Topic Editors

Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 34400 Psachna, Greece
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Peloponnesus, 1 Megalou Alexandrou Street, GR-26334 Patras, Greece
Faculty of Technology, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, 1097 DZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
General Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 34400 Psachna, Greece

Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 August 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
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49344

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this article collection is to contribute to the advancement of the Composites Science, Technology, and Engineering fields and their impact on the industrial sector, including the aerospace, marine, automotive, and wind energy sectors. The material characterization of composites is a vital part of the product development and production process. Physical, mechanical, and chemical characterization helps developers to further their understanding of products and materials, thus ensuring quality control. However, achieving an in-depth understanding and the consequent improvement of the design and general performance of these materials, still requires further research, including the synergy of nanotechnology and/or additive manufacturing, the development of efficient and novel characterization techniques, complex material modelling, and advanced simulation tools, which are often multiscale and encompass Multiphysics. This collection also aims to review the recent advances across multiple industries, from processing and testing to inspection and repair, novel methodologies, and innovations. In this context, this Topic offers a framework for integrating multidisciplinary works, drawing together experimental, numerical, and theoretical contributions across the whole spectrum of research related to composite materials and structures in aerospace and mechanical engineering.

Dr. Stelios K. Georgantzinos
Dr. Georgios I. Giannopoulos
Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Stamoulis
Prof. Dr. Stylianos Markolefas
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • composites
  • composite structures
  • nanocomposites
  • hybrid composites
  • experimental study
  • characterization
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • multiscale methods
  • structural integrity
  • damage assessment
  • NDT/SHM

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Aerospace
aerospace
2.6 3.0 2014 22.3 Days CHF 2400
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
ChemEngineering
ChemEngineering
2.5 4.7 2017 17.2 Days CHF 1600
Journal of Composites Science
jcs
3.3 4.5 2017 14.7 Days CHF 1800
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (28 papers)

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13 pages, 255 KiB  
Editorial
Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
by Stelios K. Georgantzinos, Georgios I. Giannopoulos, Konstantinos Stamoulis and Stylianos Markolefas
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227230 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
An important step towards improving performance while reducing weight and maintenance needs is the integration of composite materials into mechanical and aerospace engineering. This subject explores the many aspects of composite application, from basic material characterization to state-of-the-art advances in manufacturing and design [...] Read more.
An important step towards improving performance while reducing weight and maintenance needs is the integration of composite materials into mechanical and aerospace engineering. This subject explores the many aspects of composite application, from basic material characterization to state-of-the-art advances in manufacturing and design processes. The major goal is to present the most recent developments in composite science and technology while highlighting their critical significance in the industrial sector—most notably in the wind energy, automotive, aerospace, and marine domains. The foundation of this investigation is material characterization, which offers insights into the mechanical, chemical, and physical characteristics that determine composite performance. The papers in this collection discuss the difficulties of gaining an in-depth understanding of composites, which is necessary to maximize their overall performance and design. The collection of articles within this topic addresses the challenges of achieving a profound understanding of composites, which is essential for optimizing design and overall functionality. This includes the application of complicated material modeling together with cutting-edge simulation tools that integrate multiscale methods and multiphysics, the creation of novel characterization techniques, and the integration of nanotechnology and additive manufacturing. This topic offers a detailed overview of the current state and future directions of composite research, covering experimental studies, theoretical evaluations, and numerical simulations. This subject provides a platform for interdisciplinary cooperation and creativity in everything from the processing and testing of innovative composite structures to the inspection and repair procedures. In order to support the development of more effective, durable, and sustainable materials for the mechanical and aerospace engineering industries, we seek to promote a greater understanding of composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
26 pages, 16320 KiB  
Article
Design and Testing of Impacted Stiffened CFRP Panels under Compression with the VERTEX Test Rig
by Florent Grotto, Christophe Bouvet, Bruno Castanié and Joël Serra
Aerospace 2023, 10(4), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10040327 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
Aeronautical composite primary structures must evidence sufficient residual strength in the presence of damage for compliance with damage tolerance requirements. The study of stiffener debonding on panels subjected to compression after impact is performed in that scope. Compression leads to the buckling of [...] Read more.
Aeronautical composite primary structures must evidence sufficient residual strength in the presence of damage for compliance with damage tolerance requirements. The study of stiffener debonding on panels subjected to compression after impact is performed in that scope. Compression leads to the buckling of the skin between the stiffeners, and thus a complex loading of the bonding between the skin and the stiffener. This paper describes the development of a stiffened specimen for the VERTEX multiaxial test rig as a first step towards the study of the damage tolerance evaluation of stiffened structures, under combined loadings and at the intermediate scale of the test pyramid. By using virtual testing, the specimen was designed to produce the phenomenology of interest as the first damage, i.e., the debonding of the stiffener from the centre. Three samples were manufactured and subjected to low velocity impacts at various locations and energies. Then the three samples were subjected to compression after impact, up to the stiffener debonding, under a post-buckling regime of the skin. Test loading evolution is described with force fluxes and global strains, obtained from in situ stereo-correlation. The different impacts were found to give different types of damage but similar residual strength to compression after impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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18 pages, 10874 KiB  
Article
A Study on Aerodynamic and Structural Design of Fairing Using Glass Fabric Composite Structure
by Younggyu Lee and Hyunbum Park
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063765 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
In this work, the aerodynamic and structural design of the fairing for vehicles was carried out. The Rankine half body theory, which is one of the theories being used for the aircraft gas turbine engine inlets and turboprop nose cones was adopted for [...] Read more.
In this work, the aerodynamic and structural design of the fairing for vehicles was carried out. The Rankine half body theory, which is one of the theories being used for the aircraft gas turbine engine inlets and turboprop nose cones was adopted for aerodynamic design. The glass fabric composite materials were adopted for the structural design. The structural design was performed by analyzing aerodynamic design loads. Structural analysis was performed based on the structural design results to investigate structural safety. The structural design results were manufactured by applying the resin transfer molding method. The newly designed fairing was reviewed for its mounting possibility with the existing vehicle. The final design results were confirmed to be safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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18 pages, 9583 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Responses of Sandwich Beams with Polymethacrylimide (PMI) Foam Cores When Subjected to Impact Loading
by Mousab Mahgoub, Yongqiang Zhang, Chen Yang and Zhuhua Tan
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031108 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
This paper focusses on the load-sustaining and transfer mechanisms of sandwich beams with various types of PMI foam cores under low-velocity impact loading. In the case of quasi-static loading, the different failure modes, failure loads, and deflections were obtained, which agreed well with [...] Read more.
This paper focusses on the load-sustaining and transfer mechanisms of sandwich beams with various types of PMI foam cores under low-velocity impact loading. In the case of quasi-static loading, the different failure modes, failure loads, and deflections were obtained, which agreed well with the results predicted by the theory of sandwich structure. In the case of impact loading, the clamped sandwich beams were subjected to the impact of a striker bar with a momentum of 10 kg∙m/s to 20 kg∙m/s. The de-acceleration of the strike bar was measured to analyze the impact force and energy absorption, and the corresponding failure modes were also obtained. The results showed that the impact force and the corresponding duration time increases with the increases in the thickness of the face sheet and the density of the core. In addition, the failure modes of the sandwich beams transferred from the shear failure mode to the tensile failure mode, which was attributed to the strength ratio between the bottom face sheet and the core. In combination with the experimental results and the plastic hinge theory, the deformation mechanisms of the different sandwich beams are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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23 pages, 14024 KiB  
Article
Significance of Sandwich Panel’s Core and Design on Its Impact Resistance under Blast Load
by Yaqoub S. AlAhmed, Noha M. Hassan and Zied Bahroun
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7020044 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Extensive research is conducted on enhancing the blast mitigation performance of the sandwich panels by examining different design parameters, and core geometries. Nevertheless, there is no direct comparison between those alternatives to evaluate their contribution to maximizing energy absorption. In this research, three [...] Read more.
Extensive research is conducted on enhancing the blast mitigation performance of the sandwich panels by examining different design parameters, and core geometries. Nevertheless, there is no direct comparison between those alternatives to evaluate their contribution to maximizing energy absorption. In this research, three core designs honeycomb, mushroom, and tubular were compared to determine the influence of core shape on the panel’s impact resistance against blast load. In addition to varying core shapes, the effect of plate thickness and the spacing between the core shapes are also examined. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the performance of these designs. Twenty-seven numerical experiments were performed and then analyzed using regression analysis. Results reveal that the tubular sandwich panel exhibited minimum deformation, and least damage and contributed to the highest kinetic energy dissipation. On the other hand, honeycomb core structures recorded the highest internal energy dissipation, largest deformation, and damage. Despite those differences, core shape and core spacing were not as influential in resisting blast load compared to plate thickness. Facade plate thickness was the most significant factor. Results suggest that more research needs to be targeted toward enhancing façade plate stiffness for better mitigation of blast load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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14 pages, 119227 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Heat Treatment Conditions for Measuring CFRP and GFRP Resin Impregnation
by Ji Hyun Kim, Bhum Keun Song, Kyoung Jae Min, Jung Chul Choi and Hwa Seong Eun
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228182 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
As the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass-fiber-reinforced plastic is frequent in the field of construction, a method for measuring FRP resin content is needed. Herein, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to optimize the heat treatment conditions (temperature and time) for [...] Read more.
As the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass-fiber-reinforced plastic is frequent in the field of construction, a method for measuring FRP resin content is needed. Herein, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to optimize the heat treatment conditions (temperature and time) for determining the resin content in which only the resin was removed without fiber heat loss. Accordingly, the measurement was performed in 100 °C increments at a resin pyrolysis temperature up to 800 °C with a heat treatment time of 4 h to continuously observe the degree of thermal decomposition of the resin. The thermal decomposition of unsaturated polyester was confirmed at the melting point (350 ℃) regardless of the type of fibers used as reinforcement. In the case of CFRP, most of the resin decomposition occurred at 300 °C. Notably, the resin was removed at a pyrolysis temperature of 400 ℃ and almost no change in weight was observed. However, at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C or higher, the thermal decomposition of the fibers occurred partially. The results show that the composite resin was removed within 10 min at a pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C in an air atmosphere when using TGA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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19 pages, 2050 KiB  
Article
On the Solution of Thermal Buckling Problem of Moderately Thick Laminated Conical Shells Containing Carbon Nanotube Originating Layers
by Mahmure Avey, Nicholas Fantuzzi and Abdullah Sofiyev
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217427 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
This study presents the solution for the thermal buckling problem of moderately thick laminated conical shells consisting of carbon nanotube (CNT) originating layers. It is assumed that the laminated truncated-conical shell is subjected to uniform temperature rise. The Donnell-type shell theory is used [...] Read more.
