Topic Editors

Hubei Key Laboratory of Waterjet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China

Petroleum and Gas Engineering

Abstract submission deadline
30 June 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 August 2024
Viewed by
28883

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Petroleum and gas engineering is an engineering technology field that uses scientific theories, methods, technologies, and equipment to efficiently drill underground oil and gas resources, maximally and economically exploit oil and gas in the formation to the ground, and safely separate, measure, and transport oil and gas. As an important part of energy in human society, oil and natural gas play an extremely important role in the development of the world economy, human social life, and civilization due to their irreplaceable and non-renewable nature. Due to the deep reservoir burial, low permeability, and ultra-low permeability in physical properties, heavy oil and super heavy oil in oil products, high pressure and high temperature, formation heterogeneity, and difficulty in wellbore formation of oil and gas, it is very difficult to drill and achieve further development.

This Topic aims to bring together relevant researchers from industry and academia to share their latest discoveries and developments in the fields of oil and gas engineering. The topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  1. Oil and gas field development plan and production technology;
  2. Oil and gas well fluid mechanics, rock mechanics, and oilfield chemistry technology;
  3. Theory and method of reservoir description and development geological modeling;
  4. Percolation theory and reservoir numerical simulation;
  5. Theory and method of oil and gas field development;
  6. Theory and technology of enhanced oil recovery;
  7. Multiphase pipeline flow and oil–gas field gathering and transportation and oil-gas treatment technology.

Prof. Dr. Xiaochun Wang
Prof. Dr. Yulong Zhao
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • shale gas exploitation
  • water jet and application
  • unconventional oil and gas
  • drilling materials
  • exploration well logging
  • reservoir protection

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Fractal and Fractional
fractalfract
5.4 3.6 2017 18.9 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Resources
resources
3.3 7.7 2012 23.8 Days CHF 1600 Submit

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 7785 KiB  
Article
Fast Detection of the Single Point Leakage in Branched Shale Gas Gathering and Transportation Pipeline Network with Condensate Water
by Xue Zhong, Zhixiang Dai, Wenyan Zhang, Qin Wang and Guoxi He
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112464 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
The node pressure and flow rate along the shale gas flow process are analyzed according to the characteristics of the shale gas flow pipe network, and the non-leaking and leaking processes of the shale gas flow pipe network are modeled separately. The changes [...] Read more.
The node pressure and flow rate along the shale gas flow process are analyzed according to the characteristics of the shale gas flow pipe network, and the non-leaking and leaking processes of the shale gas flow pipe network are modeled separately. The changes in pressure over time along each pipe segment in the network provide new ideas for identifying leaking pipe sections. This paper uses the logarithmic value of pressure as the basis for judging whether the flow pipe network is leaking or not, according to the process of varying flow parameters resulting in the regularity of leakage. A graph of the change in pressure of the pipe section after the leak compared to the pressure of the non-leaking section of pipe over time can be plotted, accurately identifying the specific section of pipe with the leak. The accuracy of this novel method is verified by the leakage section and statistical data of the shale gas pipeline network in situ used in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6042 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Influence of Water Content in Oil on the Metrological Performance of Oil Flow Measurement Systems
by Augusto Proença da Silva and Elcio Cruz de Oliveira
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17102355 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 364
Abstract
According to current Brazilian regulations, if the volumes of oil produced used as a reference for the payment of government shares and third parties contain a water content greater than 2% v/v, these volumes must be arbitrarily increased between 1.44% [...] Read more.
According to current Brazilian regulations, if the volumes of oil produced used as a reference for the payment of government shares and third parties contain a water content greater than 2% v/v, these volumes must be arbitrarily increased between 1.44% and 10.89% due exclusively to water content, which has caused operational problems for oil companies such as differences between volumes produced and volumes sold, and additional payments from government shares and third parties. This study aimed to evaluate the metrological performance of oil measurement systems with ultrasonic, Coriolis and positive displacement flow meters when subjected to varied water content, fluid temperature and flow rate conditions using the Design of Experiments and the Response Surface Methodology. The analysis of variance showed that the models presented good fits for the ultrasonic meter (coefficient of determination R2 of 97.96%, p-value of 0.001, and a standard deviation of 5.89 × 10−5); Coriolis meter (R2 of 90.91%, p-value of 0.037, and a standard deviation of 5.88 × 10−5); and positive displacement meter (R2 of 99.07%, p-value of 0.000, and a standard deviation of 4.85 × 10−5). The results of the experiments carried out indicate that the contribution of each parameter analyzed to the metrological performance of the measurement system varies depending on the measurement technology used by the flow meter. However, the fluid temperature proved to be a relevant parameter common to all flow measurement technologies evaluated. All measuring technologies evaluated were influenced by water content in the range of 0% to 10% v/v, with the measurement error being less than 0.2% when compared to a standard positive displacement type meter in almost all experimental conditions. The Coriolis-type flow meter was the one that presented the smallest error among the measuring technologies evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6460 KiB  
Article
Research on the Autonomous Control Technology Used in the Slurry Mixing System of Cementing Units
by Xiang Gao, Guojian Hou, Huiwen Yang, Changmiao Hu, Junguo Cui and Wensheng Xiao
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(9), 3568; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14093568 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Cementing is a critical link in oil and gas exploitation, in which slurry density control is particularly important. In this study, we examined a slurry mixing control system in order to solve the problem of time delays in the mixing system. The model [...] Read more.
