Topic Editors

Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea

Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

To overcome the brittleness of concrete, fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCCs) with a high ductility have been developed worldwide. Several types of FRCCs, containing fibers made of metal, polymer, carbon, glass, nylon, etc., were successfully developed and applied for building structures to limit crack propagation and widening through fiber bridging. Furthermore, (ultra-)high-performance FRCCs that demonstrated strain-hardening behavior with multiple microcracks were recently invented, and numerous relevant studies are actively underway.

This topic covers a comprehensive overview on FRCCs, related to material properties of fresh and hardened states and structural implications under various loading conditions.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites;
  • (Ultra-)high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites;
  • Chemical and physical treatments of fibers;
  • Mechanical properties;
  • Impact and blast resistance;
  • Numerical modeling;
  • Fire resistance;
  • Structural implications;
  • Fiber distribution characteristics;
  • Recycled fibers.

Prof. Dr. Doo-Yeol Yoo
Topic Editor

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Fibers
fibers
3.9 7.0 2013 24.1 Days CHF 2000
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (39 papers)

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16 pages, 6226 KiB  
Article
Bending and Crack Evolution Behaviors of Cemented Soil Reinforced with Surface Modified PVA Fiber
by Lisheng Liang, Yaxing Xu and Shunlei Hu
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144799 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
To improve the flexural properties of cemented soils reinforced with fibers and avoid their brittle failure when subjected to complex loading conditions, a simple and cost-effective technique was explored to facilitate their application in retaining walls. In this study, how different fiber surface [...] Read more.
To improve the flexural properties of cemented soils reinforced with fibers and avoid their brittle failure when subjected to complex loading conditions, a simple and cost-effective technique was explored to facilitate their application in retaining walls. In this study, how different fiber surface modifications, i.e., alkali treatment, acid treatment and silane coupling agent treatment, as well as different fiber contents, i.e., 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%, affect the bending properties of cemented soils was investigated by conducting three-point bending tests on notched beams. The digital image correlation (DIC) technology was used to examine the crack propagation process and the strain field distribution of cracks in specimens in the flexural tests. The results show that all fiber surface modifications increased peak strength and fracture energy, for example, the fracture energy of specimens AN1, AH1 and AK1 was increased by 180.4%, 121.5% and 155.4%, respectively, compared to PVA1. In addition, the crack tip strain, crack propagation rate and the initial crack width of the modified specimens were lower than those before modification. Lastly, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were adopted to reveal the mechanism of bending performance in cemented soils reinforced by fiber surface modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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19 pages, 4464 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Stud Shear Connectors in Steel–SFRCC Composite Beams
by Kai Peng, Laijun Liu, Fangwen Wu, Ruizheng Wang, Song Lei and Xiaoyu Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134665 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
To investigate the shear performance and failure mechanism of stud shear connectors in steel fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) beams, six steel-SFRCC and six steel-normal strength concrete (NC) push-out specimens with two heights (80 mm, 120 mm) and three diameters (14 mm, 18 mm, [...] Read more.
To investigate the shear performance and failure mechanism of stud shear connectors in steel fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) beams, six steel-SFRCC and six steel-normal strength concrete (NC) push-out specimens with two heights (80 mm, 120 mm) and three diameters (14 mm, 18 mm, 22 mm) of stud connectors were prepared. The experimental results revealed that the stud shearing failure was the main failure mode of all push-out specimens. In comparison to the steel-NC specimens, the development of cracks in the SFRCC beams was efficiently restrained due to the existence of high-strength steel fibers added to the normal concrete. The shear resistance and stiffness of studs in the steel-SFRCC beams were, respectively, 22.3% and 15.1% greater than those in the steel-NC specimens; however, their ductility was reduced, and the stud shear connectors failed in advance. The finite element (FE) model was developed and verified by push-out test results. FE analysis results indicated that the shear resistance of stud shear connectors was significantly improved with the increase in the concrete compressive strength, the stud diameter and tensile strength, whereas the aspect ratio of studs had a small impact on the ultimate resistance of stud shear connectors. Based on the as-obtained push-out experiment and FE analysis results, empirical formulas were presented to predict the load-slip curves and ultimate shear resistance of stud shear connectors in the steel-SFRCC specimens, and higher accuracy and a wider application range were obtained than with previous formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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19 pages, 6663 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Strengthening Configuration on the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with SRG (Steel-Reinforced Grout) Composites
by Luciano Ombres and Salvatore Verre
Fibers 2022, 10(7), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10070057 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
In this paper, the influence of the strengthening configuration on the structural response of U-wrapped SRG (Steel-Reinforced Grout) shear-strengthened reinforced concrete beams was analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The parameters varied were the ratio sf/wf, sf being [...] Read more.
In this paper, the influence of the strengthening configuration on the structural response of U-wrapped SRG (Steel-Reinforced Grout) shear-strengthened reinforced concrete beams was analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The parameters varied were the ratio sf/wf, sf being the distance between two consecutive U-shaped strips and wf the width of the strips, and the number of steel fabric layers (one and two). Two series of real-scale beams, eleven beams in total with one un-strengthened and ten strengthened, were tested up to failure (the results obtained in the first series of tests were reported in a previously published paper). The obtained results highlighted that the debonding phenomena, which occurred for all the examined strengthening configurations, strongly affected the shear capacity of strengthened beams. An analytical model found based on the “effective strain” of the SRG strips was developed to predict the shear capacity of SRG shear-strengthened reinforced concrete beams. Two analytical relationships were proposed to evaluate the “effective strain” of the SRG strips: The first one was based on a statistical analysis of results obtained by tests on FRCM (Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Mortar) and SRG shear-strengthened reinforced concrete beams, while the second was developed through the results of single lap direct shear tests performed on SRG-to-concrete joints. The effectiveness of the proposed analytical methods was evaluated through the comparison of their predictions and available experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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15 pages, 7687 KiB  
Article
Peridynamic Simulation of Dynamic Fracture Process of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) with Different Curing Ages
by Weiye Hou, Yuyang Hu, Chengfang Yuan, Hu Feng and Zhanqi Cheng
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103494 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) are time-dependent due to the cement hydration process. The mechanical behavior of ECC is not only related to the matrix material properties, but also to the fiber/matrix interface properties. In this study, the modeling of [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) are time-dependent due to the cement hydration process. The mechanical behavior of ECC is not only related to the matrix material properties, but also to the fiber/matrix interface properties. In this study, the modeling of fiber and fiber/matrix interactions is accomplished by using a semi-discrete model in the framework of peridynamics (PD), and the time-varying laws of cement matrix and fiber/matrix interface bonding properties with curing age are also considered. The strain-softening behavior of the cement matrix is represented by introducing a correction factor to modify the pairwise force function in PD theory. The fracture damage of ECC plate from 3 to 28 days was numerically simulated by using the improved PD model to visualize the process of damage fracture under dynamic loading. The shorter the hydration time, the lower the corresponding elastic modulus, and the smaller the number of cracks generated. The dynamic fracture process of early-age ECC is analyzed to understand the crack development pattern, which provides reference for guiding structural design and engineering practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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20 pages, 4131 KiB  
Article
Impact of Thermal Stress on Abrasive Dust from a Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Composite
by Arne Koch, Lukas Friederici, Petra Fiala, Armin Springer, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Michael Stintz, Marcus Frank, Christopher Paul Rüger, Thorsten Streibel and Ralf Zimmermann
Fibers 2022, 10(5), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10050039 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
Recently, a novel corrosion-resistant construction material, Carbon Concrete Composite (C3), consisting of coated carbon fibers embedded in a concrete matrix, was introduced. However, thermal exposure during domestic fires may impact the release of organic pollutants and fibers during abrasive processing and/or [...] Read more.
Recently, a novel corrosion-resistant construction material, Carbon Concrete Composite (C3), consisting of coated carbon fibers embedded in a concrete matrix, was introduced. However, thermal exposure during domestic fires may impact the release of organic pollutants and fibers during abrasive processing and/or demolition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to explore the emission characteristics of toxic compounds and harmful fibers during the dry-cutting after exposure to 25–600 °C (3 h, air). These parameters mimic the abrasive machining and dismantling after a domestic fire event. Mass spectrometry and chromatography served as analytical methodologies, and no organic pollutants for exposure temperatures ≥ 400 °C were found. In contrast, significant amounts of pyrolysis products from the organic fiber coating were released at lower temperatures. Studying the morphology of the released fibers by electron microscopy revealed a decrease in fiber diameter for temperatures exceeding 450 °C. At ≥550 °C, harmful fibers, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, occurred (28–41 × 103 WHO fibers/m3 at 550–600 °C). This leads to the conclusion that there is a demand for restraining and protection measures, such as the use of wet cutting processes, suction devices, particle filtering masks and protective clothing, to handle thermally stressed C3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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13 pages, 3118 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Axial Compression Deformation Property of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing High Level Fly Ash
by Pan Liu, Ran Hai, Junxia Liu and Zhiquan Huang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093137 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
The cement industry has brought serious environmental pollution problems. In the background of ecological civilization, accelerating rational use of waste resources plays an important role in protecting the environment. In this study, self-compacting concrete (SCC) is prepared using fly ash and lime powder [...] Read more.
The cement industry has brought serious environmental pollution problems. In the background of ecological civilization, accelerating rational use of waste resources plays an important role in protecting the environment. In this study, self-compacting concrete (SCC) is prepared using fly ash and lime powder as supplementary cementitious materials by replacing 50%, 60%, and 70% of ordinary Portland cement. By systematically analyzing the influence of the fly ash replacement rate on the workability and mechanical properties of SCC, steel-fiber-reinforced SCC containing 60% fly ash is chosen for further study, and steel fiber is added at the percentages of 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%. The performances in fresh and hardened states are investigated in terms of workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and axial compression deformation property. The obtained outcomes indicate that although the incorporation of fly ash can improve the workability of the mixture, there is a negative correlation between the mechanical properties of SCC and the fly ash replacement rate. For steel-fiber-reinforced SCC containing 60% fly ash, when the content of steel fibers exceeds 0.75%, the workability decreases sharply, and even when the volume fraction is 1.00%, the passing ability cannot meet the requirements of the technical specifications for applications of self-compacting concrete. The analysis results for mechanical properties show that compressive strength is not changed significantly with increasing percentage of steel fibers. The steel fibers strengthen splitting tensile strength and flexural strength significantly, and compared with that of without steel fibers, they increased by 22% and 58%, respectively, with steel fibers up to 1.00%. Additionally, the parameters of the axial compression deformation property are improved by introducing steel fibers, especially the strain energy (Vε) and relative toughness (Γ) of steel-fiber-reinforced SCC containing a high level of fly ash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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19 pages, 3136 KiB  
Review
Corrosion Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete—A Review
by Ganesh Naidu Gopu and Sofi Androse Joseph
Fibers 2022, 10(5), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10050038 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5683
Abstract
Corrosion study of conventional reinforcement in concrete has been accorded wider importance in the last few decades based on the losses occurring in monitoring concrete structures. It is well known that the presence of chloride ions is one of the most significant factors [...] Read more.
Corrosion study of conventional reinforcement in concrete has been accorded wider importance in the last few decades based on the losses occurring in monitoring concrete structures. It is well known that the presence of chloride ions is one of the most significant factors contributing to the corrosion of reinforcing steel. Practically, it is observed that in the marine environment, the activating substances such as chlorides that penetrate the steel can counteract the passivity locally when the electrolyte is highly alkaline. The concrete cover is changed chemically when chloride ionspenetrate into the material, whereupon the pore solution is neutralized. Based on numerous studies, it is evident that steel fibers and glass fibers have less impact on cracked sections in a chloride environment and can oppose chloride infiltration. Glass fibers, when exposed to repeated freeze and thaw conditions, protect the passive layer. This review article highlights the corrosion behavior of reinforced concrete involving various factors such as cracking behavior, transportation, electric conductivity, resistivity, and diffusion of chloride ions in the presence of steel and glass fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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21 pages, 7638 KiB  
Article
Effects of Various Mineral Admixtures and Fibrillated Polypropylene Fibers on the Properties of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) Based Mortars
by Muhammad Hanif Khan, Han Zhu, Muhammad Ali Sikandar, Bakht Zamin, Mahmood Ahmad and Mohanad Muayad Sabri Sabri
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082880 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
This study investigates the mechanical and durability properties of fly ash-based engineered cementitious composites (ECC). The effect of various mineral additions, such as wheat husk ash (WHA), rice husk ash (RHA), glass powder (GP), and fibrillated polypropylene (PP) fibers, on mechanical performance, water [...] Read more.
This study investigates the mechanical and durability properties of fly ash-based engineered cementitious composites (ECC). The effect of various mineral additions, such as wheat husk ash (WHA), rice husk ash (RHA), glass powder (GP), and fibrillated polypropylene (PP) fibers, on mechanical performance, water absorption, and porosity was investigated. Furthermore, the durability of ECC specimens was assessed in terms of sorptivity, acid/sulfate attacks, electric resistivity (ER), rapid chloride penetration (RCPT), and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). The results revealed higher mechanical strength, UPV, and ER values for RHA-based ECC. After 180 days of immersion in acid and sulfate solutions, RHA-based ECC showed a lower loss in compressive strength (23.21% and 1.07% in HCl and Na2SO4, respectively) relative to the control mix (44% and 7% in HCl and Na2SO4, respectively). Moreover, analytical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses were also carried out to corroborate the mechanical and durability properties of ECC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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18 pages, 78723 KiB  
Article
Interface Mechanism and Splitting Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Solidified Aeolian Sand
by Xiangdong Zhang, Shuai Pang, Jun Li, Xuefeng Zhang, Guanjun Cai and Lijun Tian
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082860 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Experimental studies on reinforcing aeolian sand with cement and fiber are lacking, and the interface mechanism and splitting characteristics thus remain unclear. Herein, the interface mechanism and splitting characteristics of fiber-reinforced, cement-solidified, aeolian sand were experimentally assessed to investigate whether glass fiber exhibits [...] Read more.
Experimental studies on reinforcing aeolian sand with cement and fiber are lacking, and the interface mechanism and splitting characteristics thus remain unclear. Herein, the interface mechanism and splitting characteristics of fiber-reinforced, cement-solidified, aeolian sand were experimentally assessed to investigate whether glass fiber exhibits better properties as a reinforcing agent than traditional fiber-free cement-solidified aeolian sand, and whether aeolian sand is applicable as a base material in geotechnical engineering. The splitting experiments involved the use of fiber-reinforced, cement-solidified aeolian sand samples that were differentiated based on the mixing schemes used to formulate them. Based on the strengthening control technology effects on the structural performance of the fiber-reinforced, cement aeolian, sand-mixed matrix material, the internal physical and chemical mechanisms of structural performance evolution were revealed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy images. The experimental results show that the splitting strength of the sample reaches its maximum value at a combination of 6 mm glass fiber, 3‰ fiber, and 10% cement contents. In fiber-reinforced cement-solidified aeolian sand, cement hydrate forms more needle-shaped crystal products. The crystals adhere to the fiber surfaces that interweave with each other to form a porous and dense network. Although this improves the bonding force between the fiber and aeolian sand particles, the fibers are prone to fracture and slippage during the splitting process. The three-dimensional network structure formed by overlapping fibers is critical for the improvement of the splitting strength. The study’s findings will serve as benchmarks to achieve additional improvements in glass fiber-reinforced cement-solidified aeolian sand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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10 pages, 1243 KiB  
Study Protocol
Study on Frost Resistance of the Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
by Wenguang Kan, Zailin Yang and Liangliang Yu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 3823; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12083823 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Frost resistance is a very important durability criterion of concrete in the cold environment. To improve the frost resistance of concrete, carbon fiber was added into the concrete. Repeated soaking in water will accelerate the freeze-thaw damage of concrete, resulting in mass loss [...] Read more.
Frost resistance is a very important durability criterion of concrete in the cold environment. To improve the frost resistance of concrete, carbon fiber was added into the concrete. Repeated soaking in water will accelerate the freeze-thaw damage of concrete, resulting in mass loss and the compressive strength decrease of the concrete. Thus, a recurrent freeze-thaw experiment, in which specimens of carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete were frozen for 4 h and then thawed in the warm water for 4h, was carried out to estimate the relationship of the addition of carbon fiber and frost resistance. The results show that adding the carbon fiber into concrete could reduce the mass loss of the concrete during the freeze-thaw experiment. And when the carbon fiber content is more than 0.50 wt.‰, the increase in the carbon fiber content improved the compressive strength of the concrete significantly. The frost-resistance of the plain concrete is 100 freeze–thaw cycles, after which the compressive strength losses were 21.2% and 9.0%, respectively. When the optimal adding amount of carbon is 1.5 wt.%, the frost-resistance of the concrete is 250 cycles. It indicates that the carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete is suitable for buildings in cold and moist conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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12 pages, 5456 KiB  
Article
Preparation of CSHW with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum
by Xuemei Chen, Jianming Gao, Ye Wu, Qihong Wu and Li Luo
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072691 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Calcium sulfate hemihydrate whiskers (CSHW), a multi-functional and high value-added building material, were prepared with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum by hydrothermal method, which could be a reasonable disposal of FGD gypsum. In order to obtain CSHW of a high aspect ratio, a [...] Read more.
Calcium sulfate hemihydrate whiskers (CSHW), a multi-functional and high value-added building material, were prepared with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum by hydrothermal method, which could be a reasonable disposal of FGD gypsum. In order to obtain CSHW of a high aspect ratio, a series of manufacturing parameters such as reaction temperature, stirring speed, material–water ratio, and reaction time were investigated. The effect of stabilizing treatment and glycerol concentration on CSHW morphology were also studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and statistical analysis. The results showed that the optimum preparing conditions of reaction temperature, stirring speed, water–material ratio, and reaction time were 160 °C, 200~300 rpm, 11:1 and 1 h, respectively. Furthermore, stabilizing treatment with octodecyl betaine was necessary for the preparation of CSHW. The final prepared whiskers had smooth surface, uniform morphology, a diameter of 260 nm, and a corresponding aspect ratio of 208.2. Moreover, the addition of glycerol reduced the activity of water, contributing to a lower reaction temperature and much smaller diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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21 pages, 7196 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Concrete Reinforcement with Recycled Tyre Steel Fibres
by Agnieszka Michalik, Filip Chyliński, Jan Bobrowicz and Waldemar Pichór
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072444 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
The role of searching for industrial waste management solutions in construction is key for environmental protection. Research in recent years has focused on solutions aimed at reducing the carbon footprint. This paper presents the results of tests conducted on concrete reinforced with treated [...] Read more.
The role of searching for industrial waste management solutions in construction is key for environmental protection. Research in recent years has focused on solutions aimed at reducing the carbon footprint. This paper presents the results of tests conducted on concrete reinforced with treated recycled tyre steel fibres (RTSFs) compared to the same amount of manufactured steel fibres (MSFs). The effectiveness of concrete reinforcement with RTSFs was analysed using the fracture mechanics parameters of cementitious composites. Rheological tests, residual flexural tensile strength tests, work of fracture measurements, toughness indices, examinations of the fibre distribution in the concrete, and SEM observations of the concrete fractures with fibres were performed. Determining the work of fracture and toughness indices was an innovative aspect of this paper. As the amount of RTSFs increased, a decrease in the consistency was observed, although the distribution of fibres in the concrete was uniform, as proven by the results of computer tomography tests. Concrete reinforced with RTSFs that is purified and refined during the recycling process might have better properties than concrete reinforced with the same amount of MSFs. The application of RTSFs in construction has environmental and economic benefits in addition to the strengthening of cementitious composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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20 pages, 7320 KiB  
Article
Efficient Use of Graphene Oxide in Layered Cement Mortar
by Shuangshuang Liu, Fenglei Lu, Ya Chen, Biqin Dong, Hongxiu Du and Xiangyu Li
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062181 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) has been found to be an attractive nanomaterial to improve the properties of cementitious composites. However, the use of GO in the industry is limited by its high cost. To achieve a higher cost/performance ratio, GO can be strategically applied [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide (GO) has been found to be an attractive nanomaterial to improve the properties of cementitious composites. However, the use of GO in the industry is limited by its high cost. To achieve a higher cost/performance ratio, GO can be strategically applied in certain parts of cementitious composites structure according to the principle of functionally graded materials. In this study, graded distribution of GO in cement mortar was achieved by sequentially casting a fresh GO-incorporated cement layer on another cement mortar layer. The mechanical properties, especially flexural strength, of layered cement mortar were found to be dependent on the GO content, the delay time, and the interface formed due to layering fabrication. With the GO incorporated in the tensile region only (30% of the total depth), the flexural strength of the layered beam attained 90.91% of that of the beam, with GO uniformly distributed throughout the sample. Based on the results of rapid chloride migration tests, when 12 mm GO-incorporated cement mortar layer was used, the chloride migration coefficient was reduced by 21.45%. It was also found that the measured chloride migration coefficient of layered cement mortar agreed with the series model. The present investigation provides an efficient approach to use GO in cement-based materials from the perspective of mechanical and durability properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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15 pages, 17000 KiB  
Article
Study on Shear Performance of Short Bolt Interface in ECC–Steel Bridge Deck Composite Structure
by Zhenhai Zeng, Chuanxi Li, Shengqi Wang, Yan Liu, Zhuoyi Chen and Yigang Lv
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052685 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Aiming at the problem that orthotropic steel bridge deck and bridge deck pavement are prone to fatigue damage, Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) bridge deck pavement is used to replace concrete or asphalt in flexible bridge deck pavement. In order to deeply explore the [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problem that orthotropic steel bridge deck and bridge deck pavement are prone to fatigue damage, Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) bridge deck pavement is used to replace concrete or asphalt in flexible bridge deck pavement. In order to deeply explore the shear resistance of the short stud interface in the ECC–steel composite structure and provide theoretical support for the practical application of the project, 16 static push-out tests were completed. The effects of stud diameter, height and arrangement spacing on the shear capacity of the medium and short ECC studs were studied. The failure modes, load–slip curves, load–strain curves and interface gap width curves of the components were analyzed. The test results showed that the shear force of the medium and short ECC bolts mainly produces two failure modes, bolt shearing and bolt root weld shearing, while the ECC plate has a local crushing area at the interface bolt root position, and no large cracks occur in other areas. The shear capacity of short bolts is significantly affected by the diameter of the bolts, but is less affected by the height and spacing of the bolts, and increases with the diameter of the short bolts. The length of the stud has an important influence on the stress on the surface of the ECC board. The longer the stud, the greater the tensile stress on the ECC surface. The shorter the peg, the more prone to eccentric compression the ECC plate is, and the longer the peg, the more prone to axial compression it is. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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14 pages, 32119 KiB  
Article
Bonding Behaviour of Steel Fibres in UHPFRC Based on Alkali-Activated Slag
by Alexander Wetzel, Daniela Göbel, Maximilian Schleiting, Niels Wiemer and Bernhard Middendorf
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051930 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
The mechanical performance of fibre-reinforced ultra-high-performance concrete based on alkali-activated slag was investigated, concentrating on the use of steel fibres. The flexural strength is slightly higher compared to the UHPC based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as the binder. Correlating the flexural strength [...] Read more.
The mechanical performance of fibre-reinforced ultra-high-performance concrete based on alkali-activated slag was investigated, concentrating on the use of steel fibres. The flexural strength is slightly higher compared to the UHPC based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as the binder. Correlating the flexural strength test with multiple fibre-pullout tests, an increase in the bonding behaviour at the interfacial-transition zone of the AAM-UHPC was found compared to the OPC-UHPC. Microstructural investigations on the fibres after storage in an artificial pore solution and a potassium waterglass indicated a dissolution of the metallic surface. This occurred more strongly with the potassium waterglass, which was used as an activator solution in the case of the AAM-UHPC. From this, it can be assumed that the stronger bond results from this initial etching for steel fibres in the AAM-UHPC compared to the OPC-UHPC. The difference in the bond strength of both fibre types, the brass-coated steel fibres and the stainless-steel fibres, was rather low for the AAM-UHPC compared to the OPC-UHPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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16 pages, 857 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Fracture Behavior of Cementitious Composites Reinforced with Aligned Hooked-End Steel Fibers
by Sujjaid Khan, Longbang Qing, Iftikhar Ahmad, Ru Mu and Mengdi Bi
Materials 2022, 15(2), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020542 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Aligning steel fibers is an effective way to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber cementitious composites (SFRC). In this study, the magnetic field method was used to prepare the aligned hooked-end steel fiber cementitious composites (ASFRC) and the fracture behavior was investigated. [...] Read more.
Aligning steel fibers is an effective way to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber cementitious composites (SFRC). In this study, the magnetic field method was used to prepare the aligned hooked-end steel fiber cementitious composites (ASFRC) and the fracture behavior was investigated. In order to achieve the alignment of steel fibers, the key parameters including the rheology of the mixture and magnetic induction of electromagnetic field were theoretically analyzed. The results showed that, compared with SFRC, the cracking load and the ultimate load of ASFRC were increased about 24–55% and 51–86%, respectively, depending on the fiber addition content. In addition, the flexural tensile strength and residual flexural strength of ASFRC were found to increase up to 105% and 100%, respectively. The orientation of steel fibers also has a significant effect on energy consumption. The fracture energy of ASFRC was 56–70% greater than SFRC and the reinforcement effect of hooked-end steel fiber was higher than straight steel fiber. The fibers in the fracture surface showed that not only was the number of fibers of ASFRC higher than that of SFRC, but also the orientation efficiency factor of ASFRC was superior to SFRC, which explains the improvement of fracture behavior of ASFRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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10 pages, 3393 KiB  
Article
Effect of Casting Position on Mechanical Performance of Ultra-High Performance Concrete
by Sujing Zhao and Yiheng Bo
Materials 2022, 15(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020404 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The mechanical performance of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is a function of fiber distribution and orientation, which are affected by the processing of the fresh material. In this study, the influences of two casting positions (mid-cast and end-cast) on strength and fracture properties [...] Read more.
The mechanical performance of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is a function of fiber distribution and orientation, which are affected by the processing of the fresh material. In this study, the influences of two casting positions (mid-cast and end-cast) on strength and fracture properties of UHPCs with different fiber types and fiber contents were investigated. The results show that mid-cast specimens have higher flexural strength and fracture properties than end-cast specimens, while the compressive strength is almost unaffected by casting position. Compared to specimens with straight fibers, the flexural strength of specimens with hooked-end fibers is more likely to be affected by casting position. The residual load-to-peak load ratio is independent of casting position but affected by fiber type and fiber content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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24 pages, 7143 KiB  
Review
Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites
by Al-Ghazali Noor Abbas, Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul Aziz, Khalina Abdan, Noor Azline Mohd Nasir and Mohd Nurazzi Norizan
Fibers 2022, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10010003 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6500
Abstract
Increased environmental awareness and the demand for sustainable materials have promoted the use of more renewable and eco-friendly resources like natural fibre as reinforcement in the building industry. Among various types of natural fibres, kenaf has been widely planted in the past few [...] Read more.
Increased environmental awareness and the demand for sustainable materials have promoted the use of more renewable and eco-friendly resources like natural fibre as reinforcement in the building industry. Among various types of natural fibres, kenaf has been widely planted in the past few years, however, it hasn’t been extensively used as a construction material. Kenaf bast fibre is a high tensile strength fibre, lightweight and cost-effective, offering a potential alternative for reinforcement in construction applications. To encourage its use, it’s essential to understand how kenaf fibre’s properties affect the performance of cement-based composites. Hence, the effects of KF on the properties of cementitious composites in the fresh and hardened states have been discussed. The current state-of-art of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Cement Composite (KFRCC) and its different applications are presented for the reader to explore. This review confirmed the improvement of tensile and flexural strengths of cementitious composites with the inclusion of the appropriate content and length of kenaf fibres. However, more studies are necessary to understand the overall impact of kenaf fibres on the compressive strength and durability properties of cementitious composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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14 pages, 8331 KiB  
Article
Failure Analysis of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete T-Beams without Shear Stirrups
by Inkyu Rhee
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010411 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
The shear failure of a reinforced concrete member is a sudden diagonal tension failure; flexible failure is gradual, associated with significant cracks, and leads to extensive sagging. Therefore, reinforced shear rebars are commonly used to ensure that flexible failure occurs before shear failure [...] Read more.
The shear failure of a reinforced concrete member is a sudden diagonal tension failure; flexible failure is gradual, associated with significant cracks, and leads to extensive sagging. Therefore, reinforced shear rebars are commonly used to ensure that flexible failure occurs before shear failure under extreme conditions. Extensive efforts are underway to replace conventional shear reinforcements with steel fibers. Here, a nonlinear analysis of a steel fiber-reinforced concrete T-beam was performed in order to estimate the maximum shear capacity with the aid of experimental test data. A continuum-damaged plasticity model and modified compression field theory were used for nonlinear analysis. Three 360 × 360-mm web elements were selected between the shear span; changes in the principal axis caused by crack development and propagation were traced. Changes in the crack angle according to the average strain of the bottom longitudinal reinforcement and the vertical strain of the web element were also determined. For verification, a strut-tie model was used to predict shear capacity. The experimental results and the finite element analyses were in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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13 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Complex Permittivity Measurements of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites Using a Free-Space Reflection Method with a Focused Beam Lens Horn Antenna
by Kyeongyong Cho, Sunghui Jo, Yeong-Hoon Noh, Namkon Lee, Sungwook Kim and Jong-Gwan Yook
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 7789; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237789 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
To measure the electromagnetic properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) in the X-band, 1-port measurements were performed using a lens horn antenna in a free-space measurement system. Free-space 1-port calibration with translations of the position of the reflector regarding the characteristics of the [...] Read more.
To measure the electromagnetic properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) in the X-band, 1-port measurements were performed using a lens horn antenna in a free-space measurement system. Free-space 1-port calibration with translations of the position of the reflector regarding the characteristics of the focused beam lens horn antenna was applied. The intrinsic impedance and complex permittivity of the SFRC were obtained from the measured reflection characteristics. The steel fiber content increased and the electromagnetic properties of the SFRC gradually changed from a dielectric to a conductor, even in very low frequencies compared to the plasma frequencies of general metal, which are optical frequencies. This is considered to be the plasmon effect of the metallic structure formed by the steel fiber. This result is applicable for analyses of the electromagnetic phenomenon of large structures with fiber content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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22 pages, 10294 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Study on 3D Printed Cementitious Composites Mixes Subjected to Axial Compression
by Hanqiu Liu, King-James Idala Egbe, Haipeng Wang, Ali Matin Nazar, Pengcheng Jiao and Ronghua Zhu
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226882 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Aptly enabled by recent developments in additive manufacturing technology, the concept of functionally grading some cementitious composites to improve structural compression forms is warranted. In this work, existing concrete models available in Abaqus Finite Element (FE) packages are utilized to simulate the performance [...] Read more.
Aptly enabled by recent developments in additive manufacturing technology, the concept of functionally grading some cementitious composites to improve structural compression forms is warranted. In this work, existing concrete models available in Abaqus Finite Element (FE) packages are utilized to simulate the performance of some cementitious composites numerically and apply them to functional grading using the multi-layer approach. If yielding good agreement with the experimental results, two-layer and three-layer models case combinations are developed to study the role of layer position and volume. The optimal and sub-optimal performance of the multi-layer concrete configurations based on compressive strength and sustained strains are assessed. The results of the models suggest that layer volume and position influence the performance of multi-layer concrete. It is observed that when there exists a substantial difference in material strengths between the concrete mixes that make up the various layers of a functionally graded structure, the influence of position and of material volume are significant in a two-layer configuration. In contrast, in a three-layer configuration, layer position is of minimal effect, and volume has a significant effect only if two of the three layers are made from the same material. Thus, a multilayered design approach to compression structures can significantly improve strength and strain performance. Finally, application scenarios on some structural compression forms are shown, and their future trajectory is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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19 pages, 5909 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Evaluation of Replacing Minimum Web Reinforcement with Discrete Fibers in RC Deep Beams
by Murali Sagar Varma Sagi, Chandrashekhar Lakavath, S. Suriya Prakash and Akanshu Sharma
Fibers 2021, 9(11), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9110073 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3572
Abstract
This study investigates the possibility of replacing the minimum web reinforcement in deep beams with discrete fibers. Additionally, the equivalent dosage of fibers required to obtain similar performance of the deep beam with minimum web reinforcement is investigated. Deep beams made of plain [...] Read more.
This study investigates the possibility of replacing the minimum web reinforcement in deep beams with discrete fibers. Additionally, the equivalent dosage of fibers required to obtain similar performance of the deep beam with minimum web reinforcement is investigated. Deep beams made of plain concrete with no fibers, beams with minimum web reinforcement as per AASHTO LFRD recommendations (0.3% in both horizontal and vertical), and with a 0.5% volume fraction of steel, macro-synthetic and hybrid fibers are tested at a shear span to height ratio (a/h) of one. Test results show that the presence of 0.3% web reinforcement in horizontal and vertical directions increased the peak load by 25% compared to the plain concrete beams. However, it did not significantly change the first diagonal crack load. With the addition of 0.5% of steel, macro-synthetic and hybrid fibers, the peak load increased by 49%, 42%, and 63%, respectively, compared to the plain concrete specimen. The addition of steel fibers significantly improved the first cracking load. In contrast, macro-synthetic fibers did not affect the first cracking load but improved the ductility with higher deflections at peak. Hybridization of steel and macro synthetic fibers showed improved performance compared to the individual fibers of the same volume in peak load and ductility. Test results showed that a 0.5% volume fraction of discrete macro steel or synthetic or hybrid fibers can be used to completely replace the minimum web reinforcement (0.3% in both directions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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16 pages, 3714 KiB  
Article
Snow Melting Performance of Graphene Composite Conductive Concrete in Severe Cold Environment
by Xinjie Wang, Yongkang Wu, Pinghua Zhu and Tao Ning
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216715 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The use of conductive concrete is an effective way to address snow and ice accretion on roads in cold regions because of its energy saving and high efficiency without interruption of traffic. Composite conductive concrete was prepared using graphene, carbon fiber, and steel [...] Read more.
The use of conductive concrete is an effective way to address snow and ice accretion on roads in cold regions because of its energy saving and high efficiency without interruption of traffic. Composite conductive concrete was prepared using graphene, carbon fiber, and steel fiber, and the optimum dosage of graphene was explored with resistivity as the criterion. Subsequently, under the conditions of an initial temperature of −15 °C and a wind speed of 20 km/h, the extremely severe snow event environment in cold regions was simulated. The effects of electrode spacing and electric voltage on snow melting performance of conductive concrete slab were explored. Results showed that graphene can significantly improve the conductivity of conductive concrete; the optimal content of graphene was 0.4% of cement mass in terms of resistivity. The snow-melting power of conductive concrete slab decreased with increase in electrode spacing and increased with increase in on-voltage. For an optimal input voltage of 156 V and an optimal electrode spacing of 10 cm, the time required to melt a 24 h snow thickness (21 cm), accumulated during a simulated severe snow event, was only 2 h, which provides an empirical basis for the application of graphene composite conductive concrete to pavement snow melting in cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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15 pages, 4599 KiB  
Article
Influence of Polypropylene, Carbon and Hybrid Coated Fiber on the Interfacial Microstructure Development of Cementitious Composites
by Maryam Monazami and Rishi Gupta
Fibers 2021, 9(11), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9110065 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
Concrete is the most used construction material in the world; however, its deficiency in shrinkage and low tensile resistance is undeniable. Used as secondary reinforcement, fibers can modify concrete properties in various ways. Carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete is highly suitable to maintain longevity of infrastructure [...] Read more.
Concrete is the most used construction material in the world; however, its deficiency in shrinkage and low tensile resistance is undeniable. Used as secondary reinforcement, fibers can modify concrete properties in various ways. Carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete is highly suitable to maintain longevity of infrastructure where corrosion of steel can shorten the useful service life of the structure while polypropylene fibers can mostly improve the shrinkage of concrete. However, the biggest challenge with fiber-reinforced concrete is the appearance of the poorly structured interfacial transition zone around the fibers. In this study, environmentally friendly and low-cost attempts were made to coat fibers with fly ash to enhance the structure of mortar around the fibers. Coated carbon and polypropylene fibers were used in mortar in single and hybrid forms to investigate the efficiency of fiber coating methods on mechanical and durability properties of fiber-reinforced cement mortar. A minimal dosage of 0.25% and 0.5% (by volume) PAN-based carbon fiber and polypropylene fiber was added to mortar to make low-cost mixes. Compressive, tensile and three-point bending tests were done after 14 and 28 days of curing, and the results were analyzed. The results showed higher compressive strength in coated fiber-reinforced samples and comparable results in tensile strength, flexural strength, and toughness parameters. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) photos and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis approved the efficacy of the coating methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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16 pages, 5184 KiB  
Article
Compatibility between Rice Straw Fibers with Different Pretreatments and Ordinary Portland Cement
by Xiaoli Xie and Hongbo Li
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216402 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1883
Abstract
The compatibility between crop straw and Portland cement greatly restrict the application of crop straw in cement-based materials. In this study, rice straw fibers with different pretreatments were added to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), and the influence of different rice straw fiber (RF) [...] Read more.
The compatibility between crop straw and Portland cement greatly restrict the application of crop straw in cement-based materials. In this study, rice straw fibers with different pretreatments were added to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), and the influence of different rice straw fiber (RF) content on the hydration process of OPC was measured using calorimeter tests. Additionally, compatibility between RF and OPC was evaluated using the inhibitory index. As a result, steam explosion treatment of rice straw removed most hemicellulose and post-treatment bleaching was used for delignification. As compared with the pure OPC, addition of RF inhibited the hydration of OPC, and the inhibition degree reduced with the increase in pretreatment degree of RF. The inhibitory index grade of different RF filled OPC (RF-OPC) samples is directly related to hemicellulose and lignin content. Compared with lignin, hemicellulose has a greater influence on cement hydration. Without considering the influence of other components, the RF-OPC samples with hemicellulose content of 1.54 wt.% reached the inhibitory index extreme grade, and the hemicellulose content of 2.05 wt.% led to the cessation of cement hydration. The inhibitory index of the samples with 2.05 and 0.85 wt.% lignin content is moderate and low grade, respectively. In addition, the results of XRD patterns and SEM images are consistent with those of heat of hydration. In terms of mechanical properties of cement-based composites with 10 wt.% rice straw fibers, pretreatment of fibers is beneficial to improving the fracture toughness of the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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16 pages, 9564 KiB  
Article
Properties of Mexican Tropical Palm Oil Flower and Fruit Fibers for Their Prospective Use in Eco-Friendly Construction Material
by Mazhar Hussain, Daniel Levacher, Nathalie Leblanc, Hafida Zmamou, Irini Djeran-Maigre, Andry Razakamanantsoa and Léo Saouti
Fibers 2021, 9(11), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9110063 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
The palm oil industry is the leading source of palm oil waste fibers. The disposal of palm oil waste fibers by burning or dumping causes environmental issues such as the emission of CO2 and a diminution in soil fertility. Natural fiber reuse [...] Read more.
The palm oil industry is the leading source of palm oil waste fibers. The disposal of palm oil waste fibers by burning or dumping causes environmental issues such as the emission of CO2 and a diminution in soil fertility. Natural fiber reuse in construction materials such as concrete, mortar and adobe bricks as reinforcement provides a possible eco-friendly solution for fiber waste management. Palm oil flower fibers (POFL) obtained from palm oil empty fruit bunches and palm oil fruit fibers (POFR) obtained from palm oil fruit are two important types of palm oil fibers. Valorization of palm oil fibers requires a detailed analysis of their physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. In this research, tropical palm oil flower and palm oil fruit fibers from Mexico were studied. Fiber extraction, preparation and testing were performed to observe their characteristics, which include water absorption, density, length, section estimation, chemical composition, thermal conductivity, thermal analysis (ATG) and tensile strength. The length, diameter and density of natural fibers have a significant influence on the strength and quality of composite materials. The characteristics of fibers vary with their chemical composition. Mechanical testing of palm oil fibers indicates a large variation in the tensile strength of palm oil flower and fruit fibers. Both palm oil flower and palm oil fruit fibers exhibit bilinear tensile load–deflection behavior associated with the alignment of cellulose along their fiber axis. The thermal characteristics of fibers indicate low thermal stability and thermal conductivity, which are essential for their use in building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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21 pages, 36823 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment of Polymer Fibers on the Mechanical Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites
by Noah Thibodeaux, Daniel E. Guerrero, Jose L. Lopez, Matthew J. Bandelt and Matthew P. Adams
Fibers 2021, 9(10), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9100062 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) are a class of materials made by adding randomly distributed fibers to a cementitious matrix, providing better material toughness through the crack bridging behavior of the fibers. One of the primary concerns with FRCCs is the behavior of the [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) are a class of materials made by adding randomly distributed fibers to a cementitious matrix, providing better material toughness through the crack bridging behavior of the fibers. One of the primary concerns with FRCCs is the behavior of the fiber when a crack is formed. The fibers provide a stress-bridging mechanism, which is largely determined by the bond that exists between the concrete and the fiber’s outer surface. While many studies have determined the properties of FRCCs and potential benefits of using specific fiber types, the effects of low temperature or cold plasma treatment of polymer fibers on the mechanical behavior of the composite material are limited. Polymer fibers are notable for their low density, ductility, ease of manufacture, and cost-effectiveness. Despite these advantages, the surface properties of polymers do not enable the bonding potential given by steel or glass fibers when used in untreated FRCC, resulting in pull-out failures before the full displacement capacity of the fiber is utilized. For this reason, modification of the surface characteristics of polymer fibers can aid in higher bonding potential. Plasma treatment is a process wherein surfaces are modified through the kinetics of electrically charged and reactive species in a gaseous discharge environment. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of atmospheric pressure plasma generated at approximately room temperature. This atmospheric, cold plasma treatment is a method for improving the mechanical properties of FRCC using polymeric fibers. In this study, polypropylene and polyvinyl-alcohol fibers were cold plasma treated for 0, 30, 60, and 120 s before being used in cementitious mortar mixtures. Compression and flexure tests were performed using a displacement-based loading protocol to examine the impact of plasma treatment time on the corresponding mechanical performance of the fiber-reinforced cementitious composite. The experimental results obtained from this study indicate that there is a positive correlation between fiber treatment time and post-peak load-carrying capacity, especially for specimens subjected to flexural loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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13 pages, 5120 KiB  
Article
Structural Integrity Assessment of Composites Plates with Embedded PZT Transducers for Structural Health Monitoring
by Tianyi Feng and M.H. Ferri Aliabadi
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206148 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2307
Abstract
Active sensing using ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) is widely investigated for monitoring possible damages in composite structures. Recently, a novel diagnosed film based on a circuit-printed technique with piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers has been developed. The diagnostic film is a replacement [...] Read more.
Active sensing using ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) is widely investigated for monitoring possible damages in composite structures. Recently, a novel diagnosed film based on a circuit-printed technique with piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers has been developed. The diagnostic film is a replacement for the traditional cable connection to PZT sensors and has been shown to significantly reduce the weight of the host structure. In this work, the diagnosed films were embedded into composite structures during manufacturing using a novel edge cut-out method during lay-up, which allowed for edge trimming after curing. In this paper, the effect of fatigue loading on the integrity of PZT transducers is initially investigated. The electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) properties at different fatigue loading cycles were used as the diagnostic measure for the performance of the sensors. At the same time, the behaviours of UGW were investigated at different fatigue loading cycles. It was found that the EMI properties and active sensing behaviours remained stable up to 1 million cycles for the force ranges of 0.5~5 kN and 1~10 kN. Next, the effect of embedding the diagnosed film on the mechanical properties of the host composite structure was investigated. Tensile and compressive tests were conducted and the elastic modulus of composite coupons with and without embedded PZT diagnosed films were compared. The elastic modulus of composite coupons with PZT diagnosed films embedded across the entire coupon reduced by as much as 20% for tensile tests and just over 10% for compressive tests compared to the coupons without embedded sensors. These reductions are considered the worst-case scenario, as in real structures the film would only be embedded in a relatively small area of the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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14 pages, 3851 KiB  
Article
Photothermocapillary Method for the Nondestructive Testing of Solid Materials and Thin Coatings
by Aleksandr Zykov, Vladimir Vavilov and Marina Kuimova
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6671; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196671 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1709
Abstract
The photothermocapillary (PTC) effect is a deformation of the free surface of a thin liquid layer on a solid material that is caused by the dependence of the coefficient of surface tension on temperature. The PTC effect is highly sensitive to variations in [...] Read more.
The photothermocapillary (PTC) effect is a deformation of the free surface of a thin liquid layer on a solid material that is caused by the dependence of the coefficient of surface tension on temperature. The PTC effect is highly sensitive to variations in the thermal conductivity of solids, and this is the basis for PTC techniques in the non-destructive testing of solid non-porous materials. These techniques analyze thermal conductivity and detect subsurface defects, evaluate the thickness of thin varnish-and-paint coatings (VPC), and detect air-filled voids between coatings and metal substrates. In this study, the PTC effect was excited by a “pumped” Helium-Neon laser, which provided the monochromatic light source that is required to produce optical interference patterns. The light of a small-diameter laser beam was reflected from a liquid surface, which was contoured by liquid capillary action and variations in the surface tension. A typical contour produces an interference pattern of concentric rings with a bright and wide outer ring. The minimal or maximal diameter of this pattern was designated as the PTC response. The PTC technique was evaluated to monitor the thickness of VPCs on thermally conductive solid materials. The same PTC technique has been used to measure the thickness of air-filled delaminations between a metal substrate and a coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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17 pages, 5808 KiB  
Article
Flexural Behavior of T-Shaped UHPC Beams with Varying Longitudinal Reinforcement Ratios
by Rui Zhang, Peng Hu, Kedao Chen, Xi Li and Xiaosen Yang
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195706 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
In order to investigate the transverse flexural behavior of the UHPC waffle deck, a total of six T-shaped UHPC beams, with varying longitudinal reinforcement ratios, were tested and analyzed. The experiments, including material tests of UHPC and beam tests, were conducted. The material [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the transverse flexural behavior of the UHPC waffle deck, a total of six T-shaped UHPC beams, with varying longitudinal reinforcement ratios, were tested and analyzed. The experiments, including material tests of UHPC and beam tests, were conducted. The material tests of UHPC revealed that strain-hardening behavior in tension was exhibited, and the ratio of uniaxial compressive strength-to-cubic compressive strength was 0.85. The beam tests showed that all the T-shaped UHPC beams, even without longitudinal rebar, exhibited ductile behavior that was similar to that of properly reinforced concrete beams. As the longitudinal reinforcement ratio increased, more flexural cracks developed and a larger load-carrying capacity was provided. Furthermore, the sectional analysis for the ultimate flexural capacity of T-shaped UHPC beams was conducted. Simplified material models, under tension and compression, for UHPC were developed. Based on the reverse calculation from the experimental result, the relation between reduction factor to the ultimate tensile strength of UHPC, and longitudinal reinforcement ratios was formulated. As a result, the predictive equations for the ultimate flexural capacity of T-shaped UHPC beams were proposed, and agreed well with the experimental results in this study and existing studies, which indicates good validity of the proposed equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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27 pages, 6172 KiB  
Article
Accelerated Aging Behavior in Alkaline Environments of GFRP Reinforcing Bars and Their Bond with Concrete
by Arnaud Rolland, Karim Benzarti, Marc Quiertant and Sylvain Chataigner
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195700 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
This study investigates the durability of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcing bars (rebars) and their bond in concrete. Accelerated aging tests were first conducted on bare rebars that were either subjected to direct immersion in an alkaline solution or previously embedded in concrete [...] Read more.
This study investigates the durability of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcing bars (rebars) and their bond in concrete. Accelerated aging tests were first conducted on bare rebars that were either subjected to direct immersion in an alkaline solution or previously embedded in concrete before immersion in the solution (indirect immersion). Accelerated aging was conducted at different temperatures of the solution (20 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C) and for various periods up to 240 days. Residual tensile properties were determined for rebars subjected to direct immersion and served as input data of a predictive Arrhenius model. A large decrease in the residual tensile strength assigned to the alkali-attack of glass fibers was extrapolated in the long term, suggesting that direct immersion is very severe compared to actual service conditions. Short-beam tests were also performed on rebars conditioned under direct/indirect immersion conditions, but did not reveal any significant evolution of the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). In a second part, bond tests were performed on pull-out specimens after immersion in the alkaline solution at different temperatures, in order to assess possible changes in the concrete/GFRP bond properties over aging. Results showed antagonistic effects, with an initial increase in bond strength assigned to a confinement effect of the rebar resulting from changes in the concrete properties over aging, followed by a decreasing trend possibly resulting from interfacial degradation. Complementary characterizations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were also carried out to evaluate the effects of aging on the physical/microstructural properties of GFRPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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17 pages, 10651 KiB  
Article
Research on the Effect of Desert Sand on Pore Structure of Fiber Reinforced Mortar Based on X-CT Technology
by Fangying Shi, Tianyu Li, Weikang Wang, Ruidan Liu, Xiaoyan Liu, Huiwen Tian and Nazhen Liu
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195572 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Concrete is a multi-phase, porous system. The pore structure has an important influence on the properties of the concrete. In this paper, a kind of fiber reinforced mortar was prepared with desert sand and its pore structure was studied. The MIP technique was [...] Read more.
Concrete is a multi-phase, porous system. The pore structure has an important influence on the properties of the concrete. In this paper, a kind of fiber reinforced mortar was prepared with desert sand and its pore structure was studied. The MIP technique was used to investigate the pore structure characteristics between 1 nm and 500 μm (in diameter). Meanwhile, the μX-CT technique was used to study the pore structure characteristics above 200 μm. It was found that the total porosity tends to decrease first and then increase as the dosage of desert sand increased. The porosity decreased gradually from the upper to bottom area inside the sample, and the diameter of the air voids near the upper area became larger. After curing for 28 days, the compressive strength of fiber reinforced mortar reached the maximum when the content of desert sand was 50%. In conclusion, the appropriate amount of desert sand can reduce the porosity of the fiber reinforced mortar to some extent and the number of large size air voids can be significantly reduced, which improves the pore structure and the mechanical properties of the fiber reinforced mortar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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18 pages, 1723 KiB  
Review
Nanocellulose Based Filtration Membrane in Industrial Waste Water Treatment: A Review
by Yunxia Liu, Honghai Liu and Zhongrong Shen
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185398 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 7209
Abstract
In the field of industrial wastewater treatment, membrane separation technology, as an emerging separation technology, compared with traditional separation technology such as precipitation, adsorption, and ion exchange, has advantages in separation efficiency, low energy consumption, low cost, simple operation, and no secondary pollution. [...] Read more.
In the field of industrial wastewater treatment, membrane separation technology, as an emerging separation technology, compared with traditional separation technology such as precipitation, adsorption, and ion exchange, has advantages in separation efficiency, low energy consumption, low cost, simple operation, and no secondary pollution. The application has been expanding in recent years, but membrane fouling and other problems have seriously restricted the development of membrane technology. Natural cellulose is one of the most abundant resources in nature. In addition, nanocellulose has characteristics of high strength and specific surface area, surface activity groups, as well as being pollution-free and renewable, giving it a very wide development prospect in many fields, including membrane separation technology. This paper reviews the current status of nanocellulose filtration membrane, combs the widespread types of nanocellulose and its derivatives, and summarizes the current application of cellulose in membrane separation. In addition, for the purpose of nanocellulose filtration membrane in wastewater treatment, nanocellulose membranes are divided into two categories according to the role in filtration membrane: the application of nanocellulose as membrane matrix material and as a modified additive in composite membrane in wastewater treatment. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of inorganic ceramic filtrations and nanocellulose filtrations are compared, and the application trend of nanocellulose in the filtration membrane direction is summarized and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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16 pages, 4548 KiB  
Article
Influences of Sodium Lignosulfonate and High-Volume Fly Ash on Setting Time and Hardened State Properties of Engineered Cementitious Composites
by Anggun Tri Atmajayanti, Chung-Chan Hung, Terry Y. P. Yuen and Run-Chan Shih
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174779 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) exhibit high ductility accompanied by multiple narrow cracking behavior under uniaxial tension. The study experimentally investigated the influence of sodium lignosulfonate and high volumes of fly ash (HVFA) on the properties of fresh and hardened ECC, with the experimental [...] Read more.
Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) exhibit high ductility accompanied by multiple narrow cracking behavior under uniaxial tension. The study experimentally investigated the influence of sodium lignosulfonate and high volumes of fly ash (HVFA) on the properties of fresh and hardened ECC, with the experimental variables including the amounts of fly ash, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, and sodium lignosulfonate. The test results were discussed extensively in terms of the initial and final setting times, compressive and tensile behavior, and drying and autogenous shrinkage. The results indicated that the initial and final setting times of ECC were increased along with the sodium lignosulfonate content of up to 1%. The drying shrinkage development was governed by the first 14 days. In addition, the major autogenous shrinkage developed for more than 28 days. The amounts of fly ash, PVA fibers, and sodium lignosulfonate considerably impacted the autogenous shrinkage. Moreover, it was found that the dosage of sodium lignosulfonate at 0.5% of the weight of Portland cement optimally reduced the shrinkage and enhanced the tensile strain capacity for ECC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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16 pages, 8223 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Cemented Particulate Composite: A 3D Micromechanical Model
by Chenglin Tao, Xi Liang, Xiaoxue Bi, Zeliang Liu and Huijian Li
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143875 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Cemented particulate composite is a kind of composite material with high strength, high energy absorption, and multifunctional characteristics, which is widely used in engineering practice. The calculation of the mechanical properties of granular composites based on theoretical methods has always been a topic [...] Read more.
Cemented particulate composite is a kind of composite material with high strength, high energy absorption, and multifunctional characteristics, which is widely used in engineering practice. The calculation of the mechanical properties of granular composites based on theoretical methods has always been a topic of discussion. A micromechanical model with a three-dimensional rigid beam-spring network (3D-RBSN) is proposed here. The stiffness matrix of the model was calculated theoretically. The model was applied to the analysis of the mechanical properties of composites material with glass beads and epoxy resin. The results indicate that the 3D-RBSN model can effectively predict the mechanical properties of composite materials, such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Furthermore, the damage evolution process of cemented particulate composite with initial defects was analyzed based on the 3D-RBSN model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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19 pages, 2613 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Solution of Large Amplitude Vibration Problem of Construction Elements Made of Nanocomposites Using Shear Deformation Theory
by Ali Deniz, Nicholas Fantuzzi, Abdullah Heydaroglu Sofiyev and Nuri Kuruoglu
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143843 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the vibration behaviors of carbon nanotube (CNT) patterned double-curved construction elements using the shear deformation theory (SDT). After the visual and mathematical models of CNT patterned double-curved construction elements are created, the large amplitude [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the vibration behaviors of carbon nanotube (CNT) patterned double-curved construction elements using the shear deformation theory (SDT). After the visual and mathematical models of CNT patterned double-curved construction elements are created, the large amplitude stress–strain relationships and basic dynamic equations are derived using the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Then, using the Galerkin method, the problem is reduced to the nonlinear vibration of nanocomposite continuous systems with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Applying the Grigolyuk method to the obtained nonlinear differential equation, large-amplitude frequency-amplitude dependence is obtained. The expressions for nonlinear frequencies of homogenous and inhomogeneous nanocomposite construction members such as plates, panels, spherical and hyperbolic-paraboloid (hypar) shells in the framework of FSDT are found in special cases. The accuracy of the results of the current study has been confirmed by comparing them with the reliable results reported in the literature. Original analyses are carried out to examine the effects of nonlinearity, CNT patterns and volume fraction changes on frequencies in the framework of shear deformation and classical shell theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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15 pages, 11114 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Compression Failure of Composite Laminates with Prefabricated Surface Cracks
by Wei Sun, Tian Ouyang, Zengshan Li and Yan Li
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133616 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
A new compression test fixture was designed in the present work to study the damage tolerance of composite laminates with surface cracks or notches. The compression failure behaviors of CCF300/5228A quasi-isotropic composite laminates with prefabricated surface cracks were studied experimentally. Through the size [...] Read more.
A new compression test fixture was designed in the present work to study the damage tolerance of composite laminates with surface cracks or notches. The compression failure behaviors of CCF300/5228A quasi-isotropic composite laminates with prefabricated surface cracks were studied experimentally. Through the size design of the test fixture and specimens and an application of a simple test method, the complex crack growth process was captured. The experimental results showed that the compression failure modes were mainly affected by crack angles and depths, and there were two typical failure modes, which were local intra- and inter-laminar damage propagating from the crack tips and delamination growth induced from the crack leading edge. This study verified the validity of the test fixture and test method, and revealed the compression failure mechanisms of composite laminates with surface cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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13 pages, 5617 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Insulating Sustainable Mortars with Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Pennisetum setaceum Plants as Aggregates
by Dionisio Badagliacco, Carmelo Sanfilippo, Bartolomeo Megna, Tommaso La Mantia and Antonino Valenza
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5910; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135910 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
The use of natural fibers in cement composites is a widening research field as their application can enhance the mechanical and thermal behavior of cement mortars and limit their carbon footprint. In this paper, two different wild grasses, i.e., Ampelodesmos mauritanicus, also [...] Read more.
The use of natural fibers in cement composites is a widening research field as their application can enhance the mechanical and thermal behavior of cement mortars and limit their carbon footprint. In this paper, two different wild grasses, i.e., Ampelodesmos mauritanicus, also called diss, and Pennisetum setaceum, also known as crimson fountaingrass, are used as a source of natural aggregates for cement mortars. The main purpose is to assess the possibility of using the more invasive crimson fountaingrass in place of diss in cement-based vegetable concrete. The two plant fibers have been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), helium picnometry and thermogravimetric analysis. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of fiber panels has been measured. Mortars samples have been prepared using untreated, boiled and Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treated fibers. The mechanical characterization has been performed by means of three point bending and compression tests. Thermal conductivity and porosity have been measured to characterize physical modification induced by fibers’ treatments. The results showed better thermal and mechanical properties of diss fiber composites than fountaingrass one and that fiber treatments lead to a reduction of the thermal insulation properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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12 pages, 3784 KiB  
Article
Strength and Durability of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Latex-Modified Rapid-Set Cement Preplaced Concrete for Emergency Concrete Pavement Repair
by Su-Jin Lee, Hyung-Jin Shin and Chan-Gi Park
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4595; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104595 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
The benefits of using reinforcing fibers in latex-modified rapid-set cement preplaced concrete for emergency pavement repairs were examined in terms of strength, permeability, and durability as functions of the type of fiber. Single-type fibers, including jute, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and nylon fibers, [...] Read more.
The benefits of using reinforcing fibers in latex-modified rapid-set cement preplaced concrete for emergency pavement repairs were examined in terms of strength, permeability, and durability as functions of the type of fiber. Single-type fibers, including jute, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and nylon fibers, as well as hybrid fiber mixtures prepared with two of the aforementioned fibers at a 1:1 weight ratio, were evaluated. Fibers were incorporated into the concrete mixture at 1.2 kg/m3. A vibratory press compactor that simulates roller compaction was used to increase compaction and densification of the resulting pavement repair material. The hybrid fiber-reinforced latex-modified rapid-set cement preplaced concrete (HFLMC) was manufactured to satisfy the criteria for opening traffic, i.e., compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher, and flexural strength of 3.5 MPa or higher after 4 h. Pavement requiring repair was removed and replaced with coarse aggregate. The rapid-set binder, fibers, and latex were then mixed and placed onto the coarse aggregate layer. The repair was considered complete after compaction. The resulting HFLMC satisfied all of the test criteria. Furthermore, concretes made with hybrid fibers were more mechanically sound than those made with a single fiber variety. Hybrid fiber concretes made with PVA and nylon fibers exhibited the best properties for emergency pavement repair. These results indicate that HFLMC is suitable for emergency pavement repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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