Topic Editors

1. Environmental Remote Sensing Group, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
2. Albavalor S.L.U., University of Valencia Science Park, Valencia, Spain
Albavalor S.L.U., University of Valencia Science Park, Valencia, Spain
Dr. Carlos Doménech
Climate Change and Sustainability Services, GMV, Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Informática y Sistemas, Facultad de Informática, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain

Earth Observation-Based Ecosystem Services in Support of Planet SDGs

Abstract submission deadline
31 July 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 October 2024
Viewed by
14857

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Topic Editors of “Earth Observation-based Ecosystem Services in Support of Planet SDGs” understand that this is a challenging subject, which focuses on providing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with the most advanced Earth Observation (EO) techniques applied to ecosystem services, in accordance with the trend of significant agencies such as ESA, FAO, GEO, etc. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have combined their efforts to help achieve the SDGs, strengthening their collaboration to generate and share data and information to better support the achievement of the SDGs. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Earth Observations for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Initiative enable GEO and the Earth Observation community to contribute to the 2030 Agenda. The main objective of this initiative is to organise and harness the potential of Earth observations and geospatial information, advancing the 2030 Agenda and enabling societal benefits through the achievement of the Planet SDGs. This initiative supports efforts to integrate Earth observations and geospatial information into national SDG development and monitoring frameworks.

The improvement in analytical development of EO techniques is a result of the evolution of new analytical methods/algorithms in an automated processing environment. This includes multi-sensor data fusion, cloud-based infrastructures, big data techniques, deep learning/machine learning, artificial intelligence, data semantics, etc. In short, the aim has been to process a larger amount of data more quickly, as well as to apply learning techniques to automate processing while maintaining sufficient quality parameters. One of the major challenges in this field is that of data heterogeneity, since data are gathered and integrated from multiple, disparate sources. Over the last decade, research in Knowledge Engineering (KE) resulted in important achievements in reconciling data semantics, with ontologies and ontology-backed knowledge graphs at the forefront.

Ecosystem services are the multitude of benefits that nature provides to society. They make human life possible by providing nutritious food and clean water; regulating disease and the climate; supporting crop pollination and soil formation; and offering recreational, cultural and spiritual benefits. Ecosystems provide four types of services, namely provisioning services (the material benefits that people obtain from ecosystems, such as food, water, fibre, timber and fuel; regulating services (the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, e.g., regulation of air quality and soil fertility, flood and disease control; and crop pollination); supporting services (those which are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, e.g., providing living space for plants and animals, enabling species diversity and maintaining genetic diversity); and cultural services (the non-material benefits that people derive from ecosystems, e.g., inspiration for aesthetic manifestations and engineering works, cultural identity and spiritual well-being).

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development highlighted the importance of geospatial information and Earth observations (including satellite observations) for reporting on SDG targets and indicators. Effective monitoring of SDG indicators requires the use of multiple types of data that surpass the traditional socio-economic data that countries have exploited to assess their development policies thus far. Satellite observations, with their global spatial coverage and high frequency of observations, are essential for capturing important aspects of sustainable development, particularly the environmental dimension of the SDGs.

Planet SDGs set the goal of protecting the planet "so that it can meet the needs of present and future generations". Climate change has a direct and fundamental relationship with global development. The world is facing a climate emergency that is outpacing our efforts to address it. The rate of global emissions has escalated, and at the current rate, global warming is likely to reach at least 1.5ºC between 2030 and 2052, with significant risks to health, livelihoods, food security, water supply, human security and economic growth. Without rapid and comprehensive intervention, these impacts will worsen.

Climate change is an obstacle to achieving the SDGs and disproportionately affects the poor. Global warming is expected to reduce crop yields in many areas, exacerbating food insecurity, malnutrition and stunting in poor communities. Achieving the key Planet SDGs can also play a role in combating climate change, but only if they are achieved in a climate-compatible way.

In summation, Earth Observation-based Ecosystem Services in Support of Planet SDGS aims to highlight the benefits of Earth observation technologies for quantification and monitoring of multiple ecosystem functions and services designed to help us achieve sustainable development. It will provide a multidisciplinary reference that explicitly covers the use of remote sensing to quantify and monitor multiple ecosystem services for the benefit of sustainable development goals. The objective is not to exhaustively cover all possible ecosystem services, but to provide a comprehensive overview of the most relevant remote sensing approaches involved in estimating key ecosystem services from satellite data.

Prof. Dr. Ernesto López-Baeza
Dr. Ana Perez Hoyos
Dr. Carlos Doménech
Dr. Francisco García-Sánchez
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • data semantics
  • earth observation
  • ecosystem services
  • sustainable development goals
  • affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy (SDG#7)
  • availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation (SDG#6)
  • food security and sustainable agriculture (SDG#2)
  • inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities (SDG#11)
  • sustainable land ecosystems (SDG#15)
  • sustainable marine ecosystems (SDG#14)
  • urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (SDG#13)

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Land
land
3.9 3.7 2012 14.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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21 pages, 3275 KiB  
Article
Coupling and Coordination Relationship of Economic–Social–Natural Composite Ecosystem in Central Yunnan Urban Agglomeration
by Anran Yang, Junsan Zhao, Yilin Lin and Guoping Chen
Sustainability 2024, 16(7), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16072758 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Exploring the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics and coupling coordination relationship of the composite ecosystem of urban agglomerations is of great significance for promoting the synergistic sustainable development and integration construction of urban agglomerations. This paper is based on LUCC (Land Use and Land Cover [...] Read more.
Exploring the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics and coupling coordination relationship of the composite ecosystem of urban agglomerations is of great significance for promoting the synergistic sustainable development and integration construction of urban agglomerations. This paper is based on LUCC (Land Use and Land Cover Change) data, a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), and temperature, precipitation, and other multi-source data, using the central Yunnan urban agglomeration as an example and constructing a multi-dimensional evaluation index system highlighting development quality and efficiency. The entropy weight method was first used to determine the comprehensive weights to evaluate the regional economic and social development level. Then, the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) model was used to quantitatively calculate and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the four key ecosystem services, evaluating the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the natural subsystem. The coupling coordination model was used to quantitatively analyze the evolution of the coupling coordination of the composite ecosystems in the central Yunnan urban agglomeration during the period of 2010–2020, and to reveal its development law. The results show the following: ➀ During the study period, the socio-economic subsystems in the central Yunnan urban agglomeration demonstrated an outward radiative growth from Kunming City, marked by underdeveloped sub-centers and prevalent low-level areas. ② Trends in ecosystem services varied, with water and soil conservation showing fluctuating increases, carbon sequestration remaining stable, and habitat quality declining. The critically important integrated ecosystem services zone of the natural subsystem is mainly located in the northeastern region and southwestern edge of the study area. ③ In 2020, the coupling coordination degree of the composite ecosystem was 0.9492. This showed that economic, social, and ecological subsystems are highly coupled, with consistent overall development trends and strong interactions. ④ The increase in the degree of harmonization amounted to 7.82%, with lagging subsystems varying in the degree of harmonization in subregions. This study can provide a scientific foundation for the development of policies for the Central Yunnan urban agglomeration, promoting regional sustainable development and optimizing the spatial pattern of the national territory. Full article
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24 pages, 5749 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Influence of Changes in the Edaphic Environment on the Ecosystem Valuation of the Zone of Influence of the Ozogoche and Atillo Lake Systems in Ecuador
by Yadira Carmen Pazmiño, José Juan de Felipe, Marc Vallbé and Yomara Pazmiño
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062249 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Ecosystem valuation (EV) of soil resources is essential for understanding changes in environmental services in monetary terms. A lack of this information, which includes economic indices, hinders the optimal management of natural resources. This study evaluated the influence of changes in the edaphic [...] Read more.