Cementing is a critical link in oil and gas exploitation, in which slurry density control is particularly important. In this study, we examined a slurry mixing control system in order to solve the problem of time delays in the mixing system. The model of a slurry mixing system was built in accordance with the system’s structure. A Smith fuzzy PID (proportion integration differentiation) composite control solution is proposed herein, and the simulation results show that the adjustment time and overshoot are lower than those of the conventional PID control and Smith predictive compensation control. A genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the quantization factor and scale factor of the Smith fuzzy PID controller. Following optimization, the rise time of the controller was found to be 0.45 s, which represents a decrease of 35.9%, the overshoot was reduced by 0.4%, and the stabilization time was reduced by 36.6%. Afterward, we built a cementing slurry mixing simulation experimental platform, and experiments were used to verify the feasibility and superiority of the Smith fuzzy PID controller optimized by the genetic algorithm in comparison with the conventional controllers. The study results thus provide a scientific basis for the engineering application of the autonomous control technology of the slurry mixing system in cementing units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 4627 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Differences in Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Pore Size Distributions for Enhanced Rock Quality Evaluation: A Winland-Style Approach with Physical Meaning
by Zheng Gu, Shuoshi Wang, Ping Guo and Wenhua Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14051881 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Pore structure is a fundamental parameter in determining the hydrocarbon storage capacity and flow characteristics of a reservoir. Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are two commonly utilized techniques for characterizing rock pore structures. However, current studies indicate that [...] Read more.
Pore structure is a fundamental parameter in determining the hydrocarbon storage capacity and flow characteristics of a reservoir. Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are two commonly utilized techniques for characterizing rock pore structures. However, current studies indicate that disparities in testing methodologies due to distinct physical characteristics lead to a partial misalignment in pore size distributions. We conducted MICP (dynamic) and NMR (static) experiments on eight tight sandstone and eight shale samples and proposed a method to utilize information from the differences in MICP and NMR pore size distributions, aiming to enhance the accuracy of rock quality analysis. We observed that in rock cores where large pores are interconnected with smaller pore throats, MICP tends to overestimate the proportion of these smaller pores and underestimate the larger ones. Furthermore, we integrated information from both dynamic and static experimental processes based on physical significance and found that the fitting accuracy of the newly proposed method is superior to the Winland r35 equation. Compared to the Winland r35 equation, our new method significantly improves fitting accuracy, increasing the R-squared value from 0.46 to 0.93 in sandstones and from 0.80 to 0.87 in shales. This represents a potential high-precision, comprehensive tool for rock quality analysis, offering a new perspective for an in-depth understanding of rock properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5535 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Dynagraph Card Classification in Pumping Systems Using Transfer Learning and the Swin Transformer Model
by Guoqing Dong, Weirong Li, Zhenzhen Dong, Cai Wang, Shihao Qian, Tianyang Zhang, Xueling Ma, Lu Zou, Keze Lin and Zhaoxia Liu
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041657 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
The dynagraph card plays a crucial role in evaluating oilfield pumping systems’ performance. Nevertheless, classifying dynagraph cards can be quite difficult because certain operating conditions may exhibit similar patterns. Conventional classification approaches mainly involve labor-intensive manual analysis of these cards, leading to subjectivity, [...] Read more.
