Topic Editors

Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Faculty of Mining, Safety Engineering and Industrial Automation, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Modern Material Technologies Intended for Industrial Applications

Abstract submission deadline
30 April 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
40450

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, significant changes can be observed in the technologies that are used to manufacture the traditional elements of machines and devices. These changes concern, on the one hand, new additive, plastic, or subtractive manufacturing systems, and, on the other hand, they represent modern material technologies that are aimed at improving the functional properties of these elements. With regard to new technologies, a significant problem is their transfer from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale. Technologies that have been proven to be effective for small samples is not always scaled up to the finished product. Additionally, the resulting product will not always be able to be used in all possible applications due to the different overall dimensions. The aim of this publication is to present the effects of modern material technologies, possible directions for their development, and ways of adapting them to practical applications. Studies on the microstructure and properties of the materials that can be obtained with these technologies are crucial for the further development of industrial research and practical implementations in industrial practice. The results of this study can greatly contribute to broadening our knowledge of actual modern materials and technologies that are implemented to industrial practice. In this Topic, we will focus on and are interested in receiving manuscript contributions in one or more of the following areas:

- Innovative heat treatment technologies;

- Microstructure and properties of new metallic materials and their alloys;

- Nanostructured metallic materials;

- Surface processing of advanced materials;

- Welding technologies for modern steels;

- Industrial applications of modern materials;

- Surface layers, including hybrid ones.

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Tański
Prof. Dr. Andrzej N. Wieczorek
Dr. Marcin Staszuk
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • heat treatment
  • surface processing
  • microstructure
  • properties
  • alloys
  • nanostructured metallic materials
  • modern steels

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Crystals
crystals
2.7 3.6 2011 10.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Composites Science
jcs
3.3 4.5 2017 14.7 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Metals
metals
2.9 4.4 2011 15 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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16 pages, 10468 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Loading Effect on Stress States and Failure Behavior in Thermal Barrier Coatings
by Da Qiao, Wengao Yan, Wu Zeng, Jixin Man, Beirao Xue and Xiangde Bian
Crystals 2024, 14(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14010002 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Under service conditions, apart from the harsh temperature environment, mechanical loading also seriously affects the life of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of thermo-mechanical loads can help to further reveal the failure mechanism of TBCs. In this [...] Read more.
Under service conditions, apart from the harsh temperature environment, mechanical loading also seriously affects the life of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of thermo-mechanical loads can help to further reveal the failure mechanism of TBCs. In this work, a portion of a thin-walled circular pipe is intercepted for numerical analysis, and the interface is simplified as a sinusoidal curve. The dynamic growth of thermally grown oxide (TGO) is included into the model. A cohesive model is used for interfacial cracking analysis. The results show that the effects of tensile and compressive loads on the normal stress of the coating are not significant, while the effect on the shear stress of the coating is more obvious. In addition, the in-phase load will delay the occurrence of interfacial failure behavior, while an out-of-phase load can promote the failure. These results will help to better understand the effects of the coupling of mechanical and temperature loads and to provide support and guidance for the design of new TBCs structures in the future. Full article
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24 pages, 10724 KiB  
Review
To Shed Light on the UV Curable Coating Technology: Current State of the Art and Perspectives
by Renuka Subhash Patil, Jomin Thomas, Mahesh Patil and Jacob John
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(12), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7120513 - 07 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
The industrial application of UV curable coatings is being widely commercialized at a rapid pace with very diversified product markets. UV curing has existed for many years now, but the new commercial opportunities emerging for sustainable, and climate friendly technologies have driven demand [...] Read more.