Ecosystem valuation (EV) of soil resources is essential for understanding changes in environmental services in monetary terms. A lack of this information, which includes economic indices, hinders the optimal management of natural resources. This study evaluated the influence of changes in the edaphic ecosystem on the EV of the zone of influence of the Ozogoche and Atillo lake systems in Ecuador. The classification was carried out through spectral indices and support vector machines (SVMs), and the EV was determined through opportunity costs including environmental service provisioning and indirect use. The land use and EV classification methods were performed efficiently; the degradation trend was constant. The Modified Water Difference Index was the most efficient in the extraction of water bodies, with an accuracy of 91%. The SVMs algorithm, in recognizing coverage in general, had an overall accuracy of 85%. The adjustment made to the SVMs algorithm to improve the selection of hyperparameters was effective; a robust architecture of the algorithm in terms of automation was achieved. Between 2000 and 2020, moorland, water and wetland degraded by 19%, 2% and 3.4%, respectively. In 2000, the EV as a function of avoided CO2 content was USD 8.00 × 106; in 2010 and 2020, it was USD 6.00 × 106 and USD 5.00 × 106, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 4065 KiB  
Article
Effect of LULC Changes on Annual Water Yield in the Urban Section of the Chili River, Arequipa, Using the InVEST Model
by Lorenzo Carrasco-Valencia, Karla Vilca-Campana, Carla Iruri-Ramos, Berly Cárdenas-Pillco, Alfredo Ollero and Andrea Chanove-Manrique
Water 2024, 16(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050664 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Arequipa is a semi-desert city located in southern Peru which depends on the Chili River as its only water source. During recent years, this city has increased its number of inhabitants significantly as a result of internal migratory flows and population growth. Because [...] Read more.
Arequipa is a semi-desert city located in southern Peru which depends on the Chili River as its only water source. During recent years, this city has increased its number of inhabitants significantly as a result of internal migratory flows and population growth. Because of this, the city has undergone a rapid urbanization process which has increased the urban areas near the river and caused the destruction of agricultural areas, as well as their native vegetation. This change in land use can be quantified through satellite image analysis across many years, but as noted, there are no studies on its impact on water yield (WY) in the urban section of the river. Now, by using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Compensation (InVEST) model, which allows the WY of the study area to be evaluated in millimeters and cubic meters by introducing a series of variables, such as precipitation, reference evapotranspiration and types of land use classes, among others, it is possible to determine that the WY from the study area was 1,743,414 m3 in 1984 and 1,323,792 m3 in 2022; the urban area is the type of land use with the highest increase with respect to its percentage contribution to the WY, going from 30.43% to 49.62% between 1984 and 2022, respectively. The increase in urban area mitigated the loss of total WY, explained by a higher percentage runoff rate, surface flow and drainage problems in the study area. Full article
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20 pages, 9956 KiB  
Article
Study on Coupling and Coordination Relationship between Urbanization and Ecosystem Service Value in Jiangsu Province, China
by Zhuang Chen, Xiaoshun Li, Weikang He, Jiangquan Chen and Haitao Ji
Land 2024, 13(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13020204 - 7 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
Urbanization has a significant negative impact on both the structure and function of ecosystems, as it is a major part of the human-caused transformation of natural landscapes. Concurrently, the attenuation of ecosystem service values (ESVs) poses critical impediments to urbanization and imperils human [...] Read more.
Urbanization has a significant negative impact on both the structure and function of ecosystems, as it is a major part of the human-caused transformation of natural landscapes. Concurrently, the attenuation of ecosystem service values (ESVs) poses critical impediments to urbanization and imperils human well-being. Investigating the interactive coupling and coordination relationship between urbanization and ESV is paramount in informing urban development strategies and environmental preservation efforts. Using Jiangsu Province as a representative case, this study forges an urbanization assessment index framework, estimates ESV, and subsequently delves into the multifaceted nexus between urbanization and ESV. The findings disclose a gradual uptick in urbanization levels in Jiangsu Province, underscored by conspicuous regional disparities typified in the subregions of southern Jiangsu, central Jiangsu, and northern Jiangsu, mirroring the high congruence observed in the economic urbanization subsystem. However, this upward trajectory in urbanization coincides with an overarching descent in ESV, with the most pronounced declines manifesting in regions characterized by elevated urbanization levels, such as Nantong and Suzhou. A robust interrelationship between urbanization and ESV is discernible throughout Jiangsu Province. Nevertheless, certain cities exhibit perturbations and retrogression in the associations between urbanization subsystems and ESV. The coupling coordination between population urbanization and ESV is characterized by disharmony while the coordination of economic urbanization markedly lags. Additionally, several cities are witnessing a progressive deterioration in the coordination relationships between ESV subsystems (food production, soil conservation, gas regulation, and raw material production) and urbanization. In light of these findings, it is recommended that governmental authorities enact measures to harmonize urban development with environmental preservation, safeguard the integrity of ecosystem functions, and facilitate the sustainable management of land resources. Full article
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23 pages, 9001 KiB  
Article
Tiger Habitat Quality Modelling in Malaysia with Sentinel-2 and InVEST
by Valentin Louis, Susan E. Page, Kevin J. Tansey, Laurence Jones, Konstantina Bika and Heiko Balzter
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16020284 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Deforestation is a threat to habitat quality and biodiversity. In intact forests, even small levels of deforestation can have profound consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. The risk hotspots are Borneo, the Central Amazon, and the Congo Basin. Earth observation (EO) now provides regular, high-resolution [...] Read more.
Deforestation is a threat to habitat quality and biodiversity. In intact forests, even small levels of deforestation can have profound consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. The risk hotspots are Borneo, the Central Amazon, and the Congo Basin. Earth observation (EO) now provides regular, high-resolution satellite images from the Copernicus Sentinel missions and other platforms. To assess the impact of forest conversion and forest loss on biodiversity and habitat quality, forest loss in a tiger conservation landscape in Malaysia is analysed using Sentinel-2 imagery and the InVEST habitat quality model. Forest losses are identified from satellites using the random forest classification and validated with PlanetScope imagery at 3–5 m resolution for a test area. Two scenarios are simulated using InVEST, one with and one without the forest loss maps. The outputs of the InVEST model are maps of tiger habitat quality and habitat degradation in northeast Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to forest loss, OpenStreetMap road vectors and the GLC2000 land-cover map are used to model habitat sensitivity to threats from roads, railways, water bodies, and urban areas. The landscape biodiversity score simulation results fall sharply from ~0.8 to ~0.2 for tree-covered land cover when forest loss is included in the habitat quality model. InVEST makes a reasonable assumption that species richness is higher in pristine tropical forests than in agricultural landscapes. The landscape biodiversity score is used to compare habitat quality between administrative areas. The coupled EO/InVEST modelling framework presented here can support decision makers in reaching the targets of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Forest loss information is essential for the quantification of habitat quality and biodiversity in tropical forests. Next generation ecosystem service models should be co-developed alongside EO products to ensure interoperability. Full article
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22 pages, 3652 KiB  
Article
Improved Understanding of Trade-Offs and Synergies in Ecosystem Services via Fine Land-Use Classification and Multi-Scale Analysis in the Arid Region of Northwest China
by Yingqing Su, Qi Feng, Wei Liu, Meng Zhu, Honghua Xia, Xiaohong Ma, Wenju Cheng, Jutao Zhang, Chengqi Zhang, Linshan Yang and Xinwei Yin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(20), 4976; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15204976 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Ecosystem services (ESs) serve as a fundamental cornerstone for upholding global biodiversity and promoting human well-being. ESs trade-off and synergy are supposed to be significantly affected by climate change (CC) and land use/cover change (LULC). However, the limited availability of finely classified future [...] Read more.
Ecosystem services (ESs) serve as a fundamental cornerstone for upholding global biodiversity and promoting human well-being. ESs trade-off and synergy are supposed to be significantly affected by climate change (CC) and land use/cover change (LULC). However, the limited availability of finely classified future land-use data and integrated landscape change models incorporating climate change scenarios has hindered our understanding of the trade-off and synergistic patterns and controls of ESs at multiple scales, particularly in arid areas. Here, a future multi-scenario ESs trade-off/collaborative assessment framework (SD-PLUS-InVEST model) for multi-scale conversion and refined land-use classification was developed by coupling the patch-generated land-use simulation (PLUS) model, system dynamics (SD) model, InVEST model, geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, optimal parameter geographical detector (OPGD) model, and structural equation model (SEM). The four ESs, namely carbon storage (CS), habitat quality (HQ), water conservation (WC), and soil conservation (SC), were assessed. Further, multi-scale ESs were evaluated under different climate change and development scenarios (i.e., the SSP1-2.6 and ecological protection scenario, SSP1-2.6-EP; SSP2-4.5 and natural development scenario, SSP2-4.5-ND; SSP5-8.5 and economic growth scenario, SSP5-8.5-EG). The results demonstrated that the arid region of northwest China (ANWC) was experiencing a significant and continuous warming trend accompanied by increased humidity. There will be a significant decrease in the areas occupied by paddy fields, natural forests, and permanent glaciers among the 24 LULC types. Conversely, there will be a substantial increase in dry land, high-coverage grassland, and urban construction land areas. According to the SSP1-2.6-EP, SSP2-4.5-ND, and SSP5-8.5-EG scenarios, the comprehensive land-use dynamic degrees were estimated to reach 2.58%, 4.08%, and 4.74%, respectively. The LULC resulting from CC exacerbates the differences in the four ESs of ANWC. In particular, CS and HQ experience significant reductions in 2100. Conversely, WC and SC show notable increases during the same period. The changes in CS, HQ, WC, and SC reach 11.36 × 108 m3, 1735.25 × 108 t, −1.29 × 108 t, and −0.009, respectively. The four ESs of CS, HQ, WC, and SC in ANWC display a synergistic relationship. This synergy is influenced by the heterogeneous spatial distribution of CS, HQ, WC, and SC, with the strongest synergy observed between CS and HQ and the weakest between CS and WC. Interestingly, the distribution differences in ESs synergy were amplified at watershed, county, and grid scales in mountainous areas, with the most significant detection differentiation occurring at the grid scale. Furthermore, the detection of spatial heterogeneity in the four ESs can be attributed to various factors. These factors include the drought index (q = 0.378), annual average precipitation (q = 0.375), economic density (q = 0.095), vegetation coverage (q = 0.262), and soil bulk density (q = 0.077). Our results highlight the importance of CC in influencing ESs. The spatial variations in ESs trade-offs and coordination at different scales, particularly the pronounced differences observed in mountainous areas, underscore the need to prioritize the conservation of arid mountainous regions in terms of future policy making. Full article
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35 pages, 5028 KiB  
Article
Trade-Offs and Synergies among 17 Ecosystem Services in Africa: A Long-Term Multi-National Analysis
by Uzoma S. Ogbodo, Shuguang Liu, Shuailong Feng, Haiqiang Gao and Zhenzhen Pan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3588; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143588 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
The proper management of multiple ecosystem services (ESs) in a balanced manner is an important and challenging responsibility. However, due to infrastructural constraints, we need to understand more about the spatial interactions among ESs in most African countries. Therefore, we took 48 African [...] Read more.
The proper management of multiple ecosystem services (ESs) in a balanced manner is an important and challenging responsibility. However, due to infrastructural constraints, we need to understand more about the spatial interactions among ESs in most African countries. Therefore, we took 48 African countries, 5 African geopolitical regions, and the African continent as case studies to diagnose the spatial trade-offs and synergies among 17 ESs and 8 types of land use and land cover (LULC) in 2000 and 2019. The implications of our findings at the national, regional, continental, and global levels were explored. To achieve this, we mapped the spatial distributions of the 17 ESs at the continental level using classified land cover data from MODIS remotely sensed data, with a spectral band between 0.405 and 14.385 µm and a spatial resolution of 500 m. Then, we used Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient to determine the spatial interactions among the 17 ESs. The results show that regulation services showed synergies at the continental level in gas regulation (0.66), climate regulation (0.71), disturbance regulation (0.14), water regulation (0.53), water supply (0.71), and waste treatment (0.06). Moreover, we found moderate levels of interactions among most ESs in the 48 countries, with most regulating services and supporting services exhibiting trade-offs with other categories of ESs, among other findings. The results will inform scientific communities and authorities at all levels on how to deliver human well-being and quality of life, and usher in a sustainable change where we expect better ecosystem management and ecological conservation. Full article
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23 pages, 20100 KiB  
Article
An Erosion-Based Approach Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing Imagery for Grassland Restoration Patterns in a Plateau Mountainous Region, SW China
by Guokun Chen, Yiwen Wang, Qingke Wen, Lijun Zuo and Jingjing Zhao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(8), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15082047 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Satellite remote sensing of grassland ecosystem restoration requires considering both the above-ground biomass and soil information, and the latter is even more crucial due to the value and restoration difficulty of soil productivity. In this study, we proposed an approach to support the [...] Read more.
Satellite remote sensing of grassland ecosystem restoration requires considering both the above-ground biomass and soil information, and the latter is even more crucial due to the value and restoration difficulty of soil productivity. In this study, we proposed an approach to support the restoration pattern for mountainous grasslands at regional scale. The approach integrates different aspects and key processes, including degradation status, restoration potential and recovery capability, compared to a reference state. Specifically, we illustrated the method with the case of grasslands in southwestern China from a conservation perspective. Soil erosion conditions, net primary productivity and regrowth rate of grasslands were selected as indicators to reveal restoration possibilities. The results showed that the method proposed for remote sensing identification of grassland distribution has an overall accuracy of 88.21% at the regional scale. 59.54% of grasslands in Zhaotong are being eroded with an unsustainable erosion rate greater than the tolerant soil loss, and the average annual soil erosion rate is 952.17 t/(km2·a). Meanwhile, there is obvious spatial heterogeneity in soil erosion factors, vegetation restoration potential and regrowth rate, and the dry–hot valley of Jinsha River in the southwest is much more sensitive to climate change and vulnerable than other regions. The grassland vegetation cover revealed a fluctuating trend and protection of grassland vegetation on soil from erosion has an obvious lag, restoration efforts should be focused on the months before the arrival of the rainy season. In light of various grassland types, the overlay zoning results suggest various restoration patterns of natural repair and manual intervention should be employed for different grasslands. Urgent action is needed to face the challenge and process of grassland degradation and restore its sustainability with shared understanding by taking the stakeholders, collaborations and mutual relationships among different roles into account (e.g., scientist, government and herdsman). Full article
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21 pages, 14370 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Differentiation and Influencing Factors of Ecosystem Services in Resource-Based Cities in Semiarid Regions
by Shichao Zhu, Yanling Zhao, Jinlou Huang and Shaoqing Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15040871 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
The spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics and driving mechanisms of ecosystem services are of great significance for optimizing the pattern of land spatial protection and realizing regional sustainable development. Existing studies seldom consider the segmental influence mechanism of various influencing factors on different levels of [...] Read more.
The spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics and driving mechanisms of ecosystem services are of great significance for optimizing the pattern of land spatial protection and realizing regional sustainable development. Existing studies seldom consider the segmental influence mechanism of various influencing factors on different levels of ecosystem service value (ESV). Therefore, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial differentiation evolution characteristics of ESV in semiarid regions through an improved ESV evaluation model. The spatial panel quantile regression (SPQR) model was introduced to explore the relationship between various types of influencing factors and ESV in different intervals. The results showed the following: (1) The changes in ESV in Baotou City from 2000 to 2018 tended to be stable, but the spatial differentiation of ESV intensified. The aggregation feature of the low-ESV region is significant and gradually expanding. (2) Precipitation was the dominant factor increasing the ESV in each interval, and temperature had a significant negative impact on the low-ESV area. (3) Higher land use integrity accelerates the decline of ESV in the surrounding areas of built-up areas. The high-ESV area was more sensitive to the intensity of human activity. The direction of human activities should be effectively controlled, and the structure of comprehensive land use should be optimized to enhance the service function of regional ecosystems. This research provides new thinking for the ecological restoration zoning of regional territorial spatial planning and the sustainable development of resource-based cities. Full article
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16 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Targeting the Influences of Under-Lake Coal Mining Based on the Value of Wetland Ecosystem Services: What and How?
by Huping Hou, Zhongyi Ding, Shaoliang Zhang, Zanxu Chen, Xueqing Wang, Aibo Sun, Shi An and Jinting Xiong
Land 2022, 11(12), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122166 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Under the growing restrictions of the Chinese eco-environmental policies, the impact of under-lake coal mining on wetlands is receiving increasing attention from both coal mining enterprises and local governments. This paper focuses on the impact of under-lake coal mining on the Nansi Lake [...] Read more.
Under the growing restrictions of the Chinese eco-environmental policies, the impact of under-lake coal mining on wetlands is receiving increasing attention from both coal mining enterprises and local governments. This paper focuses on the impact of under-lake coal mining on the Nansi Lake wetland from 1991 to 2021. Field measurements, resident surveys, and remote sensing inversion were comprehensively employed to quantitatively assess the impact. The calculation of the assessment indicators refers to the elastic coefficient, the information for which comes from four major categories of ecosystem service values (ESVs) and eight sub-ESVs. According to the results of the remote sensing interpretation and inversion, by 2021 the range had enlarged by 32.3 km2, and the water depth had increased by 1.9 m in the mining-disturbed area relative to 1991. The ESV fluctuations in the Nansi Lake wetland also exhibited a generally increasing trend over time. Our results show that the under-lake mining disturbs the ESVs, but the disturbance is not sufficient to result in significant consequences. Based on the data analysis, we suggest several well-directed, appropriate restoration strategies to achieve the desired objectives and target the response of the ESV changes. Such measures will help to relieve some of the anxiety and concern about the wetland changes caused by the under-lake mining. Full article
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19 pages, 4291 KiB  
Article
Geospatial Analysis of Abandoned Lands Based on Agroecosystems: The Distribution and Land Suitability for Agricultural Land Development in Indonesia
by Anny Mulyani, Budi Mulyanto, Baba Barus, Dyah Retno Panuju and Husnain
Land 2022, 11(11), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11112071 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
The Indonesian land area is 191.1 million ha, part of which is abandoned land in various agroecosystems that have the potential for expanding the agricultural area. The purpose of this research was to geospatially analyze abandoned land based on its agroecosystem at the [...] Read more.
The Indonesian land area is 191.1 million ha, part of which is abandoned land in various agroecosystems that have the potential for expanding the agricultural area. The purpose of this research was to geospatially analyze abandoned land based on its agroecosystem at the national and district levels, as well as to evaluate the land suitability of the land for expanding agricultural development. The methods included: (1) geospatial analysis of the national land cover map at a scale of 1:250,000 combined with soil and climate information to identify abandoned land and examine its agroecosystem, (2) selecting representative districts in each agroecosystem for visual interpretation using high-resolution imagery, i.e., SPOT 6/7, (3) assessing the land suitability of abandoned land for agricultural development at the national and district levels, and (4) predicting national abandoned land and its land suitability. The essential finding is the identification of abandoned land at around 42.6 million ha in Indonesia distributed over six agroecosystems, with the widest being in dry lowland and wet climates. Then, 54 districts were selected to characterize abandoned land by using SPOT 6/7 high-resolution imagery and were interpreted visually. It was found that the abandoned land covered approximately 16.9 million ha. The distribution of abandoned land from the interpretation of satellite imagery was smaller than that of geospatial analysis due to differences in the map scale and the use of ancillary data. The identification of abandoned land from high-resolution imagery should be carried out for all regions of Indonesia to accurately map the distribution of the abandoned land and characterize the properties. However, it requires a large amount of time, cost, and facilities to complete the inventory. The geospatial analysis that combined imageries and ancillary data identified 27.7 million ha of abandoned land suitable for expanding the agricultural area. The largest suitable abandoned land for the purpose was found in the lowlands with a wet climate, especially in Papua, Kalimantan, and Sumatra islands. The identified suitable abandoned land of 54 districts differed by scale, in which it was 11.2 million ha at the scale of 1:250,000 and 8.5 million ha at the scale of 1:50,000, respectively. The potential land expansion for food crops, particularly paddy fields, was only 2.2 million ha, located in mineral swamp land, which was predominantly located in Papua, with inadequate accessibility. Expanding paddy fields for national food security in the future would be constrained by less suitable land resources, while the near future challenge is the competition of land allocation for agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, as well as for food crops and plantations. Full article
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