Topic Editors

Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuhahanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi 573-1121, Osaka, Japan
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan
Department of advanced hard materials, The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, Osaka Dental University, 1 Chome-4-4 Makinohonmachi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1144, Japan

Advances in Biomaterials

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 November 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials are materials that are put into the body for medical purposes, such as artificial joints, dentures, artificial blood vessels, artificial skin, and artificial organs. Research on biomaterials is conducted in biomedical engineering and biomaterials. Research on materials that can be used by putting them in the body and have the desired function—for example, that can be used as joints and blood vessels, which is the basis of this—is carried out by material type such as polymer/fiber material. It is conducted in research fields that focus on the functions of materials, such as structural/functional materials, mechanical materials/strength of materials, and composite materials/surface interface engineering. In this Special Issue, we would like to introduce biomaterials that are expected to be useful in future medical treatment.

Dr. Satoshi Komasa
Prof. Dr. Yoshiro Tahara
Prof. Dr. Tohru Sekino
Prof. Dr. Joji Okazaki
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • Biomaterials
  • In vitro
  • In vivo
  • Titanium
  • Zirconia
  • Peek
  • Medical device

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Bioengineering
bioengineering
4.6 4.2 2014 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Dentistry Journal
dentistry
2.6 4.0 2013 27.8 Days CHF 2000
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700
Applied Biosciences
applbiosci
- - 2022 37.7 Days CHF 1000
Technologies
technologies
3.6 5.5 2013 19.7 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (65 papers)

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16 pages, 4255 KiB  
Article
Very Large Pore Mesoporous Bioactive Silicate Glasses: Comparison of Behavior toward Classical Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses in Terms of Drug Loading/Release and Bioactivity
by Debora Carrozza, Erika Ferrari and Gianluca Malavasi
Materials 2024, 17(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020373 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Considering the increase in patients who suffer from osteoporosis and the bone defects that occur in these patients, bone tissue regeneration is a promising option to solve this problem. To achieve a synergistic effect between the synthesis of a proper structure and bioactive/pharmaceutical [...] Read more.
Considering the increase in patients who suffer from osteoporosis and the bone defects that occur in these patients, bone tissue regeneration is a promising option to solve this problem. To achieve a synergistic effect between the synthesis of a proper structure and bioactive/pharmaceutical activity, ions with a physiological effect can be added to silica structures, such as Ca2+, thanks to its bioactive behavior, and Ga3+ for its antibacterial and anticancer action. In this work, the synthesis of large pore mesoporous silica (LPMS), potential bioactive glasses containing Ca2+ and Ga3+, has been studied. Corresponding structures, in terms of composition, have been synthesized following the Sol-Gel EISA (Evaporation Induced Self-Assembly) process (obtaining Classical Mesoporous Silica, MS). Pore structure characterization of LPMSs and MSs has been performed using N2 adsorption/desorption and Hg-porosimetry, showing the presence of pores for LPMSs in the range of 20–60 and 200–600 nm. Nisin, a polycyclic antibacterial peptide, has been used for load tests. The load and release tests performed highlight a higher loading and releasing, doubled for LPMSs if compared to MSs. To confirm the maintenance of the structure of LPMSs and their mechanical strength and resistance, scanning electron microscopy images were acquired before and after release tests. Ca and Ga release in SBF has been studied through inductively coupled plasma—optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), showing a particularly high release of these ions performed with LPMSs. The bioactive behavior of Ca-containing structures has been confirmed using FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRDP). In conclusion, LPMSs showed better loading and releasing properties compared with classical MS and better release in terms of active ions. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that LPMSs have bioactive behavior (a well-known characteristic of MSs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 3810 KiB  
Article
Low-Temperature Plasmas Improving Chemical and Cellular Properties of Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Biomaterial for Biomineralization
by John P. Bradford, Gerardo Hernandez-Moreno, Renjith R. Pillai, Alexandria L. Hernandez-Nichols and Vinoy Thomas
Materials 2024, 17(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010171 - 28 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Osteoblastic and chemical responses to Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) material have been improved using a variety of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs). Surface chemical properties are modified, and can be used, using low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatments which change surface functional groups. These functional groups [...] Read more.
Osteoblastic and chemical responses to Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) material have been improved using a variety of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs). Surface chemical properties are modified, and can be used, using low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatments which change surface functional groups. These functional groups increase biomineralization, in simulated body fluid conditions, and cellular viability. PEEK scaffolds were treated, with a variety of LTPs, incubated in simulated body fluids, and then analyzed using multiple techniques. First, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed morphological changes in the biomineralization for all samples. Calcein staining, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that all low-temperature plasma-treated groups showed higher levels of biomineralization than the control group. MTT cell viability assays showed LTP-treated groups had increased cell viability in comparison to non-LTP-treated controls. PEEK treated with triethyl phosphate plasma (TEP) showed higher levels of cellular viability at 82.91% ± 5.00 (n = 6) and mineralization. These were significantly different to both the methyl methacrylate (MMA) 77.38% ± 1.27, ethylene diamine (EDA) 64.75% ± 6.43 plasma-treated PEEK groups, and the control, non-plasma-treated group 58.80 ± 2.84. FTIR showed higher levels of carbonate and phosphate formation on the TEP-treated PEEK than the other samples; however, calcein staining fluorescence of MMA and TEP-treated PEEK had the highest levels of biomineralization measured by pixel intensity quantification of 101.17 ± 4.63 and 96.35 ± 3.58, respectively, while EDA and control PEEK samples were 89.53 ± 1.74 and 90.49 ± 2.33, respectively. Comparing different LTPs, we showed that modified surface chemistry has quantitatively measurable effects that are favorable to the cellular, biomineralization, and chemical properties of PEEK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 6060 KiB  
Article
Impact of Fiber Characteristics on the Interfacial Interaction of Mammalian Cells and Bacteria
by Helna M. Baby, John Joseph, Maneesha K. Suresh, Raja Biswas and Deepthy Menon
Appl. Biosci. 2023, 2(4), 527-541; https://doi.org/10.3390/applbiosci2040033 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 859
Abstract
An imperative requisite of tissue-engineered scaffolds is to promote host cell regeneration and concomitantly thwart microbial growth. Antibacterial agents are often added to prevent implant-related infections, which, however, aggravates the risk of bacterial resistance. For the first time, we report a fiber-based platform [...] Read more.
