Topic Editors

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Parasitology, School of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Department of Pharmaceutics and Food Technology, School of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, CP 28040 Madrid, Spain

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modelling in Drug Discovery and Development

Abstract submission deadline
31 May 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 August 2024
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pharmacometrics represents a valuable methodology to increase the efficiency of the drug discovery, development and use of medicines. The three basic pillars of Pharmacometrics are the thorough and detailed understanding of the disease and the drug, the development of mathematical models able to integrate information from different sources (in vitro, in vivo and in silico) and the ability to apply these strategies during the drug development process, regulatory review and clinical use. This Topic aims to highlight the role of pharmacometrics at the preclinical and clinical level, focusing on new modeling strategies and methodologies, characterizing the PK or PK/PD properties of drugs together with placebo and disease models, and optimizing dosing schedules in special sub-groups of populations in order to identify new therapeutic agents/targets and/or understanding of complex biological systems.

Prof. Dr. Inaki F. Troconiz
Dr. Victor Mangas Sanjuán
Dr. Maria Garcia-Cremades Mira
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • pharmacometrics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacodynamics
  • physiologically based pharmacokinetic
  • modelling
  • population approach
  • therapeutic drug monitoring

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Antibiotics
antibiotics
4.8 5.5 2012 13.7 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Journal of Personalized Medicine
jpm
3.4 2.6 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Pharmaceuticals
pharmaceuticals
4.6 4.7 2004 14.6 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Pharmaceutics
pharmaceutics
5.4 6.9 2009 14.2 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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12 pages, 1786 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Model for Mechanism Interpretation and Efficacy Prediction of Atezolizumab in Combination with Carboplatin and Nab-Paclitaxel in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17020238 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Immunotherapy has shown clinical benefit in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to the limited response of monotherapy, combining immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chemotherapy is considered a treatment option for advanced NSCLC. However, the mechanism of combined therapy and the potential [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy has shown clinical benefit in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to the limited response of monotherapy, combining immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chemotherapy is considered a treatment option for advanced NSCLC. However, the mechanism of combined therapy and the potential patient population that could benefit from combined therapy remain undetermined. Here, we developed an NSCLC model based on the published quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP)-immuno-oncology platform by making necessary adjustments. After calibration and validation, the established QSP model could adequately characterise the biological mechanisms of action of the triple combination of atezolizumab, nab-paclitaxel, and carboplatin in patients with NSCLC, and identify predictive biomarkers for precision dosing. The established model could efficiently characterise the objective response rate and duration of response of the IMpower131 trial, reproducing the efficacy of alternative dosing. Furthermore, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell densities in tumours were found to be significantly related to the response status. This significant extension of the QSP model not only broadens its applicability but also more accurately reflects real-world clinical settings. Importantly, it positions the model as a critical foundation for model-informed drug development and the customisation of treatment plans, especially in the context of combining single-agent ICIs with platinum-doublet chemotherapy. Full article
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13 pages, 1995 KiB  
Article
Population Pharmacodynamic Models of Risperidone on PANSS Total Scores and Prolactin Levels in Schizophrenia
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17020148 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Currently, research predominantly focuses on evaluating clinical effects at specific time points while neglecting underlying patterns within the treatment process. This study aims to analyze the dynamic alterations in PANSS total scores and prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, along [...] Read more.
Currently, research predominantly focuses on evaluating clinical effects at specific time points while neglecting underlying patterns within the treatment process. This study aims to analyze the dynamic alterations in PANSS total scores and prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, along with the influencing covariates. Using data from an 8-week randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial, a population pharmacodynamic model was established for the PANSS total scores of and prolactin levels in patients treated with risperidone. The base model employed was the Emax model. Covariate selection was conducted using a stepwise forward inclusion and backward elimination approach. A total of 144 patients were included in this analysis, with 807 PANSS total scores and 531 prolactin concentration values. The PANSS total scores of the patients treated with risperidone decreased over time, fitting a proportionally parameterized sigmoid Emax model with covariates including baseline score, course of the disease, gender, plasma calcium ions, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The increase in prolactin levels conformed to the ordinary Emax model, with covariates encompassing course of the disease, gender, weight, red blood cell count, and triglyceride levels. The impacts of the baseline scores and the course of the disease on the reduction of the PANSS scores, as well as the influence of gender on the elevation of prolactin levels, each exceeded 20%. This study provides valuable quantitative data regarding PANSS total scores and prolactin levels among patients undergoing risperidone treatment across various physiological conditions. Full article
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10 pages, 243 KiB  
Brief Report
Animal Models in Regulatory Breakpoint Determination: Review of New Drug Applications of Approved Antibiotics from 2014–2022
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14010111 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
We sought to better understand the utility and role of animal models of infection for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antibiotics for the indications of community-, hospital-acquired-, and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (CABP, HABP, VABP), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), [...] Read more.