The industrial application of UV curable coatings is being widely commercialized at a rapid pace with very diversified product markets. UV curing has existed for many years now, but the new commercial opportunities emerging for sustainable, and climate friendly technologies have driven demand for photo-curable coating systems. It is primarily attributed to its environmentally friendly solvent-free and energy-efficient method. Precedented UV light curable coatings are being commercialized and numerous lamp sources are being extensively studied. In such an era of predominant research evolving the UV curing technology horizon, we attempt to outline the state of the art, opportunities, and challenges. This contribution attempts to highlight, in a comprehensive way, sustainable UV coating on the basis of recent research advancements, existing challenges and prospective scope in this field. With a set of prerequisite foundational knowledge into UV curable coatings and mechanisms, the review has meticulously looked at the recent research advancements. This review contribution attempts to focus on three aspects: the known science behind UV curing coatings, coupled with the recent advancements, and future opportunities. Full article
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17 pages, 4440 KiB  
Article
Automated Control of the Fresh State of Industrial Concrete Behaviour by Rheometer Test Adjustment
by Gemma Rojo-López, Belén González-Fonteboa, Diego Carro-López and Fernando Martínez-Abella
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11738; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111738 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 554
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a rheometer prototype and define a procedure for adjusting the automated control of the fresh state of concrete. Sixteen batches were produced, and their fresh behaviour was measured at different testing times by applying the Abrams cone and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a rheometer prototype and define a procedure for adjusting the automated control of the fresh state of concrete. Sixteen batches were produced, and their fresh behaviour was measured at different testing times by applying the Abrams cone and flow curve test (FCT) as the rheological protocol. During this test, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the concretes were measured in relative units. The rheometer prototype was used to define a new protocol to select the most suitable rheometer impeller arrangement and optimal FCT configuration. This protocol considers the torque at the end of the breakdown period, torque reduction during the breakdown period, segregation, and negative values of the yield stress in relative units. This protocol also enabled an iterative adjustment procedure, facilitating the use of a rheometer for the automated control of the homogeneity and behaviour of fresh concrete, as well as real-time decision making. Full article
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16 pages, 3664 KiB  
Article
Eccentric Compression Behaviors of Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Tube Columns
by Yunyang Wang, Shengwei Sun, Liqing Zhang, Yandong Jia, Guang Yang, Meng Li, Wei Tan and Jianmin Qu
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186330 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 553
Abstract
For the sake of solving sustainability issues and analyzing the complicated service force states, eccentric compression experiments on self-compacting concrete-filled thin-walled medium-length steel tube columns with a circular cross-section were carried out in the present study. Thereafter, the influence of the eccentric ratios [...] Read more.
For the sake of solving sustainability issues and analyzing the complicated service force states, eccentric compression experiments on self-compacting concrete-filled thin-walled medium-length steel tube columns with a circular cross-section were carried out in the present study. Thereafter, the influence of the eccentric ratios and the wall thickness factors on the mechanical behavior and failure characteristics of both the eccentrically loaded and axially loaded columns was comprehensively analyzed. Finally, prediction formulas for the ultimate load of the columns under eccentric compression were proposed, and a comprehensive comparison of the ultimate loads between the predicted values and experimental values was also conducted. The results indicated that the typical failure characteristics of the eccentrically loaded columns presented lateral deflection together with buckling, while the axially compressed columns displayed expansion and rupture at local positions. Moreover, the ultimate loads of the eccentrically loaded columns decreased by 43.0% and 34.5% in comparison to the columns under axial compression, with the wall thickness factor decreasing from 116.7 to 46.7, respectively. Meanwhile, the ratios of the ultimate loads calculated using design codes to the tested values were in the range of 0.70~0.90, which demonstrated that the design codes could predict the ultimate loads conservatively. Additionally, the ratios of the ultimate loads calculated using the proposed formulas to the tested values were within the range of 0.99~1.08, implying that the proposed formulas were more accurate than the design codes. At the same time, the initial stiffness of the columns under eccentric compression was correspondingly lower than that of the columns undergoing axial compression. The lateral deflections along the height of the columns were almost symmetrical at different loading levels. This study could provide a meaningful approach for designing columns and facilitate their application in civil industry. Full article
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19 pages, 15310 KiB  
Article
Strength Analysis in Bonded, Bolted and Bolted-Bonded Joints, Single Lap Joints, Metal/Composite Plates
by Ali Sadık and Filiz Karabudak
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10476; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810476 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Today, especially in many fields that require structural durability, such as the aerospace and automotive industries, there has been a need to use different bonding techniques separately or together in order to use materials together with different mechanical properties. In this study, stress [...] Read more.
