Topic Editors

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology—State Research Institute, 36 Rakowiecka Street, 02532 Warsaw, Poland

Innovative Food Processing Technologies

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
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87170

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal processing technologies have been researched for decades as particularly useful preservation technologies. As regards technological development, there has been a vast amount of research on nonthermal food processing technologies. Going forward, there is a necessity to research and improve thermal technologies and implement nonthermal processing technologies in processing at the industrial scale.

Prof. Dr. Anet Režek Jambrak
Dr. Krystian Marszałek
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • measurement of sustainable parameters of thermal processing technologies
  • measurement of sustainable parameters of nonthermal processing technologies
  • water–food–energy nexus of thermal processing technologies
  • water–food–energy nexus of nonthermal processing technologies
  • measuring carbon footprint, water footprint, etc.
  • technology readiness level of nonthermal processing technologies
  • novel thermal processing
  • non-thermal processing
  • emerging technology
  • ohmic heating
  • radio frequency heating
  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • pulsed electric field
  • cold plasma

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400
Beverages
beverages
3.5 5.8 2015 18.5 Days CHF 1600
Nutraceuticals
nutraceuticals
- - 2021 26.3 Days CHF 1000
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (28 papers)

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10 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidants from Coffee Pulp (Coffea canephora) Waste Using Ultrasound and Microwave-Assisted Extraction
by Thy Minh Kieu Tran, Taiwo O. Akanbi, Timothy Kirkman, Minh H. Nguyen and Quan Van Vuong
Processes 2022, 10(5), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10051011 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Coffee pulp is a by-product generated from coffee bean production. This waste is a potential source of bioactive compounds, which can be recovered for use as an ingredient for many products. However, this by-product is typically dumped in landfills or made into compost. [...] Read more.
Coffee pulp is a by-product generated from coffee bean production. This waste is a potential source of bioactive compounds, which can be recovered for use as an ingredient for many products. However, this by-product is typically dumped in landfills or made into compost. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were employed to recover bioactive compounds from coffee pulp waste. Results showed that time and instrument power significantly affected the recovery yield in both UAE and MAE. The temperature was also a significant factor in UAE. The optimal MAE conditions were a radiation time of 70 min, a power of 700 W, and a 50% (v/v) ethanol solvent to sample ratio of 100:5 (mL/g), approximately 47 mg of phenolic compounds, 36 mg of flavonoid, 8 mg of chlorogenic acid, and 6 mg of caffeine could be recovered from 1 g of the material. The optimal UAE condition were an ultrasonic time of 35 min, a temperature of 60 °C, and a power of 250 W; however, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity constituted around one half of MAE. Therefore, MAE is recommended as the extraction technique for the bioactive compound and antioxidant recovery from the coffee pulp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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22 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Effect of High-Hydrostatic-Pressure Processing and Storage Temperature on Sliced Iberian Dry-Cured Sausage (“Salchichón”) from Pigs Reared in Montanera System
by Rosario Ramírez, Antonia Trejo, Jonathan Delgado-Adámez, María Jesús Martín-Mateos and Jesús García-Parra
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091338 - 04 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
The top-quality “salchichón” (a fermented dry-cured sausage) is manufactured from Iberian pigs reared outdoors. This work aims to evaluate the effect of hydrostatic high pressure (HHP) and storage temperature on sliced vacuum-packaged top-quality Iberian “salchichón”. Two types of “ [...] Read more.
The top-quality “salchichón” (a fermented dry-cured sausage) is manufactured from Iberian pigs reared outdoors. This work aims to evaluate the effect of hydrostatic high pressure (HHP) and storage temperature on sliced vacuum-packaged top-quality Iberian “salchichón”. Two types of “salchichón” (S1 and S2, manufactured at different companies) were processed at 600 MPa for 8 min and stored at 4 and 20 °C for 180 days. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory changes were evaluated. Microbiological counts were reduced by HHP treatment and also generally decreased during storage at both temperatures. Lightness and redness of slices decreased during storage at 20 °C, while yellowness values increased. Changes in color were also observed in sensory analysis of the dry-cured sausages. HHP increased lipid and protein oxidation values in S1, whereas protein oxidation increased at 20 °C in S2. S1 was more affected by HHP while S2 was more affected by the temperature of storage. Therefore, despite both products belonging to the same commercial category, slight differences in the composition of both products and/or differences in packaging determined a different behavior after HHP treatment and during storage at different temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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14 pages, 3314 KiB  
Article
Myofibrillar Protein Interacting with Trehalose Elevated the Quality of Frozen Meat
by Shijie Xu, Ping Li, Fei Han, Hui Zhou, Kai Zhou, Ying Wang, Kezhou Cai, Cong Li and Baocai Xu
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071041 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
This work studied the interactions between trehalose/chitooligosaccharide (COS) and myofibrillar protein (MP), and the effect of such interactions on the quality of meat after freezing was also evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that both trehalose and COS could enhance the content of [...] Read more.