An imperative requisite of tissue-engineered scaffolds is to promote host cell regeneration and concomitantly thwart microbial growth. Antibacterial agents are often added to prevent implant-related infections, which, however, aggravates the risk of bacterial resistance. For the first time, we report a fiber-based platform that selectively promotes the growth of mammalian cells and alleviates bacteria by varying fiber size, orientation, and material of polymeric yarns. The interactions of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species with mammalian mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were investigated on poly-€-caprolactone (PCL) yarns, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and cotton. Various yarn configurations were studied by altering the fiber diameter (from nano- to microscale) and fiber orientations (aligned, twisted, and random) of PCL yarns. PCL nanofibrous yarn decreased the adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli, with a 2.7-fold and 1.5-fold reduction, respectively, compared to PCL microfibrous yarn. Among different fiber orientations, nanoaligned fibers resulted in an 8-fold and 30-fold reduction of S. aureus and E. coli adhesion compared to random fibers. Moreover, aligned orientation was superior in retarding the S. aureus adhesion by 14-fold compared to nanotwisted fibers. Our data demonstrate that polymeric yarns comprising fibers with nanoscale features and aligned orientation promote mammalian cell adhesion and spreading and concomitantly mitigate bacterial interaction. Moreover, we unveil the wicking of cells through polymeric yarns, facilitating early cell adhesion in fibrous scaffolds. Overall, this study provides insight to engineer scaffolds that couple superior interaction of mammalian cells with high-strength fibrous yarns for regenerative applications devoid of antibacterial agents or other surface modification strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 12671 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Applying Biodegradable Material for Removal of Various Substances (Fluorides, Nitrates and Lead) from Water
by Ramunė Albrektienė-Plačakė, Kristina Bazienė and Justinas Gargasas
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196519 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Sapropel was used as a biodegradable material for water treatment. Sapropel is a sedimentary layer of a mix of organic and inorganic substances accumulated in the bottoms of lakes for thousands of years. It is a jelly-like homogeneous mass and has properties of [...] Read more.
Sapropel was used as a biodegradable material for water treatment. Sapropel is a sedimentary layer of a mix of organic and inorganic substances accumulated in the bottoms of lakes for thousands of years. It is a jelly-like homogeneous mass and has properties of sorption. Sapropel is used as a biosorbent and an environment-friendly fertiliser, and it is used in building materials and in the beauty industry as well. In water, there are abundant various solutes that may cause a risk to human health. Such substances include fluorides, nitrates and lead in different sources of water. The goal of this investigation is to explore and compare the efficiencies of removal of different pollutants (fluorides, nitrates and lead) from aqueous solutions upon using sapropel as a sorbent. In this research, various doses of sapropel (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 g/L) and various mixing times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min) were used for removal of fluorides, nitrates and lead from aqueous solutions. It was found that the maximum efficiency (up to 98.57%) of lead removal from aqueous solutions by sapropel was achieved when the minimum doses of it (0.1 and 0.5 g/L) were used. The most efficient removal of fluorides (64.67%) was achieved by using 200 g/L of sapropel and mixing for 120 min. However, sapropel does not adsorb nitrates from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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20 pages, 7513 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Release of Calcium Ions from Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles with an Increase in Their Specific Surface Area
by Urszula Szałaj, Agnieszka Chodara, Stanisław Gierlotka, Jacek Wojnarowicz and Witold Łojkowski
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196397 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Synthetic calcium phosphates, e.g., hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), are the most commonly used bone-graft materials due to their high chemical similarity to the natural hydroxyapatite—the inorganic component of bones. Calcium in the form of a free ion or bound complexes plays [...] Read more.
Synthetic calcium phosphates, e.g., hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), are the most commonly used bone-graft materials due to their high chemical similarity to the natural hydroxyapatite—the inorganic component of bones. Calcium in the form of a free ion or bound complexes plays a key role in many biological functions, including bone regeneration. This paper explores the possibility of increasing the Ca2+-ion release from HAP nanoparticles (NPs) by reducing their size. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were obtained through microwave hydrothermal synthesis. Particles with a specific surface area ranging from 51 m2/g to 240 m2/g and with sizes of 39, 29, 19, 11, 10, and 9 nm were used in the experiment. The structure of the nanomaterial was also studied by means of helium pycnometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). The calcium-ion release into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was studied. The highest release of Ca2+ ions, i.e., 18 mg/L, was observed in HAP with a specific surface area 240 m2/g and an average nanoparticle size of 9 nm. A significant increase in Ca2+-ion release was also observed with specific surface areas of 183 m2/g and above, and with nanoparticle sizes of 11 nm and below. No substantial size dependence was observed for the larger particle sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Substrate Stiffness Modulates TGF-β Activation and ECM-Associated Gene Expression in Fibroblasts
by Brijesh Kumar Verma, Aritra Chatterjee, Paturu Kondaiah and Namrata Gundiah
Bioengineering 2023, 10(9), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10090998 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates the expression of ECM-associated genes during early injury. Tissue fibrosis development is driven by synergistic cues between the evolving biochemical and mechanical milieu. Few studies have addressed the role of substrate stiffness on [...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates the expression of ECM-associated genes during early injury. Tissue fibrosis development is driven by synergistic cues between the evolving biochemical and mechanical milieu. Few studies have addressed the role of substrate stiffness on TGF-β activity and extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes. We used a commercial formulation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to fabricate substrates of 40 kPa, 300 kPa, and 1.5 MPa stiffness, and cultured the HMF3S fibroblasts on substrates. We quantified TGF-β protein secreted by HMF3S cells on different substrates using a TGF-β responsive promoter reporter assay. We also tested for variations in gene expression levels on the substrates using RT-PCR and Western blotting and determined the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities with gelatin zymography. The results showed that TGF-β protein activation was significantly compromised at lower stiffnesses. The expression of integrin α5 decreased on lower stiffness substrates and correlated with inefficient TGF-β protein activation. Collagen I, collagen III, and MMP-2 expression levels were lower on softer substrates; there was little MMP-9 activity on all substrates. Cell and nuclear morphologies were more rounded on compliant substrates, correlating with increased tubulin expression. Proliferations were higher on stiffer substrates, whereas cells on softer substrates showed cell cycle arrest. These results demonstrated critical feedback mechanisms between substrate stiffness and ECM regulation by fibroblasts, relevant in fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 2965 KiB  
Article
Particulate Filler and Discontinuous Fiber Filler Resin Composite’s Adaptation and Bonding to Intra-Radicular Dentin
by Marco Ferrari, Eugenia Lettieri, Denise Irene Karin Pontoriero, Pekka Vallittu and Edoardo Ferrari Cagidiaco