The dynagraph card plays a crucial role in evaluating oilfield pumping systems’ performance. Nevertheless, classifying dynagraph cards can be quite difficult because certain operating conditions may exhibit similar patterns. Conventional classification approaches mainly involve labor-intensive manual analysis of these cards, leading to subjectivity, prolonged processing times, and vulnerability to human prejudices. In response to this challenge, our study introduces a novel approach that leverages transfer learning and the Swin Transformer model for classifying dynagraph cards across various operating conditions in rod pumping systems. Initially, the Swin Transformer model undergoes pre-training using the ImageNet-22k dataset. Subsequently, we fine-tune the model’s weights using actual dynagraph card datasets, facilitating direct classification analysis with dynagraph cards as input variables. The adoption of transfer learning significantly reduces the training time while enhancing the accuracy of condition diagnosis. To assess the effectiveness of our proposed method, we conducted a comparative evaluation against conventional models like ResNet50, DenseNet121, LeNet, and ViT. The findings demonstrate that our approach outperforms other methods, achieving an accuracy of 96%, thereby improving classification accuracy by 3–4%. Therefore, our approach, based on transfer learning and the Swin Transformer model, provides a better solution for practical problems involving similar dynagraph cards. It meets the requirements of oil field operations, enhancing economic benefits and work efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 6063 KiB  
Article
An Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Bow-Tie Model (IVIF-BT) for the Effectiveness Evaluation of Safety Barriers in Natural Gas Storage Tank
by Jiawei Liu, Hailong Yin, Yixin Zhang, Xiufeng Li, Yongquan Li, Xueru Gong and Wei Wu
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041586 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Safety barriers (SBs) are important means of reducing failure risks of process systems. As barriers vary in type and function, their effectiveness needs to be evaluated in order to find a more reasonable configuration strategy. However, in practice, there is often a lack [...] Read more.
Safety barriers (SBs) are important means of reducing failure risks of process systems. As barriers vary in type and function, their effectiveness needs to be evaluated in order to find a more reasonable configuration strategy. However, in practice, there is often a lack of accurate and complete data relating to SBs, which poses a significant challenge in quantitatively assessing their effectiveness. To address this issue, in this study, we propose a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of both preventive and protective barriers in process systems by integrating expert elicitation, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IVIFNs), and a bow-tie model. In this approach, the bow-tie model is first applied to describe the system failure scenarios and the action phases of the barriers, and then IVIFNs with expert judgment are introduced to obtain the failure probabilities of basic events and the effects of SBs. Subsequently, the effectiveness of each barrier is measured by comparing the relative change in failure risk due to the addition of the barrier. To verify the feasibility of this approach, a natural gas storage tank with some barriers was analyzed. The results show that the regular inspection of the deformation or damage of the storage tank has the highest effectiveness, followed by the installation and regular maintenance of safety electrical equipment. Furthermore, compared to a single barrier, multiple barriers can significantly reduce the system risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 32578 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Preformed Submicron Crosslinked Polymer Coils for Conformance Control in Low-Permeability Reservoirs
by Jianwei Liu and Bo Peng
Polymers 2024, 16(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16010039 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 679
Abstract
With the increasing development of low-permeability reservoirs, the significance of conformance control treatment has risen considerably. To address the conflict between injectability and plugging performance, as well as to enhance the deep migration capacity of conformance control agents, preformed submicron crosslinked polymer coils [...] Read more.
With the increasing development of low-permeability reservoirs, the significance of conformance control treatment has risen considerably. To address the conflict between injectability and plugging performance, as well as to enhance the deep migration capacity of conformance control agents, preformed submicron crosslinked polymer coils (SCPCs) have been manufactured using aqueous solution dispersion polymerization. Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine the chemical structure and micromorphology, while particle size distribution, zeta potential, rheological, and filtration properties were analyzed. The effectiveness of conformance control was confirmed through the parallel core displacement. The effective particle size of SCPCs was at a submicron level (500~800 nm). SCPCs exhibit a transitional threshold concentration between gel and sol states (0.25 wt%~0.5 wt%). SCPCs can efficiently block the 1.2 μm microporous filter membrane. The filtration time is up to 67.8 min. SCPCs can improve the water absorption rate of lower permeability cores from 21.21% to 57.89% with a permeability difference of 5. Therefore, SCPCs have good injectability, plugging performance, and deep migration capacity and can be used for conformance control in low-permeability reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5820 KiB  
Article
A Semi-Analytical Model for Studying the Transient Flow Behavior of Nonuniform-Width Fractures in a Three-Dimensional Domain
by Yanzhong Liang, Xuanming Zhang, Wenzhuo Zhou, Qingquan Li, Jia Li, Yawen Du, Hanxin Cai and Bailu Teng
Energies 2023, 16(24), 7920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16247920 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 638
Abstract
In the fracture propagation model, the assumption that hydraulic fractures with non-uniform widths have been successfully utilized to predict fracture propagation for decades. However, when one conducts post-fracture analysis, the hydraulic fracture is commonly simplified with a uniform width, which is contradictory to [...] Read more.
