Topic Editors

Department of Operations, Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO), Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne 8001, Australia

Power System Protection

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 April 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
20 June 2024
Viewed by
33965

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power system protection has been a critical topic in research and the power industry, as it reduces maintenance costs due to system failure, allows the power supply to continue feeding the parts of the system that are not affected by the fault, and ensures personnel safety. Power system protection can be discussed from various perspectives, such as: protection in high-voltage (HV) transmission networks, protection in low-voltage (LV) distribution networks, protection in communication services and cyber security, protection in modern power plants, protection in hybrid renewable energy systems, etc.

The present Topic aims to create a representative and updated collection of reviews or regular research articles on the challenges and developments associated with power system protection. The "Power System Protection" Topic includes, but is not limited to, the following areas:

  • Transformer protection;
  • The protection of synchronous generators;
  • Transmission line protection;
  • Digital and adaptive relaying;
  • Protective devices, systems, and technologies;
  • Types of protection;
  • High-voltage transmission network protection;
  • Overcurrent relay;
  • Distance (impedance relay);
  • Earth fault;
  • Arc flash;
  • Low-voltage networks protection;
  • Disturbance-monitoring;
  • Micro-grids and islanded networks protection;
  • Grid codes and policy/legislative issues that may impact protection;
  • Protection of energy storage and novel loads;
  • Protection against network instability and low inertia;
  • Protection of conventional and renewable generation and grid interconnections;
  • Fault detection and localisation techniques;
  • New protection algorithms and software solutions;
  • Design and application of substation communications and integrated systems;
  • Advanced signal processing techniques applied to protection systems;
  • Multi-agent-based protection systems;
  • Wide-area protection systems;
  • Big data and cloud computing;
  • Cyber security;
  • Testing procedures and tools.

Dr. Seyed Morteza Alizadeh
Prof. Dr. Akhtar Kalam
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • HV/LV protection
  • earthing
  • power quality
  • information and communications technology
  • fault detection

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Electricity
electricity
- - 2020 20.3 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (26 papers)

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17 pages, 2776 KiB  
Article
Fault Recovery of Distribution Network with Distributed Generation Based on Pigeon-Inspired Optimization Algorithm
by Mingyang Liu, Jiahui Wu, Qiang Zhang and Hongjuan Zheng
Electronics 2024, 13(5), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13050886 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 528
Abstract
In this paper, a fault recovery strategy for a distribution network based on a pigeon-inspired optimization (PIO) algorithm is proposed to improve the recoverability of the network considering the increased proportion of distributed energy resources. First, an improved Kruskal algorithm-based island partitioning scheme [...] Read more.
In this paper, a fault recovery strategy for a distribution network based on a pigeon-inspired optimization (PIO) algorithm is proposed to improve the recoverability of the network considering the increased proportion of distributed energy resources. First, an improved Kruskal algorithm-based island partitioning scheme is proposed considering the electrical distance and important load level during the island partitioning process. Secondly, a mathematical model of fault recovery is established with the objectives of reducing active power losses and minimizing the number of switching actions. The conventional PIO algorithm is improved using chaos, reverse strategy, and Cauchy perturbation strategy, and the improved pigeon-inspired optimization (IPIO) algorithm is applied to solve the problem of fault recovery of the distribution network. Finally, simulation analysis is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed PIO algorithm considering a network restauration problem after fault. The results show that compared with traditional algorithms, the proposed PIO algorithm has stronger global search capability, effectively improving the node voltage after restauration and reducing circuit loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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13 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
A Backup Protection Based on Compensated Voltage for Transmission Lines Connected to Wind Power Plants
by Hao Wang, Xiaopeng Li, Xinzhou Dong and Xiaofeng Jiang
Electronics 2024, 13(4), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13040743 - 12 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Due to the influence of complex control, the short circuit current provided by wind power generation units will exhibit new characteristics, such as limited amplitude and controlled phase, affecting the performance of traditional protections. This paper analyzes the work principle and defects of [...] Read more.
Due to the influence of complex control, the short circuit current provided by wind power generation units will exhibit new characteristics, such as limited amplitude and controlled phase, affecting the performance of traditional protections. This paper analyzes the work principle and defects of one kind of multiphase compensated distance protection. Drawing on the idea of fault identification by multiphase compensated distance protection, novel pilot protection using the compensated voltage on both sides is proposed. The proposed method has a strong anti-fault resistance ability. The test results indicate that the proposed method can distinguish the internal faults and external faults reliably, unaffected by the new characteristics of short circuit current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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23 pages, 2643 KiB  
Article
A Low Cost Real-Time Transient Recorder for High Voltage Systems
by Selma Grebović, Nermin Oprašić, Ajdin Fejzić, Harun Kartal, Abdulah Akšamović and Samim Konjicija
Sensors 2023, 23(24), 9769; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23249769 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Large-scale incorporation of new energy generation units based on renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaic power, drastically alters the structure of the power system. Because of the intermittent nature of these sources, switching in grids (connection and disconnection) occurs much more frequently [...] Read more.
