Topic Editors

Vocational School of Health Services, Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Antalya Bilim University, Antalya 07190, Turkey
Prof. Dr. Sam Kacew
Institute of Population Health, R. Samuel McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada

Environmental Toxicology and Human Health

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 August 2023)
Viewed by
56961
Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health book cover image

A printed edition is available here.

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental contamination has now become a major global issue with adverse effects on our health and food security. Humans and animals are being exposed to debilitating levels of contamination on a daily basis. Across the globe, air pollution alone causes millions of premature deaths annually, mainly from lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, heart failure, and respiratory infections, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), 99% of humanity breathes air containing contaminants above recommended levels. The United Nations has identified “a pollution-free planet” goal among its three pillars, in addition to climate change and biodiversity for 2022–2025. In order to mitigate contamination and relieve our burden of pollution-related disease, we need to devise target-specific strategies. To that end, risk assessment of each chemical and natural contaminants and solid evidence from toxicity studies appear to be of paramount importance. Meticulous efforts should be made to look into possible mechanisms of action for each pollutant and detect their toxic potential and safe limits through in vitro approaches and comprehensive in vivo animal testing. This Topic will focus on environmental pollutants (such as heavy metals, pesticides, nanoparticles, micro-nanoplastics, indoor air pollutants, pharmaceuticals, and industrial toxicants) and their human health effects, risk assessment, and relationship between various diseases and environmental pollutants. Human exposure to environmental pollutants may cause adverse effects such as neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, infertility, and metabolic disorders. We welcome original research articles, reviews, and opinion pieces related to the proposed focus area.

Prof. Dr. Esref Demir
Prof. Dr. Sam Kacew
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • environment and health
  • risk assessment
  • environmental pollutants
  • cancer
  • carcinogenesis
  • toxicity
  • biological effects
  • molecular toxicology

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
BioChem
biochem
- - 2021 54 Days CHF 1000
Cancers
cancers
5.2 7.4 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900
Cells
cells
6.0 9.0 2012 16.6 Days CHF 2700
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Biomolecules
biomolecules
5.5 8.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2700
Environments
environments
3.7 5.9 2014 23.7 Days CHF 1800
Toxics
toxics
4.6 3.4 2013 14.7 Days CHF 2600

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (28 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
5 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Environmental Toxicology and Human Health
by Esref Demir and Sam Kacew
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010555 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Humans and animals may be exposed on a continuous daily basis to a mixture of environmental contaminants that may act on several organ systems through differing mechanisms [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
16 pages, 3507 KiB  
Article
Mixture Effects of Bisphenol A and Its Structural Analogs on Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation
by Handule Lee, Juyoung Park and Kwangsik Park
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11120986 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been widely linked to endocrine-disrupting effects. Recently, many substitutes for BPA have been developed as safe structural analogs. However, they have still been reported to have similar adverse effects. The current study evaluated the effects of bisphenol A [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been widely linked to endocrine-disrupting effects. Recently, many substitutes for BPA have been developed as safe structural analogs. However, they have still been reported to have similar adverse effects. The current study evaluated the effects of bisphenol A and eight structural analogs on the transcription of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). The effects of binary and ternary mixtures prepared from different combinations of BPA analogs were also evaluated for transcription activity. The measured data of the mixtures were compared to the predicted data obtained by the full logistic model, and the model deviation ratio (MDR) was calculated to determine whether the effects were synergistic, antagonistic, or additive. Overall, the results suggest that the effect of bisphenol compound are additive in binary and ternary mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 2988 KiB  
Review
Environmental Endocrinology: Parabens Hazardous Effects on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Thyroid Axis
by Damáris Barcelos Cunha Azeredo, Denilson de Sousa Anselmo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, D’Angelo Carlo Magliano and Leandro Miranda-Alves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015246 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
Parabens are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) capable of interfering with the normal functioning of the thyroid, affecting the proper regulation of the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THs), which is controlled by the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT). Given the crucial role of these hormones [...] Read more.
Parabens are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) capable of interfering with the normal functioning of the thyroid, affecting the proper regulation of the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THs), which is controlled by the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT). Given the crucial role of these hormones in health and the growing evidence of diseases related to thyroid dysfunction, this review looks at the effects of paraben exposure on the thyroid. In this study, we considered research carried out in vitro and in vivo and epidemiological studies published between 1951 and 2023, which demonstrated an association between exposure to parabens and dysfunctions of the HPT axis. In humans, exposure to parabens increases thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, while exposure decreases TSH levels in rodents. The effects on THs levels are also poorly described, as well as peripheral metabolism. Regardless, recent studies have shown different actions between different subtypes of parabens on the HPT axis, which allows us to speculate that the mechanism of action of these parabens is different. Furthermore, studies of exposure to parabens are more evident in women than in men. Therefore, future studies are needed to clarify the effects of exposure to parabens and their mechanisms of action on this axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 8526 KiB  
Article
Transfer of Bisphenol A and Trace Metals from Plastic Packaging to Mineral Water in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
by Boukary Sawadogo, Francis Ousmane Konaté, Yacouba Konaté, Ousmane Traoré, Seyram Kossi Sossou, Eric Sawadogo, Pane Bernadette Sourabié Ouattara and Harouna Karambiri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(20), 6908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20206908 - 11 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
The consumption of packaged water is growing rapidly in both urban and rural centres in Burkina Faso. Bisphenol A (BPA) and trace metals are among the compounds used in the manufacture of plastic packaging, and their presence in water can pose a health [...] Read more.