This study presents the solution for the thermal buckling problem of moderately thick laminated conical shells consisting of carbon nanotube (CNT) originating layers. It is assumed that the laminated truncated-conical shell is subjected to uniform temperature rise. The Donnell-type shell theory is used to derive the governing equations, and the Galerkin method is used to find the expression for the buckling temperature in the framework of shear deformation theories (STs). Different transverse shear stress functions, such as the parabolic transverse shear stress (Par-TSS), cosine-hyperbolic shear stress (Cos-Hyp-TSS), and uniform shear stress (U-TSS) functions are used in the analysis part. After validation of the formulation with respect to the existing literature, several parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influences of CNT patterns, number and arrangement of the layers on the uniform buckling temperature (UBT) using various transverse shear stress functions, and classical shell theory (CT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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18 pages, 47763 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fiber-Matrix Interface on the Mechanical Response of a Woven Carbon Fiber/PEEK Composite Material
by Sebastián Andrés Toro, Alvaro Ridruejo, Carlos González and Juan Pedro Fernández Blázquez
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207340 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
This work studies the relationship between the interface shear strength (IFSS) and the mechanical response of a carbon fiber-reinforced composite with a polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) thermoplastic matrix. Two types of laminates were studied: the first kind was manufactured with as-received fiber fabrics, while specimens [...] Read more.
This work studies the relationship between the interface shear strength (IFSS) and the mechanical response of a carbon fiber-reinforced composite with a polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) thermoplastic matrix. Two types of laminates were studied: the first kind was manufactured with as-received fiber fabrics, while specimens belonging to the second one were fabricated with thermally treated fibers where the original sizing agent was removed. IFSS values were measured with the push-in test, showing that treated fibers exhibit a 25% higher critical shear stress. Microscopic inspection of the laminates revealed that untreated specimens were prone to debonding, generating a much higher crack density. This difference was detected by the C-Scan technique and triggered in the response of both laminates under tensile tests at ±45 fiber orientation, where maximum stress and strain at break values of desized specimens showed an increase of 37% and 190%, respectively. Results confirmed that the original fiber sizing weakened the fiber-matrix interface. Lastly, the tensile response of the composite is analyzed in light of interface quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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17 pages, 3501 KiB  
Article
Buckling Analysis of a Composite Honeycomb Reinforced Sandwich Embedded with Viscoelastic Damping Material
by Dezhong Qi, Qiang Sun, Sanqiang Zhang, Yuanfang Wang and Xiaoqiang Zhou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10366; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010366 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
In this study, the buckling loads of a composite sandwich structure, which is reinforced by a honeycomb layer and filled with viscoelastic damping material, are analyzed. By applying von Karman anisotropic plate equations for large deflection, the governing equation of the composite sandwich [...] Read more.
In this study, the buckling loads of a composite sandwich structure, which is reinforced by a honeycomb layer and filled with viscoelastic damping material, are analyzed. By applying von Karman anisotropic plate equations for large deflection, the governing equation of the composite sandwich structure is determined, and the deflection of the structure is further defined by a double triangular series. According to the dynamic equivalent effective stiffness obtained by the homogenous asymptotic method and Hill’s generalized self-consistent model based on the Halpin–Tsai model, limiting the dynamic load buckling of the composite honeycomb reinforced sandwich structure embedded with viscoelastic damping material under axial compression can be achieved. The factors that influence the composite sandwich’s buckling loads are discussed and compared, such as the load and geometry parameters, the thickness of the honeycomb reinforcement layer and the honeycomb’s width. Finally, the results obtained by the present method are validated by the existing literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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14 pages, 4759 KiB  
Article
A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Constitutive Model for Solid Propellant with Rate-Dependent Cumulative Damage
by Shenghao Chen, Chunguang Wang, Kaining Zhang, Xuan Lu and Qun Li
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175834 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Solid propellant is a composite material exhibiting classic nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical characteristic, which is due in a large part to a cumulative damage process caused by the formation and growth of microflaws inside. The standard relaxation tests and uniaxial tension tests under different [...] Read more.
Solid propellant is a composite material exhibiting classic nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical characteristic, which is due in a large part to a cumulative damage process caused by the formation and growth of microflaws inside. The standard relaxation tests and uniaxial tension tests under different velocities of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are carried out in this paper, where Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique is applied to record deformation. The experimental results show that the material mechanical behavior is rate-dependent. It is also observed that the yield stress and failure stress are significantly rate-dependent on the tensile velocity. Based on these experimental results, it can be inferred that the stiffness degradation and damage evolution of HTPB propellant are a rate-dependent processes. Therefore, the damage accumulation of HTPB propellant is considered rate-dependent in this research. In order to describe the mechanical characteristic precisely, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model with rate-dependent cumulative damage is developed. The damage model is developed based on the concept of pseudo strain, in which a Prony series representation of viscoelastic material functions is applied. Besides, a rate-dependent damage variable is introduced into the model through considering the rate-dependent characteristics of cumulative damage process. In addition, a new normalized failure criterion is derived on the basis of the proposed damage model, which is independent of strain-rate after normalization. Finally, it is implemented in commercial finite element software for stress analysis to verify the predictive capacities of the damage model. The accuracy of the constitutive model and failure criterion is validated under uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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20 pages, 7970 KiB  
Article
A Thermo-Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Multi-Directional Carbon/Carbon Composite Materials in Aerospace Applications
by Myungjun Kim and Yongha Kim
Aerospace 2022, 9(8), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace9080461 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Carbon/carbon (C/C) composite materials are widely used in aerospace structures operating in high temperature environments based on their high performance thermal and mechanical properties. The C/C composite material has a yarn architecture in which fiber bundles in different directions cross each other, and [...] Read more.
Carbon/carbon (C/C) composite materials are widely used in aerospace structures operating in high temperature environments based on their high performance thermal and mechanical properties. The C/C composite material has a yarn architecture in which fiber bundles in different directions cross each other, and it is also divided into architecture types, such as 3-D orthogonal, 4-D in-plane, and 4-D diagonal, according to the arrangement of the fiber bundles. The thermo-mechanical performance of the carbon/carbon composite material may vary depending on the yarn architecture, and the material properties are also tailored according to constituent materials, such as fiber and matrix, and manufacturing parameters, such as yarn size, yarn spacing, and fiber volume fraction. In this paper, three types of geometric models are defined for repeating unit cells (RUCs), according to the yarn architecture of the C/C composite material, and the effective stiffness was predicted by applying the iso-strain assumption and stress averaging technique. In addition, the thermo-mechanical characteristics according to the yarn architecture and fiber volume fraction of RUC were compared and evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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25 pages, 16274 KiB  
Article
An Experimentally Based Micromechanical Framework Exploring Effects of Void Shape on Macromechanical Properties
by Sara Eliasson, Mathilda Karlsson Hagnell, Per Wennhage and Zuheir Barsoum
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124361 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
A micromechanical simulation approach in a Multi-Scale Modeling (MSM) framework with the ability to consider manufacturing defects is proposed. The study includes a case study where the framework is implemented exploring a cross-ply laminate. The proposed framework highlights the importance of correct input [...] Read more.
A micromechanical simulation approach in a Multi-Scale Modeling (MSM) framework with the ability to consider manufacturing defects is proposed. The study includes a case study where the framework is implemented exploring a cross-ply laminate. The proposed framework highlights the importance of correct input regarding micromechanical geometry and void characteristics. A Representative Volume Element (RVE) model is developed utilizing true micromechanical geometry extracted from micrographs. Voids, based on statistical experimental data, are implemented in the RVE model, and the effects on the fiber distribution and effective macromechanical properties are evaluated. The RVE algorithm is robust and maintains a good surrounding fiber distribution around the implemented void. The local void fraction, void size, and void shape affect the effective micromechanical properties, and it is important to consider the phenomena of the effective mechanical properties with regard to the overall void fraction of an RVE and the actual laminate. The proposed framework has a good prediction of the macromechanical properties and shows great potential to be used in an industrial implementation. For an industrial implementation, weak spots and critical areas for a laminate on a macro-level are found through combining local RVEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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17 pages, 3216 KiB  
Article
Residual Strength Analysis of C/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Panels Subjected to Combined Thermal-Acoustic Loadings
by Yuli Zhang, Yi Sun and Yizhi Liu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 5996; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12125996 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
A study was undertaken to develop a methodology for assessing the residual strength of C/SiC ceramic matrix composite panels subjected to combined thermal-acoustic loadings. A 2D plain-woven C/SiC ceramic matrix composite panel subjected to spatially uniform thermal loading and band-limited Gaussian white noise [...] Read more.
A study was undertaken to develop a methodology for assessing the residual strength of C/SiC ceramic matrix composite panels subjected to combined thermal-acoustic loadings. A 2D plain-woven C/SiC ceramic matrix composite panel subjected to spatially uniform thermal loading and band-limited Gaussian white noise is chosen as the computational test article, with its geometric nonlinear response determined via numerical simulation. As the input, the material properties (static strength, residual strength, and fatigue life) of this material are fully characterized under tensile and compression loads, for fiber direction at elevated temperature in static and fatigue loading conditions. Based on the methodology, a computer code is developed that simulates the cycle-by-cycle behavior of composite panels under fatigue loadings. The methodology is validated with the residual strength test of 2D plain-woven C/SiC composite panel subjected to combined thermal-acoustic loadings. It has been shown that the results of residual strength predicted by the methodology are well correlated with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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12 pages, 2698 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Bond–Slip Relationship of the CFRP–Steel Interface of CFRP Strengthened Steel
by Xinyan Guo, Zuodong Wu, Yi Yang, Jiahao Bai and Qianziyang Zhou
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124187 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The bonding interface between the CFRP and the steel plate is the weak link of CFRP-strengthened steel structures. This paper studies the bond–slip relationship of the CFRP–steel interface by experiments and numerical tests. First, a series of double-strap experiments on a CFRP-strengthened steel [...] Read more.
The bonding interface between the CFRP and the steel plate is the weak link of CFRP-strengthened steel structures. This paper studies the bond–slip relationship of the CFRP–steel interface by experiments and numerical tests. First, a series of double-strap experiments on a CFRP-strengthened steel plate are carried out. The results show that the maximum shear stress of the bonding interface of the Q345B specimen is larger than that of the X100 specimen. The initial slip and maximum slip become larger as the thickness of the bonding interface becomes larger. Finite element analysis of the above tests is carried out; we introduce the maximum stress criterion to simulate the bonding interface, which assumes that when the nominal stress of the material reaches the maximum nominal stress of damage, the material begins to damage. The FE model established has proved very effective for analyzing the bond characteristics of CFRP-strengthened steel plates. Finally, a verification test was carried out, using an FE analysis to verify the accuracy of the modified equations; the results prove that the results of the modified equations are in good agreement with the numerical results and experiment results, which verifies the effectiveness of the equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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13 pages, 26320 KiB  
Article
Study on Milling Force and Surface Quality during Slot Milling of Plain-Woven CFRP with PCD Tools
by Ziyang Xu and Yongguo Wang
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113862 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in many industrial fields, such as automobile, aerospace and so on, because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, due to their anisotropy and inhomogeneity, machining CFRPs is a great challenge. In this paper, the slot milling [...] Read more.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in many industrial fields, such as automobile, aerospace and so on, because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, due to their anisotropy and inhomogeneity, machining CFRPs is a great challenge. In this paper, the slot milling of a plain-woven CFRP with PCD tools is carried out, and the effects of cutting parameters and tool rake angle on cutting force and surface roughness are studied. The results show that the 4° rake angle PCD tool has smaller cutting force than the 0° rake angle PCD tool, but the effect of rake angle on surface roughness is not significant. The concept of equivalent cutting area is introduced to study the variation law of cutting force and surface roughness. It is found that the cutting force and surface roughness increase with the increase in equivalent cutting area, and decrease with the decrease in equivalent cutting area. The removal mechanism of surface materials under different equivalent cutting areas is different, which leads to the difference in surface roughness. Finally, the causes of delamination on the top layer after milling are explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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20 pages, 8241 KiB  
Article
Shape Memory Alloy—Polymer Composites: Static and Fatigue Pullout Strength under Thermo-Mechanical Loading
by Stefano Rodinò, Elio M. Curcio, Danilo A. Renzo, Emanuele Sgambitterra, Pietro Magarò, Franco Furgiuele, Marco Brandizzi and Carmine Maletta
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093216 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
This work was carried out within the context of an R&D project on morphable polymer matrix composites (PMC), actuated by shape memory alloys (SMA), to be used for active aerodynamic systems in automotives. Critical issues for SMA–polymer integration are analyzed that are mostly [...] Read more.
This work was carried out within the context of an R&D project on morphable polymer matrix composites (PMC), actuated by shape memory alloys (SMA), to be used for active aerodynamic systems in automotives. Critical issues for SMA–polymer integration are analyzed that are mostly related to the limited strength of metal–polymer interfaces. To this aim, materials with suitable thermo-mechanical properties were first selected to avoid premature activation of SMA elements during polymer setting as well as to avoid polymer damage during thermal activation of SMAs. Nonstandard samples were manufactured for both static and fatigue pullout tests under thermo-mechanical loading, which are made of SMA wires embedded in cylindrical resin blocks. Fully coupled thermo-mechanical simulations, including a special constitutive model for SMAs, were also carried out to analyze the stress and temperature distribution in the SMA–polymer samples as obtained from the application of both mechanical loads and thermal activation of the SMA wires. The results highlighted the severe effects of SMA thermal activation on adhesion strength due to the large recovery forces and to the temperature increase at the metal–polymer interface. Samples exhibit a nominal pullout stress of around 940 MPa under static mechanical load, and a marked reduction to 280 MPa was captured under simultaneous application of thermal and mechanical loads. Furthermore, fatigue run-out of 5000 cycles was achieved, under the combination of thermal activation and mechanical loads, at a nominal stress of around 200 MPa. These results represent the main design limitations of SMA/PMC systems in terms of maximum allowable stresses during both static and cyclic actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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21 pages, 6327 KiB  
Article
Impact of Plasma Combustion Technology on Micro Gas Turbines Using Biodiesel Fuels
by Ahmed M. R. N. Alrashidi, Nor Mariah Adam, Mohd Khairol Anuar Bin Mohd Ariffin, Alajmi Fnyees, Amer Alajmi, Alrashidi Naser and Hairuddin Abdul Aziz
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4321; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094321 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
The adoption of biorenewable alternative fuel resources from biofuels (ethanol or biodiesel) has produced promising solutions to reduce some toxic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from gas turbine engines (GTEs). Despite the reduced hydrocarbon associated with adopting alternative bio-renewable fuel resources, GTE operations still [...] Read more.
The adoption of biorenewable alternative fuel resources from biofuels (ethanol or biodiesel) has produced promising solutions to reduce some toxic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from gas turbine engines (GTEs). Despite the reduced hydrocarbon associated with adopting alternative bio-renewable fuel resources, GTE operations still emit toxic gases due to inefficient engine performance. In this study, we assess the impact of the integration of plasma combustion technology on a micro-GTE using biodiesel fuel from animal fat with the aim of addressing performance, fuel consumption, and GHG emission reduction limitations. Laboratory design, fabrication, assembly, testing, and results evaluation were conducted at Kuwait’s Public Authority for Applied Education and Training. The result indicates the lowest toxic emissions of sulfur, nitrogen oxide (NO), NO2, and CO were from the biodiesel blended fuels. The improved thermal efficiency of GTE biodiesel due to the volume of hydrogen plasma injected improves the engine’s overall combustion efficiency. Hence, this increases the compressor inlet and outlet firing temperature by 13.3 °C and 6.1 °C, respectively. The Plasma technology produced a thrust increment of 0.2 kgf for the highest loading condition, which significantly impacted horsepower and GTE engine efficiency and reduced the cost of fuel consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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14 pages, 2956 KiB  
Article
Binary Binder for Cf/C-SiC Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Property
by Yun Liu, Long Ma, Runa Dong, Kexin Cui, Yongzhao Hou, Wen Yang, Yeqing Liu, Cheng Zhong, Guangwu Wen and Lijuan Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082757 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
Cf/C-SiC composites have become the preferred material for high-temperature load-bearing applications because of their low density, high strength, and excellent thermal-physical properties. Due to the composite’s poor sintering performance, the sintering temperature and pressure required for the preparation of Cf/C-SiC by traditional methods [...] Read more.
Cf/C-SiC composites have become the preferred material for high-temperature load-bearing applications because of their low density, high strength, and excellent thermal-physical properties. Due to the composite’s poor sintering performance, the sintering temperature and pressure required for the preparation of Cf/C-SiC by traditional methods are also relatively high, which limits its engineering application. Herein, based on the precursor-derived ceramic route and C/C composites material preparation process, a binary binder (coal pitch and polysilylacetylene) is developed, which combines a carbon source, SiC precursor, and semi-ceramic SiC filler organically. Then, the SiC phase was successfully introduced into C/C composites by the slurry impregnation-hot pressing sintering method. The prepared Cf/C-SiC composites showed good mechanical properties, with a density of 1.53 g/cm3 and a bending strength of 339 ± 21 MPa. Moreover, the effects of the binary binder on the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of Cf/C-SiC composites were investigated. This work provides a novel and effective approach to fabricating Cf/C-SiC composites with low density and high strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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13 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization, and Modeling of Aligned ZnO Nanowire-Enhanced Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites
by Jingyu Wang, Parisa Marashizadeh, Binbin Weng, Preston Larson, M. Cengiz Altan and Yingtao Liu
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072618 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
This paper presents the synthesis, characterization, and multiscale modeling of hybrid composites with enhanced interfacial properties consisting of aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and continuous carbon fibers. The atomic layer deposition method was employed to uniformly synthesize nanoscale ZnO seeds on carbon fibers. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the synthesis, characterization, and multiscale modeling of hybrid composites with enhanced interfacial properties consisting of aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and continuous carbon fibers. The atomic layer deposition method was employed to uniformly synthesize nanoscale ZnO seeds on carbon fibers. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires were grown from the deposited nanoscale seeds using the low-temperature hydrothermal method. Morphology and chemical compositions of ZnO nanowires were characterized to evaluate the quality of synthesized ZnO nanowires in hybrid fiber-reinforced composites. Single fiber fragmentation tests reveal that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in epoxy composites improved by 286%. Additionally, a multiscale modeling framework was developed to investigate the IFSS of hybrid composites with radially aligned ZnO nanowires. The cohesive zone model (CZM) was implemented to model the interface between fiber and matrix. The damage behavior of fiber was simulated using the ABAQUS user subroutine to define a material’s mechanical behavior (UMAT). Both experimental and analytical results indicate that the hierarchical carbon fibers enhanced by aligned ZnO nanowires are effective in improving the key mechanical properties of hybrid fiber-reinforced composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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8 pages, 1375 KiB  
Article
Probing the Reaction Mechanisms of 3,5-Difluoro-2,4,6-Trinitroanisole (DFTNAN) through a Comparative Study with Trinitroanisole (TNAN)
by Qingjie Jiao, Tianqi Li, Yapeng Ou, Suming Jing and Fang Wang
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072568 - 31 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
To probe the thermal decomposition mechanisms of a novel fluorinated low-melting-point explosive 3,5-difluoro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole (DFTNAN), a comparative study with trinitroanisole (TNAN) was performed under different heating conditions. The thermal decomposition processes and initial reactions were monitored by DSC-TG-FTIR-MS and T-jump-PyGC-MS coupling analyses, respectively. The [...] Read more.
To probe the thermal decomposition mechanisms of a novel fluorinated low-melting-point explosive 3,5-difluoro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole (DFTNAN), a comparative study with trinitroanisole (TNAN) was performed under different heating conditions. The thermal decomposition processes and initial reactions were monitored by DSC-TG-FTIR-MS and T-jump-PyGC-MS coupling analyses, respectively. The results show that fluorine decreased the thermal stability of the molecular structure, and the trigger bond was transferred from the ortho-nitro group of the ether to the para-nitro group. The possible reaction pathway of DFTNAN after the initial bond breakage is the rupture of the dissociative nitro group with massive heat release, which induces the ring opening of benzene. Major side reactions include the generation of polycyclic compounds and fluorine atom migration. Fluorine affects the thermal stability and changes the reaction pathway, and fluorinated products appear in the form of fluorocarbons due to the high stability of the C-F bond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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18 pages, 2581 KiB  
Article
Magneto-Thermoelastic Response in an Unbounded Medium Containing a Spherical Hole via Multi-Time-Derivative Thermoelasticity Theories
by Ashraf M. Zenkour, Daoud S. Mashat and Ashraf M. Allehaibi
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072432 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
This article introduces magneto-thermoelastic exchanges in an unbounded medium with a spherical cavity. A refined multi-time-derivative dual-phase-lag thermoelasticity model is applied for this reason. The surface of the spherical hole is considered traction-free and under both constant heating and external magnetic field. A [...] Read more.
This article introduces magneto-thermoelastic exchanges in an unbounded medium with a spherical cavity. A refined multi-time-derivative dual-phase-lag thermoelasticity model is applied for this reason. The surface of the spherical hole is considered traction-free and under both constant heating and external magnetic field. A generalized magneto-thermoelastic coupled solution is developed utilizing Laplace’s transform. The field variables are shown graphically and examined to demonstrate the impacts of the magnetic field, phase-lags, and other parameters on the field quantities. The present theory is examined to assess its validity including comparison with the existing literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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20 pages, 16222 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Study on Residual Strength of Honeycomb Sandwich Composite Structure after Lightning Strike
by Yongwei Wang, Deng Zhou, Gang Yan and Zhuangjie Wang
Aerospace 2022, 9(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace9030158 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Honeycomb sandwich composite structures are widely used in various aircraft structures due to their unique performance. However, honeycomb sandwich composite structures are prone to lightning damage that threatens the structure safety. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the residual mechanical properties of honeycomb [...] Read more.
Honeycomb sandwich composite structures are widely used in various aircraft structures due to their unique performance. However, honeycomb sandwich composite structures are prone to lightning damage that threatens the structure safety. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the residual mechanical properties of honeycomb sandwich composite structures after a lightning strike. In this study, simulated lightning strike tests were first conducted for honeycomb sandwich panels with and without carbon nanotube film (CNTF) to obtain different damage scenarios and study the protection effect of CNTF. Then, the residual compressive strength of the panels with lightning strike damage was predicted using a progressive damage analysis method and verified with the experimental results. It was found that the numerical prediction results agree with the experimental results. The size and extent of lightning damage have an important effect on the compression damage mode of honeycomb sandwich panel with closed edges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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26 pages, 93130 KiB  
Article
Design of Fiber-Composite/Metal–Hybrid Structures Made by Multi-Stage Coreless Filament Winding
by Pascal Mindermann, Ralf Müllner, Erik Dieringer, Christof Ocker, René Klink, Markus Merkel and Götz T. Gresser
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052296 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Additive manufacturing processes, such as coreless filament winding with fiber composites or laser powder bed fusion with metals, can produce lightweight structures while exhibiting process-specific characteristics. Those features must be accounted for to successfully combine multiple processes and materials. This hybrid approach can [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing processes, such as coreless filament winding with fiber composites or laser powder bed fusion with metals, can produce lightweight structures while exhibiting process-specific characteristics. Those features must be accounted for to successfully combine multiple processes and materials. This hybrid approach can merge the different benefits to realize mass savings in load-bearing structures with high mass-specific stiffnesses, strict geometrical tolerances, and machinability. In this study, a digital tool for coreless filament winding was developed to support all project phases by natively capturing the process-specific characteristics. As a demonstration, an aluminum base plate was stiffened by a coreless wound fiber-composite structure, which was attached by additively manufactured metallic winding pins. The geometrical deviations and surface roughness of the pins were investigated to describe the interface. The concept of multi-stage winding was introduced to reduce fiber–fiber interaction. The demonstration example exhibited an increase in mass-specific component stiffness by a factor of 2.5 with only 1/5 of the mass of a state-of-the-art reference. The hybrid design approach holds great potential to increase performance if process-specific features, interfaces, material interaction, and processes interdependencies are aligned during the digitized design phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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13 pages, 3816 KiB  
Article
Research on Hot Corrosion Behavior of DZ40M and K452 Superalloys in NaCl Molten Salt
by Lei Wan, Zeyu Zhang, Wenquan Wang, Yunpeng Xue, Jubao Shen, Tao Sun and Haiou Sun
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041512 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The corrosion of cobalt-based DZ40M and nickel-based K452 superalloy at 900 °C was investigated by NaCl salt coating. Accordingly, the differences in hot corrosion behavior were analyzed considering the development methods and elementary composition by comparing the two alloys’ failure. Then, the corrosion [...] Read more.
The corrosion of cobalt-based DZ40M and nickel-based K452 superalloy at 900 °C was investigated by NaCl salt coating. Accordingly, the differences in hot corrosion behavior were analyzed considering the development methods and elementary composition by comparing the two alloys’ failure. Then, the corrosion mechanism induced by NaCl was proposed by comparing oxidation and hot corrosion behavior. The relatively continuous Al2O3 and TiO2 formed on K452 superalloy with higher content of Al and Ti have lower solubility and less damage in Na2O. Thus, the hot corrosion rate of K452 is lower than that of DZ40M with higher content of C, Cr, and W. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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19 pages, 34985 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Experimental Study on Reverse Helical Milling with the Gradual-Removal Reverse Edge Milling Cutter under Ultrasonic-Assisted Condition
by Kemeng Ren and Guangyue Wang
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031117 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
As a new machining method, ultrasonic-assisted bi-direction helical milling has obvious advantages in making holes on carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, cutting edges of the flat-bottomed milling cutter are easy to wear, which may cause severe defects such as burrs and tears in [...] Read more.
As a new machining method, ultrasonic-assisted bi-direction helical milling has obvious advantages in making holes on carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, cutting edges of the flat-bottomed milling cutter are easy to wear, which may cause severe defects such as burrs and tears in the outlet of the hole. In order to improve the hole-making quality of CFRP, the gradual-removal reverse edge milling cutter was proposed and designed. The finite method models of reverse helical milling CFRP with the flat-bottomed reverse edge milling cutter and the gradual-removal reverse edge milling cutter under an ultrasonic vibration were established, and the comparative cutting experiments of the two cutters were carried out. By comparing the cutting performance of the two milling cutters under the condition of ultrasonic vibration assistance, the cutting mechanism of improving the hole wall quality by the gradual-removal reverse edge milling cutter was studied. The results showed that when the reverse cumulative cutting depth reached about 60 mm, compared with the flat-bottomed reverse edge milling cutter, the gradual-removal reverse edge milling cutter transferred part of the cutting task of the peripheral edge to the end edge, and the wear of the reverse peripheral edges which directly affects the hole quality was effectively alleviated. This mechanism made the cutting state of the peripheral edge dominated by shear failure, which led to the significant improvement of the quality at the outlet of the hole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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15 pages, 5771 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Nonlinear Progressive Damage and Failure Analysis for Open-Hole Composite Laminates
by Jian Shi and Mingbo Tong
Aerospace 2022, 9(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace9020059 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
In order to study the nonlinear behaviors and interactions among the constituents for the composite material structure under the tensile load, multiscale damage model using generalized method of cells (GMC) and a lamina-level progressive damage model were established, respectively, for fiber reinforced composite [...] Read more.
In order to study the nonlinear behaviors and interactions among the constituents for the composite material structure under the tensile load, multiscale damage model using generalized method of cells (GMC) and a lamina-level progressive damage model were established, respectively, for fiber reinforced composite laminates with a central hole, which were based on the thermodynamic Schapery Theory (ST) at either the micro-level or the lamina level. Once the nonlinear progressive degradation of the matrix material reached the lower limit value for the ST method, matrix failures naturally occurred, the failure of the fiber was determined by the maximum stress failure criterion. For the multiscale progressive damage model, the GMC model consisting of a fiber subcell and three matrix subcells was imposed at each integral point of FEM elements, and the three matrix subcells undergo independent damage evolution. The load versus displacement curves and failure modes of the open-hole laminates were predicted by using the two progressive failure models, and the results were compared with that obtained by the Hashin-Rotem progressive failure model and the experimental results. The results show that the ST based method can obtain the nonlinear progressive damage evolution states and failure states of the composite at both the lamina level and the multiscale level. Finally, the damage contours and failure paths obtained are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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15 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Design and Preparation of CNTs/Mg Layered Composites
by Xiao Zhang, Linchi Zou, Junfeng Chen, Pinqiang Dai and Jian Pan
Materials 2022, 15(3), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030864 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
In order to effectively solve the problem of strength and ductility mismatch of magnesium (Mg) matrix composites, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are added as reinforcement. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs in a metal matrix to form composites. In this paper, electrophoretic [...] Read more.
In order to effectively solve the problem of strength and ductility mismatch of magnesium (Mg) matrix composites, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are added as reinforcement. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs in a metal matrix to form composites. In this paper, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to obtain layered units, and then the CNTs/Mg layered units were sintered by spark plasma sintering to synthesize layered CNTs/Mg composites. The deposition morphology of the layered units obtained by EPD and the microstructure, damping properties, and mechanical properties of the composite material were analyzed. The results show that the strength and ductility of the composite sample sintered at 590 °C were improved compared with the layered pure Mg and the composite sample sintered at 600 °C. Compared with pure Mg, the composites rolled by 40% had a much higher strength but no significant decrease in ductility. The damping properties of the CNTs/Mg composites were tested. The damping–test-temperature curve (tanδ~T) rose gradually with increasing temperature in the range of room temperature to 350 °C, and two internal friction peaks appeared. The damping properties of the tested composites at room temperature decreased with increasing frequency. The layered structure of the CNTs/Mg had ultra-high strengthening efficiency and maintained its ductility. The layered units prepared by EPD can uniformly disperse the CNTs in the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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21 pages, 88081 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Damping Capacity of CFRP Raft Frames
by Jinguang Zhang, Jun Rao, Lei Ma and Xianglong Wen
Materials 2022, 15(2), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020653 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
In this paper, based on the composite laminated plate theory and a strain energy model, the damping capacity of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) raft frame was studied. According to the finite element analysis (FEA) and damping ratio prediction model, the influences [...] Read more.
In this paper, based on the composite laminated plate theory and a strain energy model, the damping capacity of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) raft frame was studied. According to the finite element analysis (FEA) and damping ratio prediction model, the influences of different layups on the damping capacity of the raft frame and its components (top/bottom plate and I-support) were discussed. Comparing the FEA results with the test results, it can be figured out that the CFRP laminate layup has a great influence on the damping ratio of the raft frame, and the maximum error of the first-order natural frequency and damping ratio of the top/bottom plate were 5.6% and 15.1%, respectively. The maximum error of the first-order natural frequency of the I-support between the FEA result and the test result was 7.5%, suggesting that because of the stress concentration, the error of the damping ratio was relatively large. As for the raft frame, the damping performance was affected by the I-support arrangement and the simulation analysis was in good agreement with the experimental results. This study can provide a useful reference for improving the damping performance of CFRP raft frames. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Composites in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
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