Today, especially in many fields that require structural durability, such as the aerospace and automotive industries, there has been a need to use different bonding techniques separately or together in order to use materials together with different mechanical properties. In this study, stress and damage analysis of single lap joints, bonding and bolt-bonding metal/composite joints under tensile loads were performed. The nine kinds of single lap joint models in different combinations (bonded, bolted and bolt-bonded) were prepared by using acrylic adhesive (Acrytron 1E1) and 100-25-3 mm in size; AZ91/AZ91, AZ91-carbon fiber and carbon fiber-carbon fiber plates. Some comparisons were carried out by examining the stresses and deformations that occur in joint models exposed to tensile and 4-point bending tests. As a result of the tensile test, it was determined that the highest maximum tensile stress occurred in AZ91-CF bolt-bonded samples. In the four-point bending test, the maximum shear force value was determined in the CF-CF bolted-bonded samples. Full article
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18 pages, 10453 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Modification Process of an Epoxy Basalt-Filled Oligomer in Traveling Wave Microwave Chambers
by Amirbek Bekeshev, Ekaterina Vasinkina, Svetlana Kalganova, Sergey Trigorly, Yulia Kadykova, Anton Mostovoy, Andrey Shcherbakov, Marina Lopukhova and Nurgul Zhanturina
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(9), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7090392 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
This paper presents modeling data to select the optimal industrial unit for the microwave modification of an epoxy basalt-filled oligomer (EBO) at electric field strength E of an electromagnetic wave equal to 11.9 × 103 V/m and a uniform distribution of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents modeling data to select the optimal industrial unit for the microwave modification of an epoxy basalt-filled oligomer (EBO) at electric field strength E of an electromagnetic wave equal to 11.9 × 103 V/m and a uniform distribution of the temperature field over the entire volume of the modified object. A mathematical description of the electrodynamic and thermal processes occurring in the object under consideration subjected to microwave exposure includes the Helmholtz equation for the electric field strength vector and the heat conduction equation. The joint solution of this problem in a three-dimensional formulation is based on the use of the finite element method, which in this work was implemented in the COMSOL Multiphysics® 6.1 software environment. According to the modeling results, the use of microwave chambers with a traveling wave of a waveguide type is inefficient because the required value of the electric field strength E is not achieved, while the modeled microwave chamber with a traveling wave on a quasi-coaxial waveguide makes it possible to achieve the required value of the electric field strength E and uniform distribution of the temperature field over the entire volume of the modified object by reducing the generated power for the modification of an EBO from 400 W up to 300 W. Optimal parameters for modifying an epoxy basalt-filled oligomer in the microwave electromagnetic field in the working chamber with a traveling wave on a quasi-coaxial waveguide have been developed, which provide a uniform microwave modification of an EBO with a microwave installation capacity of 11.6 kg/h. A sketch of an industrial microwave working chamber has been developed, which provides a mode of the uniform modification of the oligomer at electric field strength E = 12.3 × 103 V/m. The proposed microwave chamber with a traveling wave on a quasi-coaxial waveguide can be replicated for the microwave modification of filled oligomers of various chemical compositions. Full article
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20 pages, 10276 KiB  
Article
Abrasive Wear Resistance of Ultrafine Ausferritic Ductile Iron Intended for the Manufacture of Gears for Mining Machinery
by Dawid Myszka, Andrzej N. Wieczorek, Emilia Skołek, Tomasz Borowski, Krzysztof Kotwica, Marek Kalita, Radosław Kruk and Paweł M. Nuckowski
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124311 - 11 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the abrasion wear properties of ausferritic ductile iron austempered at 250 °C in order to obtain cast iron of class EN-GJS-1400-1. It has been found that such a cast iron grade makes it possible [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the abrasion wear properties of ausferritic ductile iron austempered at 250 °C in order to obtain cast iron of class EN-GJS-1400-1. It has been found that such a cast iron grade makes it possible to create structures for material conveyors used for short-distance transport purposes, required to perform in terms of abrasion resistance under extreme conditions. The wear tests addressed in the paper were conducted at a ring-on-ring type of test rig. The test samples were examined under the conditions of slide mating, where the main destructive process was surface microcutting via loose corundum grains. The mass loss of the examined samples was measured as a parameter characteristic of the wear. The volume loss values thus obtained were plotted as a function of initial hardness. Based on these results, it has been found that prolonged heat treatment (of more than 6 h) causes only an insignificant increase in the resistance to abrasive wear. Full article
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19 pages, 9845 KiB  
Article
Study of the Impact of Coals and Claystones on Wear-Resistant Steels
by Andrzej N. Wieczorek, Iwona Jonczy, Krzysztof Filipowicz, Mariusz Kuczaj, Arkadiusz Pawlikowski, Dariusz Łukowiec, Marcin Staszuk and Anna Gerle