The consumption of packaged water is growing rapidly in both urban and rural centres in Burkina Faso. Bisphenol A (BPA) and trace metals are among the compounds used in the manufacture of plastic packaging, and their presence in water can pose a health risk to consumers due to their alleged toxicity. Therefore, this study explores the transfer of these compounds from plastic packaging to mineral water in Sudano-Sahelian climatic conditions. Ten samples of packaged sachet water commercialised in Ouagadougou were studied. An absence of BPA in the borehole water used to produce packaged water has been shown. The transfer of BPA into mineral water increases with storage temperature. The BPA that appears in packaged water degrades over time. BPA concentrations ranged from 0 to 0.38 mg/L after two weeks of storage, 0 to 0.8 mg/L after four weeks of storage and 0 to 0.35 mg/L after 8 weeks of storage. Analysis of the trace metals showed steadily increasing concentrations from the second to the sixth weeks, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 9.7 µg/L for cadmium and from 0 to 0.13 mg/L for iron in the sachet water samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Maternal Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Early Pregnancy and Small for Gestational Age in Southern Sweden
by Ellen Malm, Andreas Vilhelmsson, Hannah Högfeldt, Isabelle Deshayes, Karin Källén, Stefan R. Hansson, Christian H. Lindh and Lars Rylander
Toxics 2023, 11(9), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11090750 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Small for gestational age (SGA) is considered an adverse birth outcome. Per- and polyfluoralkyl substances (PFAS) have become increasingly investigated as contributing environmental factors, thus far with inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate the hypothesized association between increased maternal PFAS levels [...] Read more.
Small for gestational age (SGA) is considered an adverse birth outcome. Per- and polyfluoralkyl substances (PFAS) have become increasingly investigated as contributing environmental factors, thus far with inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate the hypothesized association between increased maternal PFAS levels in early pregnancy and an increased risk for SGA birth. This population-based study used data from a sample of children born in Scania, Southern Sweden, between 1995 and 2009. Two groups were compared: cases born with SGA (n = 298) and non-SGA controls (n = 580). The cases consisted of two subgroups: one included women whose children’s growth in late pregnancy was in the lowest quartile, and another included women from the remaining growth quartiles. Corresponding maternal serum samples were collected from a biobank and analyzed for concentrations of four types of PFAS: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results were combined with information from birth registers and analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-tests and logistic regression—unadjusted as well as adjusted for potential confounders. In conclusion, elevated maternal concentrations of PFAS were not associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. However, significant ORs were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to women of Nordic origin (unadjusted OR 3.2 and adjusted OR 2.4) for PFHxS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

42 pages, 2829 KiB  
Review
Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
by Jinsong Xue, Qingqing Xiao, Min Zhang, Dan Li and Xiaofei Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713487 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of flame retardants used in plastics, textiles, polyurethane foam, and other materials. They contain two halogenated aromatic rings bonded by an ester bond and are classified according to the number and position of bromine atoms. Due [...] Read more.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of flame retardants used in plastics, textiles, polyurethane foam, and other materials. They contain two halogenated aromatic rings bonded by an ester bond and are classified according to the number and position of bromine atoms. Due to their widespread use, PBDEs have been detected in soil, air, water, dust, and animal tissues. Besides, PBDEs have been found in various tissues, including liver, kidney, adipose, brain, breast milk and plasma. The continued accumulation of PBDEs has raised concerns about their potential toxicity, including hepatotoxicity, kidney toxicity, gut toxicity, thyroid toxicity, embryotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. Previous studies have suggested that there may be various mechanisms contributing to PBDEs toxicity. The present study aimed to outline PBDEs’ toxic effects and mechanisms on different organ systems. Given PBDEs’ bioaccumulation and adverse impacts on human health and other living organisms, we summarize PBDEs’ effects and potential toxicity mechanisms and tend to broaden the horizons to facilitate the design of new prevention strategies for PBDEs-induced toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1954 KiB  
Review
Environmental Health and Toxicology: Immunomodulation Promoted by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Tributyltin
by Ricardo Correia da Silva, Mariana Pires Teixeira, Luciana Souza de Paiva and Leandro Miranda-Alves
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080696 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Tributyltin (TBT) is an environmental contaminant present on all continents, including Antarctica, with a potent biocidal action. Its use began to be intensified during the 1960s. It was effectively banned in 2003 but remains in the environment to this day due to several [...] Read more.
Tributyltin (TBT) is an environmental contaminant present on all continents, including Antarctica, with a potent biocidal action. Its use began to be intensified during the 1960s. It was effectively banned in 2003 but remains in the environment to this day due to several factors that increase its half-life and its misuse despite the bans. In addition to the endocrine-disrupting effect of TBT, which may lead to imposex induction in some invertebrate species, there are several studies that demonstrate that TBT also has an immunotoxic effect. The immunotoxic effects that have been observed experimentally in vertebrates using in vitro and in vivo models involve different mechanisms; mainly, there are alterations in the expression and/or secretion of cytokines. In this review, we summarize and update the literature on the impacts of TBT on the immune system, and we discuss issues that still need to be explored to fill the knowledge gaps regarding the impact of this endocrine-disrupting chemical on immune system homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1964 KiB  
Article
Uptake of Breathable Nano- and Micro-Sized Polystyrene Particles: Comparison of Virgin and Oxidised nPS/mPS in Human Alveolar Cells
by Antonio Laganà, Giuseppa Visalli, Alessio Facciolà, Consuelo Celesti, Daniela Iannazzo and Angela Di Pietro
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080686 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Airborne micro- and nanoplastics are widely spread and pose a risk to human health. The third polymer plastic most commonly produced and present in atmospheric fallout is polystyrene (PS). For these reasons and for a more realistic assessment of biological effects, we examined [...] Read more.
Airborne micro- and nanoplastics are widely spread and pose a risk to human health. The third polymer plastic most commonly produced and present in atmospheric fallout is polystyrene (PS). For these reasons and for a more realistic assessment of biological effects, we examined in-home oxidised (ox-, simulating photoaging) nPS/mPS (0.1 and 1 μm), comparing the effects with virgin ones (v-). On human alveolar cells (A549), we quantified the cellular uptake, using FITC-functionalised nPS/mPS, while cytotoxicity, changes in the acidic compartment, ROS production, mitochondrial function, and DNA damage were assessed to study the effects of internalised v- and ox-nPS/mPS. The results showed that the uptake was dose-dependent and very fast (1 h), since, at the lowest dose (1.25 µg/well), it was 20.8% and 21.8% of nPS and mPS, respectively. Compared to v-, significant ROS increases, DNA damage, and mitochondrial impairment were observed after exposure to ox-nPS/mPS. The enhancement of effects due to environmental aging processes highlighted the true potential impact on human health of these airborne pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1097 KiB  
Review
Drosophila as a Robust Model System for Assessing Autophagy: A Review
by Esref Demir and Sam Kacew
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080682 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Autophagy is the process through which a body breaks down and recycles its own cellular components, primarily inside lysosomes. It is a cellular response to starvation and stress, which plays decisive roles in various biological processes such as senescence, apoptosis, carcinoma, and immune [...] Read more.
Autophagy is the process through which a body breaks down and recycles its own cellular components, primarily inside lysosomes. It is a cellular response to starvation and stress, which plays decisive roles in various biological processes such as senescence, apoptosis, carcinoma, and immune response. Autophagy, which was first discovered as a survival mechanism during starvation in yeast, is now known to serve a wide range of functions in more advanced organisms. It plays a vital role in how cells respond to stress, starvation, and infection. While research on yeast has led to the identification of many key components of the autophagy process, more research into autophagy in more complex systems is still warranted. This review article focuses on the use of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a robust testing model in further research on autophagy. Drosophila provides an ideal environment for exploring autophagy in a living organism during its development. Additionally, Drosophila is a well-suited compact tool for genetic analysis in that it serves as an intermediate between yeast and mammals because evolution conserved the molecular machinery required for autophagy in this species. Experimental tractability of host–pathogen interactions in Drosophila also affords great convenience in modeling human diseases on analogous structures and tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3210 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Selenium Nanoparticles against Bisphenol A-Induced Toxicity in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Zaozao Pan, Jiaqiang Huang, Ting Hu, Yonghong Zhang, Lingyu Zhang, Jiaxi Zhang, Defeng Cui, Lu Li, Jing Wang and Qiong Wu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087242 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used to harden plastics and polycarbonates and causes serious toxic effects in multiple organs, including the intestines. Selenium, as an essential nutrient element for humans and animals, exhibits a predominant effect in various physiological processes. Selenium nanoparticles have [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used to harden plastics and polycarbonates and causes serious toxic effects in multiple organs, including the intestines. Selenium, as an essential nutrient element for humans and animals, exhibits a predominant effect in various physiological processes. Selenium nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention due to their outstanding biological activity and biosafety. We prepared chitosan-coated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) and further compared the protective effects, and investigated the underlying mechanism of SeNPs and inorganic selenium (Na2SeO3) on BPA-induced toxicity in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The particle size, zeta potential, and microstructure of SeNPs were detected by using a nano-selenium particle size meter and a transmission electron microscope. IPEC-J2 cells were exposed to BPA alone or simultaneously exposed to BPA and SeNPs or Na2SeO3. The CCK8 assay was performed to screen the optimal concentration of BPA exposure and the optimal concentration of SeNPs and Na2SeO3 treatment. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and Western blot methods were used to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of factors related to tight junctions, apoptosis, inflammatory responses and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Increased death and morphological damage were observed after BPA exposure, and these increases were attenuated by SeNPs and Na2SeO3 treatment. BPA exposure disturbed the tight junction function involved with decreased expression of tight junction protein Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 proteins. Proinflammatory response mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NF-κB), such as elevated levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression was induced at 6 and 24 h after BPA exposure. BPA exposure also disturbed the oxidant/antioxidant status and led to oxidative stress. IPEC-J2 cell apoptosis was induced by BPA exposure, as indicated by increased BCL-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 expression and decreased B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-xl expression. BPA exposure activated the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediated by the receptor protein kinase receptor-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), Inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). We found that treatment with SeNPs and Na2SeO3 can alleviate the intestinal damage caused by BPA. SeNPs were superior to Na2SeO3 and counteracted BPA-induced tight junction function injury, proinflammatory response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and ERS stress. Our findings suggest that SeNPs protect intestinal epithelial cells from BPA-induced damage, partly through inhibiting ER stress activation and subsequently attenuating proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress and suppressing apoptosis, thus enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier function. Our data indicate that selenium nanoparticles may represent an effective and reliable tool for preventing BPA toxicity in animals and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 4283 KiB  
Article
A Realistic Mixture of Persistent Organic Pollutants Affects Zebrafish Development, Behavior, and Specifically Eye Formation by Inhibiting the Condensin I Complex
by Gustavo Guerrero-Limón, Renaud Nivelle, Nguyen Bich-Ngoc, Dinh Duy-Thanh and Marc Muller
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040357 - 09 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are posing major environmental and health threats due to their stability, ubiquity, and bioaccumulation. Most of the numerous studies of these compounds deal with single chemicals, although real exposures always consist of mixtures. Thus, using different tests, we screened [...] Read more.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are posing major environmental and health threats due to their stability, ubiquity, and bioaccumulation. Most of the numerous studies of these compounds deal with single chemicals, although real exposures always consist of mixtures. Thus, using different tests, we screened the effects on zebrafish larvae caused by exposure to an environmentally relevant POP mixture. Our mixture consisted of 29 chemicals as found in the blood of a Scandinavian human population. Larvae exposed to this POP mix at realistic concentrations, or sub-mixtures thereof, presented growth retardation, edemas, retarded swim bladder inflation, hyperactive swimming behavior, and other striking malformations such as microphthalmia. The most deleterious compounds in the mixture belong to the per- and polyfluorinated acids class, although chlorinated and brominated compounds modulated the effects. Analyzing the changes in transcriptome caused by POP exposure, we observed an increase of insulin signaling and identified genes involved in brain and eye development, leading us to propose that the impaired function of the condensin I complex caused the observed eye defect. Our findings contribute to the understanding of POP mixtures, their consequences, and potential threats to human and animal populations, indicating that more mechanistic, monitoring, and long-term studies are imperative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
Development of an Improved Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria-Based Ecotoxicity Test for Simple and Rapid On-Site Application
by Heonseop Eom
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040352 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Microbial toxicity tests are considered efficient screening tools for the assessment of water contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB)-based ecotoxicity test with high sensitivity and reproducibility for simple and rapid on-site application. To attain this goal, [...] Read more.
Microbial toxicity tests are considered efficient screening tools for the assessment of water contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB)-based ecotoxicity test with high sensitivity and reproducibility for simple and rapid on-site application. To attain this goal, we developed a 25 mL vial-based toxicity kit and improved our earlier SOB toxicity test technique. The current study applied a suspended form of SOB and shortened the processing time to 30 min. Moreover, we optimized the test conditions of the SOB toxicity kit in terms of initial cell density, incubating temperature, and mixing intensity during incubation. We determined that 2 × 105 cells/mL initial cell density, 32 °C incubating temperature, and 120 rpm mixing intensity are the optimal test conditions. Using these test conditions, we performed SOB toxicity tests for heavy metals and petrochemicals, and obtained better detection sensitivity and test reproducibility, compared to earlier SOB tests. Our SOB toxicity kit tests have numerous advantages, including a straightforward test protocol, no requirement of sophisticated laboratory equipment, and no distortion of test results from false readings of end-points and properties of test samples, making it suitable for simple and rapid on-site application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Triazine Herbicides Risk Management Strategies on Environmental and Human Health Aspects Using In-Silico Methods
by Tianfu Yao, Peixuan Sun and Wenjin Zhao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065691 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
As an effective herbicide, 1, 3, 5-Triazine herbicides (S-THs) are used widely in the pesticide market. However, due to their chemical properties, S-THs severely threaten the environment and human health (e.g., human lung cytotoxicity). In this study, molecular docking, Analytic Hierarchy Process—Technique for [...] Read more.
As an effective herbicide, 1, 3, 5-Triazine herbicides (S-THs) are used widely in the pesticide market. However, due to their chemical properties, S-THs severely threaten the environment and human health (e.g., human lung cytotoxicity). In this study, molecular docking, Analytic Hierarchy Process—Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (AHP-TOPSIS), and a three-dimensional quantitative structure-active relationship (3D-QSAR) model were used to design S-TH substitutes with high herbicidal functionality, high microbial degradability, and low human lung cytotoxicity. We discovered a substitute, Derivative-5, with excellent overall performance. Furthermore, Taguchi orthogonal experiments, full factorial design of experiments, and the molecular dynamics method were used to identify three chemicals (namely, the coexistence of aspartic acid, alanine, and glycine) that could promote the degradation of S-THs in maize cropping fields. Finally, density functional theory (DFT), Estimation Programs Interface (EPI), pharmacokinetic, and toxicokinetic methods were used to further verify the high microbial degradability, favorable aquatic environment, and human health friendliness of Derivative 5. This study provided a new direction for further optimizations of novel pesticide chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Subchronic Low-Dose Methylmercury Exposure Accelerated Cerebral Telomere Shortening in Relevant with Declined Urinary aMT6s Level in Rats
by Xi Wu, Ping Li, Junyan Tao, Xiong Chen and Aihua Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020191 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant with established toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, early events and early-warning biomarkers of CNS damage following exposure to low-dose MeHg are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate whether subchronic low-dose MeHg exposure [...] Read more.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant with established toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, early events and early-warning biomarkers of CNS damage following exposure to low-dose MeHg are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate whether subchronic low-dose MeHg exposure had adverse effects on the cerebral telomere length, as well as serum melatonin and its urinary metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in rats. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group I was the control group. In group II, rats were exposed to MeHg by gavage at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day for 3 months. This study revealed that MeHg exposure resulted in impairment of learning and memory ability, a slightly reduced number of neurons and an irregular arrangement of neurons in the hippocampus. It also significantly accelerated telomere shortening in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Moreover, MeHg exposure decreased the levels of melatonin in serum and aMT6s in urine, partly by suppressing the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain but promoted the expression of melatonin-catalyzing AANAT and ASMT. Importantly, cerebral telomere length was positively correlated with MT and aMT6s after MeHg exposure. These results suggested that the shortened telomere length in the brain may be an early event in MeHg-induced CNS toxicity, and the level of aMT6s in urine may serve as an early-warning biomarker for MeHg-induced CNS damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1287 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association of Dietary Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds Intake and Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Monireh Sadat Seyyedsalehi, Elham Mohebbi, Fatemeh Tourang, Bahareh Sasanfar, Paolo Boffetta and Kazem Zendehdel
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020190 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are a class of chemical carcinogens found in various environmental sources such as food, drinking water, cigarette smoke, the work environment, and the indoor air population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the links between nitrate, nitrite, [...] Read more.
N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are a class of chemical carcinogens found in various environmental sources such as food, drinking water, cigarette smoke, the work environment, and the indoor air population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the links between nitrate, nitrite, and NOCs in food and water and the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). A systematic search of the literature in Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Embase was performed for studies on the association between NOCs in drinking water and food sources and GI cancers. Forest plots of relative risk (RR) were constructed for all the cancer sites and the intake sources. The random-effects model was used to assess the heterogeneity between studies. Forty articles were included after removing duplicate and irrelevant articles. The meta-analysis indicated that the intake of high dose vs. low dose of these compounds was significantly associated with the overall GI cancer risk and nitrite (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.07–1.29), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06–1.65). We found that dietary nitrite intake increased GC (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02–1.73), and EC (RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01–1.89). Additionally, dietary NDMA intake increased the risk of CRC (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.18–1.58). This meta-analysis provides some evidence that the intake of dietary and water nitrate, nitrite, and NOCs may be associated with GI cancers. In particular, dietary nitrite is linked to GC and EC risks and dietary NDMA intake is associated with CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 11815 KiB  
Article
Downregulation of LncRNA GCLC-1 Promotes Microcystin-LR-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Liver Cells by Regulating GCLC Expression
by Xinglei Huang, Zhaohui Su, Jiangheng Li, Junquan He, Na Zhao, Liyun Nie, Bin Guan, Qiuyue Huang, Huiliu Zhao, Guo-Dong Lu and Qingqing Nong
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020162 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is an aquatic toxin, which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered important regulatory elements in the occurrence and development of cancer. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs during the process of [...] Read more.
Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is an aquatic toxin, which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered important regulatory elements in the occurrence and development of cancer. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs during the process of HCC, induced by MCLR, remain elusive. Here, we identified a novel lncRNA, namely lnc-GCLC-1 (lncGCLC), which is in close proximity to the chromosome location of glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). We then investigated the role of lncGCLC in MCLR-induced malignant transformation of WRL68, a human hepatic cell line. During MCLR-induced cell transformation, the expression of lncGCLC and GCLC decreased continuously, accompanied with a consistently high expression of miR-122-5p. Knockdown of lncGCLC promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but reduced cell apoptosis. A xenograft nude mouse model demonstrated that knockdown of lncGCLC promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, knockdown of lncGCLC significantly upregulated miR-122-5p expression, suppressed GCLC expression and GSH levels, and enhanced oxidative DNA damages. More importantly, the expression of lncGCLC in human HCC tissues was significantly downregulated in the high-microcystin exposure group, and positively associated with GCLC level in HCC tissues. Together, these findings suggest that lncGCLC plays an anti-oncogenic role in MCLR-induced malignant transformation by regulating GCLC expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 4530 KiB  
Article
Y-27632 Impairs Angiogenesis on Extra-Embryonic Vasculature in Post-Gastrulation Chick Embryos
by Johannes W. Duess, Jan-Hendrik Gosemann, Anna Kaskova Gheorghescu, Prem Puri and Jennifer Thompson
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020134 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Y-27632 inhibits Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling, which is involved in various embryonic developmental processes, including angiogenesis, by controlling actin cytoskeleton assembly and cell contractility. Administration of Y-27632 impairs cytoskeletal arrangements in post-gastrulation chick embryos, leading to ventral body wall defects (VBWDs). [...] Read more.
Y-27632 inhibits Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling, which is involved in various embryonic developmental processes, including angiogenesis, by controlling actin cytoskeleton assembly and cell contractility. Administration of Y-27632 impairs cytoskeletal arrangements in post-gastrulation chick embryos, leading to ventral body wall defects (VBWDs). Impaired angiogenesis has been hypothesized to contribute to VBWDs. ROCK is essential in transmitting signals downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF-mediated angiogenesis induces gene expressions and alterations of the actin cytoskeleton upon binding to VEGF receptors (VEGFRs). The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Y-27632 on angiogenesis in post-gastrulation chick embryos during early embryogenesis. After 60 h incubation, embryos in shell-less culture were treated with Y-27632 or vehicle for controls. Y-27632-treated embryos showed reduced extra-embryonic blood vessel formation with impaired circulation of the yolk sac, confirmed by fractal analysis. Western blot confirmed impaired ROCK downstream signaling by decreased expression of phosphorylated myosin light chain. Interestingly, RT-PCR demonstrated increased gene expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 1 h post-treatment. Protein levels of VEGF were higher in Y-27632-treated embryos at 8 h following treatment, whereas no difference was seen in membranes. We hypothesize that administration of Y-27632 impairs vessel formation during angiogenesis, which may contribute to failure of VWB closure, causing VBWDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5052 KiB  
Article
Exposure to Polypropylene Microplastics via Oral Ingestion Induces Colonic Apoptosis and Intestinal Barrier Damage through Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Mice
by Rui Jia, Jie Han, Xiaohua Liu, Kang Li, Wenqing Lai, Liping Bian, Jun Yan and Zhuge Xi
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020127 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3315 | Correction
Abstract
Extensive environmental pollution by microplastics has increased the risk of human exposure to plastics. However, the biosafety of polypropylene microplastics (PP-MPs), especially of PP particles < 10 μm, in mammals has not been studied. Thus, here, we explored the mechanism of action and [...] Read more.
Extensive environmental pollution by microplastics has increased the risk of human exposure to plastics. However, the biosafety of polypropylene microplastics (PP-MPs), especially of PP particles < 10 μm, in mammals has not been studied. Thus, here, we explored the mechanism of action and effect of exposure to small and large PP-MPs, via oral ingestion, on the mouse intestinal tract. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered PP suspensions (8 and 70 μm; 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/mL) for 28 days. PP-MP treatment resulted in inflammatory pathological damage, ultrastructural changes in intestinal epithelial cells, imbalance of the redox system, and inflammatory reactions in the colon. Additionally, we observed damage to the tight junctions of the colon and decreased intestinal mucus secretion and ion transporter expression. Further, the apoptotic rate of colonic cells significantly increased after PP-MP treatment. The expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptosis proteins significantly increased in colon tissue, while the expression of anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis proteins significantly decreased. In summary, this study demonstrates that PP-MPs induce colonic apoptosis and intestinal barrier damage through oxidative stress and activation of the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signal pathway in mice, which provides new insights into the toxicity of MPs in mammals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 3364 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Heavy Metals via Food Consumption in Inhabitants of Middle Basin of the Atrato River in the Colombian Pacific
by Gabriel Caicedo-Rivas, Manuel Salas-Moreno and José Marrugo-Negrete
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010435 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
The Atrato river basin is one of the world’s most biodiverse areas; however, it is highly impacted by mercury gold mining, which generates air, water, and soil pollution. (1) Background: The concentrations of persistent heavy metal pollutants, mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), [...] Read more.
The Atrato river basin is one of the world’s most biodiverse areas; however, it is highly impacted by mercury gold mining, which generates air, water, and soil pollution. (1) Background: The concentrations of persistent heavy metal pollutants, mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in the fish, fruits, and vegetables most consumed by the riverside inhabitants of the middle basin of the Atrato river represent a danger to public health; (2) Methods: A total of 154 samples of different fruits and vegetables and 440 samples of fish were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A sample of 446 people were surveyed to evaluate food consumption and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk; (4) Conclusions: High concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd were identified in fish, fruits-tubers, and vegetables-stems commonly consumed by inhabitants of the middle basin of the Atrato River, which exceeded the Codex limits and the limits established by the WHO/FAO, especially for carnivorous fish species. A high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk was evidenced amongst inhabitants of the middle basin of the Atrato River due to the consumption of fish contaminated with high concentrations of As, MeHg, and THg. The risk due to the consumption of vegetables was very low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2985 KiB  
Article
Organotin Antifouling Compounds and Sex-Steroid Nuclear Receptor Perturbation: Some Structural Insights
by Mohd A. Beg, Md A. Beg, Ummer R. Zargar, Ishfaq A. Sheikh, Osama S. Bajouh, Adel M. Abuzenadah and Mohd Rehan
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010025 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a commercially important group of organometallic compounds of tin used globally as polyvinyl chloride stabilizers and marine antifouling biocides. Worldwide use of OTCs has resulted in their ubiquitous presence in ecosystems across all the continents. OTCs have metabolic and [...] Read more.
Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a commercially important group of organometallic compounds of tin used globally as polyvinyl chloride stabilizers and marine antifouling biocides. Worldwide use of OTCs has resulted in their ubiquitous presence in ecosystems across all the continents. OTCs have metabolic and endocrine disrupting effects in marine and terrestrial organisms. Thus, harmful OTCs (tributyltin) have been banned by the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Antifouling Systems since 2008. However, continued manufacturing by non-member countries poses a substantial risk for animal and human health. In this study, structural binding of common commercial OTCs, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenyltin (DPT), monophenyltin (MPT), and azocyclotin (ACT) against sex-steroid nuclear receptors, androgen receptor (AR), and estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) was performed using molecular docking and MD simulation. TBT, DBT, DPT, and MPT bound deep within the binding sites of AR, ERα, and Erβ, showing good dock score, binding energy and dissociation constants that were comparable to bound native ligands, testosterone and estradiol. The stability of docking complex was shown by MD simulation of organotin/receptor complex with RMSD, RMSF, Rg, and SASA plots showing stable interaction, low deviation, and compactness of the complex. A high commonality (50–100%) of interacting residues of ERα and ERβ for the docked ligands and bound native ligand (estradiol) indicated that the organotin compounds bound in the same binding site of the receptor as the native ligand. The results suggested that organotins may interfere with the natural steroid/receptor binding and perturb steroid signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1596 KiB  
Article
Chronic Home Radon Exposure Is Associated with Higher Inflammatory Biomarker Concentrations in Children and Adolescents
by Brittany K. Taylor, OgheneTejiri V. Smith and Gregory E. Miller
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010246 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
Children are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious impacts of toxic environmental exposures, though the effects of some rather ubiquitous toxins have yet to be characterized in youths. One such toxin, radon gas, is known to accumulate to hazardous levels in homes, and has [...] Read more.
Children are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious impacts of toxic environmental exposures, though the effects of some rather ubiquitous toxins have yet to be characterized in youths. One such toxin, radon gas, is known to accumulate to hazardous levels in homes, and has been linked with the incidence of lung cancer in aging adults. However, the degree to which chronic home radon exposure may impact risk for health problems earlier in life is unknown. Herein, we explored the degree to which chronic home radon exposure relates to biomarkers of low-grade inflammation in 68 youths ages 6- to 14 years old residing in an area of the United States prone to high home radon concentrations. Parents completed a home radon test kit, and youths provided a saliva sample to assess concentrations of five biomarkers. Using a multiple regression approach, we found that greater radon exposure was specifically associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (β = 0.31, p = 0.007) and interleukin-1β (β = 0.33, p = 0.016). The data suggested specificity in associations between chronic home radon exposure and different biomarkers of inflammatory activity and highlight a pathway which may confer risk for future mental and physical health maladies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 13423 KiB  
Article
Reducing Virus Transmission from Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems of Urban Subways
by Ata Nazari, Jiarong Hong, Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120796 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
Aerosols carrying the virus inside enclosed spaces is an important mode of transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as supported by growing evidence. Urban subways are one of the most frequented enclosed spaces. The subway is a utilitarian and low-cost [...] Read more.
Aerosols carrying the virus inside enclosed spaces is an important mode of transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as supported by growing evidence. Urban subways are one of the most frequented enclosed spaces. The subway is a utilitarian and low-cost transit system in modern society. However, studies are yet to demonstrate patterns of viral transmission in subway heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. To fill this gap, we performed a computational investigation of the airflow (and associated aerosol transmission) in an urban subway cabin equipped with an HVAC system. We employed a transport equation for aerosol concentration, which was added to the basic buoyant solver to resolve the aerosol transmission inside the subway cabin. This was achieved by considering the thermal, turbulent, and induced ventilation flow effects. Using the probability of encountering aerosols on sampling surfaces crossing the passenger breathing zones, we detected the highest infection risk zones inside the urban subway under different settings. We proposed a novel HVAC system that can impede aerosol spread, both vertically and horizontally, inside the cabin. In the conventional model, the maximum probability of encountering aerosols from the breathing of infected individuals near the fresh-air ducts was equal to 51.2%. This decreased to 3.5% in the proposed HVAC model. Overall, using the proposed HVAC system for urban subways led to a decrease in the mean value of the probability of encountering the aerosol by approximately 84% compared with that of the conventional system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2068 KiB  
Communication
Relationship of Fluoride Concentration to Well Depth in an Alluvial Aquifer in a Semiarid Area
by María Socorro Espino-Valdés, Daniel F. Rodríguez-Lozano, Mélida Gutiérrez, Humberto Silva-Hidalgo and Adán Pinales-Munguía
Environments 2022, 9(12), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9120155 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Groundwater of northern Mexico contains high concentrations of geogenic fluoride (F), a contaminant known to affect human health. The origin of F in groundwater in this region has been related to the weathering of rhyolite and other volcanic rocks present [...] Read more.
Groundwater of northern Mexico contains high concentrations of geogenic fluoride (F), a contaminant known to affect human health. The origin of F in groundwater in this region has been related to the weathering of rhyolite and other volcanic rocks present in the alluvium. However, the relationship of F concentration to water depth has not been established. F concentrations, pH, and total dissolved solids (TSD) were determined for 18 wells within the Meoqui-Delicias aquifer in 2021. The F concentrations varied between 0.62 mg L−1 and 4.84 mg L−1, and 61% of the wells exceeded the 1.5 mg L−1 guideline. F concentrations did not correlate to TDS but correlated to well depth (r = −0.52, p < 0.05). Because of the less-than-strong correlation coefficient value obtained, a diagram of F concentrations vs. well depth was constructed. The diagram showed a distinct enrichment of F in shallow wells, suggesting that groundwater residence time and evaporation may be important factors in explaining the F content within the aquifer. This pattern was confirmed after plotting 2003 and 2006 data for the same wells. These findings are important to better understand the distribution of F in neighboring alluvial aquifers as well as in alluvial aquifers elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3028 KiB  
Article
Leaching Mechanism and Health Risk Assessment of As and Sb in Tailings of Typical Antimony Mines: A Case Study in Yunnan and Guizhou Province, Southwest China
by Ziyou Bai, Yinping He, Zhiwei Han and Fuzhong Wu
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120777 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The weathering and leaching of mining tailings have released large amounts of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As), causing serious pollution in the surrounding soil, water, and sediments. To understand the leaching characteristics of Sb and As in mining tailings, Zuoxiguo and Qinglong mining [...] Read more.
The weathering and leaching of mining tailings have released large amounts of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As), causing serious pollution in the surrounding soil, water, and sediments. To understand the leaching characteristics of Sb and As in mining tailings, Zuoxiguo and Qinglong mining tailings were collected for analysis. The average content of Sb in Zuoxiguo and Qinglong tailings was 5902.77 mg/kg and 1426.43 mg/kg, respectively, while that of As was 412.53 mg/kg and 405.26 mg/kg, respectively, which exceeded the local background value. Furthermore, the concentrations of Sb in the leachate of Zuoxiguo and Qinglong increased with time; the average Sb concentration in the leachate of Zuoxiguo and Qinglong was 1470.48 μg/L and 70.20 μg/L, respectively, while that of the As concentration was 31.20 μg/L and 6.45 μg/L, respectively. This suggests that the concentrations of Sb and As in the leachate of Zuoxiguo are both higher than those in the leachate of Qinglong and that the pH of the leachate of Zuoxiguo and Qinglong significantly changed within the first day under different initial pH conditions, and tended to be between 6 and 8, after one day. The results of the average health risk index showed that As in the leachate from Zuoxiguo and Qinglong for children was 5.67 × 10−4 and 9.13 × 10−5, respectively, and 4.43 × 10−4 and 7.16 × 10−5, respectively, for adults. As in the leachate from Zuoxiguo poses serious carcinogenic risks for residents, and in the study area, As poses a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the local government must manage As in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 401 KiB  
Review
Impact of Paraben Exposure on Adiposity-Related Measures: An Updated Literature Review of Population-Based Studies
by Xinyun Xu, Haoying Wu, Paul D. Terry, Ling Zhao and Jiangang Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316268 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2457
Abstract
Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that are commonly used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Humans are exposed to parabens when they use these products and through diet. There are growing concerns that paraben exposure can adversely impact human health. The endocrine-disrupting [...] Read more.
Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that are commonly used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Humans are exposed to parabens when they use these products and through diet. There are growing concerns that paraben exposure can adversely impact human health. The endocrine-disrupting and obesogenic properties of parabens have been observed in animal studies and in vitro, prompting the increase in population-based studies of paraben exposure and adiposity-related endpoints. In this review, we summarize epidemiological studies published between 2017 and 2022 that examined paraben exposure in utero, between birth and adolescence, and in adulthood, in relation to adiposity-related measures. Overall, these studies provide some evidence that suggests that paraben exposure, especially during critical development windows, is associated with adiposity-related measures. However, we have noted several limitations in these studies, including the predominance of cross-sectional studies, inconsistent sample collection procedures, and small sample sizes, which should be addressed in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
14 pages, 3550 KiB  
Article
Monochromatic Light Pollution Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Induced Adipocytic Hypertrophy in Mice
by Qingyun Guan, Yixuan Li, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Fazheng Ren and Yaoxing Chen
Cells 2022, 11(23), 3808; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11233808 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Light pollution worldwide promotes the progression of obesity, which is widely considered a consequence of circadian rhythm disruptions. However, the role of environmental light wavelength in mammalian obesity is not fully understood. Herein, mice fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-fat [...] Read more.
Light pollution worldwide promotes the progression of obesity, which is widely considered a consequence of circadian rhythm disruptions. However, the role of environmental light wavelength in mammalian obesity is not fully understood. Herein, mice fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) were exposed to daytime white (WL), blue (BL), green (GL), and red light (RL) for 8 weeks. Compared with WL and RL, BL significantly increased weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, and it disrupted glucose homeostasis in mice fed with HFD but not NCD. The analysis of WAT found that BL significantly aggravated HFD-induced WAT hypertrophy, with a decrease in IL-10 and an increase in NLRP3, p-P65, p-IκB, TLR4, Cd36, Chrebp, Srebp-1c, Fasn, and Cpt1β relative to WL or RL. More interestingly, BL upregulated the expression of circadian clocks in the WAT, including Clock, Bmal1, Per1, Cry1, Cry2, Rorα, Rev-erbα, and Rev-erbβ compared with WL or RL. However, most of the changes had no statistical difference between BL and GL. Mechanistically, BL significantly increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels and glucocorticoid receptors in the WAT, which may account for the changes in circadian clocks. Further, in vitro study confirmed that CORT treatment did promote the expression of circadian clocks in 3T3-L1 cells, accompanied by an increase in Chrebp, Cd36, Hsp90, P23, NLRP3, and p-P65. Thus, daily BL, rather than RL exposure-induced CORT elevation, may drive changes in the WAT circadian clocks, ultimately exacerbating lipid dysmetabolism and adipocytic hypertrophy in the HFD-fed mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Assessment of Dermal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Use of Infant Diapers
by Alfred Bernard and Vincent Dudler
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214760 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
In September 2021, the European Chemicals Agency evaluated a dossier for restricting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infant diapers and concluded that risks were not demonstrated, because of inconclusive exposure data. To fill this gap, we measured the 16 priority PAHs of the [...] Read more.
In September 2021, the European Chemicals Agency evaluated a dossier for restricting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infant diapers and concluded that risks were not demonstrated, because of inconclusive exposure data. To fill this gap, we measured the 16 priority PAHs of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the diaper core of four brands and in the sheets and fastening tapes of six brands of commercially available diapers. Health risks were conservatively assessed by assuming that dermally absorbed PAHs can cause both local (skin cancer) and systemic critical effects (neurobehavioral changes). Total concentrations of PAHs in the diaper core and top sheet, the only significant contributors to skin exposure, averaged 26.5 μg/kg and 66.6 μg/kg, respectively. Excess skin cancer risks and hazard quotients for neurobehavioral effects calculated with the daily dose of total PAHs from the combined diaper core and top sheet averaged 1.44 × 10−7 and 1.19 × 10−2, respectively. The median daily doses of total PAHs and of its benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent from breast milk estimated worldwide are 171 and 30 times greater than that from the combined diaper core and top sheet, respectively. Altogether, these findings indicate that trace levels of PAHs found in infant diapers are unlikely to pose health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
18 pages, 2281 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Hand Sanitizer Products Marketed to Children Available during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Lauren E. Gloekler, Elise J. de Gandiaga, Natalie R. Binczewski, Katie G. Steimel, Andrey Massarsky, Jordan Kozal, Melissa Vincent, Rachel Zisook, Mark J. LaGuardia, Scott Dotson and Shannon Gaffney
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114424 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
Hand sanitizer use in the United States (U.S.) increased after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released temporary manufacturer guidance, changing impurity level limits for alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs). Since the guidance took effect, the FDA has recommended against [...] Read more.
Hand sanitizer use in the United States (U.S.) increased after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released temporary manufacturer guidance, changing impurity level limits for alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs). Since the guidance took effect, the FDA has recommended against using these hand sanitizers due to concerns over safety, efficacy, and/or risk of incidental ingestion. To address current gaps in exposure characterization, this study describes a survey of ABHSs marketed to children available in the U.S., as defined by several inclusion criteria. A subset of ABHSs (n = 31) were evaluated for ethanol and organic impurities using a modified FDA method. Products with detectable impurity levels were compared to the FDA’s established interim limits. Seven children’s products had impurity levels exceeding the FDA’s recommended interim limits, including benzene (up to 9.14 ppm), acetaldehyde (up to 134.12 ppm), and acetal (up to 75.60 ppm). The total measured alcohol content ranged from 52% to 98% in all hand sanitizers tested, ranging from 39% below, and up to 31% above, the labeled concentration. Future studies should confirm impurity contamination sources. A risk assessment could determine whether dermal application or incidental ingestion of impurity-containing hand sanitizers pose any consumer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop