interventions was Aromatherapy/massage (p = 0.003)-VT plus Psycho-educational program (p = 0.014) plus MT (p = 0.018). The same combination was the most effective for the caregivers’ burden, too (p = 0.026). Conclusions: The above combination of non-pharmacological interventions can reduce irritability in patients with dementia and caregivers’ burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
14 pages, 3133 KiB  
Article
Baicalein Exerts Therapeutic Effects against Endotoxin-Induced Depression-like Behavior in Mice by Decreasing Inflammatory Cytokines and Increasing Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels
by Hsin-Tzu Liu, Yu-Ning Lin, Ming-Cheng Tsai, Ya-Chi Wu and Ming-Chung Lee
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050947 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aims to elucidate the antidepressant effect of baicalein, an anti-inflammatory component of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (Scutellaria baicalensis), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice, and to investigate [...] Read more.
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aims to elucidate the antidepressant effect of baicalein, an anti-inflammatory component of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (Scutellaria baicalensis), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, baicalein exhibited antioxidant activity and protected macrophages from LPS-induced damage. The results of the tail suspension test and forced swimming test (tests for despair potential in mice) showed the antidepressant effect of baicalein on LPS-treated mice. It also substantially decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and eotaxin, elicited by LPS in the plasma. Baicalein downregulated NF-κB-p65 and iNOS protein levels in the hippocampus, demonstrated its ability to mitigate neuroinflammation. Additionally, baicalein increased the levels of the mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice, and elevated the ratio of mBDNF/proBDNF, which regulates neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. Baicalein also promoted the expression of CREB, which plays a role in a variety of signaling pathways. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate that the administration of baicalein can attenuate LPS-induced depression-like behavior by suppressing neuroinflammation and inflammation induced by the peripheral immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathophysiology of Aging and Age-related Diseases)
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