Topic Editors

Department of Mechanical and Biofunctional Systems, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Advances in Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Technologies

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 May 2023)
Viewed by
16085

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electric vehicles (EVs) are increasing significantly due to their advantageous characteristics, including higher efficiency, lower environmental impacts, and better economic performance. Managing the charging patterns of EVs is considered a crucial step for the penetration of EVs in global markets since it strongly affects the quality of transmission and distribution of electrical grids. In addition, the integration of EVs and electrical grids is important, not only in terms of charging management but also providing an opportunity for EVs to have active participation to support the grid though Vehicle Grid Integration (VGI), including vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) technologies. This Topic focuses on several aspects related to VGI, including both V2G and G2V, and covers broad range of technology, regulation, standards, demonstration, and social influences. The following topics are welcomed:

Ancillary services, including frequency regulation, spinning reserve, peak shaving, load levelling, voltage regulation, reactive power provision, and congestion mitigation;

  • Structure, business, and market modelling;
  • Aggregation model;
  • Battery degradation;
  • Integration with renewable energy;
  • Control and management;
  • Potential analysis;
  • Charger development;
  • Case and demonstration project;
  • Correlated standards;
  • Social influences;
  • Policies;
  • Impacts and challenges.

Accordingly, this Topic is open for the following types of manuscripts covering the entire breadth of electric vehicle charging and discharging issues and concerns:

  • Original research articles;
  • Review articles;
  • Technical report.

Dr. Muhammad Aziz
Dr. Bentang Arief Budiman
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • electric vehicle
  • vehicle grid integration (VGI)
  • vehicle to grid (V2G)
  • grid to vehicle (G2V)
  • ancillary services
  • standards
  • aggregator
  • renewable energy
  • energy storage

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Vehicles
vehicles
2.2 2.9 2019 22.2 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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15 pages, 895 KiB  
Essay
Research on an Improved Carbon Emission Flow Model Considering Electric Vehicle Charging Fluctuation and Hybrid Power Transaction
by Xianfeng Zhu, Ziwei Liu, Ran Shen, Qingming Wang, Aihong Tang, Xinyu You, Wenhan Yu, Wenhao Wang and Lujie Mao
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6835; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196835 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
With the update of the power transaction mode and the access of increasing electric vehicles with high randomness to the power grid, the existing carbon emission flow calculation method cannot consider the influence of carbon emission due to the fluctuation in electric vehicle [...] Read more.
With the update of the power transaction mode and the access of increasing electric vehicles with high randomness to the power grid, the existing carbon emission flow calculation method cannot consider the influence of carbon emission due to the fluctuation in electric vehicle charging and various transaction modes. Given the above shortcomings, this paper proposes an improved carbon emission flow model considering electric vehicle charging fluctuations and hybrid power transactions. The model first considers different transaction modes, allocates the network loss to both sides of power generation, and forms a lossless network, realizing the decoupling of the bilateral transaction mode, pool transaction mode, and network loss and then calculating the day-ahead network’s carbon emission. Then, the changes in different transaction modes caused by the fluctuation in electric vehicle charging under different transaction modes are analyzed and the nodes of ‘spontaneous change’ are found to form a day-ahead intra-day deviation network and calculate its carbon emission flow. Finally, the calculation results are combined to obtain an improved power system carbon emission flow considering electric vehicle charging fluctuations and transaction modes. In this paper, the 33-node system is used for verification. Full article
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16 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
A Novel Coordination Mechanism for Connected and Automated Vehicles in the Multi-Intersection Road Network
by Yuanhao Zhang and Jiabao Zhao
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5168; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145168 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
In recent years, connected automated vehicles (CAVs) have attracted much attention, and the coordination strategy of CAVs in isolated intersections has been widely discussed. However, these algorithms for isolated intersections cannot be directly applied in a multi-intersection road network (MiRN). The coordination strategy [...] Read more.
In recent years, connected automated vehicles (CAVs) have attracted much attention, and the coordination strategy of CAVs in isolated intersections has been widely discussed. However, these algorithms for isolated intersections cannot be directly applied in a multi-intersection road network (MiRN). The coordination strategy in the MiRN requires further investigation. This paper proposes a two-tier strategy for CAV coordination in the MiRN. First, we analyze the coordination problem in isolated intersections and formulate it as a mixed-integer programming problem. Then, for the MiRN, we propose a consensus prediction method to estimate the travel time for CAVs with different paths. Finally, a novel coordination approach is given, showing how to determine the optimal path for CAVs. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed strategy under various traffic flow rates. Compared with the fixed signal time assignment method and the actuated signal time assignment method, our method reduces the average travel time by about 74–83% under different flow rates. We also evaluate the impact of parameters on the strategy’s performance and provide some suggestions for setting these parameters. Full article
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18 pages, 596 KiB  
Review
Electromobility in Australia: Tariff Design Structure and Consumer Preferences for Mobile Distributed Energy Storage
by Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi, Scott Dwyer, Kriti Nagrath and John Alabi
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6631; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116631 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3479
Abstract
The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) may contribute to decarbonisation of the transport sector and has the potential to offer value to consumers and electricity grid operators through its energy storage capabilities. While electricity tariffs can play an important role in consumer uptake [...] Read more.
The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) may contribute to decarbonisation of the transport sector and has the potential to offer value to consumers and electricity grid operators through its energy storage capabilities. While electricity tariffs can play an important role in consumer uptake of EVs, little is known about how EV charging tariff design affects EV users’ behaviour in participating in applications that can support the electricity grid, such as those applications classed under Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X). Examining the case of Australia, this study reviews the literature on electromobility with a focus on EV charging tariffs and its impact on consumer behaviour within the V2X context. The main findings drawn from up-to-date publications show that a well-designed EV tariff structure, available parking, and EV charging facilities can increase consumer participation in V2X. However, cooperation between EV users and grid operators is needed to establish a form of controlled charging agreement to harness the full potential of the EV electricity storage system for grid stability and battery support operations. To achieve this, the right tariff structure will have to be established to incentivise EV consumers to subscribe to V2X services. We also present recommendations for EV tariff design to support Australian consumer participation in V2G. Finally, we identify research gaps for further research. Full article
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22 pages, 6122 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Robust Optimization Strategy of Electric Vehicles and Other Distributed Energy Considering Load Flexibility
by Yuxuan Wang, Bingxu Zhang, Chenyang Li and Yongzhang Huang
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082947 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Aggregated electric vehicles (EVs) integrated to the grid and intermittent wind and solar energy increased the complexity of the economic dispatch of the power grid. Aggregated EVs have a great potential to reduce system operating costs because of their dual attributes of load [...] Read more.
Aggregated electric vehicles (EVs) integrated to the grid and intermittent wind and solar energy increased the complexity of the economic dispatch of the power grid. Aggregated EVs have a great potential to reduce system operating costs because of their dual attributes of load and energy storage. In this paper, plugged-in EV is refined into three categories: rated power charging, adjustable charging, and flexible charging–discharging, and then control models are established separately; the concept of temporal flexibility for EV clusters is proposed for the adjustable charging and flexible charging–discharging of EV sets; then, the schedule boundary of EV clusters is determined under the flexibility constraints. The interval is used to describe the intermittent nature of renewable energy, and the minimum operating cost of the system is taken as the goal to construct a distributed energy robust optimization model. By decoupling the model, a two-stage efficient solution is achieved. An example analysis verifies the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy. The proposed strategy can minimize the total cost while meeting the demand difference of EV users. Full article
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17 pages, 7481 KiB  
Article
Heavy-Duty Battery Electric Buses’ Integration in Cities Based on Superfast Charging Technologies: Impact on the Urban Life
by Manuel Mathes, Matthias Schmidt, Johannes Käsgen, Bruno Fievet, Pierre Van Tichelen, Maitane Berecibar and Mohammed Al-Saadi
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084777 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
As part of this work, several Battery Electric Buses (BEBs) of 9 m, 12 m, and 18 m lengths and superfast chargers based on a pantograph of up to 600 kW were developed and demonstrated in selected European cities. In Osnabrück (OSN), Germany, [...] Read more.
As part of this work, several Battery Electric Buses (BEBs) of 9 m, 12 m, and 18 m lengths and superfast chargers based on a pantograph of up to 600 kW were developed and demonstrated in selected European cities. In Osnabrück (OSN), Germany, superfast charging technologies based on BEBs were demonstrated, and numerous measurement campaigns were conducted. Within the scope of this work, two measurement campaigns are presented, which are related to the impact of BEBs on the urban life, i.e., people’s safety, environment, and users’ comfort. People’s safety was investigated in terms of the electromagnetic emissions emanating from two superfast chargers of 350 kW and 300 kW, as such high charging power during the charging process could be a risk to people’s health and electronics inside and outside the bus. The results showed that the magnetic and electrical emissions are far below the safety standard limits. This confirms that the developed vehicles and chargers in the ASSURED project operate under safe conditions for people in the vicinity of the charging station. Environmental impact and users’ comfort were studied in terms of electric motor noises (compared to diesel engines), power electronic devices and their cooling, contact noises of the pantograph, and vibration inside the BEBs compared to diesel buses. It was found that, in most cases, the outside noise emission of BEBs are significantly lower than the noise emissions emitted by diesel buses. Considering the inside noise emissions in the passenger’s section, all BEBs showed lower Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) in comparison to the diesel busses. As a second part of the ride comfort, vibrations inside BEBs are on the same level as some diesel buses but are mostly significantly lower. All charging processes (pantograph operation and charging process) have a slight noise emission, with 64.6 dB(A) and 52.3 dB(A), respectively, when comparing the engine noise at the departure of the tested diesel buses with 70.8 dB(A) to 80.4 dB(A). Overall, a reduction in noise emissions and an improvement in the ride comfort were observed for the BEBs compared to diesel busses. The objective of this brief study is to provide bus operators, decision-makers, urban planners, and authorities with an overview of the benefits of BEBs for cities and to help them understand the various infrastructural impacts on urban areas and improve the quality of services. Full article
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18 pages, 10752 KiB  
Article
Transport Automation in Urban Mobility: A Case Study of an Autonomous Parking System
by Jiri Plihal, Pavel Nedoma, Vladimir Sestak, Zdenek Herda and Andrei Aksjonov
Vehicles 2022, 4(2), 326-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles4020020 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
Parking road vehicles is one of the most tedious and challenging tasks a human driver performs. Despite the low speeds involved, parking manoeuvres are among the main causes of minor and sometimes major traffic accidents, especially in urban areas where limited parking spaces [...] Read more.
Parking road vehicles is one of the most tedious and challenging tasks a human driver performs. Despite the low speeds involved, parking manoeuvres are among the main causes of minor and sometimes major traffic accidents, especially in urban areas where limited parking spaces are available. Furthermore, searching for a parking space wastes time and contributes to unnecessary road occupancy and pollution. This paper is dedicated to the development of an autonomous parking system for on-street parking in urban areas. The system is capable of fully automated parking manoeuvres from drop-off to pick-up zones, thus removing human drivers from the vehicle control loop. The system autonomously navigates to the parking space and parks the vehicle without human intervention. The proposed system incorporates a communication protocol that connects automated vehicles, parking infrastructure, and drivers. Several convenient human–machine interface concepts for efficient system communication and state monitoring have been developed. A methodology for validating the system in real time is proposed, which includes functionality requirements and a description of parallel and perpendicular parking manoeuvres. The proposed pipeline is tested on an electric vehicle platform with automated functions, where successful technological functionality is demonstrated. Full article
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