In the fracture propagation model, the assumption that hydraulic fractures with non-uniform widths have been successfully utilized to predict fracture propagation for decades. However, when one conducts post-fracture analysis, the hydraulic fracture is commonly simplified with a uniform width, which is contradictory to the real fracture models. One of the reasons for over-simplifying the fracture geometry in the post-fracture analysis can be ascribed to the fact that we are still lacking a model to characterize the pressure transient behavior of the nonuniform-width fractures which can induce three-dimensional flow around the fractures. In this work, on the basis of the Green function and Newman product method, the authors derived a semi-analytical model to account for the effect of non-uniform width distribution of the hydraulic fractures in a three-dimensional domain. In addition, the effect of the fracturing strategies on the well performance is investigated based on the developed semi-analytical model. The calculated results from the developed model show that the vertical flow in the vicinity of the fracture cannot be neglected if the fracture height is sufficiently small (e.g., hf = 10 m), and one can observe vertical elliptical flow and vertical pseudo-radial flow during the production. A nonuniform-width fracture can penetrate further into the reservoir with a lower injection rate (e.g., qi = 1.44 × 103 md). For the scenarios of high fracture permeability (i.e., kf = 1 × 105 md), a smaller fracture height, lower injection rate, and larger Young’s modulus can be more favorable for enhancing the well productivity. Compared to the influence of fracture height, the influences of injection rate and Young’s modulus on the well performance are less pronounced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 6417 KiB  
Article
A New Methodology for Determination of Layered Injection Allocation in Highly Deviated Wells Drilled in Low-Permeability Reservoirs
by Mao Li, Zhan Qu, Songfeng Ji, Lei Bai and Shasha Yang
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7764; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237764 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
During the water injection development process of highly deviated wells in low-permeability reservoirs, the water flooding distance between different layers of the same oil and water well is different due to the deviation of the well. In addition, the heterogeneity of low-permeability reservoirs [...] Read more.
During the water injection development process of highly deviated wells in low-permeability reservoirs, the water flooding distance between different layers of the same oil and water well is different due to the deviation of the well. In addition, the heterogeneity of low-permeability reservoirs is strong, and the water absorption capacity between layers is very different. This results in poor effectiveness of commonly used layered injection methods. Some highly deviated wells have premature water breakthroughs after layered water injection, which affects the development effect of the water flooding reservoirs. Therefore, based on the analysis and research of the existing layered injection allocation method and sand body connectivity evaluation method, considering the influence of sand body connectivity, the real displacement distance of highly deviated wells, reservoir physical properties, and other factors, a new methodology for determination of layered injection allocation in highly deviated wells drilled in low-permeability reservoirs is proposed. In this method, the vertical superposition and lateral contact relationship of a single sand body are determined using three methods: sand body configuration identification, seepage unit identification, and single sand body boundary identification. The connectivity coefficient, transition coefficient, and connectivity degree coefficient are introduced to quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of sand bodies and judge the connectivity relationship between single sand bodies. The correlation formula is obtained using the linear regression of the fracture length and ground fluid volume, and the real displacement distance of each layer in highly deviated wells is obtained. The calculation formula of the layered injection allocation is established by analyzing the important factors affecting the layered injection allocation, and a reasonable layered injection allocation is obtained. The calculation parameters of this method are fully considered, the required parameters are easy to obtain, and the practicability is strong. It can provide a method reference for the policy adjustment of layered water injection technology in similar water injection development reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 10233 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Water-Invasion Gas Efficiency in the Kela-2 Gas Field Using Multiple Experiments
by Donghuan Han, Wei Xiong, Tongwen Jiang, Shusheng Gao, Huaxun Liu, Liyou Ye, Wenqing Zhu and Weiguo An
Energies 2023, 16(20), 7216; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16207216 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Although improving the recovery of water-invaded gas reservoirs has been extensively studied in the natural gas industry, the nature of the efficiency of water-invaded gas recovery remains uncertain. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to clearly identify changes in water saturation [...] Read more.
