Topic Editors

1. Department of Medical Education, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan 50612, Republic of Korea
2. Department of Family Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Republic of Korea
3. Integrated Research Institute for Natural Ingredients and Functional Foods, Yangsan 50612, Republic of Korea
1. Department of Family Medicine, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, 20, Geumo-ro, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan-si 50612, Republic of Korea
2. Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Republic of Korea

Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles

Abstract submission deadline
30 April 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
28378

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a combination of risk factors that increases the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has steadily increased in recent years and is estimated to affect approximately one quarter of the world's population.

Various markers of metabolic syndrome have been recognized and are still being studied. Based on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance, biomarkers such as anthropometric markers, insulin resistance markers, inflammatory markers, various adipokines, oxidative stress markers, vascular markers, lipoprotein markers, and hormonal markers have been proposed and play an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic syndrome.

Lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity are key to managing metabolic syndrome. A healthy diet can help reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and improve biomarker levels. Regular exercise can also be effective in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome by promoting weight loss, improving insulin sensitivity, and lowering blood pressure.

As such, metabolic syndrome is an important public health issue due to its association with several chronic diseases. Biomarkers can help diagnose and manage metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle interventions such as diet and exercise can effectively reduce risk and improve biomarker levels. Education on and awareness of the importance of making healthy lifestyle choices is also important. This topic aims to cover all these aspects.

Prof. Dr. Sang Yeoup Lee
Prof. Dr. Young Hye Cho
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • metabolic syndrome
  • biomarker
  • lifestyle
  • diet
  • exercise
  • obesity
  • lipid
  • insulin resistance
  • diabetes
  • hypertension

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomolecules
biomolecules
5.5 8.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Metabolites
metabolites
4.1 5.3 2011 13.2 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Journal of Personalized Medicine
jpm
3.4 2.6 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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20 pages, 1070 KiB  
Review
Beyond the Cold: Activating Brown Adipose Tissue as an Approach to Combat Obesity
by Cristina Elena Negroiu, Iulia Tudorașcu, Cristina Maria Bezna, Sanziana Godeanu, Marina Diaconu, Raluca Danoiu and Suzana Danoiu
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13071973 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
With a dramatic increase in the number of obese and overweight people, there is a great need for new anti-obesity therapies. With the discovery of the functionality of brown adipose tissue in adults and the observation of beige fat cells among white fat [...] Read more.
With a dramatic increase in the number of obese and overweight people, there is a great need for new anti-obesity therapies. With the discovery of the functionality of brown adipose tissue in adults and the observation of beige fat cells among white fat cells, scientists are looking for substances and methods to increase the activity of these cells. We aimed to describe how scientists have concluded that brown adipose tissue is also present and active in adults, to describe where in the human body these deposits of brown adipose tissue are, to summarize the origin of both brown fat cells and beige fat cells, and, last but not least, to list some of the substances and methods classified as BAT promotion agents with their benefits and side effects. We summarized these findings based on the original literature and reviews in the field, emphasizing the discovery, function, and origins of brown adipose tissue, BAT promotion agents, and batokines. Only studies written in English and with a satisfying rating were identified from electronic searches of PubMed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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12 pages, 1833 KiB  
Review
Do Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Have a Higher Prevalence of Osteoporosis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Chul-Ho Kim, Keunho Kim and Yeonjoo Choi
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14030303 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder characterized by episodic vertigo. BPPV primarily affects older adults. Thus, understanding the potential relationship between BPPV and osteoporosis is clinically important. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and Cochrane Library [...] Read more.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder characterized by episodic vertigo. BPPV primarily affects older adults. Thus, understanding the potential relationship between BPPV and osteoporosis is clinically important. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies on the risk of osteoporosis between BPPV (+) and BPPV (−) groups up until 17 April 2023. We compared osteoporosis prevalence between groups and performed subgroup analyses for male, female, and older patients (aged ≥ 55 years). The 12 studies included 32,460 patients with BPPV and 476,304 controls. Pooled analysis showed that the BPPV (+) group had a significantly higher osteoporosis risk than the control group (odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45–2.06; p < 0.01). Subgroup analyses also presented similar trends as male (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.18–4.90; p = 0.02), female (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.57–2.92; p < 0.001), and older patient subgroups (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.47–2.49; p < 0.01) showed a higher osteoporosis risk in the BPPV (+) group than in the control group. This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that patients with BPPV have a higher osteoporosis prevalence than those without. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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17 pages, 1047 KiB  
Article
Combined Influence of Eight Lifestyle Factors on Metabolic Syndrome Incidence: A Prospective Cohort Study from the MECH-HK Study
by Yun-Yang Deng, Fei-Wan Ngai, Jing Qin, Lin Yang, Ka-Po Wong, Harry-Haoxiang Wang and Yao-Jie Xie
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040547 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Although previous studies have shown significant associations between individual lifestyles and metabolic syndrome, limited studies have explored the combined effect of lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a combined lifestyle score was associated with metabolic syndrome incidence in Hong [...] Read more.
