Topic Editors

Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow 226003, India
1. Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
2. The World Society for Virology, P.O. Box 1308, Northampton, MA 01060-1308, USA

Human Monkeypox Research

Abstract submission deadline
30 April 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
44262

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic orthopox DNA virus whose symptoms are similar to smallpox, was first described in humans in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in a 9-month-old boy. Since the early May 2022, there have been more than 3000 monkeypox infections in more than 50 countries over the world. WHO claimed that monkeypox is becoming an “evolving threat of moderate public health concern”.

If the global transmission of monkeypox is as the SARS-CoV-2 in the past two years. It will make us drawn into another global crisis. In this case, it is extremely urgent to prevent the continuing spread of monkeypox infection. Currently, an antiviral agent developed for the treatment of smallpox has been licensed for the treatment of monkeypox.

This topic, together with journals (Viruses, Pathogens, Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Diseases, Infectious Disease Reports), provide a platform for researchers around the globe to share the novel and cutting-edge works about human monkeypox. We welcome, to receive, original research, reviews, short communications, comments, perspectives, case reports on the basis of human monkeypox virus and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

 

Prof. Dr. Shailendra K. Saxena
Prof. Dr. Ahmed Sayed Abdel-Moneim
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diseases
diseases
3.7 - 2013 18.8 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Infectious Disease Reports
idr
3.2 3.2 2009 27.2 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Pathogens
pathogens
3.7 5.1 2012 16.4 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Viruses
viruses
4.7 7.1 2009 13.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
tropicalmed
2.9 4.1 2016 19.4 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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12 pages, 2303 KiB  
Article
Fast and Ultrasensitive Detection of Monkeypox by a Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute System Coupled with a Short Amplification
by Ping He, Wenhao Zhou, Hongping Wei and Junping Yu
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030382 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease monkeypox, causes lesions on the skin, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It has posed a global public health threat since May 2022. Highly sensitive and specific detection of MPXV is crucial for preventing the spread [...] Read more.
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease monkeypox, causes lesions on the skin, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It has posed a global public health threat since May 2022. Highly sensitive and specific detection of MPXV is crucial for preventing the spread of the disease. Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute (PfAgo) is an artificial DNA-guided restriction cleavage enzyme programmable with 5′-phosphorylated ssDNA sequences, which can be developed to specifically detect nucleic acids of pathogens. Here, a PfAgo-based system was established for the detection of MPXV-specific DNA targeting the F3L gene. A short amplicon of 79 bp could be obtained through a fast PCR procedure, which was completed within 45 min. Two 5′-phosphorylation guide DNAs were designed to guide PfAgo to cleave the amplicon to obtain an 18 bp 5′-phosphorylation sequence specific to MPXV, not to other orthopoxviruses (cowpox, variola, and vaccinia viruses). The 18 bp sequence guided PfAgo to cleave a designed probe specific to MPXV to emit fluorescence. With optimized conditions for the PfAgo-MPXV system, it could be completed in 60 min for the detection of the extracted MPXV DNA with the limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1 copies/reaction and did not depend on expensive instruments. Successful application of the PfAgo-MPXV system in sensitively detecting MPXV in simulated throat swabs, skin swabs, sera, and wastewater demonstrated the system’s good performance. The PfAgo platform, with high sensitivity and specificity established here, has the potential to prevent the spread of MPXV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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11 pages, 515 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Monkeypox (MPOX) Knowledge and Vaccination Intention among Health and Life Sciences Students in Algeria: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Mohamed Lounis, Ahmed Hamimes and Ali Dahmani
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 170-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr16020013 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Monkeypox (MPOX) is a viral zoonotic disease affecting endemically the Central and Western regions of Africa. The ongoing outbreak in non-endemic countries has made this disease a global concern. While no cases have been reported in Algeria, it is important to raise awareness [...] Read more.
Monkeypox (MPOX) is a viral zoonotic disease affecting endemically the Central and Western regions of Africa. The ongoing outbreak in non-endemic countries has made this disease a global concern. While no cases have been reported in Algeria, it is important to raise awareness about the disease to prepare for a potential outbreak, especially in light of the cases reported in neighboring Middle East and North African (MENA) countries. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of Algerian Health and Life Sciences students toward MPOX and its vaccine through an anonymous online survey. A total of 196 students participated in this study. Students of medicine (64.3%), females (85.7%), and those under 20 years of age (55.1%) were the most represented. The results revealed a low level of knowledge represented by a score of only 42.8% for correct answers with multiple gaps in epidemiology, etiology, and clinical manifestations of MPOX. Students of veterinary sciences showed the highest levels of knowledge (OR: 6.71; CI95%: 1.23–36.77), while those aged between 20 and 30 years old (OR: 0.11; CI95%: 0.02–0.79) and those vaccinated against seasonal flu (OR: 0.42; CI95%: 0.21–0.85) were associated with low levels of knowledge. Regarding MPOX vaccination, the study found a moderate level of acceptance (48.5%) among the surveyed students with Natural and Life Sciences students and those having a high vaccine conspiracy belief score (VCBS) showing the lowest level of acceptance. These findings highlight the need for educational programs and intensified public awareness campaigns to improve knowledge about MPOX and emphasize the importance of vaccination in preventing outbreaks and overcoming vaccine reluctance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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11 pages, 685 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Stability, Inactivation, and Disinfection Effectiveness of Mpox Virus
by Yuwei Li, Shiyun Lv, Yan Zeng, Zhuo Chen, Fei Xia, Hao Zhang, Demiao Dan, Chunxia Hu, Yi Tang, Qiao Yang, Yaqi Ji, Jia Lu and Zejun Wang
Viruses 2024, 16(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16010104 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Background: Mpox virus (MPXV) infections have increased in many countries since May 2022, increasing demand for diagnostic tests and research on the virus. To ensure personnel safety, appropriate and reliable measures are needed to disinfect and inactivate infectious samples; Methods: We evaluated the [...] Read more.
Background: Mpox virus (MPXV) infections have increased in many countries since May 2022, increasing demand for diagnostic tests and research on the virus. To ensure personnel safety, appropriate and reliable measures are needed to disinfect and inactivate infectious samples; Methods: We evaluated the stability of infectious MPXV cultures stored at different temperatures and through freeze–thaw cycles. Heat physical treatment (56 °C, 70 °C, 95 °C), chemical treatment (beta-propiolactone (BPL)) and two commercialized disinfectants (Micro-Chem Plus (MCP) and ethanol) were tested against infectious MPXV cultures; Results: The results indicated that MPXV stability increases with lower temperatures. The MPXV titer was stable within three freeze–thaw cycles and only decreased by 1.04 log10 (lg) 50% cell culture infective dose (CCID50) per milliliter (12.44%) after twelve cycles. MPXV could be effectively inactivated at 56 °C for 40 min, 70 °C for 10 min, and 95 °C for 5 min. For BPL inactivation, a 1:1000 volume ratio (BPL:virus) could also effectively inactivate MPXV. A total of 2% or 5% MCP and 75% ethanol treated with MPXV for at least 1 min could reduce >4.25 lg; Conclusions: MPXV shows high stability to temperature and freeze–thaw. Heat and BPL treatments are effective for the inactivation of MPXV, while MCP and ethanol are effective for disinfection, which could help laboratory staff operate the MPXV under safer conditions and improve operational protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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8 pages, 987 KiB  
Brief Report
Exploring the Genomic Dynamics of the Monkeypox Epidemic in Paraguay
by Cynthia Vazquez, Vagner Fonseca, Andrea Gomez de la Fuente, Sandra Gonzalez, Fatima Fleitas, Mauricio Lima, Natália R. Guimarães, Felipe C. M. Iani, Analia Rojas, Tania Alfonso, Cesar Cantero, Julio Barrios, Shirley Villalba, Maria Jose Ortega, Juan Torales, Maria Liz Gamarra, Carolina Aquino, Leticia Franco, Jairo Mendez Rico, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara and Marta Giovanettiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Viruses 2024, 16(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16010083 - 04 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
In recent months, Paraguay has been grappled with a notable monkeypox outbreak, straining its healthcare infrastructure. The sudden spike in cases underlines the imperative need for a comprehensive understanding of the virus’s dynamics, enabling the formulation of robust containment measures. To address this [...] Read more.
In recent months, Paraguay has been grappled with a notable monkeypox outbreak, straining its healthcare infrastructure. The sudden spike in cases underlines the imperative need for a comprehensive understanding of the virus’s dynamics, enabling the formulation of robust containment measures. To address this challenge, our team joined forces with the Central Public Health Laboratory of Asunción and the Pan-American Health Organization. Through this collaboration, we employed portable whole-genome sequencing combined with phylodynamic analysis to examine the MPXV strains circulating in Paraguay. Our genomic monitoring approach has produced the first 30 whole-genome sequences from Paraguay, all of which were identified under lineage IIb. Interestingly, our data suggest that the origin of the monkeypox virus in Paraguay at the beginning of 2022 can be traced back to Brazil. This introduction subsequently catalyzed further community spread that was further exacerbated by several independent introduction events as time progressed. These findings not only shed light on the transmission patterns of the virus but also highlight the pivotal role such insights play in sculpting effective response strategies and driving impactful public health measures. Furthermore, our findings strongly advocate intensified surveillance at international borders, ensuring swift detection and proactive countermeasures against potential outbreaks in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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11 pages, 2142 KiB  
Case Report
Bacterial Pneumonia and Cryptogenic Pleuritis after Probable Monkeypox Virus Infection: A Case Report
by Hubert Dawid Ciepłucha, Mateusz Bożejko, Paweł Piesiak, Sylwia Serafińska and Bartosz Szetela
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(6), 795-805; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15060071 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
A large number of monkeypox (MPOX) cases have been reported in Europe and North America in 2022, and a new outbreak of this disease was declared. We describe a case of a patient with probable monkeypox during the height of this epidemic in [...] Read more.
A large number of monkeypox (MPOX) cases have been reported in Europe and North America in 2022, and a new outbreak of this disease was declared. We describe a case of a patient with probable monkeypox during the height of this epidemic in Poland. The patient’s symptoms resolved within two weeks, but over the next two months, he developed community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and, subsequently, non-specific pleuritis. The simultaneous occurrence of such severe infections in a previously healthy young man is not typical and suggests a potential underlying cause. We believe the potential association of these diseases with probable monkeypox virus infection is very likely. Cases of monkeypox pneumonia, both viral and secondary bacterial, have already been reported in the literature. Cases of viral pleuritis in the course of MPOX in animals have also been described; however, to our knowledge, no similar cases have been described in humans to date. Our case indicates that it is important to monitor patients after MPOX in order to respond promptly to potentially life-threatening but, as of yet, not fully understood complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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8 pages, 271 KiB  
Brief Report
Mpox: Fifty-Nine Consecutive Cases from a Mexican Public Hospital; Just the Tip of the STIs Iceberg
by Esteban González-Díaz, Christian E. Rodríguez-Lugo, Sergio Quintero-Luce, Sergio Esparza-Ahumada, Héctor Raúl Pérez-Gómez, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Marina de Jesus Kasten-Monges, Sara A. Aguirre-Díaz, Marisela Vázquez-León and Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(3), 319-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15030032 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Monkeypox (Mpox) is a zoonotic viral infection endemic to Africa, which has caused a global outbreak since April 2022. The global Mpox outbreak is related to Clade IIb. The disease has primarily affected men who have sex with men. Skin lesions are concentrated [...] Read more.
Monkeypox (Mpox) is a zoonotic viral infection endemic to Africa, which has caused a global outbreak since April 2022. The global Mpox outbreak is related to Clade IIb. The disease has primarily affected men who have sex with men. Skin lesions are concentrated in the genital area, with lymphadenopathy as well as concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This is an observational study of adult patients with a recent development of skin lesions and systemic symptoms, which could not be explained by other diseases present. Fifty-nine PCR-positive patients with prominent skin lesions in the genital area (77.9%), inguinal lymphadenopathy (49.1%), and fever (83.0%) were included. Twenty-five (42.3%) were known to be living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 14 of the HIV-naïve subjects (51.9%) were found to be positive during workup, totaling 39 (66.1%) patients with HIV. Eighteen patients (30.5%) had concurrent syphilis infections. It is worrisome that Mpox is present in large metropolitan areas of Mexico, but the underlying growth of cases of HIV infection and other STIs has not been well studied and should be evaluated in all at-risk adults and their contacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
11 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Health Workers’ Knowledge and Attitude towards Monkeypox in Southwestern Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Nasser H. Sobaikhi, Najim Z. Alshahrani, Rakan S. Hazazi, Hafiz I. Al-Musawa, Raed E. Jarram, Amjad E. Alabah, Nawaf F. Haqawi, Fadi A. Munhish, Mohammed A. Shajeri, Mohammed H. Matari, Riyadh M. Salami, Alhassan H. Hobani, Najla A. Yahya and Abdulaziz H. Alhazmi
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020081 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2069
Abstract
Background: Monkeypox outbreaks in non-endemic countries emphasize the importance of being prepared to prevent its progression to a pandemic. To effectively control monkeypox, healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge and good attitudes and practices to limit its spread. We initiated this project to [...] Read more.
Background: Monkeypox outbreaks in non-endemic countries emphasize the importance of being prepared to prevent its progression to a pandemic. To effectively control monkeypox, healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge and good attitudes and practices to limit its spread. We initiated this project to assess the factors associated with health workers’ knowledge and attitude toward monkeypox in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: We included 398 eligible health workers working at various health facilities. Data was collected using an online survey, and participants had an opportunity to consent. We conducted descriptive statistics for all variables and used chi-square statistics, t-test, and multivariate analysis to establish the association between health workers’ demographic characteristics and knowledge of monkeypox disease. Results: The mean age was 30.93 ± 8.25 years for the included participants, and most of them were between 22 and 29 years, male, single, nurses, working in government hospitals, and had worked for at least five years. The chi-square and t-test showed that the participants’ knowledge level was significantly related to age, marital status, job title, and medical practice. Most of the participants had low knowledge and good attitudes toward monkeypox prevention measures. Multivariate analysis showed that higher knowledge was associated with younger age after controlling all other significant bivariate relationships between knowledge and demographics. Conclusions: This study found low knowledge levels and high good attitude levels of monkeypox among the participants. As such, there is a need to support health workers in understanding monkeypox epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Therefore, Saudi Arabia will be making significant strides to being well prepared and ready to handle future monkeypox outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
20 pages, 731 KiB  
Systematic Review
Mpox Person-to-Person Transmission—Where Have We Got So Far? A Systematic Review
by Pedro Pinto, Miguel Alves Costa, Micael F. M. Gonçalves, Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues and Carmen Lisboa
Viruses 2023, 15(5), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15051074 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
The recent multi-country outbreak of Mpox (Monkeypox disease) constituted a public health emergency. Although animal-to-human transmission is known to be the primary way of transmission, an increasing number of cases transmitted by person-to-person contact have been reported. During the recent Mpox outbreak sexual [...] Read more.
The recent multi-country outbreak of Mpox (Monkeypox disease) constituted a public health emergency. Although animal-to-human transmission is known to be the primary way of transmission, an increasing number of cases transmitted by person-to-person contact have been reported. During the recent Mpox outbreak sexual or intimate contact has been considered the most important way of transmission. However, other routes of transmission must not be ignored. The knowledge of how the Monkeypox Virus (MPXV) spreads is crucial to implement adequate measures to contain the spread of the disease. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to collect scientific data published concerning other implicated sources of infection beyond sexual interaction, such as the involvement of respiratory particles, contact with contaminated surfaces and skin-to-skin contact. The current study was performed using the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Publications analyzing contacts of Mpox index cases and their outcome after contact were included. A total of 7319 person-to-person contacts were surveyed and 273 of them became positive cases. Positive secondary transmission of MPXV was verified after contact with people cohabiting in the same household, with family members, with healthcare workers, or within healthcare facilities, and sexual contact or contact with contaminated surfaces. Using the same cup, sharing the same dishes, and sleeping in the same room or bed were also positively associated with transmission. Five studies showed no evidence of transmission despite contact with surfaces, skin-to-skin contact, or through airway particles within healthcare facilities where containment measures were taken. These records support the case for person-to-person transmission and suggest that other types of contact beyond sexual contact pose a significant risk of acquiring the infection. Further investigation is crucial to elucidate MPXV transmission dynamics, and to implement adequate measures to contain the spread of the infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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17 pages, 1576 KiB  
Review
Mpox Virus: Its Molecular Evolution and Potential Impact on Viral Epidemiology
by Xi Yu, Huicheng Shi and Gong Cheng
Viruses 2023, 15(4), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15040995 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3093
Abstract
Mpox (previously known as monkeypox) is an infectious viral illness caused by the mpox virus (MPXV), an orthopoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae. The symptoms of mpox in humans are similar to those of smallpox, although the mortality rate is lower. [...] Read more.
Mpox (previously known as monkeypox) is an infectious viral illness caused by the mpox virus (MPXV), an orthopoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae. The symptoms of mpox in humans are similar to those of smallpox, although the mortality rate is lower. In recent years, the concern over a potential global pandemic has increased due to reports of mpox spreading across Africa and other parts of the world. Prior to this discovery, mpox was a rare zoonotic disease restricted to endemic regions of Western and Central Africa. The sudden emergence of MPXV cases in multiple regions has raised concerns about its natural evolution. This review aims to provide an overview of previously available information about MPXV, including its genome, morphology, hosts and reservoirs, and virus–host interaction and immunology, as well as to perform phylogenetic analysis on available MPXV genomes, with an emphasis on the evolution of the genome in humans as new cases emerge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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9 pages, 1226 KiB  
Case Report
Fatal Case of Progressive Mpox in a Patient with AIDS—Viral Enteropathy and Malabsorption Demanding the Use of Full Parenteral ARV and Endovenous Cidofovir
by João Caria, Francisco Vara-Luiz, Inês Maia, Anneke Joosten, Luís Val-Flores, Hélder Pinheiro, Diana Póvoas, Nuno Germano and Fernando Maltez
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(2), 171-179; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15020018 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
We report a fatal case of disseminated mpox infection that progressed over more than three months in an HIV-infected patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mucocutaneous, pleuropulmonary, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal involvement was documented. This course of disease resembles progressive vaccinia, a [...] Read more.
We report a fatal case of disseminated mpox infection that progressed over more than three months in an HIV-infected patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mucocutaneous, pleuropulmonary, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal involvement was documented. This course of disease resembles progressive vaccinia, a formerly reported disease caused by uncontrolled replication of smallpox vaccination orthopoxviruses in immunosuppressed patients. Severe small bowel involvement jeopardized normal oral tecovirimat and antiretroviral therapy absorption. This problem prompted the use of full parenteral antiretrovirals and endovenous cidofovir. Although a remarkable decrease in HIV viral load occurred in six days, mpox infection continued to progress, and the patient died of septic shock. This case offers new clinical insights on the presentation of severe disease in AIDS patients. Moreover, this case alerts for the need for prompt therapy initiation in patients at risk of ominous clinical progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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13 pages, 1208 KiB  
Article
Mpox, Caused by the MPXV of the Clade IIb Lineage, Goes Global
by Liping Gao, Qi Shi, Xiaoping Dong, Miao Wang, Zhiguo Liu and Zhenjun Li
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8020076 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Mpox is a great public health concern worldwide currently; thus, a global primary epidemiological analysis of mpox and a phylogenetic analysis of currently circulating MPXV strains based on open-source data is necessary. A total of 83,419 confirmed cases with 72 deaths were reported [...] Read more.
Mpox is a great public health concern worldwide currently; thus, a global primary epidemiological analysis of mpox and a phylogenetic analysis of currently circulating MPXV strains based on open-source data is necessary. A total of 83,419 confirmed cases with 72 deaths were reported from 7 May to 23 December 2022, representing an ongoing increasing trend. Mpox was largely restricted to being endemic in children in West Africa (WA) before 2022, and it mainly spread from animals to humans. Our analysis highlights that mpox has not only spread across regions within Africa but has also led to most infection events outside Africa. Currently, mpox has been dominated by human-to-human spread in 110 countries, with the majority of cases distributed in the non-endemic regions of Europe and North America. These data indicate that the geographic range, transmission route, vulnerable populations, and clinical manifestations of mpox have changed, which suggests that the niche of mpox has the potential to change. Remarkably, approximately 38,025 suspected mpox cases were recorded in West and Central Africa during 1970–2022, which implied that the epidemiology of mpox in the two regions remained cryptic, suggesting that strengthening the accuracy of molecular diagnosis on this continent is a priority. Moreover, 617 mpox genomes have been obtained from 12 different hosts; these data imply that the high host diversity may contribute to its ongoing circulation and global outbreak. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of 175 MPXV genome sequences from 38 countries (regions) showed that the current global mpox outbreak was caused by multiple sub-clades in the clade IIb lineage. These data suggest that MPXV strains from the clade IIb lineage may play a predominated role in the spread of mpox worldwide, implying that the current mpox outbreak has a single infection source. However, further investigations into the origin of the new global mpox outbreak are necessary. Therefore, our analysis highlights that adjusted timely interventive measures and surveillance programs, especially using cheap and quick strategies such as wastewater monitoring the DNA of MPXV in Africa (WA), are important for uncovering this disease’s transmission source and chain, which will help curb its further spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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18 pages, 573 KiB  
Systematic Review
Detection of Monkeypox Virus according to The Collection Site of Samples from Confirmed Cases: A Systematic Review
by Darwin A. León-Figueroa, Joshuan J. Barboza, Hortencia M. Saldaña-Cumpa, Emilly Moreno-Ramos, D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana, Mario J. Valladares-Garrido, Ranjit Sah and Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010004 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4553
Abstract
Due to the rapid evolution of the monkeypox virus, the means by which the monkeypox virus is spread is subject to change. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze the detection of the monkeypox virus according to the collection site of samples from [...] Read more.
Due to the rapid evolution of the monkeypox virus, the means by which the monkeypox virus is spread is subject to change. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze the detection of the monkeypox virus according to the collection site of samples from confirmed monkeypox cases. A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases until 5 October 2022. A total of 1022 articles were retrieved using the search strategy. After removing duplicates (n = 566) and examining by title, abstract, and full text, 65 studies reporting monkeypox case reports were included with a detailed description of risk factors, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), site of monkeypox virus-positive specimens, location of skin lesions, and diagnostic test. A total of 4537 confirmed monkeypox cases have been reported, of which 98.72% of the cases were male with a mean age of 36 years, 95.72% had a sexual behavior of being men who have sex with men, and 28.1% had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most frequent locations of lesions in patients diagnosed with monkeypox were: 42.85% on the genitalia and 37.1% in the perianal region. All confirmed monkeypox cases were diagnosed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the most frequent locations of samples collected for diagnosis that tested positive for monkeypox virus were: 91.85% from skin lesions, 20.81% from the oropharynx, 3.19% from blood, and 2.43% from seminal fluid. The disease course of the cases with monkeypox was asynchronous, with no severe complications, and most patients did not report specific treatment but simply followed a symptomatic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
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9 pages, 1372 KiB  
Article
A Vaccine Strategy Based on the Identification of an Annular Ganglioside Binding Motif in Monkeypox Virus Protein E8L
by Jacques Fantini, Henri Chahinian and Nouara Yahi
Viruses 2022, 14(11), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14112531 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
The recent outbreak of Monkeypox virus requires the development of a vaccine specifically directed against this virus as quickly as possible. We propose here a new strategy based on a two-step analysis combining (i) the search for binding domains of viral proteins to [...] Read more.
The recent outbreak of Monkeypox virus requires the development of a vaccine specifically directed against this virus as quickly as possible. We propose here a new strategy based on a two-step analysis combining (i) the search for binding domains of viral proteins to gangliosides present in lipid rafts of host cells, and (ii) B epitope predictions. Based on previous studies of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we show that the Monkeypox virus cell surface-binding protein E8L possesses a ganglioside-binding motif consisting of several subsites forming a ring structure. The binding of the E8L protein to a cluster of gangliosides GM1 mimicking a lipid raft domain is driven by both shape and electrostatic surface potential complementarities. An induced-fit mechanism unmasks selected amino acid side chains of the motif without significantly affecting the secondary structure of the protein. The ganglioside-binding motif overlaps three potential linear B epitopes that are well exposed on the unbound E8L surface that faces the host cell membrane. This situation is ideal for generating neutralizing antibodies. We thus suggest using these three sequences derived from the E8L protein as immunogens in a vaccine formulation (recombinant protein, synthetic peptides or genetically based) specific for Monkeypox virus. This lipid raft/ganglioside-based strategy could be used for developing therapeutic and vaccine responses to future virus outbreaks, in parallel to existing solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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12 pages, 694 KiB  
Systematic Review
Antiviral Treatment against Monkeypox: A Scoping Review
by Brando Ortiz-Saavedra, Darwin A. León-Figueroa, Elizbet S. Montes-Madariaga, Alex Ricardo-Martínez, Niza Alva, Cielo Cabanillas-Ramirez, Joshuan J. Barboza, Abdelmonem Siddiq, Luis A. Coaguila Cusicanqui, D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana and Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(11), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7110369 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3861
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in reports of human monkeypox virus infection cases spreading in many countries outside Africa is a major cause for concern. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the evidence of antiviral pharmacotherapy available for the treatment of adult [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in reports of human monkeypox virus infection cases spreading in many countries outside Africa is a major cause for concern. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the evidence of antiviral pharmacotherapy available for the treatment of adult patients with monkeypox. A scoping review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and CENTRAL databases until 12 September 2022. The key search terms used were “monkeypox” and “treatment”. A total of 1927 articles were retrieved using the search strategy. After removing duplicates (n = 1007) and examining by title, abstract, and full text, 11 studies reporting case reports of monkeypox with antiviral treatment were included, detailing the number of monkeypox cases, clinical manifestations, number of participants with antiviral treatment, history of sexually transmitted diseases, method of diagnosis, location of skin lesions, drugs used in antiviral treatment, route of administration, and outcome. A total of 1281 confirmed cases of monkeypox have been reported, of which 65 monkeypox cases had antiviral treatment distributed most frequently in the United States (n = 30), the United Kingdom (n = 6), and Spain (n = 6). Of the total cases, 1269 (99.1%) were male with an age range of 18 to 76 years, and 1226 (95.7%) had a sexual behavior of being men who have sex with men. All confirmed cases of monkeypox were diagnosed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most frequent clinical manifestations were skin lesions, fever, lymphadenopathy, headache, fatigue, and myalgia. The most frequent locations of the lesions were perianal, genital, facial, and upper and lower extremities. The most commonly used drugs for antiviral treatment of monkeypox were: tecovirimat, cidofovir, and brincidofovir. All patients had a complete recovery. According to current evidence, the efficacy and safety of antiviral drugs against monkeypox is of low quality and scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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12 pages, 4962 KiB  
Article
Monkeypox and HIV in the Canary Islands: A Different Pattern in a Mobile Population
by Christian Betancort-Plata, Laura Lopez-Delgado, Nieves Jaén-Sanchez, Tomás Tosco-Nuñez, Laura Suarez-Hormiga, Carmen Lavilla-Salgado, Elena Pisos-Álamo, Araceli Hernández-Betancor, Michele Hernández-Cabrera, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Marta Briega-Molina and José-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(10), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7100318 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3852
Abstract
Background. The clinical and epidemiological data of the recent outbreak of monkeypox (MPX) differ from previous reports. One difference is the epidemiological profile; the disease mainly affects a subgroup of MSM (men who have sex with men) with high-risk sexual behaviors, frequently persons [...] Read more.
Background. The clinical and epidemiological data of the recent outbreak of monkeypox (MPX) differ from previous reports. One difference is the epidemiological profile; the disease mainly affects a subgroup of MSM (men who have sex with men) with high-risk sexual behaviors, frequently persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. In this observational analysis, all patients with PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-confirmed MPX attending an Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit in Gran Canaria (Spain) between May and July 2022 were considered. Results. In total, 42 men were included; 88% were identified as MSM, with a median age of 40 years. Only 43% were born in Spain. All the patients had systemic symptoms and skin lesions. The distribution of lesions was more frequent in the genital/anal region, and the involvement of hands and feet was less common. Fever and lymphadenopathies were less frequent than in other series. Other unusual manifestations were proctitis, pharyngitis and penile–scrotal edema. Half of the patients had other associated infections (mainly STIs, sexually transmitted infections), and 60% of the monkeypox patients had PLHIV (People Living with HIV). When comparing the clinical characteristics between HIV-positive and -negative patients, we found three main differences: (i) a higher frequency of perioral lesions, (ii) a higher frequency of pharyngitis and (iii) a higher number of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients. Conclusions. The clinical findings in this outbreak of MPX had great variability in presentation. Several clinical differences were found in PLHIV-coinfected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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15 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Perceived Monkeypox Concern and Risk among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Evidence and Perspectives from The Netherlands
by Haoyi Wang, Kennedy J. I. d’Abreu de Paulo, Thomas Gültzow, Hanne M. L. Zimmermann and Kai J. Jonas
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(10), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7100293 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
The current monkeypox epidemic is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP users and MSM with HIV (MSMHIV) are considered at highest risk of monkeypox infection in The Netherlands, and are being targeted for monkeypox vaccination. Together with the [...] Read more.
The current monkeypox epidemic is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP users and MSM with HIV (MSMHIV) are considered at highest risk of monkeypox infection in The Netherlands, and are being targeted for monkeypox vaccination. Together with the epidemiological evidence, perceived concern and risk are also relevant for decision making about health behaviour, e.g., vaccination uptake. It is thus timely to examine which subpopulations among MSM consider themselves to be most at risk and are most concerned about monkeypox. This study aimed to help determine if the current measures to curb the epidemic are successfully targeted or not in The Netherlands. We conducted an online survey among 394 MSM living in The Netherlands. We first calculated the prevalence and standardised prevalence ratio (SPR) of high perceived monkeypox concern/risk by PrEP-use and HIV status. We then conducted two multivariable logistic regression analyses to investigate perceived monkeypox concern/risk and their potential socio-demographic/behavioural/health/psycho-social determinants. Among the included MSM, 52% showed high perceived concern about and 30% showed high perceived risk of monkeypox infection. PrEP users (SPR = 0.83) showed a significantly lower chance of perceived concern; in addition, MSMHIV (SPR = 2.09) were found to have a significantly higher chance of perceiving high risk of monkeypox infection. In the multivariable logistic analyses, non-PrEP users (aOR = 2.55) were more likely to perceive higher concern, while MSM who were retired (aOR = 0.23) and who had had chemsex recently (aOR = 0.63) were less likely to perceive higher concern. MSMHIV (aOR = 4.29) and MSM who had an unknown/undisclosed HIV status (aOR = 6.07), who had attended private sex parties (aOR = 2.10), and who knew people who have/had monkeypox (aOR = 2.10) were more likely to perceive a higher risk for monkeypox infection. We found that high perceived risk (aOR = 2.97) and high perceived concern (aOR = 3.13) were correlated with each other. In sum, only one-third of MSM living in The Netherlands considered themselves at high risk of monkeypox infection, and only half of them reported high concern. We identified a potential discrepancy between “actual risk” and perceived risk of and concern about monkeypox among MSM in this early stage of the monkeypox epidemic in The Netherlands, especially among PrEP users and MSMHIV. More refined public health communication strategies may be needed to improve the understanding and knowledge of the “actual risk” of monkeypox infections among MSM sub-populations, to facilitate health behaviour uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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10 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Five Buffers for Inactivation of Monkeypox Virus and Feasibility of Virus Detection Using the Panther Fusion® Open Access System
by Robert J. Fischer, Shane Gallogly, Jonathan E. Schulz, Neeltje van Doremalen, Vincent Munster and Sanchita Das
Viruses 2022, 14(10), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14102227 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
Rapid diagnosis is key to containing viral outbreaks. However, for the current monkeypox outbreak the major deterrent to rapid testing is the requirement for higher biocontainment of potentially infectious monkeypox virus specimens. The current CDC guidelines require the DNA extraction process before PCR [...] Read more.
Rapid diagnosis is key to containing viral outbreaks. However, for the current monkeypox outbreak the major deterrent to rapid testing is the requirement for higher biocontainment of potentially infectious monkeypox virus specimens. The current CDC guidelines require the DNA extraction process before PCR amplification to be performed under biosafety level 3 unless vaccinated personnel are performing assays. This increases the turn-around time and makes certain laboratories insufficiently equipped to handle specimens from patients with suspected monkeypox infection. We investigated the ability of five commercially available lysis buffers and heat for inactivation of monkeypox virus. We also optimized the use of monkeypox virus in Hologic® Panther Specimen Lysis Buffer for detection of virus in the Panther Fusion® Open Access System using published generic and clade specific monkeypox virus primers and probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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10 pages, 373 KiB  
Review
Global Outbreak of Human Monkeypox in 2022: Update of Epidemiology
by Irena Ilic, Ivana Zivanovic Macuzic and Milena Ilic
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(10), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7100264 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
Background: Human monkeypox was a neglected zoonotic disease considered endemic to rainforests of rural parts of Central and Western Africa, until a global outbreak in May 2022. Methods: This review describes the epidemiological characteristics of human monkeypox. Results: Since the first confirmed case [...] Read more.
Background: Human monkeypox was a neglected zoonotic disease considered endemic to rainforests of rural parts of Central and Western Africa, until a global outbreak in May 2022. Methods: This review describes the epidemiological characteristics of human monkeypox. Results: Since the first confirmed case in the United Kingdom on 13 May 2022, and up until 19 September, more than 62,000 cases of human monkeypox were reported in 104 countries in the world (among them 97 countries where the monkeypox virus was not endemic). Up to today, 20 persons have died in this global outbreak. This outbreak predominantly affects men self-identifying as gay or bisexual or other men who have sex with men, and for now, there is no sign of continuous transmission of the disease in other populations. Today, the monkeypox outbreak is increasing alarmingly in many countries and presents a new challenge and a large issue for public health worldwide. The World Health Organization declared the global monkeypox outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 24 July 2022. Before this outbreak, health professionals in many countries had a knowledge gap and a lack of experience in the management of monkeypox. Conclusions: Advances in the comprehension of the epidemiology of human monkeypox are necessary for effective prevention and outbreak response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Monkeypox Research)
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