We sought to better understand the utility and role of animal models of infection for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antibiotics for the indications of community-, hospital-acquired-, and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (CABP, HABP, VABP), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), and acute bacterial skin and structural infections (ABSSSIs). We reviewed relevant documents from new drug applications (NDA) of FDA-approved antibiotics from 2014–2019 for the above indications. Murine neutropenic thigh infection models supported the choice of a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) target in 11/12 NDAs reviewed. PKPD targets associated with at least a 1-log bacterial decrease were commonly considered ideal (10/12 NDAs) to support breakpoints. Plasma PK, as opposed to organ specific PK, was generally considered most reliable for PKPD correlation. Breakpoint determination was multi-disciplinary, accounting at minimum for epidemiologic cutoffs, non-clinical PKPD, clinical exposure-response and clinical efficacy. Non-clinical PKPD targets in combination with probability of target attainment (PTA) analyses generated breakpoints that were consistent with epidemiologic cutoffs and clinically derived breakpoints. In 6/12 NDAs, there was limited data to support clinically derived breakpoints, and hence the non-clinical PKPD targets in combination with PTA analyses played a heightened role in the final breakpoint determination. Sponsor and FDA breakpoint decisions were in general agreement. Disagreement may have arisen from differences in the definition of the optimal PKPD index or the ability to extrapolate protein binding from animals to humans. Overall, murine neutropenic thigh infection models supported the reviewed NDAs by providing evidence of pre-clinical efficacy and PKPD target determination, and played, in combination with PTA analysis, a significant role in breakpoint determination for labeling purposes. Full article
11 pages, 2411 KiB  
Article
A Pharmacodynamic Study of Aminoglycosides against Pathogenic E. coli through Monte Carlo Simulation
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17010027 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 728
Abstract
This research focuses on combating the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, especially in Escherichia coli (E. coli), by assessing the efficacy of aminoglycosides. The study specifically addresses the challenge of developing new therapeutic approaches by integrating experimental data with mathematical modeling [...] Read more.
This research focuses on combating the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, especially in Escherichia coli (E. coli), by assessing the efficacy of aminoglycosides. The study specifically addresses the challenge of developing new therapeutic approaches by integrating experimental data with mathematical modeling to better understand the action of aminoglycosides. It involves testing various antibiotics like streptomycin (SMN), kanamycin (KMN), gentamicin (GMN), tobramycin (TMN), and amikacin (AKN) against the O157:H7 strain of E. coli. The study employs a pharmacodynamics (PD) model to analyze how different antibiotic concentrations affect bacterial growth, utilizing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to gauge the effective bactericidal levels of the antibiotics. The study’s approach involved transforming bacterial growth rates, as obtained from time–kill curve data, into logarithmic values. A model was then developed to correlate these log-transformed values with their respective responses. To generate additional data points, each value was systematically increased by an increment of 0.1. To simulate real-world variability and randomness in the data, a Gaussian scatter model, characterized by parameters like κ and EC50, was employed. The mathematical modeling was pivotal in uncovering the bactericidal properties of these antibiotics, indicating different PD MIC (zMIC) values for each (SMN: 1.22; KMN: 0.89; GMN: 0.21; TMN: 0.32; AKN: 0.13), which aligned with MIC values obtained through microdilution methods. This innovative blend of experimental and mathematical approaches in the study marks a significant advancement in formulating strategies to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, offering a novel pathway to understand and tackle antimicrobial resistance more effectively. Full article
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27 pages, 6909 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Skin Permeability Prediction through PBPK Modeling, Bayesian Inference, and Experiment Design
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(12), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15122667 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of skin absorption are a powerful resource for estimating drug delivery and chemical risk of dermatological products. This paper presents a PBPK workflow for the quantification of the mechanistic determinants of skin permeability and the use of these [...] Read more.
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of skin absorption are a powerful resource for estimating drug delivery and chemical risk of dermatological products. This paper presents a PBPK workflow for the quantification of the mechanistic determinants of skin permeability and the use of these quantities in the prediction of skin absorption in novel contexts. A state-of-the-art mechanistic model of dermal absorption was programmed into an open-source modeling framework. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the uncertain compound-specific, individual-specific, and site-specific model parameters that impact permeability. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was employed to derive distributions of these parameters given in vitro experimental permeability measurements. Extrapolations to novel contexts were generated by simulating the model following its update with samples drawn from the learned distributions as well as parameters that represent the intended scenario. This algorithm was applied multiple times, each using a unique set of permeability measurements sourced under experimental contexts that differ in terms of the compound, vehicle pH, skin sample anatomical site, and the number of compounds under which each subject’s skin samples were tested. Among the data sets used in this study, the highest accuracy and precision in the extrapolated permeability was achieved in those that include measurements conducted under multiple vehicle pH levels and in which individual subjects’ skin samples are tested under multiple compounds. This work thus identifies factors for consideration in the design of experiments for the purpose of training dermal models to robustly estimate drug delivery and chemical risk. Full article
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53 pages, 1613 KiB  
Review
A Critical Analysis of the FDA’s Omics-Driven Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers to Establish Biosimilarity
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(11), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16111556 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Demonstrating biosimilarity entails comprehensive analytical assessment, clinical pharmacology profiling, and efficacy testing in patients for at least one medical indication, as required by the U.S. Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (BPCIA). The efficacy testing can be waived if the drug has known [...] Read more.
Demonstrating biosimilarity entails comprehensive analytical assessment, clinical pharmacology profiling, and efficacy testing in patients for at least one medical indication, as required by the U.S. Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (BPCIA). The efficacy testing can be waived if the drug has known pharmacodynamic (PD) markers, leaving most therapeutic proteins out of this concession. To overcome this, the FDA suggests that biosimilar developers discover PD biomarkers using omics technologies such as proteomics, glycomics, transcriptomics, genomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics. This approach is redundant since the mode-action-action biomarkers of approved therapeutic proteins are already available, as compiled in this paper for the first time. Other potential biomarkers are receptor binding and pharmacokinetic profiling, which can be made more relevant to ensure biosimilarity without requiring biosimilar developers to conduct extensive research, for which they are rarely qualified. Full article
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