Although previous studies have shown significant associations between individual lifestyles and metabolic syndrome, limited studies have explored the combined effect of lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a combined lifestyle score was associated with metabolic syndrome incidence in Hong Kong Chinese women. This prospective cohort study included 1634 women (55.9 ± 8.6 years) without baseline metabolic syndrome, diabetes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Eight lifestyle factors (smoking, physical activity, sedentary time, sleep, stress, fatigue, diet, and alcohol) were included by assigning 0 (unhealthy) or 1 point (healthy). The overall score was the sum of these points, ranging from 0 (the least healthy) to 8 points (the healthiest). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the joint interim statement. During a 1.16-year follow-up, 179 (11.0%) new metabolic syndrome cases were identified. The incidences for the 0–3-point, 4-point, 5-point, and 6–8-point groups were 12.8% (79/618), 11.5% (42/366), 9.4% (29/309), and 8.5% (29/341), respectively. Compared to the lowest combined lifestyle score group, the highest group had a 47% reduced metabolic syndrome incidence, with an adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of 0.53 (0.33–0.86) (p = 0.010). These findings indicate that a higher combined lifestyle score was associated with a lower metabolic syndrome incidence in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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11 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Association between Bell’s Palsy and Cardiometabolic Risks: An Age- and Sex-Matched Case–Control Study
by Panitta Mueanchoo, Nualsakol Tepparak, Pensri Chongphattararot, Nannapat Pruphetkaew, Suwanna Setthawatcharawanich, Pat Korathanakhun, Thanyalak Amornpojnimman, Chutarat Sathirapanya and Pornchai Sathirapanya
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020197 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Background: Bell’s palsy is possibly an ischemic cranial neuropathy, although reactivation of herpes virus infection has been proposed. Methods: This was an age-and sex-matched and 1:2 case–control study enrolling Bell’s palsy patients during 2011–2021 in a university hospital to investigate the significant associations [...] Read more.
Background: Bell’s palsy is possibly an ischemic cranial neuropathy, although reactivation of herpes virus infection has been proposed. Methods: This was an age-and sex-matched and 1:2 case–control study enrolling Bell’s palsy patients during 2011–2021 in a university hospital to investigate the significant associations of cardiometabolic risks (CMRs) with Bell’s palsy. We analyzed the differences in waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and lipid levels at 12 weeks post-Bell’s palsy with those of the controls by descriptive statistics (p < 0.05). The differences in means or medians of individual CMR values across the consecutive 10-year age intervals were analyzed by ANOVA F-tests and Kruskal–Wallis tests (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 140 cases and 280 controls were enrolled. Bell’s palsy patients had significantly higher WC, BMI, SBP, DBP, FBS, and triglyceride but lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Moreover, high WC, elevated FBS (≥100 mg/dL), SBP (≥130 mmHg), and total cholesterol were significantly associated with Bell’s palsy cases by multivariable analysis. Only FBS in Bell’s palsy patients significantly elevated across consecutive 10-year age intervals. Conclusion: Screening and monitoring for CMRs, especially hyperglycemia, in every patient presenting with Bell’s palsy is essential despite initial normoglycemia, particularly in older-onset cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
23 pages, 4152 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Role of the Olfactory System in Obesity and Metabolism in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Lolita Matiashova, Anouk Lisa Hoogkamer and Katharina Timper
Metabolites 2024, 14(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo14010016 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Obesity, linked to chronic diseases, poses a global health challenge. While the role of the olfactory system in energy homeostasis is well-documented in rodents, its role in metabolism regulation and obesity in humans remains understudied. This review examines the interplay between olfactory function [...] Read more.
Obesity, linked to chronic diseases, poses a global health challenge. While the role of the olfactory system in energy homeostasis is well-documented in rodents, its role in metabolism regulation and obesity in humans remains understudied. This review examines the interplay between olfactory function and metabolic alterations in human obesity and the effects of bariatric surgery on olfactory capabilities in humans. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, focusing exclusively on original human studies. From 51 articles, 14 were selected for the meta-analysis. It was found that variations in olfactory receptor genes influence the susceptibility to odors and predisposition to weight gain and poor eating habits. Bariatric surgery, particularly sleeve gastrectomy, shows significant improvements in olfactory function (SMD 2.37, 95% CI [0.96, 3.77], I = 92%, p = 0.001), especially regarding the olfactory threshold (SMD −1.65, 95% CI [−3.03, −0.27], I = 81%, p = 0.02). There is a bidirectional relationship between olfactory function and metabolism in humans. Bariatric surgery improves olfactory perception in obese patients, but it is still unclear if impacting the olfactory system directly affects eating behavior and the energy balance. However, these findings open novel avenues for future studies addressing the olfactory system as a novel target to alter systemic metabolism in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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15 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Consumption of Tree Nuts as Snacks Reduces Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Young Adults: A Randomized Trial
by Kate Sumislawski, Annaliese Widmer, Robert R. Suro, Michelle E. Robles, Kate Lillegard, Dianna Olson, John R. Koethe and Heidi J. Silver
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5051; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245051 - 09 Dec 2023
Viewed by 10361
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetSx) and its chronic disease consequences are major public health concerns worldwide. Between-meal snacking may be a modifiable risk factor. We hypothesized that consuming tree nuts as snacks, versus typical carbohydrate snacks, would reduce risk for MetSx in young adults. A [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetSx) and its chronic disease consequences are major public health concerns worldwide. Between-meal snacking may be a modifiable risk factor. We hypothesized that consuming tree nuts as snacks, versus typical carbohydrate snacks, would reduce risk for MetSx in young adults. A prospective, randomized, 16-week parallel-group diet intervention trial was conducted in 84 adults aged 22–36 with BMI 24.5 to 34.9 kg/m2 and ≥1 MetSx clinical risk factor. Tree nuts snacks (TNsnack) were matched to carbohydrate snacks (CHOsnack) for energy (kcal), protein, fiber, and sodium content as part of a 7-day eucaloric menu. Difference in change between groups was tested by analysis of covariance using general linear models. Multivariable linear regression modeling assessed main effects of TNsnack treatment and interactions between TNsnack and sex on MetSx score. Age, BMI, and year of study enrollment were included variables. There was a main effect of TNsnack on reducing waist circumference in females (mean difference: −2.20 ± 0.73 cm, p = 0.004) and a trend toward reduced visceral fat (−5.27 ± 13.05 cm2, p = 0.06). TNsnack decreased blood insulin levels in males (−1.14 ± 1.41 mIU/L, p = 0.05) and multivariable modeling showed a main effect of TNsnack on insulin. Main effects of TNsnack on triglycerides and TG/HDL ratio were observed (p = 0.04 for both) with TG/HDL ratio reduced ~11%. A main effect of TNsnack (p = 0.04) and an interaction effect between TNsnack and sex (p < 0.001) on total MetSx score yielded 67% reduced MetSx score in TNsnack females and 42% reduced MetSx score in TNsnack males. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized parallel-arm study to investigate cardiometabolic responses to TNsnacks versus typical CHOsnacks among young adults at risk of MetSx. Our study suggests daily tree nut consumption reduces MetSx risk by improving waist circumference, lipid biomarkers, and/or insulin sensitivity—without requiring caloric restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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22 pages, 557 KiB  
Review
Metabolic and Other Endocrine Elements with Regard to Lifestyle Choices: Focus on E-Cigarettes
by Andrei Osman, Gabriel Sebastian Petrescu, Mihaela Jana Tuculină, Ionela Teodora Dascălu, Cristina Popescu, Anca-Ștefania Enescu, Constantin Dăguci, Anca-Pati Cucu, Claudiu Nistor and Mara Carsote
Metabolites 2023, 13(12), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13121192 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Our objective was to overview recent data on metabolic/endocrine disorders with respect to e-cigarette (e-cig) use. This is a narrative review; we researched English, full-length, original articles on PubMed (between January 2020 and August 2023) by using different keywords in the area of [...] Read more.
Our objective was to overview recent data on metabolic/endocrine disorders with respect to e-cigarette (e-cig) use. This is a narrative review; we researched English, full-length, original articles on PubMed (between January 2020 and August 2023) by using different keywords in the area of metabolic/endocrine issues. We only included original clinical studies (n = 22) and excluded case reports and experimental studies. 3 studies (N1 = 22,385; N2 = 600,046; N3 = 5101) addressed prediabetes risk; N1 showed a 1.57-fold increased risk of dual vs. never smokers, a higher risk that was not confirmed in N2 (based on self-reported assessments). Current non-smokers (N1) who were dual smokers still have an increased odd of prediabetes (a 1.27-fold risk increase). N3 and another 2 studies addressed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM): a lower prevalence of DM among dual users (3.3%) vs. cigarette smoking (5.9%) was identified. 6 studies investigated obesity profile (4 of them found positive correlations with e-cig use). One study (N4 = 373,781) showed that e-cig use was associated with obesity in the general population (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.3–2.1, p < 0.05); another (N5 = 7505, 0.82% were e-cig-only) showed that obesity had a higher prevalence in dual smokers (51%) vs. cig-only (41.2%, p < 0.05), while another (N6 = 3055) found that female (not male) e-cig smokers had higher body mass index vs. non-smokers. Data on metabolic syndrome (MS) are provided for dual smokers (n = 2): one case–control study found that female dual smokers had higher odds of MS than non-smokers. The need for awareness with respect to potential e-cig-–associated medical issues should be part of modern medicine, including daily anamnesis. Whether the metabolic/endocrine frame is part of the general picture is yet to be determined. Surveillance protocols should help clinicians to easily access the medical background of one subject, including this specific matter of e-cig with/without conventional cigarettes smoking and other habits/lifestyle elements, especially when taking into consideration metabolism anomalies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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23 pages, 5906 KiB  
Review
Metabolic Disorders, the Microbiome as an Endocrine Organ, and Their Relations with Obesity: A Literature Review
by Sorina Ispas, Liliana Ana Tuta, Mihaela Botnarciuc, Viorel Ispas, Sorana Staicovici, Sevigean Ali, Andreea Nelson-Twakor, Cristina Cojocaru, Alexandra Herlo and Adina Petcu
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(11), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13111602 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
The etiology of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, has been predominantly associated with the gut microbiota, which is acknowledged as an endocrine organ that plays a crucial role in modulating energy homeostasis and host immune responses. The presence of dysbiosis has the potential [...] Read more.
The etiology of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, has been predominantly associated with the gut microbiota, which is acknowledged as an endocrine organ that plays a crucial role in modulating energy homeostasis and host immune responses. The presence of dysbiosis has the potential to impact the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues by allowing the transit of bacterial structural components, such as lipopolysaccharides. This, in turn, may trigger inflammatory pathways and potentially lead to the onset of insulin resistance. Moreover, intestinal dysbiosis has the potential to modify the production of gastrointestinal peptides that are linked to the feeling of fullness, hence potentially leading to an increase in food consumption. In this literature review, we discuss current developments, such as the impact of the microbiota on lipid metabolism as well as the processes by which its changes led to the development of metabolic disorders. Several methods have been developed that could be used to modify the gut microbiota and undo metabolic abnormalities. Methods: After researching different databases, we examined the PubMed collection of articles and conducted a literature review. Results: After applying our exclusion and inclusion criteria, the initial search yielded 1345 articles. We further used various filters to narrow down our titles analysis and, to be specific to our study, selected the final ten studies, the results of which are included in the Results section. Conclusions: Through gut barrier integrity, insulin resistance, and other influencing factors, the gut microbiota impacts the host’s metabolism and obesity. Although the area of the gut microbiota and its relationship to obesity is still in its initial stages of research, it offers great promise for developing new therapeutic targets that may help prevent and cure obesity by restoring the gut microbiota to a healthy condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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18 pages, 3581 KiB  
Article
Benefits of Chronic Administration of a Carbohydrate-Free Diet on Biochemical and Morphometric Parameters in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome
by Diana Alejandra Lares-Gutiérrez, Marisol Galván-Valencia, Irene Jazmín Flores-Baza and Blanca Patricia Lazalde-Ramos