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062136 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This paper discusses the impact of coal abrasive materials of varied petrographic composition and claystones containing admixtures of coal matter on the surface wear of wear-resistant martensitic steels. Wear tests were conducted at a test stand for three petrographic varieties of hard coal: [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the impact of coal abrasive materials of varied petrographic composition and claystones containing admixtures of coal matter on the surface wear of wear-resistant martensitic steels. Wear tests were conducted at a test stand for three petrographic varieties of hard coal: vitrinite, clarinite, and durinite, and five samples of claystone. These tests revealed no significant effect of the type of coal abrasive used on the value of mass loss from the surface of the wear-resistant steel samples. The reason behind the foregoing is the observed tendency of coal abrasives, irrespective of their petrographic variety, to penetrate surface irregularities, especially those attributable to previous surface treatment of the samples and the impact of wear products. The dominant forms of surface damage were surface fatigue chipping and scratches caused by the particles which detached themselves from the surface of the steel samples, as observed for all the analysed coal variants. On the surfaces of the samples seasoned in the presence of claystones, highly varied forms of damage were observed: microcutting, scaly surface cracks, delamination, and deep cracks. In these cases, it was possible that the abrasive grains had been pressed into the steel surface irregularities, but no layered forms of the pressed-in abrasive material were observed to have developed. The paper also presents a model for the formation of coal films and discusses their possible effect on wear minimisation. Full article
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14 pages, 5007 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cr Concentration on the Structure and the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ti-Al-Cr-N Thin Films Prepared by Means of Reactive Co-Sputtering
by Gina Prieto-Novoa, Fabio Vallejo, Oscar Piamba, Jhon Olaya and Yaneth Pineda
Crystals 2022, 12(12), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12121831 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Thin films of Ti-Al-Cr-N were deposited onto glass substrates by means of the reactive magnetron co-sputtering of pure Cr and TiAl alloy targets in an atmosphere of Ar and N2. This investigation was carried out by adjusting the Cr-target power in [...] Read more.
Thin films of Ti-Al-Cr-N were deposited onto glass substrates by means of the reactive magnetron co-sputtering of pure Cr and TiAl alloy targets in an atmosphere of Ar and N2. This investigation was carried out by adjusting the Cr-target power in order to increase the Cr amount in the films. The crystal structure of the films was investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The elemental composition of the coatings was determined using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The electrical resistivity was measured using the four-point probe method, and the optical properties were characterized via ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that, with a Cr concentration between 0 at% and 11.6 at%, a transition between phases from a single-phase hexagonal wurtzite-type structure to a single-phase cubic NaCl-type structure took place. The addition of Cr increased the crystallite size and, with it, the roughness of the coatings. All of the coatings exhibited an ohmic behavior at room temperature, and their surface electrical resistivity decreased from 490.1 ± 43.4 Ωcm to 1.5 ± 0.1 Ωcm as the chromium concentration increased. The transmittance of the coatings decreased, and the optical band gap (Egap) went from 3.5 eV to 2.3 eV with the addition of Cr. These electrical and optical properties have not been previously reported for these films. Full article
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15 pages, 9057 KiB  
Article
Effect of Contact Point of Wire Ring on Cooling Behavior during Stelmor Cooling
by Joong-Ki Hwang
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228262 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
The influence of the contact point of wire rod on the inhomogeneity of cooling behavior within wire ring was investigated to reveal the fundamental cooling mechanism of wire rod during the Stelmor cooling process. A hotspot, a relatively high-temperature region within wire ring [...] Read more.
The influence of the contact point of wire rod on the inhomogeneity of cooling behavior within wire ring was investigated to reveal the fundamental cooling mechanism of wire rod during the Stelmor cooling process. A hotspot, a relatively high-temperature region within wire ring compared with other regions, was generated in both the central (WRc) and edge (WRe) regions of the wire ring. The WRe exhibited hotspots regardless of ring configuration. Meanwhile, the WRc exhibited hotspots with an inline arrangement; otherwise, no hotspot occurred in the WRc with a staggered arrangement. Compared with the middle regions of the wire ring, hotspots easily occurred at both the WRc and WRe due to the low-contact angle of the two wire rings. Moreover, the possibility of hotspot formation increased with increasing wire diameter due to the high-contact area and load caused by the weight of the wire rod. This is the primary reason why the WRc with a large diameter had hotspots despite the large ring pitch. Three solutions were suggested to improve the homogeneity in the mechanical properties within wire ring. Full article
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19 pages, 5890 KiB  
Article
Method to Predict Performances of PCB Silicone Conformal Coating under Thermal Aging
by Lu Zou and Pierre Descamps
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11268; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111268 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2190
Abstract
The stability of print circuit board (PCB) conformal coating is critical to guarantee the long-term performance of electronic components on PCB boards. Coating exposure to thermal shock or temperature cycles may initiate cracks, a common failure mechanism of conformal coatings. Different simplified approaches [...] Read more.
The stability of print circuit board (PCB) conformal coating is critical to guarantee the long-term performance of electronic components on PCB boards. Coating exposure to thermal shock or temperature cycles may initiate cracks, a common failure mechanism of conformal coatings. Different simplified approaches are compared to help identify desired mechanical profiles for coatings to be used in a harsh environment, focusing on silicone characterized by low rigidity and high deformability compared to alternative chemistries. Evaluation of the bi-material strip bending test method appears not to be effective in the conformal coating selection. The large difference between the coating’s elastic modulus of silicones compared to substrate modulus allows the use of a simplified formula to calculate the stress associated with the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, the silicone accommodating displacement imposed by thermal changes. Both lateral tensile stress and local shear stress near the edge are estimated, with local shear stress decreasing quickly and moving apart from the edge with the stress relaxation preventing coating delamination. Predictions of simplified models agree with both results of grid-independent finite element analysis (FEA) models and observations of test pieces submitted to temperature cycles. This demonstrates the ability to use simplified models to predict coating’s performances under thermal aging and help in product selection depending on the working environment. Full article
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11 pages, 10960 KiB  
Article
Crystallization of Fe-W-B Amorphous Powder Prepared by Gas Atomization
by Shuwang Ma, Zheng Lv, Jian Wang, Haicheng Wang, Jian Yang, Zhimin Yang, Jingli Li and Zhiyong Xue
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111855 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
In this work, the effects of master alloy composition and annealing temperature on the amorphization and crystallization behavior of Fe-W-B powders prepared by gas atomization using compacts of Fe, W and B powder mixture were systematically studied. The results show that only the [...] Read more.
In this work, the effects of master alloy composition and annealing temperature on the amorphization and crystallization behavior of Fe-W-B powders prepared by gas atomization using compacts of Fe, W and B powder mixture were systematically studied. The results show that only the master alloy with high content of W (19.9 at.%) and B (13.6 at.%) of the six alloys studied yielded amorphous Fe-W-B powders. The alloying elements W and B are believed to have a glass-forming ability (GFA)-enhancing effect, which together with the high cooling rate of gas atomization leads to the formation of amorphization. The difference in the average particle size of 3–10 μm for the six atomized powders indicates that the master alloys with different W and B contents have different superheat and melt viscosity at the same atomization temperature. The Fe-W-B amorphous powder is structurally stable within 600 °C and crystallizes from the edge of the particles when the temperature increases to 700 °C, and its crystalline precipitates include α-Fe, FeWB and Fe7W6. The nuclear shielding tests and Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code (MCNP) calculated results revealed that the Fe-W-B amorphous powder has a much better shielding performance for γ-rays and neutrons than that of iron. This work provides an efficient strategy for fabricating Fe-W-B amorphous powder with promising nuclear shielding potential and sheds light on the crystallization behaviors of this alloy. Full article
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13 pages, 3832 KiB  
Article
Graphene Based FET Biosensor for Organic-Phosphorous Sample Detection and the Enzymatic Analysis
by Jieyi Zhu, Meiyan Feng and Guofu Lian
Crystals 2022, 12(10), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12101327 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Our paper presents a flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase graphene based FET biosensor of the target organic phosphorous. The sensor’s purpose is to detect pesticide residues in the field of food safety. In our sensor design, the material is graphene with its functionalization, and graphene [...] Read more.
Our paper presents a flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase graphene based FET biosensor of the target organic phosphorous. The sensor’s purpose is to detect pesticide residues in the field of food safety. In our sensor design, the material is graphene with its functionalization, and graphene based FET structure will be discussed in one section of this paper. The mechanism of this graphene sensor is the enzymatic linked reaction on a sensor surface. The enzyme is fixed on the sensor surface by the linker 3-mercapto propionic acid. Measurement experiments using the biosensor were performed for detecting the concentration of isocarbophos (an organophosphate). The enzymatic biosensor has successfully detected 100 μg/mL isocarbophos from the water sample, presenting a significant detection limit index for organophosphate detection. Full article
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11 pages, 5515 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum–Copper Compounds Fabricated by the High-Pressure Die Casting Process
by Nane Nolte, Thomas Lukasczyk and Bernd Mayer
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081314 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
The material combination of aluminum and copper is increasingly coming into focus, especially for electrical contact applications. Investigations of different casting processes show that a significant influence for the formation of a material bond is the thermal impact. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC) [...] Read more.