Although improving the recovery of water-invaded gas reservoirs has been extensively studied in the natural gas industry, the nature of the efficiency of water-invaded gas recovery remains uncertain. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to clearly identify changes in water saturation in the core during high-pressure water-invasion gas. Here, we provide four types of water-invasion gas experiments (spontaneous imbibition, atmospheric pressure, high-pressure approximate equilibrium, and depletion development water-invasion gas) to reveal the impact of the water-invasion gas efficiency on the recovery of water-invasion gas reservoirs. NMR suggested that imbibition mainly occurs in medium to large pores and that residual gas remains mainly in large pores. The amount of gas driven out from the large pores by imbibition was much greater than that driven out from the small pores. Our findings indicate that the initial gas saturation, contact surface, and permeability are the main factors controlling the residual gas saturation, suggesting that a reasonable initial water saturation should be established before the water-invasion gas experiments. Additionally, the water-invasion gas efficiency at high pressures can be more reliably obtained than that at normal pressures. After the high-pressure approximate equilibrium water invasion for gas displacement, a large amount of residual gas remains in the relatively larger pores of the core, with a residual gas saturation of 42%. In contrast to conventional experiments, the residual gas saturation and water displacement efficiency of the high-pressure approximate equilibrium water invasion for gas displacement did not exhibit a favorable linear relationship with the permeability. The residual gas saturation ranged from 34 to 43% (avg. 38%), while the water displacement efficiency ranged from 32 to 45% (avg. 40%) in the high-pressure approximate equilibrium water invasion for gas displacement. The residual gas saturation in the depletion development water-invasion gas experiment was 26–40% (average: 33%), with an efficiency ranging from 45 to 50% (average: 48%), indicating that the depletion development experiment is closer to the actual development process of gas reservoirs. Our findings provide novel insights into water-invasion gas efficiency, providing robust estimates of the recovery of water-invasion gas reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
Thermogravimetric Pyrolysis Behavior and Kinetic Study of Two Different Organic-Rich Mudstones via Multiple Kinetic Methods
by Yaoyu Li, Shixin Zhou, Jing Li, Zexiang Sun and Wenjun Pang
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6372; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176372 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Two representative organic-rich mudstones from the Middle Permian (MP) and the Upper Carboniferous (UC) around the Fukang Depression in the Junggar Basin were selected to study and compare the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics. The MP and UC were described as type I and [...] Read more.
Two representative organic-rich mudstones from the Middle Permian (MP) and the Upper Carboniferous (UC) around the Fukang Depression in the Junggar Basin were selected to study and compare the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics. The MP and UC were described as type I and type II kerogen, respectively. The FTIR and XRD results revealed that the MP contains carbonates and different clay minerals compared to the UC. Peak deconvolution was used for the UC to delineate the pyrolysis process to better understand and compare the similarities and differences in the pyrolysis kinetics of the two mudstones. In addition, the Coats-Redfern method was employed to further differentiate the reaction stages based on the differences in the reaction models during pyrolysis. The kinetic results revealed that the activation energy, pre-exponential factors, and reaction models of the two mudstones have some similarities and differences. Combined with the analysis of the pyrolysis volatiles, the UC sample can release more CH4, CO, CO2, and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds at high temperatures, indicating that the UC has more oxygen-containing functional groups and aromatics, while the MP has more aliphatics. Through the above studies, the pyrolysis kinetics and mechanism of two organic-rich rocks could be clarified, guiding their development and efficient utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 15796 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Study of the Lateral Sealing Ability of Faults Considering the Diagenesis Degree of the Fault Rock: An Example from the Nantun Formation in the Wuerxun-Beier Sag in the Hailar Basin, China
by Xinlei Hu, Yanfang Lv, Yang Liu and Junqiao Liu
Resources 2023, 12(9), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources12090098 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
The goal of this study was to accurately evaluate the lateral sealing ability of a fault in siliciclastic stratum based on previous analysis of the lateral sealing of faults by a large number of scholars in the published literature and physical simulation experiments. [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to accurately evaluate the lateral sealing ability of a fault in siliciclastic stratum based on previous analysis of the lateral sealing of faults by a large number of scholars in the published literature and physical simulation experiments. Content of the clay mineral phase and the diagenetic degree of fault rock were investigated as the main factors to evaluate the lateral sealing of faults. Based on this theory, the configuration relationship between the clay content and burial depth of fault rock (SGR&H) threshold evaluation method for the lateral sealing of faults was established. Then, we applied these results to evaluate the lateral sealing ability of faults in the Beixi, Beier, Wuerxun, and Surennuoer areas in the Hailar Basin, China. The variation in SGR boundary values with burial depth between the lateral opening and moderate sealing area, as well as between the moderate and strong sealing area of the faults, are obtained. Compared with the previous methods, the SGR&H threshold method transforms the static SGR value of a formation or even a region into a dynamic SGR value that changes with the burial depth, which can fully characterize the differences in the conditions required for sealing faults with different internal structures at different depths. In determining the lateral sealing ability of faults by comparing the evaluation results, we discovered the following. (1) In the same area, the sealing thresholds of faults within different layers are different because the deep strata are subjected to greater pressures and longer loading times, so these faults are more likely to seal laterally. (2) In the same layer, the sealing thresholds of faults in different areas are also different. The higher the thickness ratio between the sandstone and the formation (RSF), the smaller the entry pressure of the fault rock when it has reached a critical seal state, so the SGR&H thresholds are relatively small. Compared to the previous methods, the SGR&H threshold method in this article reduces the exploration risk of faults with relatively low diagenetic degree in shallow strata, and also increases the exploration potential of faults with relatively high diagenetic degree in deep strata. The evaluation results are more consistent with the actual underground situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4374 KiB  
Article
Geological Characteristics and Challenges of Marine Shale Gas in the Southern Sichuan Basin
by Shasha Sun, Shiwei Huang, Feng Cheng, Wenhua Bai and Zhaoyuan Shao
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5796; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155796 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
After more than 10 years of exploration, development, research, and practical efforts, China has opened up new perspectives for the commercial exploitation of marine shale gas. While high shale gas production is a main driver for energy security and economic development in China, [...] Read more.
After more than 10 years of exploration, development, research, and practical efforts, China has opened up new perspectives for the commercial exploitation of marine shale gas. While high shale gas production is a main driver for energy security and economic development in China, there have been few attempts to systemically scientific analysis the challenges, prospect, development strategies, and goals for shale gas. Here, we present a detailed comparison of the differences in shale gas between the Sichuan Basin and North America from multiple dimensions, explain how and to what extent recent advances have been made, discuss the current challenges, and provide strategies to deal with these challenges. We demonstrate that a total of 13 graptolite zones developed in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations, achieved by representative cores from 32 coring wells and 7 outcrop profiles, can establish the chronostratigraphic framework in the Sichuan Basin, which leads to the potential impact of high-quality reservoir distribution and shale gas production. Shale gas is still faced with the challenges of complex underground and surface conditions, low single-well EUR, and immature deep development engineering technology. To circumvent these issues, here, we propose several strategies, including sweet-spot optimization, low-cost drilling techniques, and efficient fracturing technologies. Our results strengthen the importance of adopting fundamental theoretical research and practical and feasible development goals to realize more commercial discoveries of shale gas of diverse types and higher growth of shale gas reserves and production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 6766 KiB  
Article
A Novel Efficient Borehole Cleaning Model for Optimizing Drilling Performance in Real Time
by Mohammed Al-Rubaii, Mohammed Al-Shargabi, Dhafer Al-Shehri, Abdullah Alyami and Konstantin M. Minaev
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7751; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137751 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
The drilling industry has evolved significantly over the years, with new technologies making the process more efficient and effective. One of the most crucial issues of drilling is borehole cleaning, which entails removing drill cuttings and keeping the borehole clean. Inadequate borehole cleaning [...] Read more.
The drilling industry has evolved significantly over the years, with new technologies making the process more efficient and effective. One of the most crucial issues of drilling is borehole cleaning, which entails removing drill cuttings and keeping the borehole clean. Inadequate borehole cleaning can lead to drilling problems such as stuck pipes, poor cementing, and formation damage. Real-time drilling evaluation has seen significant improvements, allowing drilling engineers to monitor the drilling process and make adjustments accordingly. This paper introduces a novel real-time borehole cleaning performance evaluation model based on the transport index (TIm). The novel TIm model offers a real-time indication of borehole cleaning efficiency. The novel model was field-tested and validated for three wells, demonstrating its ability to determine borehole cleaning efficiency in typical drilling operations. Using TIm in Well-A led to a 56% increase in the rate of penetration (ROP) and a 44% reduction in torque. Moreover, the efficient borehole cleaning obtained through the use of TIm played a significant role in improving drilling efficiency and preventing stuck pipes incidents. The TIm model was also able to identify borehole cleaning efficiency during a stuck pipe issue, highlighting its potential use as a tool for optimizing drilling performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3680 KiB  
Article
A Novel Automated Model for Evaluation of the Efficiency of Hole Cleaning Conditions during Drilling Operations
by Mohammed Al-Rubaii, Mohammed Al-Shargabi and Dhafer Al-Shehri
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6464; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116464 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Hole cleaning for the majority of vertical and directional drilling wells continues to be a substantial difficulty despite improvements in drilling fluids, equipment, field techniques, and academic and industrial research. Poor hole cleaning might cause issues such as stuck pipe incidents, drilling cuttings [...] Read more.
Hole cleaning for the majority of vertical and directional drilling wells continues to be a substantial difficulty despite improvements in drilling fluids, equipment, field techniques, and academic and industrial research. Poor hole cleaning might cause issues such as stuck pipe incidents, drilling cuttings accumulation, torque and drag, the erratic equivalent circulating density in the annulus, wellbore instability, tight spots, and hole condition issues. In order to enable the real-time and automated evaluation of hole cleaning efficiency for vertical and directional drilling, the article’s objective is to develop a novel model for the cutting transport ratio (CTRm) that can be incorporated into drilling operations on a real-time basis. The novel CTRm model provides a robust indicator for hole cleaning, which can assess complications and enhance drilling efficiency. Moreover, the novel CTRm model was successfully tested and validated in the field for four wells. The results of the real-time evaluation showed that the novel model was capable of identifying the hole cleaning efficiency in a normal drilling performance for Well-C and a stuck pipe issue in Well-D. In addition, the novel CTRm improved the rate of penetration by 52% in Well-A in comparison to Well-B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 4350 KiB  
Article
Study on the Compressive and Tensile Properties of Gneiss Outcrop of Bozhong 196 Gas Field in China
by Lianzhi Yang, Tong Niu, Fanmin He and Zhiyong Song
Energies 2023, 16(9), 3919; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16093919 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
In this paper, based on the gneiss outcrop of Bozhong 196 gas field in China, uniaxial compression and Brazil splitting tests were conducted by using cores of different orientations. The following compression properties were studied: the elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive [...] Read more.
In this paper, based on the gneiss outcrop of Bozhong 196 gas field in China, uniaxial compression and Brazil splitting tests were conducted by using cores of different orientations. The following compression properties were studied: the elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive strength of the gneiss outcrop. The following tensile properties were studied: the tensile modulus, the tensile strength and peak energy rate of gneiss outcrop. The results demonstrate the following: (1) The elastic compression modulus, compressive strength, tensile strength and peak energy rate of gneiss specimens with horizontal core-taking are greater than those with vertical core-taking. (2) The elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive strength of horizontally cored gneiss specimens are 29.688–45.760 GPa, 0.186–0.386, and 174.94–147.80 MPa, respectively; the elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive strength of the vertical gneiss specimens are 26.541–32.602 GPa, 0.429–0.476 and 169.37–134.46 MPa. (3) The tensile modulus of the horizontal gneiss specimens is 4.93–5.98 GPa. The tensile modulus of the vertical gneiss specimens is 0.96–2.11 GPa. The tensile modulus of the horizontal gneiss specimens is five times that of the vertical gneiss specimens. The elastic compression modulus of gneiss is 5–20 times that of the tensile modulus. (4) The tensile strength and peak energy rate of horizontally cored gneiss specimens are 14.33–17.55 MPa and 2598.67–4049.53 J/m2, respectively. The tensile strength of the vertical gneiss specimens is 6.12–9.65 MPa, and the peak energy rate is 715.74–1515.30 J/m2. (5) There is a good linear relationship between the peak energy rate and tensile strength of gneiss. The research results can provide a scientific and reasonable reference for in situ fracturing of Bozhong 196 gas field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 867 KiB  
Review
State of the Art of Oil and Gas Pipeline Vulnerability Assessments
by Han Zhang, Qingshan Feng, Bingchuan Yan, Xianbin Zheng, Yue Yang, Jian Chen, Hong Zhang and Xiaoben Liu
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3439; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16083439 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
In recent years, the safety of oil and gas pipelines has become a primary concern for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the vulnerability concepts that may be used to measure the safety status of pipeline systems. The origins [...] Read more.
In recent years, the safety of oil and gas pipelines has become a primary concern for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the vulnerability concepts that may be used to measure the safety status of pipeline systems. The origins of the vulnerability concepts are identified, the development and evolution of the vulnerability concepts are described, and the main connotations of the four levels of vulnerability concepts applied in different fields at this stage are summarized. Qualitative and quantitative methods of vulnerability assessment are comprehensively investigated, and the advantages and disadvantages, scope of application and key issues faced are compared and summarized. The research and analysis show that the vulnerability assessment of oil and gas pipelines is at a preliminary stage, and there is an urgent demand to establish a unified vulnerability concept and assessment system for oil and gas pipeline systems. The current qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of pipeline vulnerability research lacks reasonable and scientific standards and bases for the classification of indicators and the determination of indicator scores, and it needs to focus on the establishment and improvement of quantitative assessment models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 11005 KiB  
Article
Predicting Reservoir Petrophysical Geobodies from Seismic Data Using Enhanced Extended Elastic Impedance Inversion
by Eko Widi Purnomo, Abdul Halim Abdul Latiff and Mohamed M. Abdo Aly Elsaadany
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4755; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084755 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
The study aims to implement a high-resolution Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) inversion to estimate the petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, saturation and volume of shale) from seismic and well log data. The inversion resolves the pitfall of basic EEI inversion in inverting below-tuning seismic [...] Read more.