Metabolites 2023, 13(10), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13101085 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Carbohydrate intake restriction positively affects markers related to metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the effects of long-term carbohydrate-free diets (CFD) have yet to be studied. The main objective of this study was to report the effects on biochemical and morphometric parameters in a rat [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate intake restriction positively affects markers related to metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the effects of long-term carbohydrate-free diets (CFD) have yet to be studied. The main objective of this study was to report the effects on biochemical and morphometric parameters in a rat model of MS. Male Wistar rats were initially divided into two groups: the standard diet group (SD, n = 20); and the MS group (n = 30) fed a high-glucose diet. Ten animals from each group were sacrificed after 20 weeks on their respective diets to verify MS development. The remaining MS animals were divided into two subgroups: one continued with the MS diet (n = 10); and the other transitioned to a carbohydrate-free diet (MS + CFD group, n = 10) for 20 more weeks. At week 40, parameters, including glucose, insulin, lipid profile, ketone bodies, C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, liver and muscle glycogen, and serum, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed. Transitioning to CFD resulted in decreased caloric intake and body weight, with normalized parameters including MDA, insulin, lipid profile, ALT, liver glycogen, creatinine, and CRP levels. This shift effectively reversed the MS-induced alterations, except for glycemia and uremia, likely influenced by the diet’s high protein content stimulating gluconeogenesis. This research underscores the potential benefits of long-term carbohydrate restriction in mitigating MS-related markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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10 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Laser-Based 3D Body Scanning Reveals a Higher Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity than Tape Measurements: Results from a Population-Based Sample
by Robert P. Kosilek, Till Ittermann, Dörte Radke, Sabine Schipf, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich and Henry Völzke
Diagnostics 2023, 13(15), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13152594 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Background: The global obesity epidemic is a major public health concern, and accurate diagnosis is essential for identifying at-risk individuals. Three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technology offers several advantages over the standard practice of tape measurements for diagnosing obesity. This study was conducted to [...] Read more.
Background: The global obesity epidemic is a major public health concern, and accurate diagnosis is essential for identifying at-risk individuals. Three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technology offers several advantages over the standard practice of tape measurements for diagnosing obesity. This study was conducted to validate body scan data from a German population-based cohort and explore clinical implications of this technology in the context of metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 354 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania that completed a 3D body scanning examination. The agreement of anthropometric data obtained from 3D body scanning with manual tape measurements was analyzed using correlation analysis and Bland–Altman plots. Classification agreement regarding abdominal obesity based on IDF guidelines was assessed using Cohen’s kappa. The association of body scan measures with metabolic syndrome components was explored using correlation analysis. Results: Three-dimensional body scanning showed excellent validity with slightly larger values that presumably reflect the true circumferences more accurately. Metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent in the sample (31%) and showed strong associations with central obesity. Using body scan vs. tape measurements of waist circumference for classification resulted in a 16% relative increase in the prevalence of abdominal obesity (61.3% vs. 52.8%). Conclusions: These results suggest that the prevalence of obesity may be underestimated using the standard method of tape measurements, highlighting the need for more accurate approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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12 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Associations between Periodontal Status and Liver Function in the Japanese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Toshiya Fujii, Norio Aoyama, Sayuri Kida, Kentaro Taniguchi, Tomomi Yata, Masato Minabe and Motohiro Komaki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(14), 4759; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12144759 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1413
Abstract
A relationship between periodontitis and liver function has been suggested. Indeed, patients with severe periodontal disease have been found to be more prone to liver dysfunction. The periodontal inflammatory surface area (PISA) has been shown to be a useful indicator of periodontal and [...] Read more.