Large-scale incorporation of new energy generation units based on renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaic power, drastically alters the structure of the power system. Because of the intermittent nature of these sources, switching in grids (connection and disconnection) occurs much more frequently than with conventional sources. As a result, the power system will inevitably experience a large number of transients, which raises questions about the stability of the system and the quality of the electrical energy. Therefore, measuring various types of transients in power system is crucial for stability, power quality, fault analysis, protection design, and insulation design. Transient recorders that are currently used are generally expensive and only suitable for particular locations in power systems. The number of installed transient recorders is insufficient for a comprehensive analysis of problems that may occur. Hence, it is important to have inexpensive and efficient transient recorders that can be installed at multiple points in the power system on various types of objects. It is also essential to have a transient record database with open access, which can be used by researchers to develop new analysis techniques based on artificial intelligence. This paper proposes an inexpensive measurement and acquisition system designed to record transient phenomena on different objects within the power system. The system is designed to use autonomous power, a standardized data acquisition module, a low-budget system for transmitting recorded transient events to the server via mobile network, and a sensor system adapted to the object where transients are recorded. The proposed system is designed to be used for all types of objects in the power system where transients may occur, such as power lines, transmission towers, surge arresters, and transformers. All components of the system are described, and the system is tested under laboratory conditions. The modular nature of the system allows customization to the specifics of the location in power system by choosing appropriate components. The calibration method of the custom designed Rogowski coil is described. The cost analysis of the proposed system and power consumption analysis are performed. The results show that the system’s performance meets application requirements at a low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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19 pages, 5795 KiB  
Article
Fault Detection on Power Transmission Line Based on Wavelet Transform and Scalogram Image Analysis
by Ahmed Sabri Altaie, Ammar Abbas Majeed, Mohamed Abderrahim and Afaneen Alkhazraji
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7914; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237914 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Given the massive increase in demand for electrical energy, particularly owing to global climate change and population expansion, as well as the development of complicated electrical systems due to the urgent need for a sophisticated component to enhance power delivery, it becomes important [...] Read more.
Given the massive increase in demand for electrical energy, particularly owing to global climate change and population expansion, as well as the development of complicated electrical systems due to the urgent need for a sophisticated component to enhance power delivery, it becomes important to adopt a smart and contemporary approach that is also appropriate for the aim of protecting transmission lines (TLs) and ensuring the continuous delivery of electric power to customers. Consequently, a unique and highly reliable approach for identifying faults in TLs is presented in this work, which employs Wavelet Transform and is evaluated using Matlab simulation. Wavelets of various kinds were utilized to demonstrate their dependability. Furthermore, utilizing this approach has shown itself to be highly successful and has yielded spectacular results even when it is used on a complicated electrical network. Moreover, many types of faults were presented and afterward evaluated and verified for the network in various settings, which also demonstrated their potential to recognize faults within a relatively short space of time. This innovation will alter the idea of fault detection by providing a complete and integrated model for detecting faults in a TL, and it may be regarded as a revolution in the renewal of core principles in TL protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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22 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Fault Location of Secondary Equipment in Smart Substation Based on the Graph Attention Network
by Xian-Ming Xiang, Xiu-Cheng Dong, Jin-Qing He, Yong-Kang Zheng and Xin-Yang Li
Sensors 2023, 23(23), 9384; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23239384 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The inability to locate device faults quickly and accurately has become prominent due to the large number of communication devices and the complex structure of secondary circuit networks in smart substations. Traditional methods are less efficient when diagnosing secondary equipment faults in smart [...] Read more.
The inability to locate device faults quickly and accurately has become prominent due to the large number of communication devices and the complex structure of secondary circuit networks in smart substations. Traditional methods are less efficient when diagnosing secondary equipment faults in smart substations, and deep learning methods have poor portability, high learning sample costs, and often require retraining a model. Therefore, a secondary equipment fault diagnosis method based on a graph attention network is proposed in this paper. All fault events are automatically represented as graph-structured data based on the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) algorithm in terms of the feature information exhibited by the corresponding detection nodes when equipment faults occur. Then, a fault diagnosis model is established based on the graph attention network. Finally, partial intervals of a 220 kV intelligent substation are taken as an example to compare the fault localization effect of different methods. The results show that the method proposed in this paper has the advantages of higher localization accuracy, lower learning cost, and better robustness than the traditional machine learning and deep learning methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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16 pages, 11214 KiB  
Article
Pilot Protection of a Distribution Network with Distributed Generators Based on 5G and Dynamic Time Warping Considering Cosine Transform
by Deyang Wang, Zhi Yuan, Weiqing Wang and Kaihua Zhi
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237762 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
The application of 5G-based communication for pilot protection in a distribution network with distributed generators is becoming increasingly widespread, but the existence of a 5G communication transmission data delay adversely affects the rapidity and reliability of the pilot protection based on the principle [...] Read more.
The application of 5G-based communication for pilot protection in a distribution network with distributed generators is becoming increasingly widespread, but the existence of a 5G communication transmission data delay adversely affects the rapidity and reliability of the pilot protection based on the principle of the traditional dynamic time warping distance (DTW) algorithm. Therefore, to address this problem, and according to the difference in fault currents between distributed generators and synchronous machines, a new scheme of pilot protection based on the principle of an improved DTW is proposed. The scheme firstly performs cosine transform on the fault current sequence, and then it normalizes the DTW value. Finally, the proposed scheme is verified via simulation. The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional DTW, the proposed algorithm has better anti-delay characteristics and a stronger anti-interference ability, and the scheme can quickly and reliably identify in-zone and out-of-area faults with strong noise resistance. Further, the action times for a single-phase ground fault, two-phase ground fault, two-phase-to-phase fault, and three-phase short-circuit fault were reduced by 2.9 ms, 4.54 ms, 5.81 ms, and 5.89 ms, respectively. In addition, it is also sui for a distribution network with a high wind and photovoltaic penetration rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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31 pages, 4311 KiB  
Review
A Review of Protection Schemes for Electrical Distribution Networks with Green Distributed Generation
by Ammar Abbas Majeed, Ahmed Sabri Altaie, Mohamed Abderrahim and Afaneen Alkhazraji
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7587; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227587 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
An amalgamation of Green Distributed Generation (GDG) with Distribution Networks (DNs) was developed because its performance became more efficient and sustainable. It increased the challenges in the design and operation of the protection scheme and changed the short circuit current (SCC), voltage profile, [...] Read more.
An amalgamation of Green Distributed Generation (GDG) with Distribution Networks (DNs) was developed because its performance became more efficient and sustainable. It increased the challenges in the design and operation of the protection scheme and changed the short circuit current (SCC), voltage profile, power losses, and power flow direction after the GDG penetration. These changes rely on the number, size, location, and environmental influence according to the GDG type. Therefore, many researchers have discussed protection system challenges and presented types of protection approaches to find a robust protection layout for DNs integrated with GDGs to prevent the electrical equipment from being destroyed during abnormal conditions. This paper represents an exhaustive survey of GDG integration with DNs and its effects on protection design challenges. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the modern protection methods and detection technologies, along with their important aspects that have been accessed. One of the important and reliable methods is resetting and coordinating between protection devices (PDs) that operate in the same distribution feeder. This methodology focuses on restricting the main variables and parameters used in the PDs setting after the GDG is embedded to recalculate the suitable setting and coordination. Optimization techniques should be used to find the best setting or location of the protection system in the DNs, in addition to calculating the optimal GDG scale and location. However, international standards are used to specify the suitable equations that satisfy high protection system characteristics to ensure the DNs’ reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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21 pages, 7519 KiB  
Article
Fast and Reliable Sending of Generic Object Oriented Substation Event Frames between Remote Locations over Loss-Prone Networks
by Jose Saldana, Aníbal Antonio Prada Hurtado, Eduardo Martinez Carrasco, Yasmina Galve and Jesús Torres
Sensors 2023, 23(21), 8879; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23218879 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
WAMPAC (Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control) applications are becoming crucial for granting a stable operation of the electricity transmission grid. These systems use a set of sensors distributed between different electrical substations to gather real-time measurements from the field. These sensors are [...] Read more.
WAMPAC (Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control) applications are becoming crucial for granting a stable operation of the electricity transmission grid. These systems use a set of sensors distributed between different electrical substations to gather real-time measurements from the field. These sensors are called Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). Using the gathered data, different monitoring, protection, and control algorithms are run in a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) located in a central location. These algorithms close the loop via the generation of remedial commands, which are sent back to the field level with stringent delay, security, and reliability requirements. GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Events) protocol, defined by IEC 61850 (IEC stands for International Electrotechnical Commission), is used for that aim and also considers the option of sending these commands over IP networks (this option is called Routed-GOOSE). The present article proposes two alternatives for the tunneling of GOOSE frames over IP. Both options allow the decoupling of the transmission and the security aspects, thus increasing flexibility and allowing for easier deployment. The first option, called VX-GOOSE, is a combination of standard protocols, allowing the sending of these frames over UDP/IP tunnels. The tests that have been carried out demonstrate that, under certain network conditions, the transmission of GOOSE frames over UDP may fail, and in some extreme cases, even a whole burst of GOOSEs could be lost. This may have very bad consequences for a distributed electrical system. It should be noted that this limitation affects both VX-GOOSE and Routed-GOOSE. To overcome these limitations, the second option, called Simplemux blast mode, includes a novel mechanism that provides delivery guarantees and a reduced delay, with the counterpart of a certain degree of redundancy. As shown in the experiments, the incurred delays can be significantly reduced when remote locations are connected via unreliable networks, whereas the bandwidth increase caused by redundancy can be kept at reasonable levels. Finally, it should be remarked that although GOOSE is a relevant example use case, this approach can be applied in other fields where flows require very low delay and delivery guarantees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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21 pages, 1834 KiB  
Article
Improving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination in Distribution Networks for Optimal Operation Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Sequential Quadratic Programming
by Faraj Al-Bhadely and Aslan İnan
Energies 2023, 16(20), 7031; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16207031 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 977
Abstract
In recent years, with the growing popularity of smart microgrids in distribution networks, the effective coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) has presented a significant challenge for power system operators due to the intricate and nonlinear nature of their optimization model. Hence, this [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the growing popularity of smart microgrids in distribution networks, the effective coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) has presented a significant challenge for power system operators due to the intricate and nonlinear nature of their optimization model. Hence, this study proposes a hybrid GA-SQP algorithm to enhance the coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) in radial and non-radial interconnected distributed power networks. The proposed approach combines the advantages of both the genetic algorithm (GA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods to optimize the objective function of relay coordination in the best manner. Thus, the proposed hybrid techniques improved the convergence of the problem and increased the likelihood of obtaining a globally optimal solution. Finally, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, it was tested through three case studies involving the IEEE 3-Bus, 8-Bus, and modified 30-Bus distribution networks. In addition, the results were compared to those obtained using previous methods. The results obtained from the comparison of the proposed method and recent advanced research indicate that the proposed optimization approach is preeminent in terms of accuracy and total operating time as well as the continuity of the minimum margin time requirements between the primary/backup relay pairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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15 pages, 5600 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Distribution Lines in Typhoon Weather Considering Socio-economic Factors
by Anduo Hu, Xiaoyue Fan, Dongmei Huang, Feng Zhang and Shuai Shi
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6664; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186664 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 829
Abstract
In recent years, the frequent occurrence of typhoon weather has posed a significant threat to the stable operation of the distribution network in the southeastern coastal areas of China. Ensuring the safety of distribution lines is crucial for the normal functioning of the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the frequent occurrence of typhoon weather has posed a significant threat to the stable operation of the distribution network in the southeastern coastal areas of China. Ensuring the safety of distribution lines is crucial for the normal functioning of the distribution network. Therefore, this paper proposes a risk assessment method for distribution lines in typhoon weather. Firstly, the risk assessment system for distribution lines is constructed by considering three perspectives: line structure, line state, and social economic factors. Secondly, the weight of each evaluation index is calculated using the analytic hierarchy process and CRITIC weight method. The cooperative game method is then employed to combine the calculation results, and the results are further optimized using variable weight theory. Finally, a cloud model-based risk assessment model for distribution lines is established. The analysis and calculation of distribution network data in a specific area indicate that the risk assessment level, which takes into account social and economic factors, is more accurate compared to other methods discussed in this paper. It is observed that the multi-model approach yields higher accuracy than the single-model approach. Therefore, the proposed method holds significant reference value for evaluating the risk level of distribution lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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14 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Efficient Zero-Value-Cross Detection for Single-Phase Mains-Powered Motors: A Comparative Study
by Mariusz Pauluk, Paweł Piątek and Jerzy Baranowski
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6298; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176298 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
This paper proposes solutions for zero-value-cross detection (ZVCD) in a single-phase mains-powered motor used for high-torque tightening. Four different applications are presented: resistor-polarized digital input, a resistor-polarized optocoupler, comparators steering up the optocoupler, and n-MOSFETs polarizing the optocoupler. The performance of each solution [...] Read more.
This paper proposes solutions for zero-value-cross detection (ZVCD) in a single-phase mains-powered motor used for high-torque tightening. Four different applications are presented: resistor-polarized digital input, a resistor-polarized optocoupler, comparators steering up the optocoupler, and n-MOSFETs polarizing the optocoupler. The performance of each solution is evaluated in terms of complexity, dimensions, power dissipation, and response time. The n-MOSFET-based solution is found to be the most suitable, providing a simple design, low power dissipation, and almost instantaneous response. This solution meets the project’s requirements for accurate and fast zero-crossing detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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28 pages, 5976 KiB  
Review
Detection Method of Partial Discharge on Transformer and Gas-Insulated Switchgear: A Review
by Zulbirri Faizol, Farid Zubir, Norhafezaidi Mat Saman, Mohd Hafizi Ahmad, Mohamad Kamal A. Rahim, Osman Ayop, Muzammil Jusoh, Huda A. Majid and Zubaida Yusoff
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9605; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179605 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
The detection of partial discharge (PD) activities in high-voltage equipment can be conducted according to several mechanisms of signal detection, including electromagnetic wave signal detection, acoustic signal detection, chemical reactions, electrical signal detection, and optical emission detection. Recently, multiple methods of detection and [...] Read more.
The detection of partial discharge (PD) activities in high-voltage equipment can be conducted according to several mechanisms of signal detection, including electromagnetic wave signal detection, acoustic signal detection, chemical reactions, electrical signal detection, and optical emission detection. Recently, multiple methods of detection and localization of partial discharge activities, which occurred in power transformers and gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), have been proposed to monitor the health condition of high-voltage equipment, especially when the awareness regarding preventive maintenance has been emphasized at the industrial level and among electrical providers. In aligning the needs of the industrial sector and the improvement of PD-detection methods, this manuscript focuses on reviewing the current practice methods for the detection and localization of PD signals in high-voltage equipment, comparing their efficacy, and summarizing the future direction of research work-related methods of PD detection. The comparative reviews are discussed in terms of the mechanism of PD signal detection, indication parameters, calibration techniques, and the advantages and limitations of each method of PD measurement in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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26 pages, 8595 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Bidirectional DC Circuit Breaker Capable of Regenerative Current Breaking for DC Microgrid Application
by Md Mahmudul Hasan, Lo Hai Hiung, Ramani Kannan and S. M. Sanzad Lumen
Electronics 2023, 12(16), 3529; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12163529 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
The direct current circuit breaker (DCCB) is extensively employed in DC microgrid applications to protect the network during faults. However, numerous DC converters are combined in parallel to form a DC microgrid, which creates a large network inductance. The grid stores energy during [...] Read more.
The direct current circuit breaker (DCCB) is extensively employed in DC microgrid applications to protect the network during faults. However, numerous DC converters are combined in parallel to form a DC microgrid, which creates a large network inductance. The grid stores energy during regular operation, which repels instantaneous current breaking, and this stored energy needs to be eliminated after current breaking. Conventional topologies use different energy absorption methods to dissipate the stored energy after breaking the current. In this paper, an efficient bidirectional DC circuit breaker (EBDCCB) topology is introduced to extract and reuse this energy instead of dissipating it. The proposed topology has bidirectional power flow capability to meet the requirements of DC microgrid applications as energy storage devices are frequently utilized. Furthermore, EBDCCB shows drastically improved performance in terms of current breaking time, voltage stress, regenerated average current, and energy recovery efficiency compared to the conventional DCCB topology. The mathematical modeling and sizing of the components used in the proposed EBDCCB are elaborately analyzed, and detailed performance testing is presented along with extensive PSIM software simulation. Additionally, an experimental investigation is conducted on a laboratory-scale 48 V/1 A prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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28 pages, 3471 KiB  
Article
Optimal Coordination of Directional Overcurrent Relays Using Hybrid Firefly–Genetic Algorithm
by Tareq Foqha, Maher Khammash, Samer Alsadi, Osama Omari, Shady S. Refaat, Khaled Al-Qawasmi and Ali Elrashidi
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5328; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145328 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
The application of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) plays an important role in protecting power systems and ensuring their safe, reliable, and efficient operation. However, coordinating DOCRs involves solving a highly constrained and nonlinear optimization problem. The primary objective of optimization is to minimize [...] Read more.
The application of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) plays an important role in protecting power systems and ensuring their safe, reliable, and efficient operation. However, coordinating DOCRs involves solving a highly constrained and nonlinear optimization problem. The primary objective of optimization is to minimize the total operating time of DOCRs by determining the optimal values for decision variables such as the time multiplier setting (TMS) and plug setting (PS). This article presents an efficient hybrid optimization algorithm that combines the modified firefly algorithm and genetic algorithm to achieve improved solutions. First, this study modifies the firefly algorithm to obtain a global solution by updating the firefly’s brightness and to prevent the distance between the individual fireflies from being too far. Additionally, the randomized movements are controlled to produce a high convergence rate. Second, the optimization problem is solved using the genetic algorithm. Finally, the solution obtained from the modified firefly algorithm is used as the initial population for the genetic algorithm. The proposed algorithms have been tested on the IEEE 3-bus, 8-bus, 9-bus and 15-bus networks. The results indicate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithms in minimizing the total operating time of DOCRs compared with other optimization methods presented in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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14 pages, 4187 KiB  
Article
Substation Operation Sequence Inference Model Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning
by Tie Chen, Hongxin Li, Ying Cao and Zhifan Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7360; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137360 - 21 Jun 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
At present, substation operation ticket system is developed based on an expert system, which has some problems such as knowledge base redundancy, intelligence deficiency and automatic learning ability. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an operation sequence reasoning model based on the [...] Read more.
At present, substation operation ticket system is developed based on an expert system, which has some problems such as knowledge base redundancy, intelligence deficiency and automatic learning ability. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an operation sequence reasoning model based on the knowledge base of the Neo4j knowledge graph and DuelingDQN (Dueling Deep Q Network) algorithm. Firstly, the diagram structure model of substation main wiring was established using the Neo4j knowledge graph. Based on the diagram structure model, the operable equipment set of the operation task was searched to form the task space, action space and action selection model of DuelingDQN. The reward and punishment function was designed based on the “five defense” rules and the state change of equipment. Make DuelingDQN model and Neo4j model interact in real time, and automatically learn the operation sequence. The test results show that the method proposed in this paper can automatically deduce the correct operation steps under different wiring modes and realize the transfer within the station, which is of great significance to the intellectualization of the operation ticket system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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15 pages, 4740 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Design of the High Current Rising Rate Hybrid DC Current Limiting Circuit Breaker
by Zhiyong Lv, Xiangjun Wang, Jinwu Zhuang, Luhui Liu, Zhifang Yuan, Siguang Li and Jin Wu
Electronics 2023, 12(12), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122657 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
To solve the problem of the high rising rate and large peak value of the expected current of the short-circuit current in marine DC power system faults, a hybrid DC current limiting circuit breaker scheme based on a high-speed electromagnetic repulsion mechanism is [...] Read more.
To solve the problem of the high rising rate and large peak value of the expected current of the short-circuit current in marine DC power system faults, a hybrid DC current limiting circuit breaker scheme based on a high-speed electromagnetic repulsion mechanism is proposed. A parameter selection model is constructed by comprehensively considering the short-time withstand of the thyristor, the volume of the commutation circuit, and capacitor energy, and the optimal value of the commutation circuit parameters at a certain voltage level is obtained. The finite element mathematical model of the high-speed electromagnetic repulsion mechanism is established by coupling the electromagnetic force field, which enables the deformation process of the mechanism under the condition of high acceleration to be considered. The von Mises yield criterion is adopted as the mechanical boundary condition in the design of a high-speed electromagnetic repulsion mechanism, which solves the problem of the long inherent time of opening. The experiment platform is built, and the experiment under the fault condition with a current rising rate of 20 A/μs is completed. The arcing time, commutation time, zero-voltage recovery time, and contact movement characteristics are obtained, which meet the design requirements, verify the effectiveness of the analysis, and lay a solid foundation for further research and development of the current limiting circuit breakers for medium voltage DC systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
(This article belongs to the Section Power Electronics)
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21 pages, 3855 KiB  
Article
Fault Recovery Strategy for Power–Communication Coupled Distribution Network Considering Uncertainty
by Sizu Hou, Yisu Hou, Baikui Li and Ziqi Wang
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4618; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124618 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 862
Abstract
In the face of multiple failures caused by extreme disasters, the power and communication sides of the distribution network are interdependent in the fault recovery process. To improve the post-disaster recovery efficiency of the distribution network, this paper proposes a coordinated optimization strategy [...] Read more.
In the face of multiple failures caused by extreme disasters, the power and communication sides of the distribution network are interdependent in the fault recovery process. To improve the post-disaster recovery efficiency of the distribution network, this paper proposes a coordinated optimization strategy for distribution network reconfiguration and repair, which integrates the power and communication aspects. First, the recovery process is divided into islanding–reconfiguration and dynamic emergency repair. The coupling relationship between power and communication is considered; that is, power failure may cause communication nodes to lose power, and communication failure may affect the effective operation of remote control devices. Based on this, the fault recovery process is optimized with the objective of maximizing load transfer and direct recovery while introducing a stochastic model predictive control method to handle the uncertainty of distributed power generation by rolling optimization of typical scenarios. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified using an improved IEEE33-node distribution network system. The simulation results show that the proposed method can recover power to the maximum extent and reduce loss while ensuring the safe and stable operation of the distribution system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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27 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Estimation Method of Short-Circuit Current Contribution of Inverter-Based Resources for Symmetrical Faults
by Murillo Cobe Vargas, Oureste Elias Batista and Yongheng Yang
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073130 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
This paper proposes a practical approach to estimate the symmetrical short-circuit current (SCC) levels in overcurrent protection devices (OCPDs) installed on radial feeders for any penetration level of inverter-based distributed energy resources (DERs). The proposed method restores the lost phase protection coordination by [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a practical approach to estimate the symmetrical short-circuit current (SCC) levels in overcurrent protection devices (OCPDs) installed on radial feeders for any penetration level of inverter-based distributed energy resources (DERs). The proposed method restores the lost phase protection coordination by estimating SCC values and changing the TMS of OCPDs accordingly. The method is validated by comparing the results with simulations on the IEEE 34-Node Test Feeder using MATLAB/Simulink, which shows an average error of 1.5% and a maximum error of 3.0%. For a 100% penetration level, the SCC variation through OCPDs installed on the main fault trunk (MFT) exceeds ± 10%, leading to compromised phase protection coordination. The SCC flowing reversely through OCPDs on lateral branches and the fault on the MFT could cause improper tripping. Higher SCC levels are estimated and measured for fault impedances equal to zero. The phase protection is restored by changing the TMS of OCPDs using the estimated values. The study proposes two phase protection schemes to accommodate inverter-based DERs injecting 1.2 pu and 2.0 pu of SCC for a 100% penetration level. This study contributes to improving the protection coordination of distribution networks with high penetration levels of DERs. The findings have practical implications for distribution system operators and planners to maintain safe and reliable operation of distribution feeders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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15 pages, 1295 KiB  
Article
Smart Protection System for Microgrids with Grid-Connected and Islanded Capabilities Based on an Adaptive Algorithm
by Felipe Carvalho Sampaio, Fernando Lessa Tofoli, Lucas Silveira Melo, Giovanni Cordeiro Barroso, Raimundo Furtado Sampaio and Ruth Pastôra Saraiva Leão
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052273 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
This work proposes a smart protection system for microgrids, which relies on an adaptive metaheuristic for the automatic calculation of optimal settings for directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs). The adaptive fuzzy directional bat algorithm (AFDBA) associated with a fuzzy inference system (FIS) is used [...] Read more.
This work proposes a smart protection system for microgrids, which relies on an adaptive metaheuristic for the automatic calculation of optimal settings for directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs). The adaptive fuzzy directional bat algorithm (AFDBA) associated with a fuzzy inference system (FIS) is used for this purpose. A prominent advantage of this solution is that there is no need for an initial tuning of the parameters associated with the algorithm, unlike many traditional approaches reported in the literature. Such a metaheuristic is used in the conception of an adaptive protection system (APS) in the context of a microgrid while taking into account the connection status of distributed generation (DG) units under distinct scenarios. A performance comparison with a protection system with fixed optimal settings (PSFOS) is also presented. The results demonstrate that the proposed APS outperforms the PSFOS while providing faster response, higher reliability and less susceptibility to miscoordination. In other words, it presents a shorter trip time when compared with the PSFOS, with a reduction of 6.83% and 26.58% when considering the DG penetration and the islanded microgrid, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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15 pages, 6548 KiB  
Article
Cooperative Use of IMD and GPT in a 3-Phase Ungrounded Distribution System Linked to a Transformerless Photovoltaic Power Generation Facility
by Hyeon-Myeong Lee, Woo-Kyu Chae, Woo-Hyun Kim and Jae-Eon Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031558 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Distributed generations, using solar photovoltaic (PV) generation systems, are generally connected to ungrounded distribution systems to ensure operational continuity and avoid electro-chemical corrosions. The ungrounded power distribution system possesses an advantage of continuous operation regardless of primary fault occurrence due to a small [...] Read more.
Distributed generations, using solar photovoltaic (PV) generation systems, are generally connected to ungrounded distribution systems to ensure operational continuity and avoid electro-chemical corrosions. The ungrounded power distribution system possesses an advantage of continuous operation regardless of primary fault occurrence due to a small fault current. Conversely, a subsequent secondary fault can induce a large fault current representing that of other electrical grounding types, resulting in inevitable power shutdowns. As preventative methods, both insulation status monitoring and primary failure detection have become of high importance. This paper presents a method enabling the cooperative use of IMD (Insulation Monitoring Device) and GPT (Ground Potential Transformer) in an ungrounded distribution system connected with a transformerless inverter. Moreover, factors leading to errors during IMD insulation monitoring, CLR (Current Limit Resistor) burnout of a GPT, and malfunctions of related protection devices are presented. Furthermore, a method for selecting the inductor and capacitor in consideration of the operating characteristics of IMD and GPT is discussed. The proposed cooperative operation method enables the accurate measurement of insulation resistance using IMD, while concurrently reducing the constitutively induced zero-sequence voltage in the CLR of a GPT to prevent CLR burnouts and malfunctions of connected protection devices. Hence, the method is anticipated to contribute to the stable operation of alternating current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) combined systems connected with transformerless inverters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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18 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Transient Stability Improvement of Large-Scale Photovoltaic Grid Using a Flywheel as a Synchronous Machine
by Masilu Marupi, Munira Batool, Morteza Alizadeh and Noor Zanib
Energies 2023, 16(2), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020689 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The global climate protection policy aimed at achieving a zero greenhouse gas emissions target has led to the fast incorporation of large-scale photovoltaics into the power network. The conventional AC grid was not modeled to be incorporated with large-scale non-synchronous inverter-based energy resources [...] Read more.
The global climate protection policy aimed at achieving a zero greenhouse gas emissions target has led to the fast incorporation of large-scale photovoltaics into the power network. The conventional AC grid was not modeled to be incorporated with large-scale non-synchronous inverter-based energy resources (IBR). Incorporating inertia-free IBR into the grid leads to technical issues such as the degradation of system strength and inertia, therefore affecting the safety and reliability of the electrical power system. This research introduced a new solution to incorporate a flywheel in the rotor of a synchronous machine to improve the dynamic inertia control during a system disruption and to maintain the constancy of the system. The objective of this work is to enhance large-scale photovoltaic systems in such a way that they can avoid failures during a fault. A model of transient constancy with two synchronous generators and a LSPV is established in PowerWorld modeling software. A line-to-ground and three-phase fault are simulated in a system with up to 50% IBR penetration. The outcomes showed that the power network was able to ride through faults (RTFs) and that the stability of frequency and voltage are enhanced because of a flywheel that improved grid inertia and strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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21 pages, 5085 KiB  
Review
Assessment of the Performance of Phasor-Based and Transients-Based Faulted Phase Identification Techniques in the Presence of Inverter Interfaced Resources
by Sachintha Kariyawasam, Jagannath Wijekoon and Athula Rajapakse
Energies 2023, 16(2), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020640 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Faulted phase identification is one of the segments of conventional system protection that is severely vulnerable in the presence of inverter-based resources (IBR) such as Type IV wind and solar PV power plants. The work presented in this paper investigates the effect of [...] Read more.
Faulted phase identification is one of the segments of conventional system protection that is severely vulnerable in the presence of inverter-based resources (IBR) such as Type IV wind and solar PV power plants. The work presented in this paper investigates the effect of IBRs on the conventional phasor-based faulted phase identification methods widely implemented in contemporary commercial protection relays using theoretical analysis and simulation results. Moreover, this premise is further validated by testing commercial line protection relays using hardware-in-the-loop simulations. This paper also evaluates the applicability of recently proposed transients/incremental quantities-based techniques to overcome the deficiencies of conventional methods to correctly identify the faulted phase in systems with IBRs through real-time and control hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Comparisons with commercial relays show that transient/incremental quantities-based methods are more suitable for systems with a high penetration of IBRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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15 pages, 6035 KiB  
Article
Electromechanical Properties of a Hybrid Broadband Wind Energy Harvester for Smart Agriculture Monitoring in the Loess Plateau
by Lei Hu, Zhigang Duan, Jinsha Song, Bo Wu, Hui Wang and Jian He
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010034 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Wind, as a ubiquitous energy, is an important power source for intelligent monitoring systems in smart agriculture applications, and its efficient collection can greatly improve the long-term performance of monitoring systems. However, it is difficult to achieve the broadband and efficient harvesting of [...] Read more.
Wind, as a ubiquitous energy, is an important power source for intelligent monitoring systems in smart agriculture applications, and its efficient collection can greatly improve the long-term performance of monitoring systems. However, it is difficult to achieve the broadband and efficient harvesting of wind energy using the existing energy collection technology. Herein, a broadband energy conversion device (ECD), consisting of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG), is proposed for wind energy collection under different wind speeds. The introduction of an optimized Scotch yoke mechanism greatly improves the utilization of wind energy by the TENG, thus reducing energy dissipation. Moreover, the addition of a deflector into the fan greatly reduces the start-up wind speed and improves the ability of the device to capture breeze energy. By doping multi-walled carbon nanotubes, the output voltage and current of the TENG can be improved by 108.89% and 116.61%, respectively. Furthermore, the adopted all-directional conductive foam can greatly prolong the service life of the ECD. The peak power of the ECD is 68.49 mW at 9.6 m/s, with the EMG and TENG producing approximately 64.80 mW and 3.69 mW, respectively. The proposed ECD provides a new technical strategy for the practical application of wind energy harvesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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13 pages, 3491 KiB  
Article
Relay Protection Setting Calculation System for Nuclear Power Plant Based on B/S Architecture and Cloud Computing
by Yuan Hong, You Yu, Jingfu Tian, Han Ye, Bin Wang and Wenxiang Yu
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9648; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249648 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Nuclear power plants have a complex structure and changeable operation mode, which induces low setting calculation efficiency. After analyzing the technology, architecture, and functional logic of a variety of relay protection setting calculation systems and combining the characteristics of the setting calculation of [...] Read more.
Nuclear power plants have a complex structure and changeable operation mode, which induces low setting calculation efficiency. After analyzing the technology, architecture, and functional logic of a variety of relay protection setting calculation systems and combining the characteristics of the setting calculation of nuclear power plants, the relay protection setting calculation system in nuclear power plants based on B/S architecture and cloud computing is studied in this paper. The system adopts three-tier B/S architecture, applies two key technologies, the cloud computing task distribution synchronization mechanism and the cloud component automatic assembly mechanism, and introduces a particle swarm optimization algorithm to provide technical support for nuclear power plant setting calculation; the running example of the nuclear power plant system fully proves the efficiency and reliability of the relay protection setting calculation system of the nuclear power plant, which has high practical value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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18 pages, 7033 KiB  
Article
An Approach for Estimating Lightning Current Parameters Using the Empirical Mode Decomposition Method
by Selma Grebović, Nermin Oprašić, Vahid Helać, Ivo Uglešić, Abdulah Akšamović and Samim Konjicija
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9925; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249925 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Lightning parameters are needed in different engineering applications. For the prediction of the severity of transient voltages in power systems, an accurate knowledge of the parameters of lightning currents is essential. All relevant standards and technical brochures recommend that lightning characteristics should be [...] Read more.
Lightning parameters are needed in different engineering applications. For the prediction of the severity of transient voltages in power systems, an accurate knowledge of the parameters of lightning currents is essential. All relevant standards and technical brochures recommend that lightning characteristics should be classified according to geographical regions instead of assuming that these characteristics are globally uniform. Many engineers and scientists suggest that better methods for lightning current measurements and analyses need to be developed. A system for direct lightning current measurements installed on Mount Lovćen is described in this paper. Observed data were analyzed, and statistical data on parameters that are of interest for engineering applications were obtained, as well as correlations between various lightning parameters. Furthermore, a novel approach for classifying and analyzing lightning data from direct measurements based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed. Matlab was used as a tool for signal processing and statistical analysis. The methodology implemented in this work opens possibilities for automated analysis of large data sets and expressing lightning parameters in probabilistic terms from the data measured on site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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15 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
Short-Circuit Fault Current Parameter Prediction Method Based on Ultra-Short-Time Data Window
by Mengjiao Wang, Xinlao Wei and Zhihang Zhao
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8861; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238861 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The prediction of short-circuit current parameters is essential for the adoption of short-circuit fault limiting techniques and the reliable cut-off of circuit breakers. In order to quickly and accurately predict the short-circuit current waveform parameters, a short-circuit fault current prediction method based on [...] Read more.
The prediction of short-circuit current parameters is essential for the adoption of short-circuit fault limiting techniques and the reliable cut-off of circuit breakers. In order to quickly and accurately predict the short-circuit current waveform parameters, a short-circuit fault current prediction method based on ultra-short-time data windows (UDWs) is proposed. First, a mathematical model for describing short-circuit faults is constructed and the characteristics of short-circuit currents are analyzed. Then, the principle of the UDW method for predicting short-circuit current waveform parameters is derived, the correctness of the principle is verified by setting-up an ideal signal through simulation, and the exponential and linear expressions fitted to the curve are analyzed and compared with the improved half-wave Fourier method for predicting current parameters. Finally, trend filtering technology is proposed to eliminate high-frequency interference and white noise interference. The results show that the ultra-short-time data window method can quickly and accurately predict the short-circuit current waveform parameters, where the exponential expression is a better fit to the waveform, and the trend filtering technique enables the elimination of high-frequency and white noise interference in the initial stages of prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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