Topic Editors

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BiND), University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Carol Davila din Bucuresti, 020021 Bucharest, Romania

Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume

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closed (31 March 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 May 2024
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anatomists are scientists who study how the human body is made for correlating structure with function and dysfunction at all levels, from macroscopic to microscopic, from ultrastructural to molecular ones.

Human anatomy provides researchers of many disciplines and areas with all the basic information to effectively plan their experiments and interpret their results.

Hence, this article collection intends to gather review and original papers on human anatomy, histology, and embryology, as well as other closely related medical fields—e.g., physiology, pharmacology, radiology, surgery, clinical medicine, etc.—that have an anatomical focus.

Particular attention will be given to computed tomography studies. Furthermore, we would like to collect papers about phylogenesis, bioethics, and history of science, especially those that have an anatomical perspective. Sport, physical exercise, nutrition, and active aging can be academic fields of interest for an anatomist as well. Finally, bioengineering and regenerative medicine need knowledge in human anatomy for their advancements.

In conclusion, we welcome submissions to Anatomia, Biology, Medicina, Pathophysiology and Tomography that cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Advances in human anatomy, histology, and embryology teaching and research;
  • Anatomy in computed tomography;
  • Advances in the pathophysiology of human organs or anatomical districts;
  • Bioengineering the human body;
  • Bioethical aspects in biomedical research on human anatomy and pathobiology;
  • Clinical, surgical, and radiological anatomy: new insights; 
  • From human anatomy to pathophysiology: experimental models;
  • Effects of physical exercise on the maintenance and/or improvement of healthy status;
  • Extracellular vesicles: looking for new markers of health and disease;
  • History of anatomy and medicine: learning from our past;
  • How a healthy lifestyle can slow down senescence and contribute to active aging;
  • How cell stress can influence cell differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and organ remodeling during the whole lifespan of an individual;
  • Human body structures from a phylogenetic point of view;
  • Liquid biopsy as a new frontier of medicine, including personalized;
  • Microbiota/microbiome and its relationship with human body structures;
  • Molecular anatomy: the relationship between shape and function at the molecular level;
  • Neuroanatomy, neurobiology, neuropathology: new discoveries;
  • Nutrition, sport, and health: looking for a virtuous combination;
  • Stem cells, 3D cultures, and outgrowth in regenerative medicine;
  • Using the corpse: usefulness of cadavers in medical training.

Prof. Dr. Francesco Cappello
Prof. Dr. Mugurel Constantin Rusu
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Anatomia
anatomia
- - 2022 24.9 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Biology
biology
4.2 4.0 2012 18.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Medicina
medicina
2.6 3.6 1920 19.6 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Pathophysiology
pathophysiology
- 2.8 1994 22.6 Days CHF 1400 Submit
Tomography
tomography
1.9 2.3 2015 24.5 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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10 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Anatomical Possibilities of the Alveolar Bone at the Upper Second Premolar Level
by Alexandru Nicolae Mureşan, Carol Antonio Dandoczi, Răzvan Costin Tudose, Sorin Hostiuc and Mugurel Constantin Rusu
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050726 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The upper posterior teeth are typically regarded as being exclusively inferior to the maxillary sinus (MS). The expansion of the nasal fossa above the maxillary alveolar base (MAB) needs better investigation. The hypothesis was raised that the MAB in [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The upper posterior teeth are typically regarded as being exclusively inferior to the maxillary sinus (MS). The expansion of the nasal fossa above the maxillary alveolar base (MAB) needs better investigation. The hypothesis was raised that the MAB in the upper premolar region, which is usually addressed by surgeons for the elevation of the antral floor, is not exclusively beneath the MS. Therefore, we aimed to document the possible upper relations of the MAB as antral, nasal, or both. Materials and Methods: A total of 145 CBCT scans were used to study four types of MAB: type 1—antral; type 2—antral with a palatal recess; type 3—antral and nasal; type 4—nasal. In type 2, the orthoradial width of the alveolar bone, the rectilinear width of the antral floor, and the maximum depth of the palatal recess were measured. For type 3, the MAB width and the straight widths of the antral and nasal segments of the MAB were measured. Results: Type 1 was found in 67.24%, type 2 in 13.45%, type 3 in 16.21%, and type 4 in 3.1% of the 290 MSs investigated. Palatal recesses were found in 11.72% of the MSs on the right side and 15.17% of the MSs on the left side. Types 1 and 2 exhibited strongly statistically significant bilateral symmetry (Pearson’s Chi2 = 86.42, p < 0.001). Type 3 correlated equally with contralateral types 1 and 3. The bilateral symmetry for types 1–3 was stronger in the males (Pearson’s Chi2 = 47.83, p < 0.001) than in the females (Pearson’s Chi2 = 56.96, p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant associations between sex and the unilateral anatomical type. Conclusions: The MAB in the upper second premolar area should not be considered to be exclusively antral during surgeries or in anatomical teaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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11 pages, 2903 KiB  
Case Report
Detection of the Lassa Virus in a Group of Odontogenic Bone Tumor Tissues
by Marco de Feo, Frédéric Dilu Tamba, Anguy Makaka Mutondo, Gracia Kashitu Mujinga, Opiyo Stephen Odong, Chiara Castellani, Luca Pavesi, Patrick I. Mpingabo, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke and Silvia Di Agostino
Anatomia 2024, 3(2), 57-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3020006 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Odontogenic bone tumor (OT) is a rare pathology in the world, but it is very common in developing countries; its etiology is still unknown, and it causes serious deformities of the mandible and maxilla if it is not operated upon soon. Lassa virus [...] Read more.
Odontogenic bone tumor (OT) is a rare pathology in the world, but it is very common in developing countries; its etiology is still unknown, and it causes serious deformities of the mandible and maxilla if it is not operated upon soon. Lassa virus (LASV) belongs to the Arenaviridae family, and its reservoir is a rodent of the genus Mastomys. The transmission of the LASV to humans can occur through ingestion or inhalation by contact with dirty objects, the consumption of contaminated food, or exposure to wounds, as rodents shed the virus in their urine and excrement. In this observational study, we aim to evaluate the presence of LASV in OT patient tissues collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. For this purpose, a group of nine patients affected by OT were enrolled, and the tissues derived from the surgery were collected. In total, 81.5% of the tissues were positive for LASV presence. Interestingly, we found that not only was the tumor LASV-positive, but in some cases, the bone was close to the tumor and the oral mucosa lining. These preliminary data could suggest the hypothesis that LASV may be involved with the onset of OT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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7 pages, 1621 KiB  
Brief Report
Anatomical Exploration of the KI1 Acupoint: Implications for Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Stimulation
by Sang Hyun Kim, Jin-Yong Joung, Young Ho Lee and Chang-Gue Son
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040535 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aims to identify the precise anatomical location and therapeutic mechanisms of the KI1 acupoint (Yongquan) in relation to foot muscles and nerves, known for treating neurological disorders and pain. Materials and Methods: Dissection of six cadavers at Chungnam [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aims to identify the precise anatomical location and therapeutic mechanisms of the KI1 acupoint (Yongquan) in relation to foot muscles and nerves, known for treating neurological disorders and pain. Materials and Methods: Dissection of six cadavers at Chungnam National University College of Medicine examined KI1’s relation to the foot’s four-layer structure. Results: The KI1 acupoint was located in the superficial and deep layers of the plantar foot, adjacent to significant nerves like the medial and lateral plantar nerves. Differences in the acupoint’s exact location between genders were noted, reflecting variances in foot morphology. KI1 acupuncture was found to stimulate the muscle spindles and nerve fibers essential for balance and bipedal locomotion. This stimulation may enhance sensory feedback, potentially improving cognitive functions and balance control. Conclusions: This anatomical insight into KI1 acupuncture underpins its potential in neurological therapies and pain management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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13 pages, 2915 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Patient-Specific Positions on the Relationship between Iliac Blood Vessels and Lumbar Intervertebral Discs: Anatomical Significance and Clinical Implications
by Hakija Bečulić, Emir Begagić, Amina Džidić-Krivić, Ragib Pugonja, Belma Jaganjac, Melica Imamović-Bošnjak, Edin Selimović, Amila Čeliković, Rasim Skomorac, Alma Efendić, Fahrudin Alić, Anes Mašović, Selma Terzić-Salihbašić, Lejla Tandir-Lihić and Mirza Pojskić
Anatomia 2024, 3(1), 16-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3010003 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 804
Abstract
This study explores the anatomical relationship between iliac blood vessels and the lower lumbar spine during supine and prone patient positions. The average height of participants was 174.02 cm ± 9.01, while the average weight was 80.38 kg ± 13.48. Body mass index [...] Read more.
This study explores the anatomical relationship between iliac blood vessels and the lower lumbar spine during supine and prone patient positions. The average height of participants was 174.02 cm ± 9.01, while the average weight was 80.38 kg ± 13.48. Body mass index (BMI) analyses showed differences (p = 0.002), with 34.7% classified as normal weight, 53.1% as overweight, and 12.2% as moderately obese. The study examined the distances between iliac arteries and veins in relation to intervertebral anterior and posterior disc contours. Patient positioning significantly affected these measurements at both L4/L5 and L5/S1 levels. The findings highlight the critical influence of body position on anatomical relationships in the context of lower lumbar spine surgery. The study underscores the importance of preoperative awareness of vascular anatomy to prevent iatrogenic lesions during spine surgery, contributing valuable insights for optimizing surgical approaches and minimizing complications in spine surgery, particularly microdiscectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 1041 KiB  
Review
A Bird’s-Eye View of the Pathophysiologic Role of the Human Urobiota in Health and Disease: Can We Modulate It?
by Emilio Jirillo, Raffaele Palmirotta, Marica Colella and Luigi Santacroce
Pathophysiology 2024, 31(1), 52-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology31010005 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
For a long time, urine has been considered sterile in physiological conditions, thanks to the particular structure of the urinary tract and the production of uromodulin or Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP) by it. More recently, thanks to the development and use of new technologies, [...] Read more.
For a long time, urine has been considered sterile in physiological conditions, thanks to the particular structure of the urinary tract and the production of uromodulin or Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP) by it. More recently, thanks to the development and use of new technologies, i.e., next-generation sequencing and expanded urine culture, the identification of a microbial community in the urine, the so-called urobiota, became possible. Major phyla detected in the urine are represented by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Particularly, the female urobiota is largely represented by Lactobacillus spp., which are very active against urinary pathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli (UPEC) strains via the generation of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Gut dysbiosis accounts for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), so-called gut–bladder axis syndrome with the formation of intracellular bacterial communities in the course of acute cystitis. However, other chronic urinary tract infections are caused by bacterial strains of intestinal derivation. Monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections account for the outcome of acute and chronic UTIs, even including prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain. E. coli isolates have been shown to be more invasive and resistant to antibiotics. Probiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, phage therapy, antimicrobial peptides, and immune-mediated therapies, even including vaccines for the treatment of UTIs, will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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11 pages, 626 KiB  
Article
Effects of Chest Mobilization and Breathing Exercises on Respiratory Function, Trunk Stability, and Endurance in Chronic Stroke Patients after Coronavirus Disease
by Yangjin Lee, Yoorim Kim and Donghoon Kim
Medicina 2023, 59(12), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59122180 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Background and objectives: This study investigates the effects of chest mobilization and breathing exercises on respiratory function, trunk stability, and endurance in chronic stroke patients who have contracted coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: Thirty inpatients of a tertiary hospital in South Korea, [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: This study investigates the effects of chest mobilization and breathing exercises on respiratory function, trunk stability, and endurance in chronic stroke patients who have contracted coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: Thirty inpatients of a tertiary hospital in South Korea, who had a history of COVID-19 and were diagnosed with stroke within the last 6 months, were randomly assigned to either chest mobilization exercise with breathing exercise (CMEBE) or conservative physical therapy with breathing exercise (CPTBE) groups. The respiratory function, trunk stability, and endurance were measured at baseline and 6 weeks after the interventions. Results: Both CMEBE and CPTBE groups showed improvements in respiratory function, trunk stability, and endurance after the intervention (p < 0.05). However, the CMEBE group showed significantly greater improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p < 0.05), trunk stability (p < 0.05), and endurance (p < 0.05) than the CPTBE group. No significant intergroup difference was observed in forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow. Conclusions: The combination of chest mobilization and breathing exercises improved respiratory muscle mobility and endurance, stabilized the trunk, and enhanced balance and the transfer of weight. The findings suggest that this intervention could be beneficial in improving respiratory function and endurance in stroke patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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13 pages, 1654 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Athletes: A Meta-Analytical Approach
by Alpay Bulbul, Erdal Ari, Necdet Apaydin and Gokhan Ipekoglu
Biology 2023, 12(12), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12121526 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in Collagen type 1 alpha-1 (COL1A1), Collagen type 3 alpha-1 (COL3A1), Collagen type 5 alpha-1 (COL5A1), and Collagen type 12 alpha-1 (COL12A1) genes and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes. A systematic [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in Collagen type 1 alpha-1 (COL1A1), Collagen type 3 alpha-1 (COL3A1), Collagen type 5 alpha-1 (COL5A1), and Collagen type 12 alpha-1 (COL12A1) genes and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes. A systematic search was diligently conducted on the PubMed and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies on 5–9 September 2023. Only case–control studies were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 19 studies were reviewed, involving the analysis of 3522 cases and 6399 control subjects. Data relevant to the study objectives were extracted from these chosen studies and subsequently analyzed using either a random-effects or fixed-effects model. It indicates that individuals carrying the G allele in the COL1A1 (rs1107946) gene have a decreased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries (OR: −0.27, 95% CI: −0.42 to −0.12, p < 0.001). A similar relationship was observed in the dominant model, but this relationship was reversed in the recessive model (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.05, p < 0.001). However, no significant associations were found in the COL3A1 (rs1800255) and COL5A1 (rs12722) genes. In the COL12A1 (rs970547) gene, the A allele was associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.36, p = 0.041). This meta-analysis suggests that genetic variants in COL1A1 (rs1107946) and COL12A1 (rs970547) may be associated with ACL injuries in athletes. However, COL3A1 rs1800255 and COL5A1 rs12722 gene variants do not appear to have a significant association with these injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 8968 KiB  
Article
The Carotid–Hyoid Topography Is Variable
by Mihaela Daniela Manta, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Sorin Hostiuc, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Bogdan Adrian Manta and Adelina Maria Jianu
Medicina 2023, 59(8), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59081494 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The carotid bifurcation (CB) is presented in most anatomy textbooks as having a unique location at the upper margin of the thyroid cartilage. Although a number of case reports have provided evidence of the possibility of carotid artery location [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The carotid bifurcation (CB) is presented in most anatomy textbooks as having a unique location at the upper margin of the thyroid cartilage. Although a number of case reports have provided evidence of the possibility of carotid artery location either lateral or medial to the greater hyoid horn, these reports have not established specific anatomic possibilities and prevalences. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed a batch of 147 CT angiograms for 12 types of carotid–hyoid relationships and classified the bilateral combination possibilities of these types. Results: In 168/294 sides there were no carotid–hyoid relationships. Type I, external carotid artery (ECA) medial to the greater horn of the hyoid bone (GHHB), was observed in 0.34%; type II, internal carotid artery (ICA) medial to GHHB, in 0.34%; type III, ICA and ECA medial to GHHB, in 1.02%; type IV, common carotid artery (CCA) medial to GHHB, in 1.02%; type V, CB medial to GHHB, in 0.34%; type VI, ECA lateral to GHHB, in 20.41%; type VII, ICA lateral to GHHB, was not recorded; type VIII, ECA and ICA lateral to GHHB, in 3.74%; type IX, CCA lateral to GHHB, in 8.5%; type X, CB lateral to GHHB, in 6.46%; type XI, ECA lateral and ICA medial to GHHB, in 0.34%; and type XII, ICA lateral and ECA medial to GHHB, in 0.34%. Bilateral symmetry was found in 70.74% of cases, including the null types without carotid–hyoid relationships as well as types IV, VI, VIII, IX, and X. There was a highly significant association between the left and right variants of the carotid–hyoid relationship. Conclusions: Mechanical compression of the hyoid bone on the carotid arteries has various undesirable effects on the ICA and cerebral circulation. Underlying these are several variational anatomical patterns of carotid–hyoid relationships, which can be accurately documented on CT angiograms. A case-by-case anatomical study is better than assuming the carotid anatomy learned from textbooks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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11 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
A Determination of p97/VCP (Valosin Containing Protein) and SVIP (Small VCP Interacting Protein) Expression Patterns in Human Testis
by Akgül Arıcı and Fikret Erdemir
Medicina 2023, 59(6), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061079 - 3 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The ubiquitin proteosome system (UPS) is a non-lysosomal pathway that functions in all eukaryotes. The transport of polyubiquitinated proteins to proteosomes takes place via the p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) chaperone protein. The p97/VCP binds to polyubiquitinated proteins, allowing these proteins [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The ubiquitin proteosome system (UPS) is a non-lysosomal pathway that functions in all eukaryotes. The transport of polyubiquitinated proteins to proteosomes takes place via the p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) chaperone protein. The p97/VCP binds to polyubiquitinated proteins, allowing these proteins to reach the proteasome and, thus, their destruction. In the case of p97/VCP deficiency, ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in the cell cytoplasm, and their subsequent failure to break down produces various pathological conditions. Small VCP interacting protein (SVIP) and p97/VCP proteins have not been studied in human testicular tissues from different postnatal periods. Therefore, in our study, we aimed to examine the expression of SVIP and p97/VCP in postnatal human testicular tissues. Our study aimed to contribute to further studies on the use of these proteins as testicular cell biomarkers in cases of unexplained male infertility. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical studies with the aim of determining the expression of p97/VCP and SVIP proteins in neonatal, prepubertal, pubertal, adult, and geriatric human testis tissues were performed. Results: In testicular sections obtained from a neonatal group, p97/VCP and SVIP were localized in different testicular and interstitial cells, and the lowest expression was observed in this group. While the expressions of these proteins were low in the neonatal period, they increased gradually in the prepubertal, pubertal and adult periods. The expression of p97/VCP and SVIP, which peaked in adulthood, showed a significant decrease in the geriatric period. Conclusions: As a result, the expression of p97/VCP and SVIP correlated with the increase in age, but it decreased significantly in older groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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24 pages, 32179 KiB  
Review
Anatomical Variations of the External Jugular Vein: A Pictorial and Critical Review
by Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Răzvan Costin Tudose, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Corneliu Toader and Şerban Arghir Popescu
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030622 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6628
Abstract
(1) Background: The external jugular vein (EJV) descends on the sternocleidomastoid muscle to drain deep into the subclavian vein. Anatomical variations of the EJV are relevant for identification of the greater auricular nerve, flap design and preparation, or EJV cannulation. (2) Methods [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The external jugular vein (EJV) descends on the sternocleidomastoid muscle to drain deep into the subclavian vein. Anatomical variations of the EJV are relevant for identification of the greater auricular nerve, flap design and preparation, or EJV cannulation. (2) Methods: Different publications were comprehensively reviewed. Dissections and three-dimensional volume renderings of peculiar cases were used to sample the review. (3) Results: Different anatomical possibilities of the EJV were critically reviewed and documented: fenestrations and double fenestrations, true or false duplications, triplication, absence, aberrant origin or course, or bifurcation. Tributaries of the EJV, such as the facial and posterior external jugular veins, are discussed. The internal jugular vein termination of the EJV is also presented. (4) Conclusions: Care should be taken when different morphological features of the EJV are encountered or reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 1388 KiB  
Review
From Dysbiosis to Neurodegenerative Diseases through Different Communication Pathways: An Overview
by Giorgia Intili, Letizia Paladino, Francesca Rappa, Giusi Alberti, Alice Plicato, Federica Calabrò, Alberto Fucarino, Francesco Cappello, Fabio Bucchieri, Giovanni Tomasello, Francesco Carini and Alessandro Pitruzzella
Biology 2023, 12(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020195 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2787
Abstract
The microbiome research field has rapidly evolved over the last few decades, becoming a major topic of scientific and public interest. The gut microbiota (GM) is the microbial population living in the gut. The GM has many functions, such as maintaining gut homeostasis [...] Read more.
The microbiome research field has rapidly evolved over the last few decades, becoming a major topic of scientific and public interest. The gut microbiota (GM) is the microbial population living in the gut. The GM has many functions, such as maintaining gut homeostasis and host health, providing defense against enteric pathogens, and involvement in immune system development. Several studies have shown that GM is implicated in dysbiosis and is presumed to contribute to neurodegeneration. This review focuses mainly on describing the connection between the intestinal microbiome alterations (dysbiosis) and the onset of neurodegenerative diseases to explore the mechanisms that link the GM to nervous system health, such as the gut-brain axis, as well as the mitochondrial, the adaptive humoral immunity, and the microvesicular pathways. The gut-brain communication depends on a continuous bidirectional flow of molecular signals exchanged through the neural and the systemic circulation. These pathways represent a possible new therapeutic target against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Progress in this context is desperately needed, considering the severity of most neurodegenerative diseases and the current lack of effective treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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12 pages, 806 KiB  
Article
Height and Active Arterial Wall Thickening in Relation to Thyroid Cysts Status among Elderly Japanese: A Prospective Study
by Yuji Shimizu, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Yuko Noguchi, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasuhiro Nagata, Takahiro Maeda and Naomi Hayashida
Biology 2022, 11(12), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11121756 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Height is inversely associated with inflammation that stimulates endothelial repair. In our previous study involving elderly men aged 60–69 years, we found that active arterial wall thickening, which is known as the process of endothelial repair, requires CD34-positive cells. As thyroid hormone regulates [...] Read more.
Height is inversely associated with inflammation that stimulates endothelial repair. In our previous study involving elderly men aged 60–69 years, we found that active arterial wall thickening, which is known as the process of endothelial repair, requires CD34-positive cells. As thyroid hormone regulates CD34-positive cell production and as the absence of thyroid cysts might indicate latent damage in the thyroid, the status of thyroid cysts possibly influences the association between height and active arterial wall thickening. We conducted a 2-year follow-up study of Japanese aged 60–69 years. For participants with thyroid cysts, height was significantly inversely associated with active arterial wall thickening (thyroid function and baseline CIMT adjusted odds ratio of active arterial wall thickening for one increment of standard deviation of height (5.7 cm for men and 4.8 cm for women), 0.66 [0.49, 0.89]), while for those without thyroid cysts, a positive tendency between the two parameters was observed (1.19 [0.96, 1.50]). An inverse association between height and active arterial wall thickening was observed only for elderly participants with thyroid cysts possibly because of a supportive role of thyroid hormone, as the absence of thyroid cysts might indicate latent damage in the thyroid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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10 pages, 1709 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis of Frontal Ethmoidal Cells and Evaluation of Influential Factors: A Helical Computed Tomography Study
by Ana Lúcia Franco Ricardo, Celso Massahiro Ogawa, João Pedro Perez Gomes, Catharina Simioni De Rosa, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro Lopes, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Kaan Orhan and Andre Luiz Ferreira Costa
Tomography 2022, 8(6), 2796-2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8060233 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
In the present study, we aimed to assess frontal ethmoidal cells by using segmentation 3D software to establish a possible correlation between volume variation and both gender and age, as well as a relationship with Keros classification. Helical computed tomography images were obtained [...] Read more.
In the present study, we aimed to assess frontal ethmoidal cells by using segmentation 3D software to establish a possible correlation between volume variation and both gender and age, as well as a relationship with Keros classification. Helical computed tomography images were obtained from 71 patients for analysis, in which the agger nasi cell, supra agger cell, supra agger frontal cell, supra bulla frontal cell, supraorbital ethmoidal cell, supra bulla cell, and frontal septal cell were identified and segmented to obtain their volume. Significant differences in volume were found for age and gender regarding agger nasi cells (p-value = 0.017), supra agger cells (p-value < 0.001), and frontal septal cells (p-value = 0.049). In the frontal septal cells, an increase of one year in age reduced the volume by 0.309, on average. According to Keros classification, the mean volumes were 10.07 and 25.64, respectively, for types II and III, both being greater than that of type I. Extracting volumetric data by using segmentation software in agger nasi cells, supra agger cells, and frontal septal cells may be useful for obtaining additional information related to age, in addition to possibly contributing to elucidating the anatomical variations in the region and an identification forensic tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Liver Injury in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Nicoleta Mihai, Mihai Lazar, Catalin Tiliscan, Ecaterina Constanta Barbu, Cristina Emilia Chitu, Laurentiu Stratan, Oana Alexandra Ganea, Sorin Stefan Arama, Daniela Adriana Ion and Victoria Arama
Medicina 2022, 58(12), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58121714 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Background and Objectives: SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequently associated with pneumonia but has a broad tissue tropism also leading to systemic complications (hematologic, gastro-intestinal, cardiac, neurologic, etc.). In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 infection on the liver and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequently associated with pneumonia but has a broad tissue tropism also leading to systemic complications (hematologic, gastro-intestinal, cardiac, neurologic, etc.). In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 infection on the liver and to identify the risk factors/predictors for liver injury at admission to the hospital. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 249 patients, divided into two Group A (157 patients with liver involvement) and Group B (92 patients without liver involvement). We recorded demographic and lifestyle parameters, anthropometric parameters, comorbidities, clinical parameters, inflammation markers, complete blood count, coagulation, and biochemical parameters. Lung parenchyma, liver dimensions, and morphology were evaluated by computer tomography (CT) scans. Results: Patients with liver involvement had higher heart and respiratory rates, lower oxygen saturation (SO2), and necessitated higher oxygen flow at admittance. We found higher serum levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ferritin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum triglycerides, and lower values for serum albumin in Group A patients. The patients with liver involvement presented more extensive lung injury with higher percentages of alveolar, mixed, and interstitial lesions, an increase in liver dimensions, and lower density ranges for the liver parenchyma. The patients presented hepatocytolytic involvement in 26 cases (10.4% from the entire study population), cholestatic involvement in 63 cases (37.7% from the entire study population), and mixed liver involvement in 68 cases (37.7% from the entire study population). Conclusions: Liver involvement in COVID-19 patients is frequent, usually mild, and occurs mostly in male patients over 50 years old. Cholestatic and mixed liver injuries are more frequent than hepatocytolytic injuries. The severity of lung injury evaluated by CT scan, increased values of inflammatory markers, LDH, and low values of SO2 can be considered risk factors/predictors for liver injury at admission to the hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
12 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Transcallosal and Pericallosal Courses of the Anterior Cerebral Artery
by Dragoş Ionuţ Mincă, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Petrinel Mugurel Rădoi, Sorin Hostiuc and Corneliu Toader
Medicina 2022, 58(10), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58101365 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
(1) Background: The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) has a precommunicating A1 segment, followed by a postcommunicating A2 segment. Anatomically, after it sends off from the callosomarginal artery (CMA), it continues as the pericallosal artery (PCalA). A detailed pattern of the anatomical variations of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) has a precommunicating A1 segment, followed by a postcommunicating A2 segment. Anatomically, after it sends off from the callosomarginal artery (CMA), it continues as the pericallosal artery (PCalA). A detailed pattern of the anatomical variations of the PCalA are needed for practical reasons. (2) Methods: There were 45 retrospectively documented Computed Tomography Angiograms of 32 males and 13 females. (3) Results: In 90 sides, eleven different types of PCalA were documented: type 1: normal origin, above the genu of the corpus callosum (CC) (51.11%); type 2: low origin, below the rostrum of the CC (8.88%); type 3: late origin, above the body of the CC (3.33%); type 4, initial transcallosal course (3.33%); type 5, duplicated PCalA (1.11%); type 6, azygos PCalA (2.22%); type 7, absent PCalA (CMA type of ACA) (7.78%); type 8: CMA continued as PCalA (5.56%); type 9: PCalA continued as the cingular branch (1.11%); type 10: PCalA type of ACA, absent CMA (14.44%); type 11: triple PCalA, with an added median artery of the CC (1.11%). Different types of CMA were also documented: type 0, absent CMA (17.78%); type 1, CMA with frontoparietal distribution (45.56%); type 2, CMA with parietal distribution (22.22%); type 3, low origin of CMA, either from A1, or from A2 (8.88%); type 4, CMA continued as PCalA (5.56%). Ipsilateral combinations of PCalA and CMA types were classified as types A-P. In 33/45 cases (73.3%), the bilateral asymmetry of the combined anatomical patterns of PCalA and CMA was documented. Additional rare variations were found: (a) huge fenestration of A2; (b) bihemispheric ACAs (6/45 cases); (c) twisted arteries within the interhemispheric fissure. (4) Conclusions: The PCalA and CMA are anatomically diverse and unpredictable. Therefore, they should be documented on a case-by-case basis before surgical or endovascular approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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13 pages, 3281 KiB  
Article
The Infraoptic or Infrachiasmatic Course of the Anterior Cerebral Artery Emerging an Elongated Internal Carotid Artery
by Dragoş Ionuţ Mincă, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Petrinel Mugurel Rădoi, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Sorin Hostiuc and Corneliu Toader
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2243-2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050188 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
(1) Background: The normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) has a supraoptic course. The proximal infraoptic course of an A1 segment leaving the internal carotid artery (ICA) near the origin of the ophthalmic artery is a rare possibility. This study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) has a supraoptic course. The proximal infraoptic course of an A1 segment leaving the internal carotid artery (ICA) near the origin of the ophthalmic artery is a rare possibility. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and detailed anatomy of infraoptic A1 segments. (2) Methods: We retrospectively studied 145 computed tomography angiograms from 92 male and 53 female cases, with ages varying from 61 to 78 y.o. (3) Results: In 21/145 cases, infraoptic or infrachiasmatic horizontal-medial courses of A1 segments that emerged distally from the ICA were found. Distal infraoptic A1 segments were bilateral in 16/145 cases and unilateral in 3/145 cases. Infrachiasmatic A1 segments were found bilaterally in 2/145 male cases. All the infraoptic/infrachiasmatic A1 segments left long ICAs with low bifurcations. In 7/34 sides with distal infraoptic or infrachiasmatic A1 segments, supracarotid courses were present. In one female, the right A1 segment had an anterior supraclinoid, supracarotid and infraoptic course. In two female cases with a bilateral distal infraoptic A1, the segment was almost contacting the respective posterior cerebral artery. (4) Conclusions: In cases with dolicho(ectatic) ICAs, the A1 segments could have infraoptic and supracarotid courses the neurosurgeons should be aware of. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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11 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
A New Classification of the Anatomical Variations of Labbé’s Inferior Anastomotic Vein
by Dragoş Ionuţ Mincă, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Petrinel Mugurel Rădoi, Sorin Hostiuc and Corneliu Toader
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2182-2192; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050183 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
(1) Background: The inferior anastomotic vein of Labbé (LV) courses on the temporal lobe, from the sylvian fissure towards the tentorium cerebelli and finishes at the transverse sinus (TS). The importance of the LV topography is related to skull base neurosurgical approaches. Based [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The inferior anastomotic vein of Labbé (LV) courses on the temporal lobe, from the sylvian fissure towards the tentorium cerebelli and finishes at the transverse sinus (TS). The importance of the LV topography is related to skull base neurosurgical approaches. Based on the hypothesis of the existence of as yet unidentified anatomical possibilities of the LV, we aimed through this research to document the superficial venous topographic patterns at the lateral and inferior surfaces of the temporal lobe. (2) Methods: A retrospective cohort of 50 computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) of 32 males and 18 females was documented. (3) Results: Absent (type 0) LVs were found in 6% of cases. Anterior (temporal, squamosal–petrosal–mastoid, type 1) LVs were found in 12% of cases. LVs with a posterior, temporoparietal course (type 2) were found to be bilateral in 46% of cases and unilateral in 36% of cases. Type 3 LVs (posterior, parietooccipital) were found to be bilateral in 8% and unilateral in 32% of cases. In 24% of cases, duplicate LVs were found that were either complete or incomplete. A quadruplicate LV was found in a male case. On 78 sides, the LV drained either into a tentorial sinus or into the TS. (4) Conclusions: The anatomy of the vein of Labbé is variable in terms of its course, the number of veins and the modality of drainage; thus, it should determine personalized neurosurgical and interventional approaches. A new classification of the anatomical variations of Labbé’s vein, as detected on the CTAs, is proposed here (types 0–3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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11 pages, 2143 KiB  
Article
Pharmacological Inhibition of Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 1 Protects Mice against Obesity-Induced Bone Loss
by Siddaraju V. Boregowda, Manjunatha K. Nanjappa, Cori N. Booker, Jacqueline Strivelli, Valentina M. Supper, Paul S. Cooke and Donald G. Phinney
Biology 2022, 11(9), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091257 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prominent risk factors for secondary osteoporosis due to the negative impacts of hyperglycemia and excessive body fat on bone metabolism. While the armamentarium of anti-diabetic drugs is expanding, their negative or unknown impacts on bone [...] Read more.
Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prominent risk factors for secondary osteoporosis due to the negative impacts of hyperglycemia and excessive body fat on bone metabolism. While the armamentarium of anti-diabetic drugs is expanding, their negative or unknown impacts on bone metabolism limits effectiveness. The inactivation of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) protects mice from high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance by enhancing thermogenic energy expenditure, but the role of this kinase and the consequences of its inhibition on bone metabolism are unknown. To determine if IP6K1 inhibition in obese mice affords protection against obesity-induced metabolic derangements and bone loss, we maintained 2-month-old mice on a normal chow control diet or HFD under thermal neutral conditions for 100 d. Beginning on day 40, HFD-fed mice were divided into two groups and administered daily injections of vehicle or the pan-IP6K inhibitor TNP [N2-(m-Trifluorobenzyl), N6-(p-nitrobenzyl) purine]. HFD-fed mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and secondary osteoporosis, while TNP administration protected mice against HFD-induced metabolic and lipid derangements and preserved bone mass, mineral density, and trabecular microarchitecture, which correlated with reduced serum leptin levels, reduced marrow adiposity, and preservation of marrow resident skeletal stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs). TNP also exhibited hypotensive activity, an unrealized benefit of the drug, and its prolonged administration had no adverse impacts on spermatogenesis. Together, these data indicate that the inhibition of IP6K1 using selective inhibitors, such as TNP, may provide an effective strategy to manage obesity and T2DM due to its bone sparing effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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