The material combination of aluminum and copper is increasingly coming into focus, especially for electrical contact applications. Investigations of different casting processes show that a significant influence for the formation of a material bond is the thermal impact. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC) processes, the impact is quite low, e.g., due to short cycle times. Despite the high efficiency of this technology, currently there are hardly any investigations in this respect. So, the technology was used in this study to produce aluminum–copper compounds and analyze interfacial layers by means of SEM images and EDX measurements. Furthermore, the mechanical and electrical properties of the compounds were determined by means of tensile shear tests and measurements of the electrical conductivity. By modifying specimen geometry, the thermal impact could be increased and, thus, enhanced compound properties were achieved. Overall, compounds of sufficiently high mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity, could be produced by HPDC processes, demonstrating the high technical and economic potential of this casting technique. Full article
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14 pages, 6360 KiB  
Article
Melting–Dropping Property of Blast Furnace Charge on the Basis of Its Slag Formation Behavior
by Yonghong Wang, Jiang Diao, Bing Xie, Chenglin Qi and Ping Du
Metals 2022, 12(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12060987 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
In order to reveal the melting–dropping property of a charged blast furnace (BF) and the mechanism of its slag formation, such as the temperature interval of slag formation, the pressure drop during the reduction process, and the K value of each sample, the [...] Read more.
In order to reveal the melting–dropping property of a charged blast furnace (BF) and the mechanism of its slag formation, such as the temperature interval of slag formation, the pressure drop during the reduction process, and the K value of each sample, the soft melt drop experiment was tested in a large-capacity melting–dropping furnace. The results show that a positive linear relationship exists between the slag melting behavior and the melting–dropping property of the corresponding charge. The results indicate that owing to their poor melting–dropping property, single iron ores are not suitable for BF production and the charging mix can improve slag formation as well as the melting–dropping property when the temperature is increased. Chemical composition is the key factor that will affect slag formation. An excessive amount of lump ore in the charging mix favors the formation of a high-fusion point slag phase such as spinel at low temperatures. The charging mix containing fewer lump ore has high FeO content in the slag, decreasing fluidity at increased temperature. Consequently, the gas path is choked and permeability is reduced. Full article
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19 pages, 5804 KiB  
Article
Concrete Elastic Modulus Experimental Research Based on Theory of Capillary Tension
by Fengbin Zhou, Changwang Su, Daifeng Wu, Jianmin Hua, Lepeng Huang, Qiming Luo, Maoyi Liu, Mi Nie and Chunyao Tang
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103734 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 1971
Abstract
The risk of cracking in the early stage is a critical indicator of the performance of concrete structures. Concrete cracked when the tensile stresses caused by deformation under restraint conditions exceeded its tensile strength. This research aims at an accurate prediction of shrinkage [...] Read more.
The risk of cracking in the early stage is a critical indicator of the performance of concrete structures. Concrete cracked when the tensile stresses caused by deformation under restraint conditions exceeded its tensile strength. This research aims at an accurate prediction of shrinkage cracking of concrete under constraints. Based on the theory of capillary tension under the concrete shrinkage mechanism, the method to test and compute the elastic modulus of a micro-matrix around the capillary, Et, was derived. Shrinkage and porosity determination tests were conducted to obtain the shrinkage values and confining stresses of concrete at different strength grades, different ages and under different restraint conditions, accordingly. Meanwhile, the proposed method of this research was used to obtain Et. The restraint stress given by Et was compared with the experimental result under the corresponding time. The results suggested a positive correlation between the elastic modulus of a micro-matrix around the capillary, Et, precomputed by the theory, and the static elastic modulus, Ec, and that the ratio between the two gradually decreased with the passage of time, which ranged from 2.8 to 3.1. Full article
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8 pages, 1251 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of a 2-2 Piezoelectric Composite Transducer Made by Magnetic Force Assembly
by Taeyang Kim
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050740 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 2009
Abstract
A wider operational bandwidth, a higher electromechanical coupling factor, and lower acoustic impedance are important requirements for ultrasound transducers for use across many applications. Conventional 2-2 piezoelectric composite transducers have been widely researched because of their wider bandwidth and higher sensitivity over their [...] Read more.
A wider operational bandwidth, a higher electromechanical coupling factor, and lower acoustic impedance are important requirements for ultrasound transducers for use across many applications. Conventional 2-2 piezoelectric composite transducers have been widely researched because of their wider bandwidth and higher sensitivity over their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. In this paper, the fabrication of a novel 2-2 piezoelectric composite using magnetic force assembly is proposed to explore the potential of the transducer and to minimize mode coupling effect compared to 1–3 composites. To determine the desired transducer performance, such as the electromechanical coupling factor, the operational bandwidth, and the acoustic impedance, the design of a 2-2 composite should be considered using the mode-coupling theory and an effective medium model. The experimental results indicate that the electromechanical coupling factor and the −6 dB fractional bandwidth of the composite achieve values of 0.58 and 65.2%, respectively, which are comparable to those of traditional 1-3 piezoceramic/epoxy composites. Full article
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7 pages, 2381 KiB  
Article
Strain Profile in the Subsurface of He-Ion-Irradiated Tungsten Accessed by S-GIXRD
by Wenjie Huang, Meng Sun, Wen Wen, Junfeng Yang, Zhuoming Xie, Rui Liu, Xianping Wang, Xuebang Wu, Qianfeng Fang and Changsong Liu
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050691 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
The strain profile in the subsurface of He-ion-irradiated W was figured out by unfolding the synchrotron-grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (S-GIXRD) patterns at different incidence angles. The results show that for 2 × 1021 ions/m2 He2+-irradiated W, in addition to [...] Read more.
The strain profile in the subsurface of He-ion-irradiated W was figured out by unfolding the synchrotron-grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (S-GIXRD) patterns at different incidence angles. The results show that for 2 × 1021 ions/m2 He2+-irradiated W, in addition to a compressive strain exists in the depths of 0–100 nm due to mechanical polishing, an expansion strain appears in the depth beyond 100 nm owing to irradiation-induced lattice swelling. This work provides a reference for the study of irradiation damage in the subsurface by S-GIXRD. Full article
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9 pages, 1980 KiB  
Article
A Thermic Effect on Degradation Kinetics of Sugar Cane Bagasse Polypropylene Composites
by Tshwafo E. Motaung, Setumo V. Motloung, Lehlohonolo F. Koao, Thembinkosi D. Malevu and Ella. C. Linganiso
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6050123 - 24 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2238
Abstract
In this study, thermal degradation mechanisms and the kinetics of PP (Polypropylene) composites containing alkali and saline treated SC (Sugar cane bagasse) have been evaluated using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis under consistent nitrogen atmosphere. The study indicates dynamics of kinetics that need to [...] Read more.
In this study, thermal degradation mechanisms and the kinetics of PP (Polypropylene) composites containing alkali and saline treated SC (Sugar cane bagasse) have been evaluated using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis under consistent nitrogen atmosphere. The study indicates dynamics of kinetics that need to be considered should the composites be applied in high temperature applications. NaOH treated composites revealed a reduced fiber size compared to the other composites. The presence of SC generally reduced the functional group intensities of FTIR peaks, however some peaks re-emerged after the treatments. The composites indicated higher thermal stability and char content than the pristine polymer. In fact, NaOH treated composite is more thermally stable, while the saline is the least stable of the rest. Well known reliable degradation kinetics methods were employed in order to unpack thermal degradation behavior and possible metaphors. Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS) thermal degradation kinetic models are in agreement that the presence of both SC and those in the PP matrix that have been treated lead to increased activation energy values with the competing reactions in the degradation process. Nonetheless, the linear relation is not absolutely perfect and the competing reactions seem complex at lower temperatures as there are overlying inconsistencies in activation energies. Interestingly, bagasse indicated some effect on the mechanism that included the hindering of free radicals that emanated from the first cleavage of PP. Full article
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10 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
N-polar GaN Film Epitaxy on Sapphire Substrate without Intentional Nitridation
by Zhaole Su, Yangfeng Li, Xiaotao Hu, Yimeng Song, Rui Kong, Zhen Deng, Ziguang Ma, Chunhua Du, Wenxin Wang, Haiqiang Jia, Hong Chen and Yang Jiang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093005 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
High-temperature nitridation is commonly thought of as a necessary process to obtain N-polar GaN films on a sapphire substrate. In this work, high-quality N-polar GaN films were grown on a vicinal sapphire substrate with a 100 nm high-temperature (HT) AlN buffer layer (high [...] Read more.
High-temperature nitridation is commonly thought of as a necessary process to obtain N-polar GaN films on a sapphire substrate. In this work, high-quality N-polar GaN films were grown on a vicinal sapphire substrate with a 100 nm high-temperature (HT) AlN buffer layer (high V/III ratio) and without an intentional nitriding process. The smallest X-ray full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the (002)/(102) plane were 237/337 arcsec. On the contrary, N-polar GaN film with an intentional nitriding process had a lower crystal quality. In addition, we investigated the effect of different substrate treatments 1 min before the high-temperature AlN layer’s growth on the quality of the N-polar GaN films grown on different vicinal sapphire substrates. Full article
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17 pages, 13677 KiB  
Article
Abrasive Wear of Mining Chain Drums Made of Austempered Ductile Iron in Different Operating Modes
by Andrzej N. Wieczorek, Mateusz Wójcicki, Andrzej Drwięga, Waldemar Tuszyński, Paweł M. Nuckowski and Jakub Nędza
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082709 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The paper presents results of testing the resistance of chain wheels made of alloyed austempered ductile iron (ADI) with various content of retained austenite and subjected to shot peening, to the dynamic and abrasive wear by solid particles. The impact of the additional [...] Read more.
The paper presents results of testing the resistance of chain wheels made of alloyed austempered ductile iron (ADI) with various content of retained austenite and subjected to shot peening, to the dynamic and abrasive wear by solid particles. The impact of the additional environmental factor—external dynamic forces—accompanying the operation of the chain wheels in the presence of the quartz particles has a synergistic effect on the abrasive wear in the contact area between the wheels and the chain links for all the considered variants, except for the ADI with the structure of the upper ausferrite. Based on the results obtained, it was found that the abrasive wear by solid particles increased and that the hardness of the surface layer of the chain wheels subjected to shot peening decreased. The relative increase in the wear ΔVDYNMAX,(A), representing the share of the additional dynamic force in the process of wear, was in the range of 16–40% for the group of tested cast iron ADI not subjected to shot peening, while for the shot peened—in the range of 16–64%. Demonstration of phase changes during the operation of chain wheels and the change in their intensity depending on the combination of environmental factors is the work novelty. In the opinion of the authors, the presented results will be of great practical importance as they will allow to increase the knowledge on the proper selection of ADI cast iron for environmental conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 6519 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nd and Mn Co-Doping on Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Photovoltaic Properties of BiFeO3
by Qiyuan Wu, Yanling Song, Caihong Jia, Zhaomeng Gao and Weifeng Zhang
Crystals 2022, 12(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12040500 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Bi1−xNdxFe0.99Mn0.01O3 (BNFMO, x = 0.00~0.20) films were epitaxially grown on Nb:SrTiO3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. It was found that the Nd-doping concentration has a great impact on the surface morphology, crystal [...] Read more.
Bi1−xNdxFe0.99Mn0.01O3 (BNFMO, x = 0.00~0.20) films were epitaxially grown on Nb:SrTiO3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. It was found that the Nd-doping concentration has a great impact on the surface morphology, crystal structure, and electrical properties. BNFMO thin film with low Nd-doping concentration (≤16%) crystallizes into a rhombohedral structure, while the high Nd-doping (>16%) will lead to the formation of an orthogonal structure. Furthermore, to eliminate the resistive switching (RS) effect, a positive-up–negative-down (PUND) measurement was applied on two devices in series. The remnant polarization experiences an increase with the Nd-doping concentration increasing to 16%, then drops down with the further increased concentration of Nd. Finally, the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect is also regulated by the ferroelectric polarization, and the maximum photocurrent of 1758 μA/cm2 was obtained in Bi0.84Nd0.16Fe0.99Mn0.01O3 thin film. BNFMO films show great potential for ferroelectric and photovoltaic applications. Full article
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13 pages, 7122 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Indium(III) Ions from an Acidic Solution by Using UiO-66
by Wanyi Zeng, Lei Xu, Qiongling Wang, Chen Chen and Minglai Fu
Metals 2022, 12(4), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12040579 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Considering environmental friendliness and economic factors, the separation and extraction of indium under acidic conditions are of great significance. In this research, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of UiO-66 were successfully prepared and used for the separation and adsorption of indium. The properties of UiO-66 [...] Read more.
Considering environmental friendliness and economic factors, the separation and extraction of indium under acidic conditions are of great significance. In this research, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of UiO-66 were successfully prepared and used for the separation and adsorption of indium. The properties of UiO-66 were structurally characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyzer (BET), thermogravimetric analysers (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results show that UiO-66 can resist acid and keep its structure unchanged, even at a strong acidity of pH 1. The adsorption performance of UiO-66 to indium (III) was also evaluated. The results show that the adsorption process of indium ions was by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 11.75 mg·g−1 being recorded. The adsorption kinetics experiment preferably fits the second-order kinetic model. A possible mechanism for the adsorption of In(III) by UiO-66 was explored through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analysis(FT-IR). It was concluded that the C=O of free –COOH of UiO-66 was involved in the adsorption of In(III) by cation exchange. This study indicates, for the first time, that UiO-66 can be applied as an acid-resistant adsorbent to recover indium (III). Full article
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