Topic Editors

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology—State Research Institute, 36 Rakowiecka Street, 02532 Warsaw, Poland

Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 May 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal processing technologies have been researched for decades as particularly useful preservation technologies. As regards technological development, there has been a vast amount of research on nonthermal food processing technologies. Going forward, there is a necessity to research and improve thermal technologies and implement nonthermal processing technologies in processing at the industrial scale.

Another necessary focus is on sustainability and valorisation of waste in processing.

Papers dealing with mass and energy balance, as well as sustainability valorisation and footprints calculations, are highly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Anet Režek Jambrak
Dr. Krystian Marszałek
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • measurement of sustainable parameters of thermal processing technologies
  • measurement of sustainable parameters of nonthermal processing technologies
  • water–food–energy nexus of thermal processing technologies
  • water–food–energy nexus of nonthermal processing technologies
  • measuring carbon footprint, water footprint, etc.
  • technology readiness level of nonthermal processing technologies
  • novel thermal processing
  • nonthermal processing
  • emerging technology
  • ohmic heating
  • radio frequency heating
  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • pulsed electric field
  • cold plasma

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400
Beverages
beverages
3.5 5.8 2015 18.5 Days CHF 1600
Nutraceuticals
nutraceuticals
- - 2021 26.3 Days CHF 1000
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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18 pages, 9240 KiB  
Article
Protein Soft Drinks: A Retail Market Analysis and Selected Product Characterization
by Niamh Ahern, Elke K. Arendt and Aylin W. Sahin
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030073 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
The market for protein-based drinks is endlessly growing, as the awareness of health-conscious consumers demands a shift from traditional protein smoothies or shakes to clear beverage alternatives that address thirst and hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate the soft drink [...] Read more.
The market for protein-based drinks is endlessly growing, as the awareness of health-conscious consumers demands a shift from traditional protein smoothies or shakes to clear beverage alternatives that address thirst and hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate the soft drink market on a global scale with a focus on commercially available high-protein soft drinks, carbonated and uncarbonated, from both animal- and plant-based protein sources. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of 25 selected protein soft drinks from the market research were evaluated, including their protein content, density, viscosity, particle size, stability, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), to explore their quality attributes. From the market research, 6.8% was the highest protein content found out of 138 beverages, with whey protein isolate and collagen hydrolysate being the most popular added protein ingredients. Only 18% of the market contained plant-based proteins, with pea protein isolate being the most common. The pH of all beverages showed acidic values (2.9 to 4.2), where TTA ranged from 0.4 to 1.47 mL (0.1 M NaOH/mL). Protein content, density and viscosity in all beverages exhibited a significantly strong positive correlation. The protein soft drink containing beef protein isolate stood out for highest protein content, density, particle size and TTA. Overall, these results demonstrate the effects and correlations of the different formulations on the quality characteristics. Therefore, the presented results can be utilized in the development and formulation of future protein soft drinks, including nutritional improvement and optimum quality, meeting current consumer trends and that are used as a convenient pre- or post-workout drink for individuals seeking muscle growth and repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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22 pages, 3406 KiB  
Article
Food-Waste Valorisation: Synergistic Effects of Enabling Technologies and Eutectic Solvents on the Recovery of Bioactives from Violet Potato Peels
by Giorgio Grillo, Silvia Tabasso, Giorgio Capaldi, Kristina Radosevic, Ivana Radojčić-Redovniković, Veronika Gunjević, Emanuela Calcio Gaudino and Giancarlo Cravotto
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112214 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
The recovery of valuable bioactive compounds from the main underutilised by-products of the food industry is one of the greatest challenges to be addressed in circular economy. Potato peels are the largest waste generated during potato processing. However, they could be a potential [...] Read more.
The recovery of valuable bioactive compounds from the main underutilised by-products of the food industry is one of the greatest challenges to be addressed in circular economy. Potato peels are the largest waste generated during potato processing. However, they could be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, that can be reused as natural antioxidants. Currently, environmentally benign enabling technologies and new types of non-toxic organic solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds may dramatically improve the sustainability of these processes. This paper focuses on the potential inherent in the valorisation of violet potato peels (VPPs) by recovering antioxidants using natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES) under ultrasound (US)- and microwave (MW)-assisted extraction. Both the enabling technologies provided performances that were superior to those of conventional extractions in terms of antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH· (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. In particular, the most promising approach using NaDES is proven to be the acoustic cavitation with a Trolox eq. of 1874.0 mmolTE/gExtr (40 °C, 500 W, 30 min), vs. the 510.1 mmolTE/gExtr of hydroalcoholic extraction (80 °C, 4 h). The shelf-life of both hydroalcoholic and NaDES-VPPs extracts have been assessed over a period of 24 months, and found that NaDES granted a 5.6-fold shelf-life extension. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of both hydroalcoholic and NaDES-VPPs extracts was evaluated in vitro using the MTS assay on human tumour Caco-2 cells and normal human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). In particular, NaDES-VPPs extracts exhibited a significantly more pronounced antiproliferative activity compared to the ethanolic extracts without a noteworthy difference between effects on the two cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Quality Determination of a High-Pressure Processed Avocado Puree-Based Smoothie Beverage
by Paraskevi Sarantakou, Varvara Andreou, Eleni Paraskevopoulou, Efimia K. Dermesonlouoglou and Petros Taoukis
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020038 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1983
Abstract
The aim was to study the quality stability of a high-pressure (HP) processed avocado puree-based smoothie beverage and to determine its shelf life. To achieve this mathematical description of HP process parameters (pressure, temperature, and pH conditions) on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) inactivation of avocado-puree [...] Read more.
The aim was to study the quality stability of a high-pressure (HP) processed avocado puree-based smoothie beverage and to determine its shelf life. To achieve this mathematical description of HP process parameters (pressure, temperature, and pH conditions) on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) inactivation of avocado-puree (base of the smoothie beverage), use of the appropriate kinetic models was undertaken. Inactivation rate constants were obtained for combinations of constant pressure (600, 700, 750 MPa) and temperature (25, 35, 45 °C) for pH values 4 and 5. According to the Eyring and Arrhenius equations, activation volumes and activation energies, respectively, representing pressure and temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant, were calculated for all temperatures and pressures studied. The combined use of HP led to PPO inactivation (<10% remaining PPO activity). An increase in the temperature at pressure 600 or 750 MPa caused an increase in PPO inactivation (4.5 and 9.0%, respectively). The ultimate goal was to produce a HP processed avocado puree-based smoothie beverage (containing acid whey and other ingredients) with superior quality and increased shelf life (under refrigeration). The blended ingredients were HP processed in PET packages (600 MPa-25 °C-10 min, 600 MPa-35 °C-10 min, 750 MPa-25 °C-5 min, 750 MPa-35 °C-5 min) based on PPO inactivation as well as industrial practices. Non-processed as well as thermally (TM) processed (90 °C-5 min) samples were used as control samples. No significant differences were found in sensorial attributes between non-processed and HP samples, although the aroma and acceptability scores decreased significantly for thermally pasteurized smoothies. Based on the data obtained, 600 MPa-25/35 °C-10 min are sufficient to obtain safe smoothies (of pH 5 approximately) (up to 6 months) whose organoleptic properties are equally as acceptable to consumers as freshly made smoothies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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24 pages, 11320 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Rosemary Extracts using High Voltage Electrical Discharge in Calcium Alginate/Zein/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Microparticles
by Marinela Nutrizio, Slaven Jurić, Damir Kucljak, Silvija Lea Švaljek, Kristina Vlahoviček-Kahlina, Anet Režek Jambrak and Marko Vinceković
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081570 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
The increased demand for functional food with added health benefits is directing industrial procedures toward more sustainable production of naturally added bioactive compounds. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of bioactive compounds from rosemary extract obtained using high-voltage electrical [...] Read more.
The increased demand for functional food with added health benefits is directing industrial procedures toward more sustainable production of naturally added bioactive compounds. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of bioactive compounds from rosemary extract obtained using high-voltage electrical discharge as a green extraction method, for microencapsulation as a protective method for future application in functional food. Four types of microparticles were made via the ionic gelation method using alginate (Alg), zein (Z), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) biopolymers and were analyzed considering the physicochemical properties. The diameter of dry microparticles ranged from 651.29 to 1087.37 μm. The shape and morphology analysis of microparticles showed that the obtained microparticles were quite spherical with a granular surface. The high encapsulation efficiency was obtained with a loading capacity of polyphenols up to 11.31 ± 1.47 mg GAE/g (Alg/Z microparticles). The microencapsulation method showed protective effects for rosemary polyphenols against pH changes during digestion. Specifically, the addition of both zein and HPMC to calcium-alginate resulted in microparticles with a prolonged release for better availability of polyphenols in the intestine. This research background indicates that the release of rosemary extract is highly dependent on the initial biopolymer composition with high potential for further functional food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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23 pages, 872 KiB  
Review
Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems to Enhance the Functionality of Bioactive Compounds: Towards the Use of Ingredients from Natural, Sustainable Sources
by Júlia Teixé-Roig, Gemma Oms-Oliu, Isabel Odriozola-Serrano and Olga Martín-Belloso
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071502 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
In recent years, the trend in the population towards consuming more natural and sustainable foods has increased significantly. This claim has led to the search for new sources of bioactive compounds and extraction methods that have less impact on the environment. Moreover, the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the trend in the population towards consuming more natural and sustainable foods has increased significantly. This claim has led to the search for new sources of bioactive compounds and extraction methods that have less impact on the environment. Moreover, the formulation of systems to protect these compounds is also focusing on the use of ingredients of natural origin. This article reviews novel, natural alternative sources of bioactive compounds with a positive impact on sustainability. In addition, it also contains information on the most recent studies based on the use of natural (especially from plants) emulsifiers in the design of emulsion-based delivery systems to protect bioactive compounds. The properties of these natural-based emulsion-delivery systems, as well as their functionality, including in vitro and in vivo studies, are also discussed. This review provides relevant information on the latest advances in the development of emulsion delivery systems based on ingredients from sustainable natural sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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22 pages, 1777 KiB  
Review
Application of Emerging Techniques in Reduction of the Sugar Content of Fruit Juice: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives
by Magdalena Cywińska-Antonik, Zhe Chen, Barbara Groele and Krystian Marszałek
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061181 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5879
Abstract
In light of the growing interest in products with reduced sugar content, there is a need to consider reducing the natural sugar concentration in juices while preserving the initial concentration of nutritional compounds. This paper reviewed the current state of knowledge related to [...] Read more.
In light of the growing interest in products with reduced sugar content, there is a need to consider reducing the natural sugar concentration in juices while preserving the initial concentration of nutritional compounds. This paper reviewed the current state of knowledge related to mixing juices, membrane processes, and enzymatic processes in producing fruit juices with reduced concentrations of sugars. The limitations and challenges of these methods are also reviewed, including the losses of nutritional ingredients in membrane processes and the emergence of side products in enzymatic processes. As the existing methods have limitations, the review also identifies areas that require further improvements and technological innovations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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13 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
Quality of Tomato Juice as Influenced by Non-Thermal Air Plasma Treatment
by Agnieszka Starek-Wójcicka, Agnieszka Sagan, Piotr Terebun, Michał Kwiatkowski, Emilia Osmólska, Marta Krajewska, Elżbieta Grządka, Narumol Matsuyama, Nobuya Hayashi and Joanna Pawlat
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010578 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
This paper presents the results of an experiment based on using a Glide-arc type plasma reactor operating at atmospheric pressure for the quality of fresh pressed tomato juice, variety Bekas. The impact of after-glow plasma gas (air) on the physicochemical, microbiological properties and [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of an experiment based on using a Glide-arc type plasma reactor operating at atmospheric pressure for the quality of fresh pressed tomato juice, variety Bekas. The impact of after-glow plasma gas (air) on the physicochemical, microbiological properties and morphology of the product’s samples was investigated. Five groups of juices characterized by different exposure times (30, 60, 120, 300 and 600 s), as well as untreated juice (as control) were used. The juice quality was assessed on days 1, 3, 5, and 10 of refrigerated storage. Significant increases were observed when Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP)-treated tomato juice was tested against total soluble solids, pH, lycopene, and vitamin C in comparison to the control treatments. Moreover, changes in the tested physicochemical values during the storage of juice subjected to the action of cold plasma did not progress as quickly as in the case of the control juice. A significant decrease was observed in total plate count, yeast, and mold after 300–600 s CAP treatment. The findings of the current study suggested that CAP treatment is a promising technique that could provide improved quality and stability during the processing of tomato juice with better physicochemical properties and bioavailable nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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15 pages, 1244 KiB  
Article
Chestnut Lily Beverage (CLB) Processing Using Ultrasound-Assisted Nisin: Microbiota Inactivation and Product Quality
by Yao Cui, Jianxue Liu, Sihai Han, Peiyan Li, Denglin Luo and Jinying Guo
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213344 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
We evaluated the effects of ultrasound (US) and ultrasound combined with nisin (NUS) treatments on the properties of chestnut lily beverages (CLB) using conventional thermal pasteurisation (TP) as a control. After CLB samples were treated with US and NUS for 20, 40, or [...] Read more.
We evaluated the effects of ultrasound (US) and ultrasound combined with nisin (NUS) treatments on the properties of chestnut lily beverages (CLB) using conventional thermal pasteurisation (TP) as a control. After CLB samples were treated with US and NUS for 20, 40, or 60 min, the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO), microbial inactivation effect, colour, pH value, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of the CLB were observed. It was found that the inactivation rate of PPO in CLB after NUS treatment was higher than that in the US, indicating that NUS treatment aggravated PPO inactivation. Treatment time was important in the inactivation of microorganisms by US and NUS; NUS had a lethal synergistic lethal effect on microorganisms in CLB and when compared with US, NUS reduced changes in the CLB colour value. Notably, the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the US- and NUS-treated CLB significantly increased relative to the TP group. These results that suggest NUS has a potential application value in the development of CLB because it reduces the risk of microorganism contamination and helps improve the quality of CLB. This study provides technical support and a theoretical basis for the improved production of CLB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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22 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Biotechnological Modification of Cider Brewing Processes for the Enhanced Production of 2-Phenylethanol
by Arron Wilson, Joel B. Johnson and Mani Naiker
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040064 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Consumers of Australian cider are currently trending towards higher-quality cider products. As a result, boutique and craft cider breweries are expected to experience a period of growth over the next five years. Supporting this trend and subsequent growth is paramount to rebuilding the [...] Read more.
Consumers of Australian cider are currently trending towards higher-quality cider products. As a result, boutique and craft cider breweries are expected to experience a period of growth over the next five years. Supporting this trend and subsequent growth is paramount to rebuilding the cider industry post-COVID-19. Many current practices and procedures, such as must clarification and biomass reduction in cider brewing, have been adapted from the beer and wine industry. While these practices are beneficial to the quality of cider and often promote the production of favourable volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the targeted enhancement of specific VOCs has not been achieved. This work investigates the specific enhancement of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), which is known to improve the organoleptic properties of cider and provide potential health benefits through its antioxidant properties. The effect of three levels of biomass reduction (90%, 80%, and 0%) and five levels of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) saturation (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g L−1) for the enhanced production of 2-PE during cider fermentation were investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to accurately quantify the concentration of both 2-PE and L-phe, with a root-mean-square deviation (RSMD) of 0.41% and 1.60%, respectively. A significant increase in 2-PE production was achieved for all treatments, with 2-PE levels up to two orders of magnitude higher than respective controls. The highest 2-PE production was achieved by a moderate (80%) biomass reduction at a 2.5 g L−1 L-phe spike. Additionally, the VOC profile of several of the ciders was quantitively determined, and subsequent data underwent extensive chemometric analysis. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that 2-PE and its derivatives (2-phenylethyl pivalate and phenylacetaldehyde) were correlated with the 80% biomass reduction treatment at the highest L-phe spike. Additionally, it was observed that several acids and alkanes were negatively correlated with the production of 2-PE and its derivatives. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed clustering between the 80% and 90% biomass reduction treatments at several L-phe spike concentrations. However, the 0% biomass reduction treatments only showed similarity with other treatments with 0% biomass reduction. This work provides insight into the production of 2-PE during apple cider fermentation while building the foundation for more targeted biotechnological production of favourable compounds to improve cider quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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13 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
Effects of High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma Treatment on the Number of Microorganisms and the Quality of Trachinotus ovatus during Refrigerator Storage
by Zhicheng Cai, Jiamei Wang, Chencheng Liu, Gu Chen, Xiaohan Sang and Jianhao Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172706 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
In order to investigate the effects of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) treatment on the number of microorganisms in and the quality of Trachinotus ovatus during refrigerator storage, fresh fish was packaged with gases CO2:O2:N2 (80%:10%:10%) and [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effects of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) treatment on the number of microorganisms in and the quality of Trachinotus ovatus during refrigerator storage, fresh fish was packaged with gases CO2:O2:N2 (80%:10%:10%) and treated by HVACP at 75 kV for 3 min; then, the samples were stored at 4 ± 1 °C for nine days. The microbial numbers, water content, color value, texture, pH value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish were analyzed during storage. The results showed the growth of the total viable bacteria (TVB), psychrophilic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria in the treated samples was limited, and they were 1.11, 1.01, 1.04, 1.13, 0.77, and 0.80 log CFU/g−1 lower than those in the control group after nine days of storage, respectively. The hardness, springiness, and chewiness of the treated fish decreased slowly as the storage time extended, and no significant changes in either pH or water content were found. The lightness (L*) value increased and the yellowness (b*) value decreased after treatment, while no changes in the redness (a*) value were found. The TBARS and TVB-N of the treated samples increased to 0.79 mg/kg and 21.99 mg/100 g, respectively, after nine days of refrigerator storage. In conclusion, HVACP can limit the growth of the main microorganisms in fish samples effectively during nine days of refrigerator storage with no significant negative impact on their quality. Therefore, HVACP is a useful nonthermal technology to extend the refrigerator shelf-life of Trachinotus ovatus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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21 pages, 5787 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of the New Integrated Equipment and Process of the Nine-Steam-Nine-Bask Method in the Processing of Polygonatum cyrtonema
by Jun Liu, Zhentao Zhang, Xiulan Huai, Yongxing Wei, Jizhou Zhu, Xiaoqiong Li, Peng Xu and Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi
Processes 2022, 10(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10061044 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
As a traditional processing method, the Nine-Steam-Nine-Bask method has been widely used in the special processing of Chinese medicinal materials. With the highly integrated design and innovation of infiltrating equipment, steaming equipment, drying equipment, and other equipment, a new type of integrated equipment [...] Read more.
As a traditional processing method, the Nine-Steam-Nine-Bask method has been widely used in the special processing of Chinese medicinal materials. With the highly integrated design and innovation of infiltrating equipment, steaming equipment, drying equipment, and other equipment, a new type of integrated equipment for the Nine-Steam-Nine-Bask method was finally developed and successfully applied in Polygonatum cyrtonema processing. Moreover, seven new processes were explored. The longer the steaming time was, the more steaming and drying cycles, the lower the product recovery rate and the higher the energy consumption. The higher the steaming pressure was, the lower the product recovery rate, the higher the energy consumption and the shorter the drying time. The longer the drying time was, the lower the product recovery rate and polysaccharide content, and the higher the energy consumption. The best new process was XGY1, which had the highest overall score. The steaming process was the most time-consuming and energy-intensive production process, followed by the drying process. The obtained results can provide knowledgeable guidance for the further optimization of the integrated equipment of the Nine-Steam-Nine-Bask method and the development and application of technology for processing characteristic Chinese medicinal materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 1246 KiB  
Article
Effects of Wheat Bran Micronization on the Quality of Reconstituted Whole-Wheat Flour and Its Cooked Noodles
by Sitong Lai, Jinlong Liu, Yanqing Zhang, Yuanmeng Wang, Guang Li and Qingliang Cui
Processes 2022, 10(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10051001 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
The particle size of wheat bran plays an important role in the quality of reconstituted whole-wheat flour and its products. The effects of wheat bran particle size on the quality of reconstituted whole-wheat flour and its cooked noodles were analyzed; the mean particle [...] Read more.
The particle size of wheat bran plays an important role in the quality of reconstituted whole-wheat flour and its products. The effects of wheat bran particle size on the quality of reconstituted whole-wheat flour and its cooked noodles were analyzed; the mean particle size (D50) of wheat bran ranged from 26.05 to 46.08 μm. Results show that the decreases in D50 of wheat bran induced the changes in the quality of whole-wheat flour and its noodles. Specifically, the damaged starch content, water absorption, and the solvent retention capacity of sodium carbonate and sucrose of whole-wheat flour increased at various degrees, while pasting viscosity decreased, and the gluten index and SDS-sedimentation volume increased first and then decreased. The cooking yield, cooking loss, and break rate of fresh noodles decreased first and reached a trough at D50 of 26.05 μm, and then increased. The adhesiveness of cooked noodles increased, the score of smoothness, taste, appearance, and color increased to a stable value, but the hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, resilience, firmness score, and elasticity score increased first and then decreased. These turning points of changing trends of indexes mostly occurred when the D50 of wheat bran was 26.51 μm. In conclusion, whole-wheat noodles with wheat bran of D50 of 26.51 μm addition exhibit better cooking, textural, and sensory properties than those with smaller or larger wheat bran. Excessive crushing of wheat bran not only costs highly in terms of energy, but also has a negative impact on the quality of the noodles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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17 pages, 4588 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Beads of Sodium Alginate/Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Cellulose Nanofiber Containing Porous Starch Embedded with Gallic Acid: An In Vitro Simulation Delivery Study
by Wei Li, Wenxue Chen, Zhiyang Wang, Weijun Chen, Ming Zhang, Qiuping Zhong, Jianfei Pei and Haiming Chen
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101394 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4285
Abstract
In this study, a system was designed that can encapsulate and deliver gallic acid (GA), which was composed of polysaccharide polymers based on sodium alginate (SA), carboxymethyl chitosan (CCT), and cellulose nanofibers (CN) and was assisted by porous starch. The compositions were characterized [...] Read more.
In this study, a system was designed that can encapsulate and deliver gallic acid (GA), which was composed of polysaccharide polymers based on sodium alginate (SA), carboxymethyl chitosan (CCT), and cellulose nanofibers (CN) and was assisted by porous starch. The compositions were characterized by rheology and zeta potentials, and the results showed that the materials used in this study could effectively guarantee the stability of the system. The morphology and chemical structure of the beads were characterized by SEM and FT-IR, the results indicated that the addition of CCT could effectively reduce the cracks and pores on the surface of the beads, which was beneficial to the encapsulation and delivery of GA. Moreover, the results of the swelling rate, release tests, and antioxidant tests also proved the effectiveness of the system. The pH response effect of SA/CN/CCT (SCC) beads and the protection of GA were superior, and the release rate of GA in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) was only 6.95%, while SA and SA/CN (SCN) beads reached 57.94% and 78.49%, respectively. In conclusion, the interpenetrating network polymers constructed by SA, CCT, and CN, which, combined with porous starch as a coating layer, can achieve the embedding and the delivery of GA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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