Topic Editors

School of Atmosphere Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Prof. Dr. Guoxiong Wu
Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Prof. Dr. Zhemin Tan
Department of Meteorology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China

A Themed Issue in Memory of Academician Duzheng Ye (1916–2013)

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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Themed Issue in memory of Academician Duzheng Ye (1916–2013) intends to honor Professor Duzheng Ye, who made numerous significant contributions to Tibetan Plateau meteorology, the theory of atmospheric longwave energy dispersion, climate change adaptation theories, etc., in earth sciences for more than 70 years. He was awarded the nation's highest scientific prize, the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, in 2005, as well as the 48th International Meteorological Organization (IMO) Prize in 2003. Nearly a decade has passed since 16 October 2013, when Dr. Duzheng Ye passed away at the age of 97. Having finished a PhD study with Prof. Rossby, Dr. Ye returned to China in 1950 and worked at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ever since. Being an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a pioneer in climate change, Dr. Duzheng Ye is undoubtedly one of the most eminent scientists in atmospheric sciences. Prof. Ye made pioneering contributions to our understanding of the meteorology of the Tibetan Plateau by noting its significant and unique effects on global climate change; formulated the theory of seasonally abrupt change in atmospheric circulation; developed the theory of atmospheric longwave energy dispersion, which has underpinned modern weather forecasting in China; encouraged research on climate change in the earlier years of China’s reform and opening up; and proposed climate change adaptation theories to draw a link between global climate change and human activity by building a framework of “orderly human adaptation” in the context of a life-supporting environment. In honor and recognition of Professor Duzheng Ye’s outstanding career contributions to earth sciences, this Special Issue welcomes the submission of original research manuscripts or reviews featuring, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Atmospheric dynamics and physics;
  • Synoptic weather;
  • Climate change;
  • Remote-sensing observations for weather and climate.

Prof. Dr. Xiaolei Zou
Prof. Dr. Guoxiong Wu
Prof. Dr. Zhemin Tan
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • weather and climate dynamics
  • atmospheric predictability
  • tropical cyclone
  • general circulation
  • global climate change
  • Tibetan Plateau meteorology
  • numerical modeling
  • satellite data applications in weather and climate
  • data assimilation

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Atmosphere
atmosphere
2.9 4.1 2010 17.7 Days CHF 2400
Climate
climate
3.7 5.2 2013 19.7 Days CHF 1800
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (32 papers)

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6 pages, 210 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Topic “A Themed Issue in Memory of Academician Duzheng Ye (1916–2013)”
by Xiaolei Zou, Ming Cai, Guoxiong Wu and Zhemin Tan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(18), 4586; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15184586 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
This Topic covers a wide range of topics, including atmospheric dynamics and physics, synoptic weather, climate variability, climate change, and remote sensing observations for weather and climate studies [...] Full article
13 pages, 7587 KiB  
Article
The Dynamics and Microphysical Characteristics of the Convection Producing the Record-Breaking Hourly Precipitation on 20 July 2021 in Zhengzhou, China
by Kun Zhao, Xin Xu, Ming Xue, Zhe-Min Tan, Hao Huang, Ang Zhou, Xueqi Fan, Qiqing Liu, Chenli Wang, Juan Fang, Wen-Chau Lee, Qinghong Zhang, Fan Zhang, Gang Chen and Ji Yang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(18), 4511; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15184511 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
An hourly rainfall of 201.9 mm fell in Zhengzhou on 20 July 2021, breaking the hourly rainfall record of mainland China and causing severe urban flooding and human casualties. This observation-based study investigates the associated convective-scale and mesoscale dynamics and microphysical processes using [...] Read more.
An hourly rainfall of 201.9 mm fell in Zhengzhou on 20 July 2021, breaking the hourly rainfall record of mainland China and causing severe urban flooding and human casualties. This observation-based study investigates the associated convective-scale and mesoscale dynamics and microphysical processes using disdrometer and polarimetric radar observations aided by retrievals from the Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System. The synoptic flow forcing brought abundant moisture from the oceans and converged at Zhengzhou; then, the extreme rainfall was produced by a slow-moving convective storm that persisted throughout the hour over Zhengzhou. Unusually high concentrations of raindrops of all sizes (showing combined properties of maritime and continental convection) are revealed by the disdrometer data, whereas the polarimetric radar data suggest that both ice-based and warm rain processes were important contributors to the total rainfall. High precipitation efficiency was achieved with an erect updraft at the low levels, whereas enhanced easterly inflows kept the storm moving slowly. The interaction between convective-scale and mesoscale dynamics and microphysical processes within the favorable synoptic conditions led to this extremely heavy rainfall. Full article
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20 pages, 10024 KiB  
Article
Key Factors for Improving the Resolution of Mapped Sea Surface Height from Multi-Satellite Altimeters in the South China Sea
by Lei Liu, Xiaoya Zhang, Jianfang Fei, Zhijin Li, Wenli Shi, Huizan Wang, Xingliang Jiang, Ze Zhang and Xianyu Lv
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(17), 4275; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15174275 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
A satellite altimeter measures sea surface height (SSH) along the nadir track. Multiple satellite altimeters have been in orbit, and the measurements been merged for mapping mesoscale eddies of ~100 km in size in the oceans. The capability of the mapped SSH for [...] Read more.
A satellite altimeter measures sea surface height (SSH) along the nadir track. Multiple satellite altimeters have been in orbit, and the measurements been merged for mapping mesoscale eddies of ~100 km in size in the oceans. The capability of the mapped SSH for resolving mesoscale eddies depends on mapping algorithms. A two-dimensional variational (2DVAR) algorithm was implemented to generate mapped SSH at a grid size of 1/12° in the South China Sea. A range of comparisons were performed between the mapped SSH and the commonly used AVISO (Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic satellite data) mapped SSH data product at a grid size of 1/8° and 1/4°. The effective resolution, which represents the spatial scale that the data can resolve, was examined. The effective resolution of the mapped SSH using the 2DVAR algorithm is approximately 100 km, while it is 250 km with the 1/8° and 1/4° AVISO data products. The difference in the effective resolution results from the difference in the background state and thus the background error. The result suggests that the effective resolution of the mapped data could be increased by choosing a background state so that the associated errors could have a smaller decorrelation length scale. Full article
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14 pages, 2932 KiB  
Technical Note
How Important Is Satellite-Retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth in Deriving Surface PM2.5 Using Machine Learning?
by Zhongyan Tian, Jing Wei and Zhanqing Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153780 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
PM2.5 refers to the total mass concentration of tiny particulates in the atmosphere near the surface, obtained by means of in situ observations and satellite remote sensing. Given the highly limited number of ground observation stations of inhomogeneous distribution and an ill-posed [...] Read more.
PM2.5 refers to the total mass concentration of tiny particulates in the atmosphere near the surface, obtained by means of in situ observations and satellite remote sensing. Given the highly limited number of ground observation stations of inhomogeneous distribution and an ill-posed remote sensing approach, increasing efforts have been devoted to the application of machine-learning (ML) models to both ground and satellite data. A key satellite-derived parameter, aerosol optical thickness (AOD), has been most commonly used as a proxy of PM2.5, although their correlation is fraught with large uncertainties. A critical question that has been overlooked concerns how much AOD helps to improve the retrieval of PM2.5 relative to its uncertainty incurred concurrently. The question is addressed here by taking advantage of high-density PM2.5 stations in eastern China to evaluate the contributions of AOD, determined as the difference in the accuracy of PM2.5 retrievals with and without AOD for varying densities of PM2.5 stations, using four popular ML models (i.e., Random Forest, Extra-trees, XGBoost, and LightGBM). Our results reveal that as the density of monitoring stations decreases, both the feature importance and permutation importance of satellite AOD demonstrate a consistent upward trend (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ML models without AOD exhibit faster declines in overall accuracy and predictive ability compared with the models with AOD assessed using the sample-based and station-based (spatial) independent cross-validation approaches. Overall, a 10% reduction in the number of stations results in an increase of 0.7–1.2% and 0.6–1.2% in uncertainty in estimated and predicted accuracies, respectively. These findings attest to the indispensable role of satellite AOD in the PM2.5 retrieval process through ML because it can significantly mitigate the negative impact of the sparse distribution of monitoring sites. This role becomes more important as the number of PM2.5 stations decreases. Full article
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17 pages, 3175 KiB  
Review
From General Circulation to Global Change: The Evolution, Achievements, and Influences of Duzheng Ye’s Scientific Research
by Jianhua Lu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081202 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Duzheng Ye (Tu-cheng Yeh) was an active member of Rossby’s Chicago School, one of the founders of modern meteorology in China since the 1950s, and a pioneer of global change science in China and over the world. His achievements have been central to [...] Read more.
Duzheng Ye (Tu-cheng Yeh) was an active member of Rossby’s Chicago School, one of the founders of modern meteorology in China since the 1950s, and a pioneer of global change science in China and over the world. His achievements have been central to the development of atmospheric and climate dynamics and global change studies in China, and many of them remain to be fundamental in the context of global climate change. In this review, his lifelong research career is divided into five periods: (1) the preparatory period (1935–1944); (2) the Chicago period (1945–1950); (3) the period of breaking ground (1950–1966); (4) the period of transition (1972–1983); and (5) the period of global change (1984–2013). The evolution of Yeh’s main achievements is described in the context of the historical background of both China and the world. These well-known achievements included the theory of energy dispersion in the atmosphere, the general circulation of the atmosphere (GCA) over East Asia and the globe, Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau meteorology, the scale-dependence theory of geostrophic adaptation (adjustment), and his pioneering ideas on global change. Special emphases are put on some of Yeh’s investigations that were well ahead of his time, such as his investigations on trade inversion, the GCA as an internally consistent whole, abrupt seasonal changes in the GCA, the physical mechanism of atmospheric blocking, and orderly human activities. Full article
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21 pages, 4507 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Indian Summer Monsoon on Inter-Annual Variability of the Tibetan-Plateau NDVI in Its Main Growing Season
by Xin Mao, Hong-Li Ren, Ge Liu, Baohuang Su and Yinghan Sang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3612; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143612 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
The vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), as a major component of the land–atmosphere interaction, affects the TP thermal conditions. And, as a direct climatic factor of vegetation, precipitation over the TP is significantly regulated by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Using remote-sensing-based [...] Read more.
The vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), as a major component of the land–atmosphere interaction, affects the TP thermal conditions. And, as a direct climatic factor of vegetation, precipitation over the TP is significantly regulated by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Using remote-sensing-based vegetation images, meteorological observations, and reanalysis datasets, this study deeply explored the influence of the ISM on vegetation on the TP in its main growing season, where the vegetation on the TP is indicated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The findings reveal that the ISM is a critical external factor impacting the TP vegetation and has a significantly positive correlation with the TP precipitation and NDVI. Corresponding to a strong ISM, the South Asia high moves northwestward toward the TP and Iranian Plateau with an increase in intensity, and the cyclonic circulation develops over the south of the TP in the middle-lower troposphere. This tropospheric circulation structure aids in the transportation of more water vapor to the TP and enhances convection there, which facilitates more precipitation and thus the TP vegetation growth, featuring a uniform NDVI pattern. Since the positive correlation between precipitation over the TP and NDVI is weaker than that between the ISM and NDVI, we suggest that the ISM can influence the TP vegetation growth not only through changing precipitation but also through other local climatic factors. The increased convection and precipitation over the TP induced by the ISM can also affect the surface thermal conditions, featuring an interaction between the TP vegetation and heat sources. The evapotranspiration of vegetation and its coverage affect local latent and sensible heat fluxes, while the TP thermal condition changes affect in return the vegetation growth. In addition, the changes in thermal conditions over the TP caused by the substantial increase in vegetation may have a de-correlation effect on the relationship between the ISM and uniform NDVI pattern after the TP vegetation reaches its maximum coverage. Full article
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18 pages, 3041 KiB  
Article
Assimilating AMSU-A Radiance Observations with an Ensemble Four-Dimensional Variational (En4DVar) Hybrid Data Assimilation System
by Shujun Zhu, Bin Wang, Lin Zhang, Juanjuan Liu, Yongzhu Liu, Jiandong Gong, Shiming Xu, Yong Wang, Wenyu Huang, Li Liu, Yujun He, Xiangjun Wu, Bin Zhao and Fajing Chen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3476; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143476 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
Many ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) methods use observation space localization to mitigate the sampling errors due to the insufficient ensemble members. Observation space localization is simpler and more timesaving than model space localization in implementation, but more difficult to directly assimilate satellite radiance [...] Read more.
Many ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) methods use observation space localization to mitigate the sampling errors due to the insufficient ensemble members. Observation space localization is simpler and more timesaving than model space localization in implementation, but more difficult to directly assimilate satellite radiance observations, a kind of non-local observations. The vertical locations of radiance observations are undetermined and the transmission of observational information is thereby obstructed. To determine the vertical coordinates of radiance observations, a weighted average hypsometry is proposed. Using this hypsometry, AMSU-A radiance observations are directly assimilated with an ensemble four-dimensional variational (En4DVar) DA system. It consists of a four-dimensional ensemble-variational (4DEnVar) system providing ensemble covariance and a 4DVar system. Observing system simulation experiments show that the hypsometry alleviates the degradations in the late period of medium-range forecast in the Northern Extratropics that occur in the traditional peak-based hypsometry. It obviously improves the analysis qualities and forecast skills of the En4DVar system and its two components, especially in the Southern Extratropics, when incorporating AMSU-A radiance observations. The improvement in the En4DVar-initialized forecast is comparable to that in the 4DVar-initialized forecast in the Southern Extratropics and Tropics. It indicates that a proper hypsometry enables efficient extraction of useful information from AMSU-A radiance observations by 4DEnVar with observation space localization. Therefore, the 4DEnVar provides high-quality ensemble covariances for En4DVar. Full article
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22 pages, 16280 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Analysis of Typical Structures and Microphysical Characteristics of Precipitation in Northeastern China Cold Vortexes
by Jingshi Wang, Xiaoyong Zhuge, Fengjiao Chen, Xu Chen and Yuan Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(13), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15133399 - 04 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
The northeastern China cold vortex (NCCV) is the main weather system affecting Northeast China. Based on the precipitation products from the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) onboard the Global Precipitation Measurement core observatory (GPM) satellite, the precipitation structures and microphysical properties for different rain [...] Read more.
The northeastern China cold vortex (NCCV) is the main weather system affecting Northeast China. Based on the precipitation products from the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) onboard the Global Precipitation Measurement core observatory (GPM) satellite, the precipitation structures and microphysical properties for different rain types in 6432 NCCVs from 2014 to 2019 were studied using dynamic composite analysis. Our results show that the precipitation in NCCVs is dominated by stratiform precipitation. Regions with high stratiform and convective precipitation frequency have a comma shape. The growth mechanism of precipitation particles changes at ~4 km in altitude, the lower particles grow through collision (more pronounced in convective precipitation), and the upper hydrometeors grow through the Bergeron process. Additionally, the precipitation structures and microphysical properties exhibit great regional variations in NCCVs. The rainfall for all rain types is the strongest in the southeast region within an NCCV, mainly characterized by higher near-surface droplet concentration, while precipitation events occur more frequently in the southeast region for all rain types. There are active rimming growth processes above the melting layer for convective precipitation in the western region of an NCCV. In the southeast region of an NCCV, the collision growth of droplets in both types of precipitation is the most obvious. Full article
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16 pages, 6188 KiB  
Article
The Atmospheric Vortex Streets and Their Impact on Precipitation in the Wake of the Tibetan Plateau
by Qi Liu, Zhaohua Wu, Zhe-Min Tan, Fucheng Yang and Congbin Fu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(7), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14071096 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Atmospheric vortex streets (AVSs) are often observed in the wake of the leeward side of mountainous islands and are considered atmospheric analogs of the classic Kármán vortex street when a fluid flows past a cylindrical obstacle. The prevailing westerlies were observed year-round around [...] Read more.
Atmospheric vortex streets (AVSs) are often observed in the wake of the leeward side of mountainous islands and are considered atmospheric analogs of the classic Kármán vortex street when a fluid flows past a cylindrical obstacle. The prevailing westerlies were observed year-round around the Tibetan Plateau. However, it remains to be understood whether the wake on the leeward side of the Tibetan Plateau exhibits a stable AVS and how the AVS impacts precipitation over the downstream region. In this study, the environmental meteorological factors, spatiotemporal characteristics, and various properties of the AVS on the leeward side of the Tibetan Plateau were examined for the period of 1979–2018 using global reanalysis datasets. The results show that the spatial structure of these AVSs closely resembles that of the classic Kármán vortex street observed in the laboratory. The meteorological factors satisfy the conditions in which a stable AVS can exist year-round. Moreover, various properties of these AVSs, including the aspect ratio and Strouhal number, are similar to those in previous studies of smaller obstacle caused AVS. Thus, these AVSs on the leeward side of the Tibetan Plateau can be interpreted as the atmospheric analog of classic Kármán vortex streets. The results further show that the spatiotemporal structure of precipitation over the wake of the Tibetan Plateau was largely shared by the cyclonic activities in the AVS. Approximately 80–90% of the total precipitation and heavy rain days in the main rainband over the wake of the Tibetan Plateau are closely tied to the seasonal evolution of the AVS. Full article
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17 pages, 5053 KiB  
Article
Insight into Asymmetry in the Impact of Different Types of ENSO on the NAO
by Peng Zhang and Zhiwei Wu
Climate 2023, 11(7), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11070136 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Understanding the influence of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is of critical significance for seasonal prediction. The present study found that both Niño3.4 sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) intensity and east-west gradient in the mid-low latitude Pacific [...] Read more.
Understanding the influence of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is of critical significance for seasonal prediction. The present study found that both Niño3.4 sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) intensity and east-west gradient in the mid-low latitude Pacific determine the linkage between ENSO and the NAO. Based on Niño3.4 SSTA intensity and the east-west gradient, ENSO events are classified into three types: strong intensity, weak intensity-strong gradient (WSG), and equatorial ENSOs. Note that the former two types are usually concurrent with a strong zonal SSTA gradient. In contrast, equatorial ENSO is often associated with weak intensity-weak gradient SSTAs confined in the equatorial Pacific. The anomalous circulation patterns in response to the three types of ENSO exhibit asymmetric features over the North Atlantic. The WSG-El Niño associated circulation anomaly resembles a negative NAO-like pattern, yet the strong and equatorial El Niño associated circulation anomalies show a neutral-NAO pattern. For La Niña events, their impact on the NAO mainly depends on the cold SSTA position rather than their intensity. The strong and WSG-La Niña associated negative SSTAs are centered in the equatorial-central Pacific and favor a steady positive NAO-like anomaly. The cold SSTA center of equatorial La Niña shifts to the equatorial-eastern Pacific and cannot profoundly influence the North Atlantic climate. The physical mechanisms are also investigated with a general circulation model. Full article
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13 pages, 8893 KiB  
Article
Impacts of the Surface Potential Vorticity Circulation over the Tibetan Plateau on the East Asian Monsoon in July
by Yimin Liu, Lulu Luan, Guoxiong Wu and Tingting Ma
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14061038 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Based on the definition of potential vorticity substance (W) and its equation, an index “iPV” representing the leading mode of the surface potential vorticity circulation (PVC) over the Tibetan Plateau is defined to characterize the orographic potential vorticity (PV) forcing on the atmospheric [...] Read more.
Based on the definition of potential vorticity substance (W) and its equation, an index “iPV” representing the leading mode of the surface potential vorticity circulation (PVC) over the Tibetan Plateau is defined to characterize the orographic potential vorticity (PV) forcing on the atmospheric general circulation. The relationships between the iPV index and the East Asian monsoon in July, as well as the Silk Road pattern in Eurasia, are investigated on an interannual time scale. Results show that the iPV in July is closely related to the interannual variability of the East Asian monsoon. Corresponding to the positive phase of iPV with negative (positive) PVC over the north (south) of the plateau, strong positive PV anomalies and westerly flows develop in the troposphere over the plateau. Consequently, in the downstream region, the zonal PV advection increases with height just above the Jianghuai Meiyu front, which is conducive to the generation of upward movement. Over the East Asian area, the upper troposphere is controlled by the eastward shifted South Asian High. In the lower troposphere, the southwesterly flow anomaly on the northwestern side of the strengthened western Pacific subtropical high transports abundant water vapor to the north, forming a convergence in the Jianghuai area, leading to the formation of large-scale precipitation along the Meiyu front. Results from partial correlation analysis also demonstrate that the link between the variability of the East Asian monsoon in July and the plateau PV forcing is affected very little by the Silk Road pattern, whereas the plateau PV forcing plays a key “bridging” role in the influence of the Silk Road pattern on the East Asian monsoon. Full article
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15 pages, 4987 KiB  
Technical Note
Radar Echo Reconstruction in Oceanic Area via Deep Learning of Satellite Data
by Xiaoqi Yu, Xiao Lou, Yan Yan, Zhongwei Yan, Wencong Cheng, Zhibin Wang, Deming Zhao and Jiangjiang Xia
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(12), 3065; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15123065 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
A conventional way to monitor severe convective weather is using the composite reflectivity of radar as an indicator. For oceanic areas without radar deployment, reconstruction from satellite data is useful. However, those reconstruction models built on a land dataset are not directly applicable [...] Read more.
A conventional way to monitor severe convective weather is using the composite reflectivity of radar as an indicator. For oceanic areas without radar deployment, reconstruction from satellite data is useful. However, those reconstruction models built on a land dataset are not directly applicable to the ocean due to different underlying surfaces. In this study, we built reconstruction models based on U-Net (named STR-UNet) for different underlying surfaces (land, coast, offshore, and sea), and evaluated their applicability to the ocean. Our results suggest that the comprehensive use of land, coast, and offshore datasets should be more suitable for reconstruction in the ocean than using the sea dataset. The comprehensive performances (in terms of RMSE, MAE, POD, CSI, FAR, and BIAS) of the Land-Model, Coast-Model, and Offshore-Model in the ocean are superior to those of the Sea-Model, e.g., with RMSE being 5.61, 6.08, 5.06, and 7.73 in the oceanic area (Region B), respectively. We then analyzed the importance of different types of features on different underlying surfaces for reconstruction by using interpretability methods combined with physical meaning. Overall, satellite cloud-related features are most important, followed by satellite water-related features and satellite temperature-related features. For the transition of the model from land to coast, then offshore, the importance of satellite water-related features gradually increases, while the importance of satellite cloud-related features and satellite temperature-related features gradually decreases. It is worth mentioning that in the offshore region, the importance of satellite water-related features slightly exceeds the importance of satellite cloud-related features. Finally, based on the performance of the case, the results show that the STR-UNet reconstruction models we established can accurately reconstruct the shape, location, intensity, and range of the convective center, achieving the goal of detecting severe convective weather where a radar is not present. Full article
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13 pages, 1938 KiB  
Review
Instability of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observations, Modelling and Relevance to Present and Future
by Zhengyu Liu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14061011 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has changed dramatically during the glacial–interglacial cycle. One leading hypothesis for these abrupt changes is thermohaline instability. Here, I review recent progress towards understanding thermohaline instability in both observations and modelling. Proxy records available seem to favor [...] Read more.
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has changed dramatically during the glacial–interglacial cycle. One leading hypothesis for these abrupt changes is thermohaline instability. Here, I review recent progress towards understanding thermohaline instability in both observations and modelling. Proxy records available seem to favor thermohaline instability as the cause of the abrupt climate changes during the glacial–deglacial period because the deep North Atlantic water mass and AMOC seemed to have changed before the North Atlantic climate. However, most fully Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs) so far seem to exhibit monostable AMOC, because (1) these models have failed to simulate abrupt AMOC changes unless they are forced by an abrupt change of external forcing and, (2) these models have shown opposite freshwater convergence from the current observations. This potential model bias in the AMOC stability leaves the model projection of the future AMOC change uncertain. Full article
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19 pages, 4706 KiB  
Article
Changing Characteristics of Tropical Extreme Precipitation–Cloud Regimes in Warmer Climates
by William K. M. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, Bryce Harrop and L. Ruby Leung
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14060995 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the changing characteristics of climatic scale (monthly) tropical extreme precipitation in warming climates using the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM). The results are from Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations driven by (a) a control experiment with [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the changing characteristics of climatic scale (monthly) tropical extreme precipitation in warming climates using the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM). The results are from Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations driven by (a) a control experiment with the present-day sea surface temperature (SST) and CO2 concentration, (b) P4K, the same as in (a) but with a uniform increase of 4K in the SST globally, and (c) the same as in (a), but with an imposed SST and CO2 concentration from the outputs of the coupled E3SM forced by a 4xCO2 concentration. We found that as the surface warmed under P4K and 4xCO2, both convective and stratiform rain increased. Importantly, there was an increasing fractional contribution of stratiform rain as a function of the precipitation intensity, with the most extreme but rare events occurring preferentially over land more than the ocean, and more so under 4xCO2 than P4K. Extreme precipitation was facilitated by increased precipitation efficiency, reflecting accelerated rates of recycling of precipitation cloud water (both liquid and ice phases) in regions with colder anvil cloud tops. Changes in the vertical profiles of clouds, condensation heating, and vertical motions indicate increasing precipitation–cloud–circulation organization from the control and P4K to 4xCO2. The results suggest that large-scale ocean warming, that is, P4K, was the primary cause contributing to an organization structure resembling the well-known mesoscale convective system (MCS), with increased extreme precipitation on shorter (hourly to daily) time scales. Additional 4xCO2 atmospheric radiative heating and dynamically consistent anomalous SST further amplified the MCS organization under P4K. Analyses of the surface moist static energy distribution show that increases in the surface moisture (temperature) under P4K and 4xCO2 was the key driver leading to enhanced convective instability over tropical ocean (land). However, a fast and large increase in the land surface temperature and lack of available local moisture resulted in a strong reduction in the land surface relative humidity, reflecting severe drying and enhanced convective inhibition (CIN). It is argued that very extreme and rare “record-breaking” precipitation events found over land under P4K, and more so under 4xCO2, are likely due to the delayed onset of deep convection, that is, the longer the suppression of deep convection by CIN, the more severe the extreme precipitation when it eventually occurs, due to the release of a large amount of stored surplus convective available potential energy in the lower troposphere during prolonged CIN. Full article
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10 pages, 2376 KiB  
Communication
Global Warming and Topography Impact the Amplitude of the Synoptic-Scale Surface Temperature Variability across the US
by Michael Secor, Jie Sun, Fucheng Yang, Xiaolei Zou and Zhaohua Wu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14060979 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
In recent decades, the United States has experienced changing patterns of extreme temperature. Although much progress has been made, delineating the change in synoptic surface temperature variability (SSTV) and understanding its potential causes remain to be pursued. In this study, we seek to [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the United States has experienced changing patterns of extreme temperature. Although much progress has been made, delineating the change in synoptic surface temperature variability (SSTV) and understanding its potential causes remain to be pursued. In this study, we seek to provide a quantitative description of the change in SSTV in the past seven decades across the US and its potential relevant physical factors. To achieve this goal, we develop a spatiotemporally local analysis method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition that bypasses the stationary assumption and makes it possible to continuously track the change in SSTV in the spatiotemporal domain. We have found that the change in SSTV across the US is spatially inhomogeneous and temporally non-uniform. The change in the SSTV amplitude ranges from −36% to 39% across the continental United States, Northern Mexico, and surrounding oceans. Higher altitudes and surrounding regions generally see an increase in variability, while elsewhere over land, a reduction is observed, creating a three-band zonal structure across the continental United States. Generally, increases in variability are observed in the subtropics. The shape of the spatiotemporal evolution of SSTV implies that the topography of the United States may play an important role in altering synoptic-scale variability. Full article
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17 pages, 3548 KiB  
Review
The Guiding Role of Rossby Wave Energy Dispersion Theory for Studying East Asian Monsoon System Dynamics
by Ronghui Huang, Jingliang Huangfu, Yong Liu and Riyu Lu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14060962 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
This paper is written to commemorate the 10th anniversary of academician Ye Duzheng (Yeh T.C.) pass away and his great contributions to the development of atmospheric dynamics. Under the inspiration and guidance of the theory of Rossby wave energy dispersion, remarkable progresses have [...] Read more.
This paper is written to commemorate the 10th anniversary of academician Ye Duzheng (Yeh T.C.) pass away and his great contributions to the development of atmospheric dynamics. Under the inspiration and guidance of the theory of Rossby wave energy dispersion, remarkable progresses have been made in research on planetary wave dynamics and teleconnections of atmospheric circulation anomalies. This paper aims to make a brief review of the studies on the propagating characteristics of quasi-stationary planetary waves in a three-dimensional spherical atmosphere and the dynamic processes of the interannual and interdecadal variabilities of the East Asian summer and winter monsoon systems. Especially, this paper systematically reviews the progresses of the studies on the impacts of the interannual and interdecadal variabilities of the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) pattern teleconnection wave train propagating along the meridional direction over East Asia and the “Silk Road” pattern teleconnection wave train propagating along the zonal direction within the subtropical jet from West Asia to East Asia on the East Asian summer monsoon system and the summer precipitation variability in China, under the guidance of the theory of Rossby wave energy dispersion. Moreover, this paper reviews the dynamic processes of the impact of the interannual and interdecadal oscillations of the propagating waveguides of boreal quasi-stationary planetary waves on the variability of the East Asian winter monsoon system. Full article
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12 pages, 5698 KiB  
Communication
Tropical Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Latent Heating: A Whole-Tropics Perspective Based on TRMM and ERA5 Datasets
by Yue Gao, Xiaolin Liu and Jianhua Lu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112746 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Tropical surface temperature (TST) and its connection with atmospheric heating, including tropical latent heating (TLH), is essential to the interannual variability of tropical atmospheric circulation and global teleconnection. Utilizing seasonally averaged satellite-based TRMM precipitation data as a proxy of TLH and ERA5-based TST [...] Read more.
Tropical surface temperature (TST) and its connection with atmospheric heating, including tropical latent heating (TLH), is essential to the interannual variability of tropical atmospheric circulation and global teleconnection. Utilizing seasonally averaged satellite-based TRMM precipitation data as a proxy of TLH and ERA5-based TST data from 1998 to 2018, we reveal some new features in terms of cross-hemispheric connection in the TLH and TST variability by decomposing them into equatorially symmetric and antisymmetric components. We find surprisingly that the spatial patterns of TLH projected upon the first principal components (PC1) of symmetric and antisymmetric TSTs over the whole-tropics, are very similar to each other, seemingly at odds with the classic Mastuno–Gill theory. The similarity in the projected TLH patterns is mainly because the PC1s of symmetric and antisymmetric TSTs co-vary temporally with a very high correlation. We use the spatial pattern of local correlation between symmetric and antisymmetric components, for both TST and TLH to depict geographic dependence of the symmetric–antisymmetric connection. We suggest that a whole-tropics perspective, which takes the different but connected nature of equatorially symmetric and antisymmetric modes across the whole-tropics into consideration, may well be useful in understanding and predicting tropical climate variability because clarifying the puzzle raised in this research from such a perspective about the consistency between the observation and the classic Mastuno–Gill theory is directly related to the fundamental dynamics of tropical systems, such as Walker circulation, monsoons, and their relationship with underlying land and sea conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 18279 KiB  
Article
A Parametric Model of Elliptic Orbits for Annual Evolutions of Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Polar Vortex and Their Interannual Variability
by Yueyue Yu, Jie Sun, Michael Secor, Ming Cai and Xinyue Luo
Atmosphere 2023, 14(5), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14050870 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
The year-to-year varying annual evolutions of the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) have an important downward impact on the weather and climate from winter to summer and thus potential implications for seasonal forecasts. This study constructs a parametric elliptic orbit model for capturing the [...] Read more.
The year-to-year varying annual evolutions of the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) have an important downward impact on the weather and climate from winter to summer and thus potential implications for seasonal forecasts. This study constructs a parametric elliptic orbit model for capturing the annual evolutions of mass-weighted zonal momentum at 60° N (MU) and total air mass above the isentropic surface of 400 K (M) over the latitude band of 60–90° N from 1 July 1979 to 30 June 2021. The elliptic orbit model naturally connects two time series of a nonlinear oscillator. As a result, the observed coupling relationship between MU and M associated with SPV as well as its interannual variations can be well reconstructed by a limited number of parameters of the elliptic orbit model. The findings of this study may pave a new way for short-time climate forecasts of the annual evolutions of SPV, including its temporal evolutions over winter seasons as well as the spring and fall seasons, and timings of the sudden stratospheric warming events by constructing its elliptic orbit in advance. Full article
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25 pages, 15386 KiB  
Article
Turbulence: A Significant Role in Clear-Air Echoes of CINRAD/SA at Night
by Yupeng Teng, Tianyan Li, Shuqing Ma and Hongbin Chen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071781 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
It is commonly believed that clear-air echoes detected by weather radars are caused by atmobios migration. However, clear-air echoes are sometimes inconsistently related to the activity of living creatures. In some cases, the characteristics of radar products seem to conform to biological scattering, [...] Read more.
It is commonly believed that clear-air echoes detected by weather radars are caused by atmobios migration. However, clear-air echoes are sometimes inconsistently related to the activity of living creatures. In some cases, the characteristics of radar products seem to conform to biological scattering, but the movement of echoes cannot be observed. For these reasons, we sought to expand the cause of clear-air echoes from a Chinese Doppler S-band Weather Radar (CINRAD/SA) in Beijing. Some contradictions were discovered in a case which diverged from previous conclusions. It was found that the progression and movement of clear-air echoes do not conform to the rules of biological activities. The frequency distribution of dual-wavelength ratio peaks is 21.5 dB, which is in accordance with Villars–Weisskopf’s turbulence theory. From 1 May to 20 May, the 58% dual-wavelength ratio between the S-band and the X-band was distributed between 18 dB and 24 dB. These results show that more than half of the clear-air echoes of CINRAD/SA at night were caused by turbulence in Beijing. A new model of troposcatter propagation, the reflecting-layers model, was then introduced to explain the radar observations. According to the reflecting-layers model, the echoes’ diurnal variation and reflectivity characteristics are attributed to the effects of turbulent mixing. Excessive turbulent mixing affects the generation of the reflective layer, thereby weakening the echo signal. It is necessary to re-examine the position of turbulence in clear-air echoes. Full article
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13 pages, 1888 KiB  
Communication
Applications of CNOP-P Method to Predictability Studies of Terrestrial Ecosystems
by Guodong Sun and Mu Mu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040617 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
In this paper, recent research on terrestrial ecosystem predictability using the conditional nonlinear optimal parameter perturbation (CNOP-P) method is summarized. The main findings include the impacts of uncertainties in climate change on uncertainties in simulated terrestrial ecosystems, the identification of key physical parameters [...] Read more.
In this paper, recent research on terrestrial ecosystem predictability using the conditional nonlinear optimal parameter perturbation (CNOP-P) method is summarized. The main findings include the impacts of uncertainties in climate change on uncertainties in simulated terrestrial ecosystems, the identification of key physical parameters that lead to large uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem modeling and prediction, and the evaluation of the simulation ability and prediction skill of terrestrial ecosystems by reducing key physical parameter errors. The study areas included the Inner Mongolia region, north–south transect of eastern China, and Qinghai–Tibet Plateau region. The periods of the studies were from 1961 to 1970 for the impacts of uncertainties in climate change on uncertainties in simulated terrestrial ecosystems, and from 1951 to 2000 for the identification of the most sensitive combinations of physical parameters. Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data were employed. The numerical results indicate the important role of nonlinear changes in climate variability due to the occurrences of extreme events characterized by CNOP-P in the abrupt grassland ecosystem equilibrium state and formation of carbon sinks in China. Second, the most sensitive combinations of physical parameters to the uncertainties in simulations and predictions of terrestrial ecosystems identified by the CNOP-P method were more sensitive than those obtained by traditional methods (e.g., one-at-a-time (OAT) and stochastic methods). Furthermore, the improvement extent of the simulation ability and prediction skill of terrestrial ecosystems by reducing the errors of the sensitive physical parameter combinations identified by the CNOP-P method was higher than that by the traditional methods. Full article
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16 pages, 5346 KiB  
Article
Interdecadal Variation in Rossby Wave Source over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on the East Asia Circulation Pattern during Boreal Summer
by Yihui Ding, Xiaoting Sun, Qingquan Li and Yafang Song
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030541 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
The wave activity flux representing the energy propagation direction of planetary Rossby wave generally originates from a large wave source area. This study investigates the interdecadal variability and formation mechanism of Rossby wave source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP-RWS) and its impact on [...] Read more.
The wave activity flux representing the energy propagation direction of planetary Rossby wave generally originates from a large wave source area. This study investigates the interdecadal variability and formation mechanism of Rossby wave source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP-RWS) and its impact on the atmospheric circulation and precipitation pattern in East Asia based on the ERA-20C reanalysis dataset in summer (June–July–August) during 1900 to 2010. Results show that the region with the maximum variabilities of Rossby wave source (RWS) in the past 110 years appears over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during boreal summer, and the TP-RWS shows prominent characteristics of interdecadal oscillation. Secondly, the TP-RWS is mainly composed of the vortex stretching term (RWS-S1) and the absolute vorticity advection term (RWS-S2). The interdecadal TP-RWS is a synergistic result of the snow cover over northwestern TP associated with the RWS-S1, and the deep convection over southeastern TP associated with the RWS-S2. Furthermore, the interdecadal TP-RWS can lead to an alternatively positive and negative pattern of geopotential height anomalies from the northwestern TP to the North Pacific, which has a great climate effect on the precipitation in Huang-huai River Basin, South Korea and Japan Island. Under the guidance of the anomalous cyclonic circulation in East Asia, the prevailing southerly and easterly winds occur over the West Pacific and the Huang-huai River Basin, which lead to the water vapor convergence and upward movement at middle and lower troposphere. Full article
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14 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Subseasonal Variation in the Winter ENSO-NAO Relationship and the Modulation of Tropical North Atlantic SST Variability
by Wenjun Zhang and Feng Jiang
Climate 2023, 11(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11020047 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2891
Abstract
The impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been controversially discussed for several decades, which exhibits prominent seasonality and nonstationarity. During early winter, there appears a positive ENSO-NAO relationship, while this relationship reverses its sign in late [...] Read more.
The impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been controversially discussed for several decades, which exhibits prominent seasonality and nonstationarity. During early winter, there appears a positive ENSO-NAO relationship, while this relationship reverses its sign in late winter. Here, we show that this subseasonal variation in the ENSO-NAO relationship could be attributed to the different mechanisms involved in early and late winters. In early winter, the positive linkage between the ENSO and NAO could be simply understood as resulting from the changes in tropical Walker circulation and the associated atmospheric meridional circulation over the North Atlantic. In the following late winter, an opposite NAO-like response appears as the large-scale Pacific–North Atlantic teleconnection pattern fully establishes and evident sea surface temperature anomalies occur over the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA). We further show that the phase shift in NAO during ENSO late winter is largely contributed by the establishment of the ENSO-associated NTA SST anomaly via its excited convection in the subtropical Atlantic. The competing roles of mechanisms explain the subseasonal variation in the ENSO-NAO relationship from early to late winter, providing useful information for seasonal prediction over the North Atlantic–European region. Full article
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14 pages, 10160 KiB  
Communication
A Neural-Network Based MPAS—Shallow Water Model and Its 4D-Var Data Assimilation System
by Xiaoxu Tian, Luke Conibear and Jeffrey Steward
Atmosphere 2023, 14(1), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14010157 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
The technique of machine learning has been increasingly applied in numerical weather predictions. The aim of this study is to explore the application of a neural network in data assimilation by making use of the convenience in obtaining the tangent linear and adjoint [...] Read more.
The technique of machine learning has been increasingly applied in numerical weather predictions. The aim of this study is to explore the application of a neural network in data assimilation by making use of the convenience in obtaining the tangent linear and adjoint (TL/AD) of a neural network (NN) and formulating a NN-based four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) DA system. A NN-based shallow water (SW) model is developed in this study. The NN model consists of three layers. The weights and biases in the NN-based SW model are trained with 60 years of hourly ERA5 geopotentials and wind field at 500 hPa as initial conditions and the corresponding 12-h forecasts by Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS)-SW, in total of 534,697 sets of samples. The 12-h forecasts from independent dates made by NN-based SW prove to closely emulate the simulations by the actual MPAS-SW model. This study further shows that the TL/AD of an NN model can be easily developed and validated. The ease of obtaining the TL/AD makes NN conveniently applicable in various aspects within a data assimilation (DA) system. To demonstrate such, a continuous 4D-Var DA system is also developed with the forward NN and its adjoint. To demonstrate the functionality of the NN-based 4D-Var DA system, the results from a higher resolution simulation will be treated as observations and assimilated to analyze the low resolution initial conditions. The forecasts starting from the analyzed initial conditions will be compared with those without assimilation to demonstrate improvements. Full article
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17 pages, 5628 KiB  
Article
Grid-to-Point Deep-Learning Error Correction for the Surface Weather Forecasts of a Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System
by Yu Qin, Yubao Liu, Xinyu Jiang, Li Yang, Haixiang Xu, Yueqin Shi and Zhaoyang Huo
Atmosphere 2023, 14(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14010145 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Forecasts of numerical weather prediction models unavoidably contain errors, and it is a common practice to post-process the model output and correct the error for the proper use of the forecasts. This study develops a grid-to-multipoint (G2N) model output error correction scheme which [...] Read more.
Forecasts of numerical weather prediction models unavoidably contain errors, and it is a common practice to post-process the model output and correct the error for the proper use of the forecasts. This study develops a grid-to-multipoint (G2N) model output error correction scheme which extracts model spatial features and corrects multistation forecasts simultaneously. The model was tested for an operational high-resolution model system, the precision rapid update forecasting system (PRUFS) model, running for East China at 3 km grid intervals. The variables studied include 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity, and 10 m wind speed at 311 standard ground-based weather stations. The dataset for training G2N is a year of historical PRUFS model outputs and the surface observations of the same period and the assessment of the G2N performance are based on the output of two months of real-time G2N. The verification of the real-time results shows that G2N reduced RMSEs of the 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity, and 10 m wind speed forecast errors of the PRUFS model by 19%, 24%, and 42%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis reveals that increasing the number of the target stations for simultaneous correction helps to improve the model performance and reduces the computational cost as well indicating that enhancing the loss function with spatial regional meteorological structure is helpful. On the other hand, adequately selecting the size of influencing grid areas of the model input is also important for G2N to incorporate enough spatial features of model forecasts but not to include the information from the grids far from the correcting areas. G2N is a highly efficient and effective tool that can be readily implemented for real-time regional NWP models. Full article
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15 pages, 4503 KiB  
Article
Diurnal Variation Characteristics of the Surface Sensible Heat Flux over the Tibetan Plateau
by Zhu Zhu, Meirong Wang, Jun Wang, Xulin Ma, Jingjia Luo and Xiuping Yao
Atmosphere 2023, 14(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14010128 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
The characteristics of diurnal variation of the surface sensible heat flux (SH) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are comprehensively investigated by using the long-term dataset of integrated land–atmosphere interaction observations (2006–2016) on the TP. Results show that the diurnal variation of SH shows [...] Read more.
The characteristics of diurnal variation of the surface sensible heat flux (SH) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are comprehensively investigated by using the long-term dataset of integrated land–atmosphere interaction observations (2006–2016) on the TP. Results show that the diurnal variation of SH shows obvious seasonal variabilities in terms of amplitude, duration, and peak time. At the Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station (MAWORS), the Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station (NADORS), and the Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station (QOMS), the SH diurnal amplitude is consistently the largest in spring, followed by summer and autumn, and the smallest in winter, with a peak at 15:00. However, for the Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station (SETORS), the amplitude in winter is rather violent with the peak at 12:00. We find that positive SH at most stations has the longest duration from May to August. Moreover, the peak time fluctuates from month to month, even showing a shift at the QOMS before and after 2015, and the double-peak phenomenon of SH mainly occurs in spring and autumn. Additionally, magnitudes of calculated SH with the conventional heat transfer coefficient (CDH) of 0.004 are about 64–100% larger than those of directly observed SH at the QOMS and the Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station (NAMORS). We here additionally recommend a new CDH values of about 2.24 × 10−3 in spring and 2.78 × 10−3 in summer, respectively, to more accurately calculate the TP SH. Full article
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16 pages, 3851 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Assimilating AMSU-A Radiance Data from Satellites and Large-Scale Flows from GFS on Improving Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast
by Zhijuan Lai and Shiqiu Peng
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13121988 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of assimilating either AMSU-A radiance data from satellites, large-scale flows from the Global Forecast System (GFS), or both together, on improving the track forecast of tropical cyclone (TC). The scale-selective data assimilation (SSDA) approach was employed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of assimilating either AMSU-A radiance data from satellites, large-scale flows from the Global Forecast System (GFS), or both together, on improving the track forecast of tropical cyclone (TC). The scale-selective data assimilation (SSDA) approach was employed for the assimilation of large-scale GFS flows, while the conventional 3D variational data assimilation (3DVAR) method was used for that of AMSU-A radiance data. The results show that assimilating either AMSU-A radiance data or large-scale GFS flows has a significant improvement on TC track forecast, but the improvement occurs within the first 72 h and after 72 h, respectively. When assimilating both AMSU-A radiance data and large-scale GFS flows, the forecast can take advantage of both data and thus lead to the smallest 5-day mean errors of the track forecast. These results are instructive to future operational TC track forecasting. Full article
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18 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
Direct Assimilation of Chinese FY-3E Microwave Temperature Sounder-3 Radiances in the CMA-GFS: An Initial Study
by Juan Li, Xiaoli Qian, Zhengkun Qin and Guiqing Liu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 5943; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14235943 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
FengYun-3E (FY-3E), the fifth satellite in China’s second-generation polar-orbiting satellite FY-3 series, was launched on 5 July 2021. FY-3E carries a third-generation microwave temperature sounder (MWTS-3). For the first time, this study demonstrates that MWTS-3 radiances data assimilation can improve the China Meteorological [...] Read more.
FengYun-3E (FY-3E), the fifth satellite in China’s second-generation polar-orbiting satellite FY-3 series, was launched on 5 July 2021. FY-3E carries a third-generation microwave temperature sounder (MWTS-3). For the first time, this study demonstrates that MWTS-3 radiances data assimilation can improve the China Meteorological Administration Global Forecast System (CMA-GFS). By establishing a cloud detection module based on the retrieval results of the new channels of MWTS-3, a quality control module according to the error characteristics of MWTS-3 data, and a bias correction module considering the scanning position of satellite and weather systems, the effective assimilation of MWTS-3 data in the CMA-GFS has been realized. Through one-month cycling experiments of assimilation and forecasts, the error characteristics and assimilation effects of MWTS-3 data are carefully evaluated. The results show that the observation errors in MWTS-3 data are similar to those in advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) data within the same frequency channel, are slightly larger than those in the advanced microwave-sounding unit-A (AMSU-A) data, and are much better than those in the MWTS-2 data. The validation of the assimilation and prediction results demonstrate the positive contribution of MWTS-3 data assimilation, which can remarkably reduce the analysis errors in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Specifically, the error growth on the upper layer of the model is obviously suppressed. When all other operational satellite observations are included, the assimilation of MWTS-3 data has a neutral or slightly positive contribution to the analysis and forecast results, and the improvement is mainly found in the Southern Hemisphere. The relevant evaluation results indicate that the MWTS-3 data assimilation has good application prospects for operation. Full article
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19 pages, 9555 KiB  
Article
Improved Estimation of O-B Bias and Standard Deviation by an RFI Restoration Method for AMSR-2 C-Band Observations over North America
by Wangbin Shen, Zhaohui Lin, Zhengkun Qin and Xuesong Bai
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5558; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215558 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Spaceborne microwave radiometer observations play vital roles in surface parameter retrievals and data assimilation, but widespread radio-frequency interference (RFI) signals in the C-band channel result in a lack of valuable data over large areas. Establishing repaired data based on existing observation information is [...] Read more.
Spaceborne microwave radiometer observations play vital roles in surface parameter retrievals and data assimilation, but widespread radio-frequency interference (RFI) signals in the C-band channel result in a lack of valuable data over large areas. Establishing repaired data based on existing observation information is crucial. In this study, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR)-2 C-band data affected by RFI were accurately repaired through the iterative principal component analysis (PCA) method in 2016 over the U.S. land area. The standard deviation (STD) and bias characteristics of the brightness temperature in the C-band vertical polarization channel were compared and analyzed before and after the restoration to verify the assimilation application prospect of the repaired data. Not only was the spatial continuity of the microwave imager observations significantly improved following restoration; the STD and bias of the observation minus background (OMB) of the restored data were basically consistent with those of the RFI-free data. The STD of OMB exhibited obvious seasonal variations, which were approximately 4.0 K from January to May and 3.0 K from June to December, whereas the biases were near zero in winter but negative (approximately −2.0 K) in summer. The surface type and terrain height also critically affected the STD and bias. The STD decreased with increasing terrain height, whereas the bias exhibited the opposite trend. The STD was largest in low-vegetation areas (4.0 K) but only approximately 2.0–3.0 K in pine forest and brush areas. These results show that the restored data have a high prospect for retrieval application and assimilation, and the STD and bias estimation results also provide a reference for land-based AMSR-2 data assimilation. Full article
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17 pages, 8764 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Three Convolution Neural Network Schemes to Retrieve Temperature and Humidity Profiles from the FY4A GIIRS Observations
by Shuhan Yao and Li Guan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(20), 5112; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14205112 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
FY4A/GIIRS (Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder) is the first infrared hyperspectral atmospheric vertical sounder onboard a geostationary satellite. It can achieve observations of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles with high vertical and temporal resolutions. Presently, convolutional neural network algorithms are relatively less used in [...] Read more.
FY4A/GIIRS (Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder) is the first infrared hyperspectral atmospheric vertical sounder onboard a geostationary satellite. It can achieve observations of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles with high vertical and temporal resolutions. Presently, convolutional neural network algorithms are relatively less used in the field of atmospheric profile retrieval, and different convolutional neural network approaches have different characteristics. The one-dimensional convolutional neural network scheme 1D-Net and two three-dimensional retrieval schemes U-Net 1 and U-Net 2 are used to achieve atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles under all skies based on GIIRS-observed brightness temperatures in this paper. After validation with test training data, the retrievals of different schemes derived from actual GIIRS observations and level 2 operational products were verified with ERA5 reanalysis data and radiosonde measurements in summer and winter respectively. The retrieved three-dimensional temperature and humidity fields from U-Net 1 and U-Net 2 are closer to the ERA5 reanalysis field in both distribution and value than the retrievals from the 1D-Net scheme and level 2 operational products. In particular, the inversion field of the U-Net 2 scheme is more continuous in space. Compared with radiosonde observations, the accuracy of the level 2 temperature product is the highest when the field of view is completely clear both in winter and summer month. The root mean square error (RMSE) of temperature retrieval of the two U-Net schemes is the second highest, and the RMSE and bias of the 1D-Net scheme are both large. Two U-Net schemes overestimate the temperature and humidity slightly in winter and underestimate it in summer in both clear and all sky cases. Under all sky conditions, the temperature retrieval RMSE and bias of the two U-Net schemes above 800 hPa are lower than those of the level 2 products, especially the U-Net 2 scheme with an RMSE of approximately 2.5 K. The U-Net 2 scheme bias is the smallest, with a value of approximately 0.5 K in winter. Since the level 2 product only provides the atmospheric temperature above the cloud top, it indicates that its temperature product accuracy is very low when the field of view is influenced by clouds. The humidity retrieval RMSEs of the two U-Net schemes is within 2 g/kg, better than that of the 1D-Net scheme. The retrieval accuracy of the U-Net 2 scheme is approximately 0.3 g/kg better than that of the U-Net 1 scheme below 600 hPa in winter. Level 2 does not provide humidity products. The summer humidity retrieval is worse than in winter. In general, among the three deep machine learning algorithms, 1D-Net has a large retrieval error, and the temperature and humidity from U-Net 2 have the highest accuracy. The retrieval speeds of the two U-Net schemes are nearly the same, and both are faster than that of scheme 1D-Net. Full article
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13 pages, 3451 KiB  
Communication
Assessing FY-3E HIRAS-II Radiance Accuracy Using AHI and MERSI-LL
by Hongtao Chen and Li Guan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(17), 4309; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14174309 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The FY-3E/HIRAS-II (Hyperspectral Infrared Atmospheric Sounder-II), as an infrared hyperspectral instrument onboard the world’s first early morning polar-orbiting satellite, plays a major role in improving the accuracy and timeliness of global numerical weather predictions. In order to assess its observation quality, the geometrically, [...] Read more.
The FY-3E/HIRAS-II (Hyperspectral Infrared Atmospheric Sounder-II), as an infrared hyperspectral instrument onboard the world’s first early morning polar-orbiting satellite, plays a major role in improving the accuracy and timeliness of global numerical weather predictions. In order to assess its observation quality, the geometrically, temporally, and spatially matched scene homogeneous HIRAS-II hyperspectral observations were convolved to the channels corresponding to the Himawari-8/AHI (Advanced Himawari Imager) and FY-3E/MERSI-LL (Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager) imagers from 15 March to 21 April 2022, and their brightness temperature deviation characteristics were statistically calculated in this paper. The results show that the HIRAS-II in-orbit observed brightness temperatures are slightly warmer than the AHI observations in all the matched AHI channels (long wave infrared channel 8 to channel 16) with a mean brightness temperature bias less than 0.65 K. The bias of the atmospheric absorption channel is slightly larger than that of the window channel. A standard deviation less than 0.31 K and a correlation coefficient higher than 0.98 in all channels means that the quality of the observation is satisfactory. The thresholds chosen for the colocation approximation factors (e.g., observation geometry angle, scene uniformity, observation azimuth, and observation time) for matching the HIRAS-II with AHI contribute little and negligible uncertainty to the bias assessment, so the difference between the two observed radiations is considered to be mainly from the systematic bias of the two-instrument measurement. Compared with MERSI-LL window channel 5, the observations of both instruments are very close, with a mean bias of 0.002 K and a standard deviation of 0.31 K. The mean brightness temperature bias (HIRAS-II minus MERSI-LL) of the MERSI-LL water vapor channel 4 is 0.66 K with a standard deviation of 0.22 K. The mean brightness temperature bias of channel 6 and channel 7 is 0.63 K (the standard deviation is 0.36 K) and 0.5 K (the standard deviation is 0.3 K), respectively. The biases of channel 4 are significantly and positively correlated with the target scene temperature, and the biases of channel 6 and 7 show a U-shaped change with the increase in the scene temperature, and the biases are smallest (close to 0 K) when the scene temperature is between 250 K and 280 K. The statistical characteristics of the HIRAS-II–MERSI-LL difference vary minimally and almost constantly over a period of time, indicating that the performance of the HIRAS-II instrument is stable. Full article
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24 pages, 11181 KiB  
Article
Determining Tropical Cyclone Center and Rainband Size in Geostationary Satellite Imagery
by Yanyang Hu and Xiaolei Zou
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(14), 3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143499 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Brightness temperature (TB) observations at an infrared channel (10.3 μm) of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board the U. S. 16th Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16) are used for determining tropical cyclone (TC) center positions and rainband sizes. Firstly, an [...] Read more.
Brightness temperature (TB) observations at an infrared channel (10.3 μm) of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board the U. S. 16th Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16) are used for determining tropical cyclone (TC) center positions and rainband sizes. Firstly, an azimuthal spectral analysis method is employed to obtain an azimuthally symmetric center of a TC. Then, inner and outer rainbands radii, denoted as RIR and ROR, respectively, are estimated based on radial gradients of TB observations at different azimuthal angles. The radius RIR describes the size of the TC inner-core region, and the radius ROR reflects the maximum radial extent of TC rainbands. Compared with the best track centers, the root mean square differences of ABI-determined centers for tropical storms and hurricanes, which totals 108 samples, are 45.35 and 29.06 km, respectively. The larger the average wavenumber-0 amplitude, the smaller the difference between the ABI-determined center and the best track center. The TB-determined RIR is close but not identical to the radius of the outermost closed isobar and usually coincides with the radius where the strongest wavenumber 1 asymmetry is located. The annulus defined by the two circles with radii of ROR and RIR is the asymmetric area of rainbands described by azimuthal wavenumbers 1–3. In general, amplitudes of wavenumber 0 component centered on the ABI-determined center are greater than or equal to those from the best track. For a case of a 60 km distance between the ABI-determined and the best track TC center, the innermost azimuthal waves of wavenumbers 1–3 are nicely distributed along or within the radial distance RIR that is determined based on the ABI-determined TC center. If RIR is determined based on the best track, the azimuthal waves of wavenumbers 1–3 are found at several radial distances that are smaller than RIR. The TC center positions, and rainband size radii are important for many applications, including specification of a bogus vortex for hurricane initialization and verification of propagation mechanism of vortex Rossby waves. Full article
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21 pages, 22633 KiB  
Article
Mitigation of Systematic Noise in F16 SSMIS LAS Channels Observations for Tropical Cyclone Applications
by Huijie Dong and Xiaolei Zou
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3171; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133171 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
The Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16, launched on 18 October 2003, was the first conical-scanning radiometer to combine the Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSM/I), Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature Sounder (SSM/T), and the Special Sensor Microwave/Water Vapor [...] Read more.
The Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16, launched on 18 October 2003, was the first conical-scanning radiometer to combine the Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSM/I), Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature Sounder (SSM/T), and the Special Sensor Microwave/Water Vapor Sounder (SSM/T2). Nearly 20 years of F16 SSMIS data are available to the general public, providing many opportunities to study the atmosphere at both the synoptic and decadal scales. However, data noise from complicated structures has occurred in the brightness temperature (TB) observations of lower atmospheric sounding (LAS) channels since 25 April 2013. We used a two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to analyze the characteristic features of data noise in cross-track and along-track directions. We found that the data noise is around 1–2 K and occurs at certain cross-track wavelengths (Δλ)noise. A latitudinal variation was found for (Δλ)noise. Due to noise interference, TB observations reflecting rain, clouds, tropical cyclone warm core, temperature, and water vapor distributions are not readily distinguishable, especially in channels above the middle troposphere (channels 4–7 and 24), whose dynamic TB range is smaller than low tropospheric channels 1–3. Examples are provided to show the impact of the proposed noise mitigation for conical-scanning TB observations to capture 3D structures of hurricanes directly. Once the noise in F16 SSMIS LAS channels from 25 April 2013to the present is eliminated, we may investigate the decadal change of many features of tropical cyclones derivable from these TB observations. Full article
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