The study aims to implement a high-resolution Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) inversion to estimate the petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, saturation and volume of shale) from seismic and well log data. The inversion resolves the pitfall of basic EEI inversion in inverting below-tuning seismic data. The resolution, dimensionality and absolute value of basic EEI inversion are improved by employing stochastic perturbation constrained by integrated energy spectra attribute in a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework. A general regression neural network (GRNN) is trained to learn and memorize the relationship between the stochastically perturbed EEI and the associated well petrophysical log data. The trained GRNN is then used to predict the petrophysical properties of any given stochastic processed EEI. The proposed inversion was successfully conducted to invert the volume of shale, porosity and water saturation of a 4.0 m thick gas sand reservoir in Sarawak Basin, Malaysia. The three petrophysical geobodies were successfully built using the discovery wells cut-off values, showing that the inverted petrophysical properties satisfactorily reconstruct the well petrophysical logs with sufficient resolution and an accurate absolute value at the well site and are laterally conformable with seismic data. Inversion provides reliable petrophysical properties prediction that potentially helps further reservoir development for the study field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 4459 KiB  
Review
Extended-Reach Drilling (ERD)—The Main Problems and Current Achievements
by Karim El Sabeh, Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec, Petar Mijić, Igor Medved and Borivoje Pašić
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4112; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074112 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6839
Abstract
With the development of different segments within the drilling technology in the last three decades, well drilling has become possible in harsh downhole conditions. The vertical well provides access to oil and gas reserves located at a certain depth directly below the wellsite, [...] Read more.
With the development of different segments within the drilling technology in the last three decades, well drilling has become possible in harsh downhole conditions. The vertical well provides access to oil and gas reserves located at a certain depth directly below the wellsite, and a large number of vertical wells are required for the exploitation of hydrocarbons from spatially expanded deposits. However, the borehole can deviate from the vertical well, which means that the target zone can be reached by a horizontal directional well. With this type of well, especially in the case of drilling an extended-reach well (ERW), the length of the wellbore in contact with the reservoir and/or several separate reservoirs is significantly increased, therefore, it is a much better option for the later production phase. Unfortunately, the application of extended-reach drilling (ERD technology), with all of its advantages, can cause different drilling problems mostly related to the increased torque, drag, hole cleaning and equivalent circulation density (ECD), as well as to an increase in the well price. Overcoming these problems requires continuous operational change to enable operators to address downhole challenges. Today, the longest well reaches 15,240 m (50,000 ft), which raises the question of the technological and economic feasibility of this type of drilling project, especially with the lower oil price on the energy market. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of extended-reach drilling technology, discusses the main problems and analyzes current achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5466 KiB  
Article
Fractal-Based Approaches to Pore Structure Investigation and Water Saturation Prediction from NMR Measurements: A Case Study of the Gas-Bearing Tight Sandstone Reservoir in Nanpu Sag
by Weibiao Xie, Qiuli Yin, Jingbo Zeng, Guiwen Wang, Cheng Feng and Pan Zhang
Fractal Fract. 2023, 7(3), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract7030273 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Pore space of tight sandstone samples exhibits fractal characteristics. Nuclear magnetic resonance is an effective method for pore size characterization. This paper focuses on fractal characteristics of pore size from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of tight sandstone samples. The relationship between the fractal [...] Read more.
Pore space of tight sandstone samples exhibits fractal characteristics. Nuclear magnetic resonance is an effective method for pore size characterization. This paper focuses on fractal characteristics of pore size from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of tight sandstone samples. The relationship between the fractal dimension from NMR with pore structure and water saturation is parameterized by analyzing experimental data. Based on it, a pore structure characterization and classification method for water-saturated tight sandstone and a water saturation prediction method in a gas-bearing sandstone reservoir have been proposed. To verify the models, the fractal dimension from NMR of 19 tight sandstone samples selected from the gas-bearing tight sandstone reservoir of Shahejie Formation in Nanpu Sag and that of 16 of them under different water saturation states are analyzed. The application result of new methods in the gas-bearing tight sandstone reservoir of Shahejie Formation in Nanpu Sag shows consistency with experimental data. This paper has facilitated the development of the NMR application by providing a non-electrical logging idea in reservoir quality evaluation and water saturation prediction. It provides a valuable scientific resource for reservoir engineering and petrophysics of unconventional reservoir types, such as tight sandstone, low porosity, and low permeability sandstone, shale, and carbonate rock reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Petroleum and Gas Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop