Topic Editors

School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK
Centre for Sport Science and Human Performance, Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton 3200, New Zealand

Endurance and Ultra-Endurance: Implications of Training, Recovery, Nutrition, and Technology on Performance and Health

Abstract submission deadline
31 October 2025
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2025
Viewed by
8471

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are continually searching for the optimal training methods to enhance endurance and ultra-endurance performance. However, we must consider that recovery plays an equal, or perhaps an even greater part in performance optimization, and consequently nutrition, sleep and technology all play vital roles. Although peak performance itself is an important goal, the use of exercise to improve health and increase longevity is also what many are striving for. Athletes are competing at a professional level at a much higher age than previously believed possible, and we are interested to learn what drives this positive change. We have begun using technology to measure and quantify most aspects related to training, performance, and health, and welcome the numerous benefits the use of technology for e-sports competition can bring. E-sports that require a physical output at the same level as traditional exercise are growing in popularity and technology that supports this new arena is advancing at a very fast rate. We are interested in new developments in technology supporting e-sports requiring physical efforts for sports such as cycling, rowing, and sailing. Therefore, the main objectives of this Special Issue are to highlight and examine new and optimal training and recovery methods for performance and health, and to examine the use of technology to track and quantify measures of performance and well-being.

Dr. Nicolas Berger
Dr. Russ Best
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • determinants of endurance performance
  • recovery strategies
  • sports performance
  • sports nutrition
  • exercise to improve health
  • effects of different types of training
  • sleep
  • sensor technology and application
  • ultra-endurance
  • sport science
  • physical activity
  • ageing
  • fatigue monitoring
  • sports supplements
  • e-sports

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomechanics
biomechanics
- - 2021 23.8 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500 Submit
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Sports
sports
2.7 5.2 2013 19.3 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Muscles
muscles
- - 2022 20.8 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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14 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Compression Garments on Biomechanical and Physiological Factors
by Andrew Craig-Jones, Daniel R. Greene, Jonathan J. Ruiz-Ramie, James W. Navalta and John A. Mercer
Biomechanics 2024, 4(1), 109-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4010007 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 662
Abstract
To the purpose of this study was to compare muscle oscillation, muscle activation time, and oxygen consumption while wearing compression pants vs. a control garment during running. Methods. Eleven injury-free and recreationally active participants (26.73 ± 12.74 years) were recruited for this study. [...] Read more.
To the purpose of this study was to compare muscle oscillation, muscle activation time, and oxygen consumption while wearing compression pants vs. a control garment during running. Methods. Eleven injury-free and recreationally active participants (26.73 ± 12.74 years) were recruited for this study. Participants ran in full-leg compression pants (COMP) and a loose-fitting control garment (CON). Participants ran for 6 min at three submaximal speeds: preferred speed (PS), preferred speed minus 10% (PS − 10%), and preferred speed plus 10% (PS + 10%). The muscle activity of the leg was measured through electromyography (EMG). Muscle oscillation (MO) was measured with accelerometers attached to the thigh and shank. The rate of oxygen consumption (V.O2) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during each condition. MO was assessed over the 0–60 Hz range by averaging power across 10 Hz bins per leg segment. EMG data was processed to identify the activation time. Following each condition, a belief score was recorded. Dependent variables were each compared between conditions using 2 (garment) × 3 (speed) repeated measure ANOVAs (α = 0.05). The relationship between the belief score and dependent variables (compression-control) was analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation (α = 0.05). Results. MO was lower with the full-leg compression pants vs. the control garment (p < 0.05). The muscle activation time for each muscle was shorter while wearing the full-leg compression pants (p < 0.05). Neither the V.O2, RPE, SF, nor the HR were influenced by the garments (p > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between changes in the dependent variables and belief. Conclusion. Wearing compression pants resulted in reduced MO and activation time; however, these changes did not translate into a reduction in V.O2. Full article
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21 pages, 2280 KiB  
Article
Agreement between Ventilatory Thresholds and Bilaterally Measured Vastus Lateralis Muscle Oxygen Saturation Breakpoints in Trained Cyclists: Effects of Age and Performance
by Karmen Reinpõld, Indrek Rannama and Kristjan Port
Sports 2024, 12(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12020040 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
This study focused on comparing metabolic thresholds derived from local muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) signals, obtained using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), with global pulmonary ventilation rates measured at the mouth. It was conducted among various Age Groups within a well-trained cyclist population. [...] Read more.
This study focused on comparing metabolic thresholds derived from local muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) signals, obtained using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), with global pulmonary ventilation rates measured at the mouth. It was conducted among various Age Groups within a well-trained cyclist population. Additionally, the study examined how cycling performance characteristics impact the discrepancies between ventilatory thresholds (VTs) and SmO2 breakpoints (BPs). Methods: Junior (n = 18) and Senior (n = 15) cyclists underwent incremental cycling tests to assess their aerobic performance and to determine aerobic (AeT) and anaerobic (AnT) threshold characteristics through pulmonary gas exchange and changes in linearity of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle SmO2 signals. We compared the relative power (Pkg) at ventilatory thresholds (VTs) and breakpoints (BPs) for the nondominant (ND), dominant (DO), and bilaterally averaged (Avr) SmO2 during the agreement analysis. Additionally, a 30 s sprint test was performed to estimate anaerobic performance capabilities and to assess the cyclists’ phenotype, defined as the ratio of P@VT2 to the highest 5 s sprint power. Results: The Pkg@BP for Avr SmO2 had higher agreement with VT values than ND and DO. Avr SmO2 Pkg@BP1 was lower (p < 0.05) than Pkg@VT1 (mean bias: 0.12 ± 0.29 W/kg; Limits of Agreement (LOA): −0.45 to 0.68 W/kg; R2 = 0.72) and mainly among Seniors (0.21 ± 0.22 W/kg; LOA: −0.22 to 0.63 W/kg); there was no difference (p > 0.05) between Avr Pkg@BP2 and Pkg@VT2 (0.03 ± 0.22 W/kg; LOA: −0.40 to 0.45 W/kg; R2 = 0.86). The bias between two methods correlated significantly with the phenotype (r = −0.385 and r = −0.515 for AeT and AnT, respectively). Conclusions: Two breakpoints can be defined in the NIRS-captured SmO2 signal of VL, but the agreement between the two methods at the individual level was too low for interchangeable usage of those methods in the practical training process. Older cyclists generally exhibited earlier thresholds in muscle oxygenation signals compared to systemic responses, unlike younger cyclists who showed greater variability and no significant differences in this regard in bias values between the two threshold evaluation methods with no significant difference between methods. More sprinter-type cyclists tended to have systemic VT thresholds earlier than local NIRS-derived thresholds than athletes with relatively higher aerobic abilities. Full article
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13 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Intra-Day and Inter-Day Reliability and Usefulness of Performance, Kinetic and Kinematic Variables during Drop Jumping in Hurling Players
by Luke Atkins, Colin Coyle, Jeremy Moody, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo and Paul J. Byrne
Biomechanics 2024, 4(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4010001 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 706
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the intra-day and inter-day reliability and usefulness of performance (Jump height (JH), ground contact time (GCT) and reactive strength index (RSI)), kinetic (force, power, eccentric rate of force development [E-RFD] and leg stiffness [LS]) and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate the intra-day and inter-day reliability and usefulness of performance (Jump height (JH), ground contact time (GCT) and reactive strength index (RSI)), kinetic (force, power, eccentric rate of force development [E-RFD] and leg stiffness [LS]) and kinematic (velocity) variables during drop jumping (DJ) in hurling players. Seventeen (n = 17; mean ± SD; age = 23.35 ± 5.78 years, height = 178.35 ± 6.30 cm, body mass = 78.62 ± 8.06 kg) male club-level hurling players completed two maximal DJs from 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50 and 0.60 m drop heights on three testing days separated by 5–9 days of rest. Reliability was assessed using the coefficient of variation percentage (CV% ≤ 15%) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.70). For intra-day reliability, GCT (0.40 m, 0.50 m and 0.60 m), peak force (absolute and relative) (0.40 m and 0.50 m) and leg stiffness (0.40 m and 0.50 m) were found to be unreliable (ICC = 0.32–0.68 and CV% = 3.67–11.83%) from those specific drop heights. All other variables were found to be reliable (ICC = 0.72–0.98 and CV% = 1.07–14.02%) intra-day. All variables were found to be reliable (ICC = 0.72–0.96 and CV% = 2.57–14.68%) inter-day except for relative peak force and absolute and relative eccentric RFD (0.30 m and 0.40 m) (ICC = 0.68–0.90 and CV% = 7.76–16.47%). Practitioners have multiple reliable DJ performance, kinetic and kinematic variables for performance testing and training purposes. Full article
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11 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Ten Gene Variants Involved in Muscular Phenotypes in a Mexican Mestizo Population
by Luz Berenice López-Hernández, Guillermina Avila-Ramírez, Ariadna Del Villar-Morales, Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura, Luis Angel Montes-Almanza, Froylan Arturo García-Martínez, Antonio Miranda-Duarte, Carlos Antonio Sosa-Flores, Martha Eunice Rodríguez-Arellano, Ileana Chavez-Maisterra, Alexandra Berenice Luna-Angulo, Miriam Pavelth Casillas-Ávila and Benjamín Gómez-Díaz
Muscles 2023, 2(4), 389-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/muscles2040030 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Several reports have provided evidence that there are genetic variants of genes such as MSTN, BDRKB2, ACTN3 and ADRB2 that are involved in a better response to adaptation during resistance or strength training, while other genes such as GRB14, AGT [...] Read more.
Several reports have provided evidence that there are genetic variants of genes such as MSTN, BDRKB2, ACTN3 and ADRB2 that are involved in a better response to adaptation during resistance or strength training, while other genes such as GRB14, AGT and END1 are reported to be associated with the risk of suffering from some diseases such as diabetes, hypertension or obesity. A cross-sectional study from a Mexican Mestizo population was performed to estimate the frequency of 10 gene variants in 8 genes involved in athletic performance or chronic degenerative diseases, MSTN (rs1805085, rs1805086), BDKRB2 (rs1799722), FST (rs1423560), ACTN3 (rs1815739), ADRB2 (rs1042713, rs1042714), GRB14 (rs8192673), AGT (rs699) and EDN1 (rs5370), and to compare frequencies from 26 populations reported in the Database of 1000 Genomes project. Genotype frequencies fitted the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, except for MST rs1805086 and FST rs1423560, and our study revealed significant differences in the distribution of frequencies of some of these gene variants among populations reported in the 1000 Genomes Project. Our findings provide insights regarding the genetic background of our population, and future case–control studies can be carried out with more accurate sample sizes for genetic association studies. Our results may be also useful in recognizing the roles and mechanisms contributing to athletic performance and/or chronic degenerative diseases in Mexicans. Full article
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18 pages, 1276 KiB  
Communication
Perceptions of Cheating and Doping in E-Cycling
by Andrew Richardson, Nicolas Berger and Phillip Smith
Sports 2023, 11(10), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11100201 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 3095
Abstract
E-cycling is a growing area of cycling appealing to competitive cyclists and fitness enthusiasts. Zwift is the most popular e-cycling platform, with approx. 1 million subscribers and is a virtual environment that hosts regular races, including the UCI e-cycling world championships. The popularity [...] Read more.
E-cycling is a growing area of cycling appealing to competitive cyclists and fitness enthusiasts. Zwift is the most popular e-cycling platform, with approx. 1 million subscribers and is a virtual environment that hosts regular races, including the UCI e-cycling world championships. The popularity of Zwift has given rise to cases of cheating and hacking the system to gain an advantage in e-racing. As a result, some high-profile professional riders have faced bans. We set out to understand the thoughts and concerns e-cyclists have about cheating, hacking, and doping in e-cycling. A total of 337 females and 1130 males were recruited over a 7-week period via social networking sites to complete an online survey. Forty-four per cent had experienced cheating during e-racing, which made them feel angry, annoyed, disappointed, and cheated. However, 15% of those who experienced cheating said they did not care, possibly because many see e-racing as a game or training tool rather than a competitive event. Eighty-seven per cent of participants were in favour of enforcing a ban on cheaters in e-cycling, while 34% wanted cheaters to be banned during in-person cycling events too. Results indicate that many e-cyclists have experienced cheating and would like clearer rules and bans for cheaters during e-races. Full article
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