Polymers 2023, 15(15), 3180; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15153180 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess adaptation and bonding to root canal dentin of discontinuous (short) glass fiber-reinforced composite to intra-radicular dentin (DSGFRC). Methods: Seventy virgin human teeth were extracted and then endodontically treated; then samples were randomly divided into 7 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess adaptation and bonding to root canal dentin of discontinuous (short) glass fiber-reinforced composite to intra-radicular dentin (DSGFRC). Methods: Seventy virgin human teeth were extracted and then endodontically treated; then samples were randomly divided into 7 groups (n = 10), based on the materials’ combinations as follows: Group 1, a two-bottle universal adhesive + DSGFRC; Group 2, a single-component universal adhesive + DSGFRC; Groups 3 and 4, the same materials of Goups 1 and 2 were used but after cleaning of the canal walls with 17% EDTA and final irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl Ultrasound Activated (UA); Group 5, traditional prefabricated fiber posts were luted after being silanized with G-Multi Primer; Groups 6 and 7, like Group 5 but after ultrasonic irrigation (UA). All sample roots were cut 1 mm thick (n = 10) to be evaluated regarding root canal adaptation using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and push-out bond strength. These results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance by ranks. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Bond strength forces varied between 6.66 and 8.37 MPa and no statistically significant differences were recorded among the groups. By microscopic examination, it was noted that ultrasonic irrigation increased the adaptation of the materials to the dentin surface. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that when DSGFRC was used for intracanal anchorage in the post-endodontic reconstruction, similar push-out retentive force and strength to those of traditional fiber posts cemented with particulate filler resin composite cements were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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21 pages, 11852 KiB  
Article
Very Large Pores Mesoporous Silica as New Candidate for Delivery of Big Therapeutics Molecules, Such as Pharmaceutical Peptides
by Debora Carrozza, Gianluca Malavasi and Erika Ferrari
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114151 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
The synthesis of a scaffold that can accommodate big molecules with a pharmaceutical role is important to shield them and maintain their biological activity. In this field, silica particles with large pores (LPMS) are innovative supports. Large pores allow for the loading of [...] Read more.
The synthesis of a scaffold that can accommodate big molecules with a pharmaceutical role is important to shield them and maintain their biological activity. In this field, silica particles with large pores (LPMS) are innovative supports. Large pores allow for the loading of bioactive molecules inside the structure and contemporarily their stabilization and protection. These purposes cannot be achieved using classical mesoporous silica (MS, pore size 2–5 nm), because their pores are not big enough and pore blocking occurs. LPMSs with different porous structures are synthesized starting from an acidic water solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate reacting with pore agents (Pluronic® F127 and mesitylene), performing hydrothermal and microwave-assisted reactions. Time and surfactant optimization were performed. Loading tests were conducted using Nisin as a reference molecule (polycyclic antibacterial peptide, with dimensions of 4–6 nm); UV-Vis analyses on loading solutions were performed. For LPMSs, a significantly higher loading efficiency (LE%) was registered. Other analyses (Elemental Analysis, Thermogravimetric Analysis and UV-Vis) confirmed the presence of Nisin in all the structures and its stability when loaded on them. LPMSs showed a lower decrease in specific surface area if compared to MS; in terms of the difference in LE% between samples, it is explained considering the filling of pores for LPMSs, a phenomenon that is not allowed for MSs. Release studies in simulated body fluid highlight, only for LPMSs, a controlled release, considering the longer time scale of release. Scanning Electron Microscopy images acquired before and after release tests shows the LPMSs’ maintenance of the structure, demonstrating strength and mechanical resistance of structures. In conclusion, LPMSs were synthesized, performing time and surfactant optimization. LPMSs showed better loading and releasing properties with respect to classical MS. All collected data confirm a pore blocking for MS and an in-pore loading for LPMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 4130 KiB  
Article
β-TCP/S53P4 Scaffolds Obtained by Gel Casting: Synthesis, Properties, and Biomedical Applications
by Suelen Simões Amaral, Beatriz Samara de Sousa Lima, Sarah Oliveira Marco Avelino, Bruno Roberto Spirandeli, Tiago Moreira Bastos Campos, Gilmar Patrocínio Thim, Eliandra de Sousa Trichês, Renata Falchete do Prado and Luana Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050597 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antimicrobial effect of bioactive glass S53P4 incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro and the bone neoformation in vivo. β-TCP and β-TCP/S53P4 scaffolds were prepared by the gel casting method. Samples [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antimicrobial effect of bioactive glass S53P4 incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro and the bone neoformation in vivo. β-TCP and β-TCP/S53P4 scaffolds were prepared by the gel casting method. Samples were morphologically and physically characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In vitro tests were performed using MG63 cells. American Type Culture Collection reference strains were used to determine the scaffold’s antimicrobial potential. Defects were created in the tibia of New Zealand rabbits and filled with experimental scaffolds. The incorporation of S53P4 bioglass promotes significant changes in the crystalline phases formed and in the morphology of the surface of the scaffolds. The β-TCP/S53P4 scaffolds did not demonstrate an in vitro cytotoxic effect, presented similar alkaline phosphatase activity, and induced a significantly higher protein amount when compared to β-TCP. The expression of Itg β1 in the β-TCP scaffold was higher than in the β-TCP/S53P4, and there was higher expression of Col-1 in the β-TCP/S53P4 group. Higher bone formation and antimicrobial activity were observed in the β-TCP/S53P4 group. The results confirm the osteogenic capacity of β-TCP ceramics and suggest that, after bioactive glass S53P4 incorporation, it can prevent microbial infections, demonstrating to be an excellent biomaterial for application in bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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31 pages, 6824 KiB  
Article
Development of Three-Dimensional (3D) Biodegradable Polyglycolic Acid Fiber (PGA) Preforms for Scaffold Applications: Experimental Patterning and Fiber Volume Fraction-Porosity Modeling Study
by Hikmet Kundak and Kadir Bilisik
Polymers 2023, 15(9), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15092083 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber (PGA) preforms were developed as temporary scaffolds for three-dimensional tissue regeneration applications. Three-dimensional biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber (PGA) preforms including various degrees of interlaced structures called 3D plain, semi-interlaced, and orthogonal woven preforms were designed. Analytical relations [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber (PGA) preforms were developed as temporary scaffolds for three-dimensional tissue regeneration applications. Three-dimensional biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber (PGA) preforms including various degrees of interlaced structures called 3D plain, semi-interlaced, and orthogonal woven preforms were designed. Analytical relations and finite element model-based software (TexGen) on fiber volume fraction and porosity fraction were proposed to predict scaffolds’ stiffness and strength properties considering micromechanics relations. It was revealed that yarn-to-yarn space, density, and angles of all 3D PGA fiber preforms were heterogeneous and demonstrated direction-dependent features (anisotropy). Total fiber volume fractions (Vfp) and porosity fraction (Vtpr) predicted by analytic and numerical modelling of all 3D scaffolds showed some deviations compared to the measured values. This was because yarn cross-sections in the scaffolds were changed from ideal circular yarn (fiber TOW) geometry to high-order ellipse (lenticular) due to inter-fiber pressure generated under a tensile-based macrostress environment during preform formation. Z-yarn modulus (Ez-yarn) and strength (σz-yarn) were probably critical values due to strong stiffness and strength in the through-the-thickness direction where hydrogel modulus and strengths were negligibly small. Morphology of the scaffold showed that PGA fiber sets in the preform were locally distorted, and they appeared as inconsistent and inhomogeneous continuous fiber forms. Additionally, various porosity shapes in the preform based on the virtual model featured complex shapes from nearly trapezoidal beams to partial or concave rectangular beams and ellipsoid rectangular cylinders. It was concluded that 3D polyglycolic acid fiber preforms could be a temporary supportive substrate for 3D tissue regeneration because cells in the scaffold’s thickness can grow via through-the-thickness fiber (z-yarn), including various possible mechanobiology mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 4524 KiB  
Article
Development of PCL PolyHIPE Substrates for 3D Breast Cancer Cell Culture
by Caitlin E. Jackson, David H. Ramos-Rodriguez, Nicholas T. H. Farr, William R. English, Nicola H. Green and Frederik Claeyssens
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050522 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Cancer is a becoming a huge social and economic burden on society, becoming one of the most significant barriers to life expectancy in the 21st century. In particular, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death for women. One of the [...] Read more.