This work studied the interactions between trehalose/chitooligosaccharide (COS) and myofibrillar protein (MP), and the effect of such interactions on the quality of meat after freezing was also evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that both trehalose and COS could enhance the content of hydrogen bonds of MP. Zeta potential measurement displayed trehalose/COS reduced the absolute value of the surface potential of MP. The results of Raman spectroscopy suggested that the hydrophobic residues of MP were more exposed after treatment with trehalose/COS. Thus, trehalose and COS could both interact with MP through non-covalent bonds. Subsequently, the evaluation of the effect of trehalose and COS on the physicochemical properties of frozen meat was conducted. Results showed that both trehalose and COS significantly reduced thawing loss of frozen meat, and sensory evaluation showed that trehalose had a better performance from the perspective of smell, texture, and overall consumer acceptance. In conclusion, trehalose/COS interacting with MP can reduce meat thawing loss, which might provide technical guidance in the quality control of frozen meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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12 pages, 3111 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of High-Voltage Electrostatic Field against Acinetobacter johnsonii
by Han Huang, Tianqi Gao, Xiaoqing Qian, Wenjing Wu, Xiuzhi Fan, Liu Shi, Guangquan Xiong, Anzi Ding, Xin Li, Yu Qiao, Li Liao and Lan Wang
Foods 2022, 11(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070955 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial properties and mechanisms of a high-voltage static electric field (HVEF) in Acinetobacter johnsonii, which were assessed from the perspective of biochemical properties and stress-related genes. The time/voltage-kill assays and growth curves showed that an HVEF decreased [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial properties and mechanisms of a high-voltage static electric field (HVEF) in Acinetobacter johnsonii, which were assessed from the perspective of biochemical properties and stress-related genes. The time/voltage-kill assays and growth curves showed that an HVEF decreased the number of bacteria and OD600 values. In addition, HVEF treatment caused the leakage of cell contents (nucleic acids and proteins), increased the electrical conductivity and amounts of reactive oxygen substances (ROS) (16.88 fold), and decreased the activity of Na+ K+-ATPase in A. johnsonii. Moreover, the changes in the expression levels of genes involved in oxidative stress and DNA damage in the treated A. johnsonii cells suggested that HVEF treatment could induce oxidative stress and DNA sub-damage. This study will provide useful information for the development and application of an HVEF in food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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11 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pulsed Electric Field Pre-Treatment on the Isoflavone Profile of Soymilk
by Mariana Morales-de la Peña, Jorge Welti-Chanes and Olga Martín-Belloso
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020019 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) were evaluated as extraction-aiding technology during soymilk manufacturing to improve its isoflavone profile. Low-intensity PEFs were applied at different processing conditions in two stages of the soymilk extraction process, hydrated soybeans (HSB) and soybean slurry (SBS), [...] Read more.
In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) were evaluated as extraction-aiding technology during soymilk manufacturing to improve its isoflavone profile. Low-intensity PEFs were applied at different processing conditions in two stages of the soymilk extraction process, hydrated soybeans (HSB) and soybean slurry (SBS), with the soymilk extracted from the conventional process as control (CSM). Overall, resultant soymilk samples from PEF-HSB and PEF-SBS presented lower concentrations of glucosides isoflavones and greater aglycone content than those in CSM. In contrast to genistin (Gin) and daidzin (Din), which decreased around 18.5–52.6% and 10.9–54.6%, respectively, an increase in genistein (Ge, 12.3–64.4%) and daidzein (Da, 9–55.8%) was observed. The total isoflavone content (TIC) of most soymilk samples prepared from PEF-HSB was lower than that of the CSM. Conversely, when PEF-SBS was used, the TIC of resultant soymilk was not significantly affected or slightly decreased. However, PEF treated HSB at 10 kVcm−1/100 pulses and SBS at 6 kVcm−1/10 pulses led to a significant augment in TIC, of up to 109 ± 2.39 and 110 ± 1.26 μg/g, respectively, in the extracted soymilk samples. These results indicated that low-intensity PEF is a potential technology that could be implemented during soymilk manufacturing processing to modify the isoflavone profile and content of soymilk, mainly increasing its aglycone concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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16 pages, 3824 KiB  
Article
Making Polyol Gummies by 3D Printing: Effect of Polyols on 3D Printing Characteristics
by Hao Le, Xiaorui Wang, Yabo Wei, Yunfeng Zhao, Jian Zhang and Lianfu Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(6), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060874 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3472
Abstract
With growth of confectionery industry, there is a great demand for candy shape, and 3D printing technology is way to achieve it. The printing properties of gummy, which is formed of gelatin and low acyl gellan as gel, maltol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol [...] Read more.
With growth of confectionery industry, there is a great demand for candy shape, and 3D printing technology is way to achieve it. The printing properties of gummy, which is formed of gelatin and low acyl gellan as gel, maltol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol as sweeteners, were tested in this study. Gummies’ rheological properties, 3D printing properties, and textural qualities were measured using a rheometer, FTIR, and SEM in this study. The strength of the hydrogen bonds will be affected by the addition of polyol, after which the excluded volume effect of polyol and viscosity will become the most important aspect. Polyols increased the gelation temperature (Tgelation), improved the gel network, and improved hydrogen bonding in the gel, according to the findings. Yield stress, shear recovery performance, and gel strength were initially increased, then decreased, when polyol concentration was increased. It had a 40.59 °C gelation temperature, an 82.99% recovery rate, noticeable shear thinning features, high self-supporting performance, and textural qualities when ink with 35 g maltitol and 30 g erythritol gave the best printing performance. This research serves as a foundation for the development of individualized, bespoke 3D printed gummies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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12 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Modified Atmosphere Packaging in Combination with Active Packaging to Increase Shelf Life of High-in Beta-Glucan Gluten Free Cake
by Jarosław Wyrwisz, Sabina Karp, Marcin Andrzej Kurek and Małgorzata Moczkowska-Wyrwisz
Foods 2022, 11(6), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060872 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
Modified atmosphere packaging and active packaging were combined to prolong the shelf life and quality of the clean label, gluten-free (GF), yeast-leavened cakes enriched in oat fiber preparation. Star anise, cinnamon bark, and clove essential oils were used as emitters of active substances. [...] Read more.
Modified atmosphere packaging and active packaging were combined to prolong the shelf life and quality of the clean label, gluten-free (GF), yeast-leavened cakes enriched in oat fiber preparation. Star anise, cinnamon bark, and clove essential oils were used as emitters of active substances. The following concentrations of gases were chosen: 0% CO2/100%/N2 (MAP1), 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP2), and approx. 78% N2/21% O2/0.04% CO2 (ATM). Microbiological and physicochemical analyses were conducted. GF cakes were stored for 14 days (analysis in 0, 7, and 14 days). The results showed a decrease in moisture content and lightness of crumb and an increase in hardness. EOs significantly (p ≤ 0.05) slowed down the growth of microorganisms regardless of the type of gas mixture. However, the best bacteriostatic effect was in MAP2. The content of beta-glucan did not change throughout the storage time. Generally, the best results were obtained with the combination of MAP and active packaging—60% of CO2 and 40% of N2—where cinnamon or clove essential oils were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
13 pages, 1802 KiB  
Article
Innovative Process Coupling Short Steam Blanching with Vacuum Flash-Expansion Produces in One Single Stage High-Quality Purple Passion Fruit Smoothies
by Claudia Arias, Pablo Rodríguez, Misael Cortés, Iris Soto, Julián Quintero and Fabrice Vaillant
Foods 2022, 11(6), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060832 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
Short steam blanching coupled with flash-vacuum expansion (FVE) and de-pulping was used to obtain purée from purple passion fruits discarded from the export chain. Different steam blanching holding times (80, 95, 110 s) were tested at pressure of 130 kPa. After FVE and [...] Read more.
Short steam blanching coupled with flash-vacuum expansion (FVE) and de-pulping was used to obtain purée from purple passion fruits discarded from the export chain. Different steam blanching holding times (80, 95, 110 s) were tested at pressure of 130 kPa. After FVE and vacuum de-pulping, fibers, anthocyanins, carotenoids, rheological properties, and microbial reduction were evaluated in the purées. Fruit purées are obtained with a much higher content of cell-wall and bioactive compounds compared to the fresh arils since part of the fruit shell is incorporated into the purée (approximately 20%), which greatly increases the yield of production. Purées exhibited increasing shear-thinning flow behavior with blanching holding time, resulting in a smoothie-like beverage. A reduction greater than 5 log10 CFU/mL was obtained for molds, yeasts, aerobic mesophilic, and coliforms for all the treatments. The shelf life of smoothies based on nutritional and sensorial quality was extended up to 90 days at refrigeration temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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13 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Research on Mechanical–Structural and Oil Yield Properties during Xanthoceras sorbifolium Seed Oil Extraction
by Xiaopeng Liu, Huan Chen, Liu Yang and Yonglin Zhang
Processes 2022, 10(3), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030564 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Products from Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge seed have gained extensive attention for various applications, especially in the fields of edible oils and industrial applications. In order to study seed kernel mechanical–structural behavior and oil yield mechanisms during extrusion, we set up a self-developed texture [...] Read more.
Products from Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge seed have gained extensive attention for various applications, especially in the fields of edible oils and industrial applications. In order to study seed kernel mechanical–structural behavior and oil yield mechanisms during extrusion, we set up a self-developed texture analyzer with in situ microscope observation. Test results indicated that seed kernel oil yield and pressing energy showed an approximately parabolic shape under pressing strain, and maximum oil yield reached 25.7%. Only local tissue damage occurred on seed kernels at strain 45–85%, cracks formed from the kernel edge to the inside zone and small cracks obviously increased in number, corresponding with the oil yield and energy–strain curve. The effect of speed on oil yield showed an opposite trend to strain effect; high pressing speed led to lower oil yield due to the short time for oil precipitation and lower pressing energy. Dwell time obviously promoted oil output within 600 s. Drying temperature had a negative effect due to structural change. Oil yield was almost zero at temperatures below 120 °C. The oil yield and pressing energy relation curve was obtained by polynomial fitting; optimal seed kernel oil pressing conditions were strain 95%, 0.1 mm/s, 20 °C, dwell time 600 s. The research provides in-depth theoretical guidance for Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge oil production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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15 pages, 4207 KiB  
Article
MCT/LCT Mixed Oil Phase Enhances the Rheological Property and Freeze-Thawing Stability of Emulsion
by Jiahao Liu, Yi Han, Jiashi Chen, Zhigang Zhang, Song Miao, Baodong Zheng and Longtao Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(5), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050712 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different oil phase compositions (medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and long-chain triglyceride (LCT), the proportion of MCT is 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively) on the rheological properties and freeze-thaw stability of [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different oil phase compositions (medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and long-chain triglyceride (LCT), the proportion of MCT is 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively) on the rheological properties and freeze-thaw stability of emulsions. The emulsions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometer, stability analyzer, Malvern particle size meter and confocal microscope. Results showed that all emulsions exhibited a gel-like characteristic with a storage modulus higher than the loss modulus. The elastic modulus and complex viscosity of the emulsions increased with the increase of MCT proportions. During the heating from 4 °C to 80 °C, the complex viscosity of all emulsions decreased first and then remained unchanged at a continuous high temperature, indicating that the emulsions had good stability and internal structural integrity during the cooling and high-temperature processes. With the increase of MCT proportions, the freeze-thaw stability of the emulsions increased first and then decreased, and showed the optimum with 10% MCT. That could be referred for the production of a product with better freeze-thaw stability and rheological property in the food and cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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13 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as Influenced by Different Drying Methods and Temperatures
by Anjaneyulu A, Amit Baran Sharangi, Tarun Kumar Upadhyay, Nawaf Alshammari, Mohd Saeed and Lamya Ahmed Al-Keridis
Processes 2022, 10(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030484 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
An experiment was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Food Engineering, Department of Vegetable Science, and Department of Plantation Spices Medicinal and Aromatic crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), West Bengal, India. The work was performed during 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 [...] Read more.
An experiment was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Food Engineering, Department of Vegetable Science, and Department of Plantation Spices Medicinal and Aromatic crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), West Bengal, India. The work was performed during 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 with different drying methods including sun drying, solar drying and oven drying. In oven drying, different temperatures such as 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70 °C were considered. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was designed with seven treatments and three replications. Experimental results were significantly varied among the treatments as influenced by different drying methods and temperatures. Minimum time taken (480 min) to reach safe moisture content was recorded in T7 (oven drying at 70 °C), whereas maximum values in color components such as L* value (24.55), a* value (32.14), b* value (20.53), and pungency score (7.85) were recorded in T6 (oven drying at 65 °C). However, the highest texture (1180.81) was observed in T1 (sun drying). Biochemical parameters were significantly varied among the treatments. The maximum amounts of ascorbic acid (56.06 mg/100 g) and oleoresin content (10.72) were found in T3 (oven drying at 50 °C), whereas minimum values of biochemical parameters were recorded by T1 (sun drying) and T2 (solar drying) methods, respectively. Mathematical relationships were found in different drying methods and temperatures. Models such as the Lewis, Page, Modified Page, and Henderson and Pabis models were selected to fit the data. Maximum R2 value (0.9835) was found in both the Page and Modified Page models with similar values of drying method and temperature at 65 °C. This value was the highest among all models in all drying temperatures. However, the lowest χ2, and RMSE values (0.000818 and 0.027261, respectively) were recorded with the Page model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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17 pages, 446 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Lipidomic Profile of Lipid Extracted from Hoki Fish Male Gonad
by Anna Burnett, Mirja Kaizer Ahmmed, Alan Carne, Hong (Sabrina) Tian, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi and Alaa El-Din Ahmed Bekhit
Foods 2022, 11(4), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040610 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Processing of hoki, a commercially important fish species, generates substantial quantities of co-products, including male gonad, which contains valuable lipids, such as phospholipids, that could be recovered and utilised. Hoki fish male gonads (HMG) were subjected to pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment at [...] Read more.
Processing of hoki, a commercially important fish species, generates substantial quantities of co-products, including male gonad, which contains valuable lipids, such as phospholipids, that could be recovered and utilised. Hoki fish male gonads (HMG) were subjected to pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment at varying field strengths (0.625, 1.25, and 1.875 kV/cm) and frequencies (25, 50, and 100 Hz), at a fixed pulse width of 20 μs. The total lipid was extracted using an ethanol-hexane-based (ETHEX) extraction method, and the phospholipid and fatty acid compositions were determined using 31P NMR and GC-FID, respectively. The total lipid yield was increased from 4.1% to 6.7% by a relatively mild PEF pre-treatment at a field strength of 1.25 kV/cm and frequency of 50 Hz. A higher amount of EPA (8.2%), DPA (2.7%), and DHA (35.7%) were obtained by that treatment, compared to both un-heated (EPA: 8%; DPA: 2.5%; DHA: 35.2%) and heat-treated controls (EPA: 7.9%; DPA: 2.5%; DHA: 34%). No significant changes to the content of the major phospholipids were observed. PEF pre-treatment under mild conditions has potential for improving the total lipid yield extracted from fish male gonad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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19 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Effects of Salt and Salicornia herbacea L. on Physiochemical, Nutritional, and Quality Parameters for Extending the Shelf-Life of Semi-Dried Mullets (Chelon haematocheilus)
by Hee-Geun Jo, Ramakrishna Chilakala, Min-Ju Kim, Yong-Sik Sin, Kyoung-Seon Lee and Sun-Hee Cheong
Foods 2022, 11(4), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040597 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
Mullet, a coastal fish species, is commonly used as a salted dried fish in many countries, including Korea, Japan, and the southeastern United States. The purpose of this investigation was to develop high-quality products of salted semi-dried mullet (SSDM) using natural salt and [...] Read more.
Mullet, a coastal fish species, is commonly used as a salted dried fish in many countries, including Korea, Japan, and the southeastern United States. The purpose of this investigation was to develop high-quality products of salted semi-dried mullet (SSDM) using natural salt and Salicornia herbacea L. (SAL). The antioxidant activity of SAL was investigated by in vitro studies. The physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of fresh mullet (FM), salted control (SSDM-CON), and SAL-treated (SSDM-SAL) mullet groups were analyzed. The moisture, ash, and crude protein contents were significantly increased in the SSDM-SAL group, whereas the salinity was decreased when compared with the SSDM-CON group. Lipid oxidation occurred in the FM and SSDM groups, as indicated by the increase in peroxide (PV), acid (AV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values during the storage period. The protein pattern on the sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed similarities between the groups, while the amino acid and fatty acid contents also varied in the FM and SSDM groups depending on their processing methods. Initially, the total bacterial count was significantly higher in the SSDM groups than in the FM group. However, the SSDM-SAL group had a markedly lower total bacteria count than the FM and SSDM-CON groups during 21 days of refrigerated storage. This result indicates that SAL treatment can improve mullet’s safety from microorganisms, includes beneficial biochemical parameters, and can extend their shelf-life through refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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17 pages, 19177 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Raw Ewes’ Milk High-Pressure Pre-Treatment for Improved Production of Raw Milk Cheese
by Rita S. Inácio, Rui Barros, Jorge A. Saraiva and Ana M. P. Gomes
Foods 2022, 11(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030435 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Serra da Estrela protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese is manufactured with raw milk from Bordaleira and/or Churra Mondegueira da Serra da Estrela sheep breeds. Several socio-environmental shortcomings have reduced production capacity; hence, treatments that may contribute to its efficient transformation into cheese [...] Read more.
Serra da Estrela protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese is manufactured with raw milk from Bordaleira and/or Churra Mondegueira da Serra da Estrela sheep breeds. Several socio-environmental shortcomings have reduced production capacity; hence, treatments that may contribute to its efficient transformation into cheese are welcome. High-pressure processing (HPP) milk pre-treatment may contribute to a cheese yield increment, yet optimization of processing conditions is warranted. An initial wide-scope screening experiment allowed for pinpointing pressure intensity, holding time under pressure and time after HPP as the most important factors influencing curd yield. Based on this, a more targeted screening experiment allowed for selecting the range of experimental conditions to be used for an experimental design study that revealed an HPP treatment at 121 MPa for 30 min as the optimum for milk processing to improve curd yield (>9%) and effectively maintain the beneficial cheese microbiota; the optimum was validated in a final experimental framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Effect of Anolyte on S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes Growth in Minced Pork and Beef Cuts
by Reda Riešutė, Joana Šalomskienė, Alvija Šalaševičienė and Irena Mačionienė
Foods 2022, 11(3), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030415 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
In this paper, anolyte is considered as a possible disinfectant for inhibiting the growth of bacteria in meat (beef cuts and minced pork). Meat cuts were contaminated with two concentrations of L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium, as these are the most common meat [...] Read more.
In this paper, anolyte is considered as a possible disinfectant for inhibiting the growth of bacteria in meat (beef cuts and minced pork). Meat cuts were contaminated with two concentrations of L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium, as these are the most common meat pathogens that are closely regulated by the EU, and treated with two different concentrations of anolyte: 20% for beef cuts and 18% for minced pork. Then, the total viable count (TVC), L. monocytogenes count and S. Typhimurium count were determined. In meat cuts and minced pork, anolyte was able to reduce TVC, S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes counts effectively, significantly decreasing L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium counts after spraying and throughout 29 days of incubation at 0–4 °C. TVC was reduced after spraying and for 10 days of incubation but later increased to be the same as before spraying with anolyte. Anolyte was effective when spraying beef cuts with a 20% solution for 60 s against pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and also when using it at a concentration of 18% from the minced meat mass. Initially, anolyte significantly decreased TVC, however during the storage period (10–29 days) TVC increased but remained significantly lower compared to control. Anolyte was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium counts throughout the study, and after 29 days of incubation, these bacteria could not be detected in the samples treated with anolyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
14 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Textural, Sensory and Volatile Compounds Analyses in Formulations of Sausages Analogue Elaborated with Edible Mushrooms and Soy Protein Isolate as Meat Substitute
by Xinyue Yuan, Wei Jiang, Dianwei Zhang, Huilin Liu and Baoguo Sun
Foods 2022, 11(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010052 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6707
Abstract
In this study, edible mushroom and soybean protein isolate (SPI) were used to prepare a fibrous meat analogue using thermos-extrusion and the extruded mushroom-based meat analogue as meat replacer was further developed with different formulations in fabricating sausage analogues. The effect of water [...] Read more.
In this study, edible mushroom and soybean protein isolate (SPI) were used to prepare a fibrous meat analogue using thermos-extrusion and the extruded mushroom-based meat analogue as meat replacer was further developed with different formulations in fabricating sausage analogues. The effect of water content (35%, 70% and 100%), three types of edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Coprinus comatus and a mixture of equal proportions) and their amounts (from 15% to 100%) on the physicochemical and structural profiles were studied. The results showed that the extruded mushroom-based meat analogue prepared from Coprinus comatus (15% addition) and SPI with a water content of 35% exhibited close textural profiles to real beef. Furthermore, a texture profile analysis (TPA) combined with a principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to compare and assess the textural traits of the sausage analogues with similar commercial products. The characterization and comparison of the flavor profile of post-processing mushroom-based meat sausage analogues (MMSA) were performed using headspace-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 64 volatile compounds were identified, and the content in dried-processing treatment was significantly higher than for steamed-processing, which indicated that the natural fermentation process contributed to the increase in aroma substances in the non-animal sourced sausage. This study developed a feasible method to fabricate a meat replacement and to create high added-value products, which offer an opportunity for developing non-animal products with satisfactory sensory properties and flavor profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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15 pages, 2006 KiB  
Article
Quality of Milled Rice from Large-Scale Dried Paddy Rice by Hot Air Combined with Radio Frequency Heating
by Karn Chitsuthipakorn and Sa-nguansak Thanapornpoonpong
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122277 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3442
Abstract
A scaled-up process for paddy drying was developed using hot air (HA) combined with radio frequency (RF) heating. The study was conducted using hot air (control treatment) arranged in descending order in four temperature levels, namely 80 °C at moisture content of 25–26%, [...] Read more.
A scaled-up process for paddy drying was developed using hot air (HA) combined with radio frequency (RF) heating. The study was conducted using hot air (control treatment) arranged in descending order in four temperature levels, namely 80 °C at moisture content of 25–26%, 70 °C at moisture content of 20–25%, 60 °C at moisture content of 17–20%, and 50 °C at moisture content of 13–17%, as well as with hot air combined with radio frequency (HA/RF) at different paddy temperatures (45–60 °C) by adjusting the appropriate RF energy when passing through RF heating chamber, namely HA/RF45, HA/RF50, HA/RF55, and HA/RF60. Each treatment was performed in three replicates and data were statistically analyzed in a randomized complete block design. The quality attributes of paddies affected by the drying process were assessed: fissure percentage, color, milling quality, and sensory evaluation. The drying efficiency showed that the drying time and the specific energy consumption could be decreased by up to 54.44% and 23.17% at HA/RF60 and HA/RF45, respectively. As the RF heating temperature increased, the fissure percentage of brown rice kernels at HA/RF45 and HA was not significantly impacted. Regarding color evaluation, combining RF heating and convective drying at all given conditions could be statistically applied in terms of the b*, WI, and ΔE* value. Considering the milling yield of HA as the baseline, head rice yield was maximized at HA/RF45, while bran yield reached the maximum at HA/RF60. The liking score of cooked rice after it was dried using the HA method was the highest. This study concludes that the HA/RF45 was the most appropriate drying condition, and this may provide preliminary exposure to the industrial drying of paddies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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15 pages, 3599 KiB  
Article
Ginsenosides Conversion and Anti-Oxidant Activities in Puffed Cultured Roots of Mountain Ginseng
by Jian Yu Pu, Zelika Mega Ramadhania, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Yue Huo, Yaxi Han, Jin Feng Li, Jong Chan Ahn, Feng Jiao Xu, Dong Wook Lee, Xu Hui Zeng, Deok Chun Yang, Gi-Young Kwak and Se Chan Kang
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122271 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
CRMG (Cultured Roots of Mountain Ginseng) have the advantages in scale-up production, safety, and pharmacological efficacies. Though several methods are available for the conversion of major to minor ginsenosides, which has more pharmacological activities, a single step process with high temperature and pressure [...] Read more.
CRMG (Cultured Roots of Mountain Ginseng) have the advantages in scale-up production, safety, and pharmacological efficacies. Though several methods are available for the conversion of major to minor ginsenosides, which has more pharmacological activities, a single step process with high temperature and pressure as a puffing method took place in this study to gain and produce more pharmacologically active compounds. Puffed CRMG exhibited an acceleration of major ginsenosides to minor ginsenosides conversions, and released more phenolic and flavonoid compounds. HPLC analysis was used to detect a steep decrease in the contents of major ginsenosides (Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc and Rd) with increasing pressure; on the contrary, the minor ginsenosides (20 (S, R)-Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, Rh1, Rh2, Rg6, F4 and Rk3) contents increased. Minor ginsenosides, such as Rg6, F4 and Rk3, were firstly reported to be produced from puffed CRMG. After the puffing process, phenolics, flavonoids, and minor ginsenoside contents were increased, and also, the antioxidant properties, such as DPPH inhibition and reducing the power of puffed CRMG, were significantly enhanced. Puffed CRMG at 490.3 kPa and 588.4 kPa had a low toxicity on HaCaT (immortalized human epidermal keratinocyte) cells at 200 μg/mL, and could significantly reduce ROS by an average of 60%, compared to the group treated with H2O2. Therefore, single step puffing of CRMG has the potential to be utilized for functional food and cosmeceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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9 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Natural Intervarietal Hybrids of Coffea canephora Have a High Content of Diterpenes
by Julyene Silva Francisco, Rafael Carlos Eloy Dias, Enrique Anastácio Alves, Rodrigo Barros Rocha, Janderson Rodrigues Dalazen, André Luiz Buzzo Mori and Marta de Toledo Benassi
Beverages 2021, 7(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7040077 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
The present investigation characterized the diterpene profile of Coffea canephora coffees, which are natural intervarietal hybrids of Conilon and Robusta. The impact of genetic diversity and environment on these compounds was also evaluated. Five genotypes (clones 03, 05, 08, 25, and 66) from [...] Read more.
The present investigation characterized the diterpene profile of Coffea canephora coffees, which are natural intervarietal hybrids of Conilon and Robusta. The impact of genetic diversity and environment on these compounds was also evaluated. Five genotypes (clones 03, 05, 08, 25, and 66) from six growing sites in the State of Rondônia in the western Amazon (Alto Alegre dos Parecis, São Miguel do Guaporé, Nova Brasilândia do Oeste, Porto Velho, Rolim de Moura, and Alto Paraíso) were analyzed. The contents of kahweol, cafestol, and 16-O-methylcafestol in light-medium roasted coffees were assessed by UPLC. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). The contents of cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol ranged from 96 to 457 mg 100 g−1 and 75 to 433 mg 100 g−1, respectively. As for kahweol, from absence up to contents of 36.9 mg 100 g−1 was observed. The diterpene profile was dependent on genetics, growing site, and the interaction between these factors. A higher variability was observed for kahweol contents. The natural intervarietal hybrid coffees stood out for their high contents of diterpenes and increased frequency of kahweol presence (77% of the samples). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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23 pages, 1408 KiB  
Review
Application of Green Technology in Gelatin Extraction: A Review
by Nor Qhairul Izzreen Mohd Noor, Rina Syafinaz Razali, Nur Khairina Ismail, Rabiatul Amirah Ramli, Umi Hartina Mohamad Razali, Ahmad Riduan Bahauddin, Nazikussabah Zaharudin, Ashari Rozzamri, Jamilah Bakar and Sharifudin Md. Shaarani
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122227 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8971
Abstract
Growing demands for green and sustainable processing that eliminates the utilization of toxic chemicals and increases efficiency has encouraged the application of novel extraction technologies for the food industry. This review discusses the principles and potential application of several green technology for gelatin [...] Read more.
Growing demands for green and sustainable processing that eliminates the utilization of toxic chemicals and increases efficiency has encouraged the application of novel extraction technologies for the food industry. This review discusses the principles and potential application of several green technology for gelatin extraction. Several novel technologies and their processing efficiency are discussed in this review. Furthermore, factors that affect the quality of the gelatin produced from different sources are also highlighted. The potential application of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), subcritical water extraction, high-pressure processing, and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to improve gelatin extraction are addressed. These technologies have the potential to become an efficient extraction method compared to the conventional extraction technologies. Several combinations of green and conventional technologies have been reported to yield promising results. These combinations, especially using conventional pre-treatment and green technologies for extraction, have been found to be more effective in producing gelatin. Since gelatin could be produced from various sources, it exhibits different characteristics; thus, different approaches and extraction method should be identified for specific types of gelatin. Although these technologies have limitations, such as overhydration and sophisticated systems explicitly designed for large-scale production, they are nonetheless more efficient in the long run to safeguard the environment as they reduce solvent usage and carbon footprint along the way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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16 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Multi-Enzymatic System for the Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides with Low Bitterness from Corn Gluten Meal
by Shanfen Huang, Yunliang Li, Chengliang Li, Siyu Ruan, Wenjuan Qu, Yanhua Ding, Xiaofei Ye and Haile Ma
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122170 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
The promising angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from corn protein usually have strong bitterness and thus limit their use among consumers. To prepare ACE inhibitory peptides with low bitterness, two energy-efficient types of ultrasound pretreatment were introduced into the multi-enzymatic system [...] Read more.
The promising angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from corn protein usually have strong bitterness and thus limit their use among consumers. To prepare ACE inhibitory peptides with low bitterness, two energy-efficient types of ultrasound pretreatment were introduced into the multi-enzymatic system of corn gluten meal. The results showed that Flavourzyme–Protamex sequential enzymolysis produced the peptides with high ACE inhibitory activity and the lowest bitterness compared with other enzymolysis conditions. During the optimized sequential enzymolysis, the divergent ultrasound pretreatment with a frequency of 40 kHz for 60 min exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity (65.36%, accounting for 73.84% of the highest ACE inhibitory activity) and lower bitterness intensity of peptides, compared with an energy-gathered ultrasound. The results of the study showed that, on the one hand, divergent ultrasound pretreatment induced the highest intrinsic fluorescence of protein, with more hydrophobic amino acid residues exposed for cleavage by exopeptidases, which leads to a reduction in bitterness. On the other hand, the amino acid composition analysis proved that more Tyr, Ile, and Val moieties, instead of Leu (bitterest substance), and more peptide fractions with a molecular weight >1000 Da should be the structural features of high ACE inhibitory peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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15 pages, 11151 KiB  
Article
A Multidisciplinary Approach for Improving Resource Efficiency in the Indian Surimi Supply Chain
by Maitri Thakur, Emily Cowan, Kristina Norne Widell, Revilija Mozuraityte and Rasa Slizyte
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10984; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210984 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
With the world population set to approach an estimated 9 billion by 2050, against a background of finite natural resources, we need renewable biological resources for securing healthy food and animal feed to meet the nutritional requirements of the growing population. In this [...] Read more.
With the world population set to approach an estimated 9 billion by 2050, against a background of finite natural resources, we need renewable biological resources for securing healthy food and animal feed to meet the nutritional requirements of the growing population. In this paper, key findings from ReValue Eranet project financed by Norway, India, and Spain are presented. The project aims to contribute to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target on food losses reduction, by developing innovative technologies for the surimi industry, namely reducing losses by improved cold chain management and efficient conversion of rest raw materials (RRM) and wash water into value-added protein and oil ingredients for food and feed applications. A multidisciplinary research approach was applied with expertise from supply chain management, life cycle assessment, biotechnology, energy, and process engineering to propose several solutions for improving the overall resource efficiency of the surimi supply chains in India. This paper presents a synthesis of proposed solutions from ReValue project and potential contribution towards SDGs as well as market exploitation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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9 pages, 2621 KiB  
Article
Research on Structural–Mechanical Properties during the Castor Episperm Breaking Process
by Liu Yang, Huan Chen, Junyu Xiao, Yuchao Fan, Shaoyun Song, Yonglin Zhang and Xiaopeng Liu
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9101777 - 05 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Products from castor seeds have been widely used in various fields. In order to study the breaking behavior and rupture mechanism of castor seed episperm during coat shelling process, the force-structure property of coating castor seed was investigated by a self-developed texture analyzer [...] Read more.
Products from castor seeds have been widely used in various fields. In order to study the breaking behavior and rupture mechanism of castor seed episperm during coat shelling process, the force-structure property of coating castor seed was investigated by a self-developed texture analyzer with in situ optical microscopic observation. Influences of compression distance, velocity and working temperature were studied. The results showed that castor seed episperm rupture commonly happened from the tail end to the first end. Compression distance effect can change the episperm cracking degree. Under pressing distance 2–3 mm, the episperm easily cracked into two flaps, and the breaking force stabilized at 77 N. Pressing velocity has no significant effect on episperm breaking. Temperature changes the physical property. With an increase in temperature, breaking force presents a “slope” decline; under a temperature of 120 ℃, temperature effect on the breaking force decreased significantly and the breaking force fell to about 52 N. The research results can provide theoretical basis for the castor episperm peeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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19 pages, 1862 KiB  
Article
Production of Extrudate Food with Mango By-Products (Mangifera indica): Analysis of Physical, Chemical, and Sensorial Properties
by Esther Alicia Medina-Rendon, Guadalupe María Guatemala-Morales, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Rosa Isela Corona-González, Enrique Arriola-Guevara and Jorge Alberto García-Fajardo
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091660 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3717
Abstract
The novelty of this work is the use of two mango by-products, mango peel and kernel, to obtain an extruded food. As well as the development of this food through a design of mixtures, we conducted sensorial analysis of the food through a [...] Read more.
The novelty of this work is the use of two mango by-products, mango peel and kernel, to obtain an extruded food. As well as the development of this food through a design of mixtures, we conducted sensorial analysis of the food through a hedonic test, in order not only to develop an extruded food with mango by-products, but also to develop a food that will be accepted by the consumer. A simple lattice mixture design was carried out with 14 mixtures, where the components were white corn flour (WCF), mango peel flour (MPF) and mango kernel flour (MKF), both from the Tommy Atkins mango variety. Physical and chemical properties such as the expansion index (EI), hardness, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), total phenols, DPPH and ABTS were evaluated. An optimization region was found that included 3 design points. Mixtures 1, 6 and 12 were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale to determine the acceptability of the product. Appearance, taste, and texture of the extrudates was evaluated. The extrudate with the best overall acceptability and the optimum physical and chemical properties contained 58.33% white corn flour, 33.33% mango peel flour and 8.33% mango kernel flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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11 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Effects of Boiling and Roasting Treatments on the Content of Total Phenolics and Flavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Pod Shells
by Amro B. Hassan, Salah A. Al Maiman, Ghedeir M. Alshammari, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Haya F. Alhuthayli, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Mohammed A. Alfawaz, Abu ElGasim A. Yagoub, Adil Fickak and Magdi A. Osman
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091542 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of boiling and roasting treatments on the phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of pod shells of two Sudanese peanut cultivars, Sodari and Ghabiash. The samples were subjected to a boiling process (1:5 w [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of boiling and roasting treatments on the phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of pod shells of two Sudanese peanut cultivars, Sodari and Ghabiash. The samples were subjected to a boiling process (1:5 w/v; 20 g/100 mL) at 100 °C for 45 min and a roasting treatment at 180 °C for 30 min. Results revealed that both cultivars are rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity in their shell. The boiling and dry roasting treatments significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of the peanut shell for both peanut cultivars. The shells of Ghabiash peanut cultivar exhibited higher bioactive properties than the shells of Sodari cultivar, in which these properties were highly improved by roasting and boiling treatments. In general, peanut shells can serve as an important underutilized by-product, particularly after roasting treatment, for potential applications in food formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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12 pages, 1862 KiB  
Article
Highland Barley Replaces Sorghum as Raw Material to Make Shanxi Aged Vinegar
by Huan Zhang, Jingli Zhou, Fanfan Lang, Yu Zheng and Fusheng Chen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6039; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136039 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Highland barley (HB, Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.), also known as naked or hulless barley, is a kind of cereal crop growing at high altitudes (4200–4500 m) around the world. In this study, HB vinegar (HBV) was prepared, using Tibetan HB [...] Read more.
Highland barley (HB, Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.), also known as naked or hulless barley, is a kind of cereal crop growing at high altitudes (4200–4500 m) around the world. In this study, HB vinegar (HBV) was prepared, using Tibetan HB as the main raw material, according to the process of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV), a famous vinegar in China, in which sorghum is usually used as the main raw material. The related main compounds, such as alcohol and acetic acid, in the alcohol and acetic acid fermentation processes were monitored and analyzed, respectively. The flavor components in the aged vinegars were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction, combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and compared with sorghum vinegar (SV), which was made, using sorghum as the raw material, based on the SAV process. The results revealed that at the alcohol fermentation stage, the alcohol content of HB mash was higher than that of the sorghum mash (p < 0.05), and at the acetic acid fermentation stages of HBV and SV, the total acid contents were 6.23 and 5.81 (g·100 mL−1 and p < 0.05), respectively. After aging one and a half years, the contents of non-volatile acid, volatile acid, and ester compounds in HBV were higher than those in SV. Therefore, HB can replace sorghum as the raw material for making SAV. Based on a literature search, the comparison and analysis of the main components and volatile flavor compounds of HBV and SV were not studied before. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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17 pages, 10992 KiB  
Article
A Study of Automatic Judgment of Food Color and Cooking Conditions with Artificial Intelligence Technology
by Chern-Sheng Lin, Yu-Ching Pan, Yu-Xin Kuo, Ching-Kun Chen and Chuen-Lin Tien
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071128 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
In this study, the machine vision and artificial intelligence algorithms were used to rapidly check the degree of cooking of foods and avoid the over-cooking of foods. Using a smart induction cooker for heating, the image processing program automatically recognizes the color of [...] Read more.
In this study, the machine vision and artificial intelligence algorithms were used to rapidly check the degree of cooking of foods and avoid the over-cooking of foods. Using a smart induction cooker for heating, the image processing program automatically recognizes the color of the food before and after cooking. The new cooking parameters were used to identify the cooking conditions of the food when it is undercooked, cooked, and overcooked. In the research, the camera was used in combination with the software for development, and the real-time image processing technology was used to obtain the information of the color of the food, and through calculation parameters, the cooking status of the food was monitored. In the second year, using the color space conversion, a novel algorithm, and artificial intelligence, the foreground segmentation was used to separate the vegetables from the background, and the cooking ripeness, cooking unevenness, oil glossiness, and sauce absorption were calculated. The image color difference and the distribution were used to judge the cooking conditions of the food, so that the cooking system can identify whether or not to adopt partial tumbling, or to end a cooking operation. A novel artificial intelligence algorithm is used in the relative field, and the error rate can be reduced to 3%. This work will significantly help researchers working in the advanced cooking devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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25 pages, 9495 KiB  
Article
Effect of Oxidative Stress on Physicochemical Quality of Taiwanese Seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera) with the Application of Alternating Current Electric Field (ACEF) during Post-Harvest Storage
by Andi Syahrullah Sulaimana, Chao-Kai Chang, Chih-Yao Hou, Bara Yudhistira, Fuangfah Punthi, Chun-Ta Lung, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Shella Permatasari Santoso and Chang-Wei Hsieh
Processes 2021, 9(6), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9061011 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3769
Abstract
This study aims to determine the physicochemical quality of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera) as a freshness label for products cultivated in different seasons. The applied post-harvest storage experiments compared between, within and without seawater that led to oxidative stress conditions. Water content, [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the physicochemical quality of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera) as a freshness label for products cultivated in different seasons. The applied post-harvest storage experiments compared between, within and without seawater that led to oxidative stress conditions. Water content, malondialdehyde (MDA) compound, total phenolic content (TPC), and chlorophyll content were observed at 0, 3, 6, and 9 days of storage. The storage without seawater showed sharper quality reductions by reaching 20–40% of water loss, 70–90% of MDA production, 15–25% of TPC reduction, and 40–60% of total chlorophyll degradation. The storage within seawater showed lower quality reductions due to the specific growth rates still reaching 5–10%. This study found that the greater the physicochemical quality, the slower the decomposition rates of the stored seagrape during storage. Therefore, the seagrapes’ obvious discoloration occurred earlier in winter, followed by summer and spring. Kinetics of chlorophyll degradation on seagrape in different seasons meet different order-reactions during storage. Furthermore, alternating current electric field (ACEF) treatment with 125 kV/m of intensity for 60 min can lower the spring seagrapes’ physicochemical quality by reaching 10–30% of inhibition, resulting in the shelf-life extension for up to 12 days of post-harvest storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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