A relationship between periodontitis and liver function has been suggested. Indeed, patients with severe periodontal disease have been found to be more prone to liver dysfunction. The periodontal inflammatory surface area (PISA) has been shown to be a useful indicator of periodontal and systemic diseases. However, little information is available regarding whether the PISA is associated with liver function markers, such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This study aimed to clarify relationship between liver function markers, AST, ALT, and GGT, and PISA level in a cross-sectional study. The subjects were recruited between 2018 and 2021 at the Medical and Dental Collaboration Center of Kanagawa Dental College Hospital. A periodontal clinical examination was performed, and the PISA was calculated. Peripheral blood samples were collected, and serum levels of liver function markers were measured. The levels of liver function markers were examined in different values of PISA. Participants with high PISA scores were more likely to have increased GGT levels while AST and ALT were not changed with PISA. Increased GGT was found in 10.8% and 29.4% (p = 0.0056), increased AST in 48.2% and 52.9% (p = 0.62), and increased ALT in 35.2% and 47.0% (p = 0.20) among <300 mm2 and ≧300 mm2 PISA groups, respectively. It was found that males with a PISA of 300 mm2 or higher had an elevated level of serum GGT. In conclusion, elevated GGT was found in the high PISA group, particularly in males, while AST and ALT did not differ by PISA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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13 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Association between Menopause, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Metabolic Syndrome
by Ying-Ju Ou, Jia-In Lee, Shu-Pin Huang, Szu-Chia Chen, Jiun-Hung Geng and Chia-Hung Su
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4435; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134435 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
(1) Background: We aimed to explore the associations between menopause, postmenopausal hormone therapy, and metabolic syndrome in a large community-based group of Asian women. (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which we enrolled women aged 30 to 70 years with sufficient [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We aimed to explore the associations between menopause, postmenopausal hormone therapy, and metabolic syndrome in a large community-based group of Asian women. (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which we enrolled women aged 30 to 70 years with sufficient information about menopausal status from the Taiwan Biobank. The definition for metabolic syndrome used in this study aligns with the Bureau of Health Promotion’s (Taiwan) proposed definition. (3) Results: A total of 17,460 women were recruited. The postmenopausal group had a higher metabolic syndrome prevalence (30% vs. 14%) and 1.17 times higher odds ratio (OR) than the premenopausal group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.33). Regarding the types of menopause, surgical menopause was associated with metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.63); however, natural menopause was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, postmenopausal hormone therapy was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in the women with natural menopause (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.89), but not in those with surgical menopause. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that menopause is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while postmenopausal hormone therapy is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women with natural menopause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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8 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
Increased Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Patients with Nascent Metabolic Syndrome
by Ishwarlal Jialal, Beverley Adams-Huet and Sridevi Devaraj
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134247 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Background and Aims: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a global problem, predisposes to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease. While MetS is associated with central obesity, there is scanty data on adipocyte hypertrophy, increased fat cell size (FCS), in MetS. [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a global problem, predisposes to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease. While MetS is associated with central obesity, there is scanty data on adipocyte hypertrophy, increased fat cell size (FCS), in MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate FCS status in adipose tissue (AT) biopsy of patients with nascent MetS without the confounding of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, smoking, or lipid therapy. Methods and Results: Fasting blood and subcutaneous gluteal AT biopsies were obtained in MetS (n = 20) and controls (n = 19). Cardio-metabolic features, FFA levels, hsCRP, and HOMA-IR were significantly increased in patients with MetS. Waist-circumference (WC) adjusted-FCS was significantly increased in patients with MetS and increased with increasing severity of MetS. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between FCS with glucose, HDL-C, and the ratio of TG: HDL-C. There were significant correlations between FCS and FFA, as well as endotoxin and monocyte TLR4 abundance. Additionally, FCS correlated with readouts of NLRP3 Inflammasome activity. Most importantly, FCS correlated with markers of fibrosis and angiogenesis. Conclusions: In conclusion, in patients with nascent MetS, we demonstrate WC-adjusted increase in FCS from gluteal adipose tissue which correlated with cellular inflammation, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. While these preliminary observations were in gluteal fat, future studies are warranted to confirm these findings in visceral and other fat depots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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Review
Therapeutic Effects and Molecular Mechanism of Chlorogenic Acid on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Role of HIF-1alpha
by Zhenghong Zhang, Congjian Shi and Zhengchao Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132833 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a powerful antioxidant polyphenol molecule found in many diets and liquid beverages, playing a preventive and therapeutic role in various diseases caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent research has found that CGA can not only improve clinical symptoms [...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a powerful antioxidant polyphenol molecule found in many diets and liquid beverages, playing a preventive and therapeutic role in various diseases caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent research has found that CGA can not only improve clinical symptoms in PCOS patients but also improve follicular development, hormone status, and oxidative stress in PCOS rats, indicating the therapeutic effect of CGA on PCOS. Notably, our previous series of studies has demonstrated the expression changes and regulatory mechanisms of HIF-1alpha signaling in PCOS ovaries. Considering the regulatory effect of CGA on the HIF-1alpha pathway, the present article systematically elucidates the therapeutic role and molecular mechanisms of HIF-1alpha signaling during the treatment of PCOS by CGA, including follicular development, steroid synthesis, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, in order to further understand the mechanisms of CGA effects in different types of diseases and to provide a theoretical basis for further promoting CGA-rich diets and beverages simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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