Cancer is a becoming a huge social and economic burden on society, becoming one of the most significant barriers to life expectancy in the 21st century. In particular, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death for women. One of the most significant difficulties to finding efficient therapies for specific cancers, such as breast cancer, is the efficiency and ease of drug development and testing. Tissue-engineered (TE) in vitro models are rapidly developing as an alternative to animal testing for pharmaceuticals. Additionally, porosity included within these structures overcomes the diffusional mass transfer limit whilst enabling cell infiltration and integration with surrounding tissue. Within this study, we investigated the use of high-molecular-weight polycaprolactone methacrylate (PCL–M) polymerised high-internal-phase emulsions (polyHIPEs) as a scaffold to support 3D breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell culture. We assessed the porosity, interconnectivity, and morphology of the polyHIPEs when varying mixing speed during formation of the emulsion, successfully demonstrating the tunability of these polyHIPEs. An ex ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay identified the scaffolds as bioinert, with biocompatible properties within a vascularised tissue. Furthermore, in vitro assessment of cell attachment and proliferation showed promising potential for the use of PCL polyHIPEs to support cell growth. Our results demonstrate that PCL polyHIPEs are a promising material to support cancer cell growth with tuneable porosity and interconnectivity for the fabrication of perfusable 3D cancer models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 2345 KiB  
Article
Dimensionally Stable Delignified Bamboo Matrix Phase-Change Composite under Ambient Temperature for Indoor Thermal Regulation
by Qinchen Duan, Xin Zhang, Shuang Lang, Guowei Liu, Hui Wang, Xiaojian Zhou and Guanben Du
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071727 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Energy storage materials to modulate indoor microclimates are needed to improve energy efficiency and for human comfort. Of these, phase-change material (PCM) is considered a very useful material because of its excellent latent heat energy storage. For application, some synthetic porous materials for [...] Read more.
Energy storage materials to modulate indoor microclimates are needed to improve energy efficiency and for human comfort. Of these, phase-change material (PCM) is considered a very useful material because of its excellent latent heat energy storage. For application, some synthetic porous materials for supporting PCM are usually not friendly enough for people and housing environments due to their non-degradation characteristics. Hence, to develop an eco-friendly porous material is needed in order to encapsulate PCM composites that are always expected in indoor applications. In this work, heat-treated bamboo bricks were delignified to provide a delignified bamboo (DB) matrix. A phase-change composite was then fabricated by impregnating DB with polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer. Impregnation was carried out under wet conditions to ensure the regular arrangement of the DB structure so as to achieve dimensional stability. The final DB/PEG composite was investigated for dimensional stability, load rate, latent heat, and phase-change temperature. Results showed that the DB matrix could be easily impregnated with PEG polymer under wet conditions, and the DB/PEG composite was found to have high enthalpy and a large phase-change temperature interval. Moreover, the composite was found to be a good regulator of indoor temperature and a stable dimension with a snow-white appearance. In summary, this DB/PEG composite is an energy storage material with the potential to modulate ambient indoor temperature and reduce building energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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30 pages, 4940 KiB  
Review
Bioceramics in Endodontics: Updates and Future Perspectives
by Xu Dong and Xin Xu
Bioengineering 2023, 10(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10030354 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 8967
Abstract
Bioceramics, with excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility, have been widely used in dentistry, particularly in endodontics. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most widely used bioceramic in endodontics. Recently, many new bioceramics have been developed, showing good potential for the treatment of endodontic diseases. [...] Read more.
Bioceramics, with excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility, have been widely used in dentistry, particularly in endodontics. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most widely used bioceramic in endodontics. Recently, many new bioceramics have been developed, showing good potential for the treatment of endodontic diseases. This paper reviews the characteristics of bioceramics and their applications in various clinical endodontic situations, including root-end filling, root canal therapy, vital pulp therapy, apexification/regenerative endodontic treatment, perforation repair, and root defect repair. Relevant literature published from 1993 to 2023 was searched by keywords in PubMed and Web of Science. Current evidence supports the predictable outcome of MTA in the treatment of endodontic diseases. Although novel bioceramics such as Biodentine, EndoSequence, and calcium-enriched mixtures have shown promising clinical outcomes, more well-controlled clinical trials are still needed to provide high-level evidence for their application in endodontics. In addition, to better tackle the clinical challenges in endodontics, efforts are needed to improve the bioactivity of bioceramics, particularly to enhance their antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties and reduce their setting time and solubility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 10349 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Color Stability of Composite Resin Used to Characterize Acrylic Teeth—An In Vitro Study
by Saadath Afzaa S. Ahamed, Syed Ahmed Raheel, Mohammed B. Ajmal, Manpreet Kaur, Nasser M. Alqahtani, Robina Tasleem, Ghadah Khaled Bahamdan, Mayur Hegde and Shaeesta Khaleelahmed Bhavikatti
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031498 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The durability and patient acceptability of prosthesis can be gauged by the capacity of visible light curing lab composite resins to maintain color stability through time and use. Consequently, this study’s goal was to assess the color stability of three layering materials, incisal, [...] Read more.
The durability and patient acceptability of prosthesis can be gauged by the capacity of visible light curing lab composite resins to maintain color stability through time and use. Consequently, this study’s goal was to assess the color stability of three layering materials, incisal, dentin, and gingiva of SR Nexco lab composite, with exposure to coffee, Coca-Cola, and turmeric solution using a spectrophotometer. A total of 60 specimens (10 × 2 mm) of SR Nexco paste were prepared and were divided into three groups based on the layering material used. Five specimens of each group were immersed in staining solutions, namely, coffee, cola, and turmeric solution. Each group’s last five specimens were submerged in distilled water (control). The incubator that housed the samples was set to 37 °C. The CIE L*a*b* method was used to quantify the color differences (E) of specimens using a spectrophotometer at baseline and after two weeks of immersion. Using ANOVA testing, the average color change for each specimen was examined. Tukey tests were used for post hoc comparisons. The calculated mean color difference (ΔE) for incisal ranges from 3.73 (distilled water) to 28.70 (turmeric). The mean color difference (ΔE) for dentin ranges from 2.66 (distilled water) to 41.19 (turmeric). The mean color difference (ΔE) for gingiva ranges from 1.72 (distilled water) to 23.88 (turmeric). The results are statistically significant. The maximum color difference is noted for dentin specimens, and turmeric stains all three layering materials to a maximum. The color stability of SR Nexco paste layering materials is significantly affected by the discoloring agents used. The comparison of color change between the three layering materials of SR Nexco paste (dentin, incisal, and gingiva) is statistically not significant. Turmeric solution exhibits more discoloration followed by cola and coffee solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 3767 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Functional Application of Cellulose Fibers Extracted from Cow Dung Wastes
by Xiangjun Yang, Lu Li, Wuyun Zhao, Mengyang Wang, Wanxia Yang, Yuhang Tian, Ruizhe Zheng, Shuhang Deng, Yongsong Mu and Xiaodong Zhu
Materials 2023, 16(2), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020648 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
The widespread use of petroleum-based products has led to increasing environmental and ecological problems, while the extraction and application of various natural cellulose fibers have received increasing attention. This research focuses on the extraction of cellulose fibers from cow dung using different treatments: [...] Read more.
The widespread use of petroleum-based products has led to increasing environmental and ecological problems, while the extraction and application of various natural cellulose fibers have received increasing attention. This research focuses on the extraction of cellulose fibers from cow dung using different treatments: hot water, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) boilings, as well as a selection of the best quality cow dung fibers for papermaking with quality control. The study’s objective is to find a sustainable method to extract as much material as possible from renewable biomass feedstock. The results show that the best extraction rate is obtained by KOH boiling with 42% cellulose fibers extracted. Corresponding handmade paper has a burst index of 2.48 KPam2/g, a tear index of 4.83 mNm2/g and a tensile index of 26.72 Nm/g. This project expands the sources of natural cellulose fibers to an eco-friendly and sustainable one and opens up new applications for cow dung. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 3195 KiB  
Article
Rheological Properties of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Solutions in Dihydroxy Alcohol/Water Mixtures
by Patrycja Wagner, Sylwia Różańska, Ewelina Warmbier, Adrianna Frankiewicz and Jacek Różański
Materials 2023, 16(1), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010418 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2069
Abstract
The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the effect of dihydroxy alcohols on the rheological properties of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) solutions with different degrees of substitution and different average molecular masses. Rheological measurements were carried out with a [...] Read more.
The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the effect of dihydroxy alcohols on the rheological properties of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) solutions with different degrees of substitution and different average molecular masses. Rheological measurements were carried out with a rotational rheometer in continuous and oscillatory flows. Two dihydroxy alcohols were used in the study: butane-1,3-diol and propane-1,2-diol. The concentration of Na-CMC in the solutions was 1.6% and 2.2%, while the concentration of the dihydroxy alcohols ranged from 10% to 60%. The measurements show that the viscoelastic properties of Na-CMC solutions are strongly linked to the type of solvent used. The application of low-substituted high-molecular-mass Na-CMC makes it possible to obtain fluids with the properties of weak physical gels. On the other hand, the dissolution of Na-CMC with a high degree of substitution (>1) and low molecular mass in dihydroxy alcohol/water mixtures yields a viscoelastic fluid. Based on oscillatory measurements, increasing concentrations of polyhydroxy alcohols in Na-CMC solutions were found to induce an increase in the strength of the network structure. At the same concentrations of polyhydroxy alcohols in solutions containing butane-1,3-diol, a stronger network structure is formed compared to solutions containing propane-1,2-diol. The rheological measurement results presented in this paper may be useful in the formulation of drug carriers and cosmetics in which rheological properties are a significant factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 3477 KiB  
Review
Engineering Advanced Drug Delivery Systems for Dry Eye: A Review
by Tian-Zuo Wang, Xin-Xin Liu, Si-Yu Wang, Yan Liu, Xin-Yang Pan, Jing-Jie Wang and Kai-Hui Nan
Bioengineering 2023, 10(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10010053 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Dry eye disease (DED) is a widespread and frequently reported multifactorial ocular disease that not only causes ocular discomfort but also damages the cornea and conjunctiva. At present, topical administration is the most common treatment modality for DED. Due to the existence of [...] Read more.
Dry eye disease (DED) is a widespread and frequently reported multifactorial ocular disease that not only causes ocular discomfort but also damages the cornea and conjunctiva. At present, topical administration is the most common treatment modality for DED. Due to the existence of multiple biological barriers, instilled drugs generally exhibit short action times and poor penetration on the ocular surface. To resolve these issues, several advanced drug delivery systems have been proposed. This review discusses new dosage forms of drugs for the treatment of DED in terms of their characteristics and advantages. Innovative formulations that are currently available in the market and under clinical investigation are elaborated. Meanwhile, their deficiencies are discussed. It is envisioned that the flourishing of advanced drug delivery systems will lead to improved management of DED in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 3907 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) Using Debregeasia Salicifolia for Biological Applications
by Jahanzeb Khan, Irsa Naseem, Saiqa Bibi, Shakeel Ahmad, Faizah Altaf, Muhammad Hafeez, Maha M. Almoneef and Khalil Ahmad
Materials 2023, 16(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010129 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using the green route is environmentally harmonious and cost-effective compared to conventional chemical and physical methods. In this study, the green synthesis of silver NPs was carried out using an extract of Debregeasia salicifolia. The synthesized Ag [...] Read more.
The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using the green route is environmentally harmonious and cost-effective compared to conventional chemical and physical methods. In this study, the green synthesis of silver NPs was carried out using an extract of Debregeasia salicifolia. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by means of different techniques i.e., UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD. The XRD pattern exhibited distinctive Bragg’s peaks at (200), (111), (311), and (220). The XRD analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic geometry of the synthesized NPs and revealed that the nature of these NPs is crystalline. The synthesized NPs were verified for their antibacterial activities against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. It showed that antibacterial activity of synthesized silver (NPs) was increased with increasing concentrations of both calcined and non-calcined NPs. The antioxidant activities of Ag NPs were also determined against ABTS at different concentrations for both calcined and non-calcined Ag NPs. Non-calcined Ag NPs have greater antioxidant activity than calcined Ag NPs. This report has a significant medicinal application, and it might open up new horizons in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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9 pages, 2218 KiB  
Technical Note
Platelet-Rich Plasma Gel Matrix (PRP-GM): Description of a New Technique
by Thales Thiago Ferreira Godoi, Bruno Lima Rodrigues, Stephany Cares Huber, Maria Helena Andrade Santana, Lucas Furtado da Fonseca, Gabriel Silva Santos, Gabriel Ohana Marques Azzini, Tomas Mosaner, Chris Paulus-Romero and José Fábio Santos Duarte Lana
Bioengineering 2022, 9(12), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9120817 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4216
Abstract
Several musculoskeletal conditions are triggered by inflammatory processes that occur along with imbalances between anabolic and catabolic events. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product derived from peripheral blood with inherent immunomodulatory and anabolic properties. The clinical efficacy of PRP has been evaluated [...] Read more.
Several musculoskeletal conditions are triggered by inflammatory processes that occur along with imbalances between anabolic and catabolic events. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product derived from peripheral blood with inherent immunomodulatory and anabolic properties. The clinical efficacy of PRP has been evaluated in several musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, and osteonecrosis. When used in combination with hyaluronic acid (HA), a common treatment alternative, the regenerative properties of PRP are significantly enhanced and may provide additional benefits in terms of clinical outcomes. Recently, a new PRP-derived product has been reported in the literature and is being referred to as “plasma gel”. Plasma gels are obtained by polymerizing plasmatic proteins, which form solid thermal aggregates cross-linked with fibrin networks. Plasma gels are considered to be a rich source of growth factors and provide chemotactic, migratory, and proliferative properties. Additionally, clot formation and the associated fibrinolytic reactions play an additional role in tissue repair. There are only a few scientific articles focusing on plasma gels. Historically, they have been utilized in the fields of aesthetics and dentistry. Given that the combination of three products (PRP, HA, and plasma gel) could enhance tissue repair and wound healing, in this technical note, we propose a novel regenerative approach, named “PRP–HA cellular gel matrix” (PRP-GM), in which leukocyte-rich PRP (LR-PRP) is mixed with a plasma gel (obtained by heating the plasma up) and HA in one syringe using a three-way stopcock. The final product contains a fibrin–albumin network entangled with HA’s polymers, in which the cells and biomolecules derived from PRP are attached and released gradually as fibrinolytic reactions and hyaluronic acid degradation occur. The presence of leukocytes, especially monocytes and macrophages, promotes tissue regeneration, as type 2 macrophages (M2) possess an anti-inflammatory feature. In addition, HA promotes the viscosuplementation of the joint and induces an anti-inflammatory response, resulting in pain relief. This unique combination of biological molecules may contribute to the optimization of regenerative protocols suitable for the treatment of degenerative musculoskeletal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 3822 KiB  
Article
Design, Structural Characteristic and Antibacterial Performance of Silver-Containing Cotton Fiber Nanocomposite
by Rasim Alosmanov, Irada Buniyat-zadeh, Mustafa Soylak, Azad Shukurov, Solmaz Aliyeva, Sinan Turp and Gulnara Guliyeva
Bioengineering 2022, 9(12), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9120770 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
In the present study, cotton fiber was treated with phosphorus trichloride in the presence of oxygen. As a result of the subsequent hydrolysis of modified cotton fibers, phosphorus-containing fragments with acidic groups and chlorine atoms were introduced onto their surface. Afterward, silver-containing composites [...] Read more.
In the present study, cotton fiber was treated with phosphorus trichloride in the presence of oxygen. As a result of the subsequent hydrolysis of modified cotton fibers, phosphorus-containing fragments with acidic groups and chlorine atoms were introduced onto their surface. Afterward, silver-containing composites based on raw and modified cotton fibers were prepared using the chemical reduction method. The obtained samples were characterized in detail by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, as well as by thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A comparative bioassay experiment of four samples for gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria, and the fungus Candida albicans was carried out. These results showed the predominant antibacterial activity of the phosphorylated sample and the composite based on it. Thus, the development of these antibacterial cotton fibers using readily available reagents under relatively mild conditions could be used as potential industrial applications for the production of everyday medical textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 4338 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing and Characterization of Wide-Bundle Bamboo Scrimber: A Comparison with Other Engineered Bamboo Composites
by Yuan Hu, Luyao Xiong, Yanbo Li, Kate Semple, Vahid Nasir, Hugo Pineda, Mei He and Chunping Dai
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217518 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Controlling the variability in mat structure and properties in bamboo scrimber (BS) is key to producing the product for structural applications, and wide strip scrimber (WBS) is an effective approach. In this study, the effects of scrimmed bamboo bundle morphology and product density [...] Read more.
Controlling the variability in mat structure and properties in bamboo scrimber (BS) is key to producing the product for structural applications, and wide strip scrimber (WBS) is an effective approach. In this study, the effects of scrimmed bamboo bundle morphology and product density on the properties of WBS were investigated. WBS panels were manufactured and tested using wide (200 to 250 mm) bamboo strips with different fiberization intensity. Maximum strength properties (flexural, compressive, and shear strength), and lowest thickness swelling and water absorption were achieved with three or four passes due to the higher resin absorption by strips. For balanced product cost and performance, we recommend 1–2 fiberization passes and a panel density of 0.9–1.0 g/cm3. Panel mechanical properties were compared with other common bamboo composites. Bamboo scrimber products were highly variable in properties due to differing manufacturing processes, element treatments, and suboptimal mat structure. Products including laminated bamboo lumber and flattened bamboo made from nonfiberized elements show markedly different relationships between strength and elastic properties mostly due to inadequate bonding between the laminae, which causes premature bond-line failure. This study helped improve the understanding of the structure–property relationship of engineered bamboo products while providing insights into process optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 5966 KiB  
Article
Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Fe(III) Sorption from an Aqueous Solution Using Palmyra Palm Fruit Fibres as a Biosorbent
by Suphapan Satchawan, Pongthipun Phuengphai, Acharaporn Ratanamanee and Nonglak Meethong
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10540; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010540 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This research focused on the removal of Fe(III) ions from an aqueous solution of wastewater through an adsorption process using biosorbents of natural palmyra palm fruit fibres (N–PPF) and chemically modified palmyra palm fruit fibres (C–PPF). BET was used to determine the pore [...] Read more.
This research focused on the removal of Fe(III) ions from an aqueous solution of wastewater through an adsorption process using biosorbents of natural palmyra palm fruit fibres (N–PPF) and chemically modified palmyra palm fruit fibres (C–PPF). BET was used to determine the pore volume and pore size of the biosorbents; the C–PPF was more than N–PPF at 0.01069 cm3/g and 450.2094 Å, respectively. The initial concentration of Fe(III), the adsorbent dosage, solution pH, and contact time for optimal adsorption were investigated for adsorption, and it was found that the dosage of the adsorbent was 2.0 g, pH 4, and 300 min for adsorbent dosage, solution pH, and contact time, respectively. The adsorption data were consistent with the three models, though the Freundlich model provided the best fit. The characteristics for both before/after adsorption were examined by FT–IR, which showed that hydroxyl groups were involved in adsorption. SEM–EDX analysis confirmed the successful increase of containing functional groups during adsorption. Adsorption proceeded according to a pseudo–first–order kinetic model for N–PPF, while the adsorption of C-PPF was according to both kinetic models. It was revealed that Fe(III) adsorption is an exothermic process that occurs on the surface of heterogeneous adsorbents and physisorption. The intra-particle diffusion model is appropriate to explain the rate-controlling step in the Fe(III) adsorption process of natural fibres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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22 pages, 5823 KiB  
Article
Rheological Behaviour of WMA-Modified Asphalt Binders with Crumb Rubber
by Emilio Turbay, Gilberto Martinez-Arguelles, Tatiana Navarro-Donado, Edgar Sánchez-Cotte, Rodrigo Polo-Mendoza and Elvis Covilla-Valera
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4148; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194148 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
Crumb rubber (CR) is one of the materials most widely used in the road infrastructure industry due to its mechanical and environmental benefits as an asphalt binder modifier. Nonetheless, CR decreases the workability of mixes by increasing the viscosity of the binder, leading [...] Read more.
Crumb rubber (CR) is one of the materials most widely used in the road infrastructure industry due to its mechanical and environmental benefits as an asphalt binder modifier. Nonetheless, CR decreases the workability of mixes by increasing the viscosity of the binder, leading to an increase in the production temperatures of asphalt mixes. However, warm mix technologies can reduce the temperature demand associated with these processes. The preceding explains the growing interest in producing rubberised asphalt binders incorporating warm mix asphalt (WMA) additives. In this research, the mechanical and rheological properties of a 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder modified with CR (at a dosage of 15, 18 and 21% by the wet process) and WMA chemical additives (Evotherm M1 and Iterlow T) were investigated. Laboratory tests included penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, frequency sweep through dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests. The results indicate that CR increases the stiffness of the asphalt binder, which is reflected in a lower penetration grade and improved softening point. It also improves its rutting resistance but decreases fatigue performance. Furthermore, it has been shown that under the conditions studied, the higher the CR content, the more elevated the degree of stiffness and performance of the asphalt binder. On the other hand, WMA technology decreases asphalt stiffness and performance at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 7003 KiB  
Article
Influence of Abutment Design on Biomechanical Behavior to Support a Screw-Retained 3-Unit Fixed Partial Denture
by Guilherme da Rocha Scalzer Lopes, Jefferson David Melo de Matos, Daher Antonio Queiroz, João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Nathália de Carvalho Ramos, Mateus Garcia Rocha, Adriano Baldotto Barbosa, Marco Antonio Bottino, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges and Renato Sussumu Nishioka
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186235 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of Morse taper implants using different abutments (CMN abutment [(CMN Group] and miniconical abutments [MC Group]), indicated to support a screw-retained 3-unit fixed partial denture. For the in vitro test, polyurethane blocks were fabricated for [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of Morse taper implants using different abutments (CMN abutment [(CMN Group] and miniconical abutments [MC Group]), indicated to support a screw-retained 3-unit fixed partial denture. For the in vitro test, polyurethane blocks were fabricated for both groups (n = 10) and received three implants in the “offset” configuration and their respective abutments (CMN or MC) with a 3-unit fixed partial denture. Four strain gauges were bonded to the surface of each block. For the finite element analysis, 3D models of both groups were created and exported to the analysis software to perform static structural analysis. All structures were considered homogeneous, isotropic, and elastic. The contacts were considered non-linear with a friction coefficient of 0.3 between metallic structures and considered bonded between the implant and substrate. An axial load of 300 N was applied in three points (A, B, and C) for both methods. The microstrain and the maximum principal stress were considered as analysis criteria. The obtained data were submitted to the Mann–Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, and Dunn’s multiple comparison test (α = 5%). The results obtained by strain gauge showed no statistical difference (p = 0.879) between the CMN (645.3 ± 309.2 με) and MC (639.3 ± 278.8 με) and allowed the validation of computational models with a difference of 6.3% and 6.4% for the microstrains in the CMN and MC groups, respectively. Similarly, the results presented by the computational models showed no statistical difference (p = 0.932) for the CMN (605.1 ± 358.6 με) and MC (598.7 ± 357.9 με) groups. The study concluded that under favorable conditions the use of CMN or MP abutments to support a fixed partial denture can be indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 4129 KiB  
Article
Dry-Matter Loss and Changes in the Chemical Composition of Spruce Wood after Long-Term Storing in the Form of Roundwood
by Richard Hrčka, Viera Kučerová and Vladimír Hönig
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3400; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163400 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Wood stock in a warehouse is a necessary precondition for reliable manufacturing. However, wood can degrade and lose the matter during storage. “Dry-matter loss (DML)” is used to quantify the degradation following the changes in mass of a wood substance. The proposed calculation [...] Read more.
Wood stock in a warehouse is a necessary precondition for reliable manufacturing. However, wood can degrade and lose the matter during storage. “Dry-matter loss (DML)” is used to quantify the degradation following the changes in mass of a wood substance. The proposed calculation of DML is based on using parallel figures. The calculated loss of spruce wood substance harvested in winter during a six-month period was 4.5%. The estimated annual loss of wood substance was 5.7%. The loss was caused by a factor with a gradually eliminated effect. The changes in the chemical composition of wood substance were not proportional to the original amount of the isolated chemical substances. Hemicelluloses and lignin suffered from the loss faster than there was a change in the DML of spruce wood. Hemicelluloses were the most unstable isolated compound, with an increased rate of change during the first four months. The number of extractives significantly decreased during two months of storage. However, there was an increase in the number of extractives after six months of storage. The loss of cellulose was similar to the DML of spruce wood during the whole time of storage. The FTIR analysis confirmed a decrease in the total crystalline index (TCI) and lateral order index (LOI) of cellulose due to the storage of roundwood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 644 KiB  
Systematic Review
Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles against Candida Albicans
by Razia Z. Adam and Saadika B. Khan
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165666 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Current treatment protocols for patients diagnosed with denture stomatitis are under scrutiny, and alternative options are being explored by researchers. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if silver nanoparticles inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the research question [...] Read more.
Current treatment protocols for patients diagnosed with denture stomatitis are under scrutiny, and alternative options are being explored by researchers. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if silver nanoparticles inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the research question addressed was: In adults, do silver nanoparticles inhibit the growth of Candida albicans in acrylic dentures and denture liners compared to normal treatment options. A systematic review was the chosen methodology, and criteria were formulated to include all types of studies, including clinical and laboratory designs where the aim was tested. Of the 18 included studies, only one was a clinical trial, and 17 were in vitro research. The inhibition of candidal growth was based on the % concentration of AgNPs included within the denture acrylic and denture liner. As the % AgNPs increased, candida growth was reduced. This was reported as a reduction of candidal colony forming units in the studies. The quality of the included studies was mostly acceptable, as seen from the structured and validated assessments completed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 8704 KiB  
Article
The Study of Mechanical Behaviors of Caprinae Horn Sheath under Pendulum Impact
by Kang Yang, Nannan Qin, Changgeng Zhou, Bing Wang, Haotian Yu, Haotong Li, Haiyun Yu and Hailiang Deng
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163272 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
As a light-weight natural keratin biocomposite, Bovidae horn exhibits high mechanical properties and energy absorption. Different to the widely studied horn from subfamily Bovinae and Antilocapridae, few studies have focused on the horn sheath of subfamily Caprinae. In this work, three [...] Read more.
As a light-weight natural keratin biocomposite, Bovidae horn exhibits high mechanical properties and energy absorption. Different to the widely studied horn from subfamily Bovinae and Antilocapridae, few studies have focused on the horn sheath of subfamily Caprinae. In this work, three Caprinae horn sheathes from Cashmere goat, White goat and Black sheep were selected. Charpy pendulum impact tests were performed, and the fracture characteristics were evaluated. It was demonstrated that water plays an important role in acquiring balanced dynamic mechanical properties in all Caprinae horn sheaths. The hydrated keratin provides large plastic deformation capacity and further gives rise to a gradual generation of micro-cracks. Multi-scale structure including wavy-shaped interface, scattered voids and hierarchical micro-fibre were observed. Such a structure induced complex fracture mechanisms, such as delamination, 90° crack deflection and fibre pull-out, which were probably influenced by interfacial strength. The results are expected to endow the research and thinking of Bovidae horn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 3536 KiB  
Article
The Structure and Function of Biomaterial Endolysin EFm1 from E. faecalis Phage
by Xuerong Zhou, Xiaotao Zeng, Li Wang, Yanhui Zheng, Guixiang Zhang and Wei Cheng
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144879 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The endolysin EFm1 from the E. faecalis 002 (002) phage IME-EF1 efficiently lyses E. faecalis, a gram-positive bacterium that severely threatens human health. Here, the structure and lytic activity of EFm1 toward E. faecalis were further investigated. Lytic activity shows that EFm1 [...] Read more.
The endolysin EFm1 from the E. faecalis 002 (002) phage IME-EF1 efficiently lyses E. faecalis, a gram-positive bacterium that severely threatens human health. Here, the structure and lytic activity of EFm1 toward E. faecalis were further investigated. Lytic activity shows that EFm1 specifically lyses 002 and 22 other clinically isolated E. faecalis, but not E. faecalis 945. Therefore, EFm1 may be an alternative biomaterial to prevent and treat diseases caused by E. faecalis. A structural analysis showed that EFm1D166Q is a tetramer consisting of one full-length unit with additional C-terminal domains (CTDs), while EFm1166–237 aa is an octamer in an asymmetric unit. Several crucial domains and novel residues affecting the lytic activity of EFm1 were identified, including calcium-binding sites (D20, D22 and D31), a putative classic amidohydrolase catalytic triad (C29, H90 and D108), a tetramerization site (M168 and M227), putative ion channel sites (IGGK, 186–198 aa), and other residues (R208 and Y209). Furthermore, EFm1 exhibited no significant activity when expressed alone in vivo, and IME-EF1 lytic activity decreased when efm1 was knocked down. These findings provide valuable insights into the molecule mechanism of a potential functional biomaterial for the treatment of the disease caused by the opportunistic pathogen E. faecalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 1006 KiB  
Article
An in-House System for the Precise Measurement of Electrical Potentials and Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissues: Design and Validation Using Adult Mammalian Tendon Fascicle Bundles
by Marek Kalemba, Martyna Ekiert-Radecka, Marek Wajdzik and Andrzej Mlyniec
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134444 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Tissues, such as skin, bones, and tendons, exhibit a piezoelectric effect, which may be an important phenomenon in terms of tissue renewal and regeneration as well as the possibility of modifying their mechanical behavior. In this article, we present the design and development [...] Read more.
Tissues, such as skin, bones, and tendons, exhibit a piezoelectric effect, which may be an important phenomenon in terms of tissue renewal and regeneration as well as the possibility of modifying their mechanical behavior. In this article, we present the design and development of an in-house system for the precise measurement of electrical potentials and mechanical properties of tendons. The system was validated using tendon fascicle bundles derived from positional as well as energy-storing tendons from various adult mammals (porcine, bovine, and deer samples). The presented system is able to capture changes in elastic and viscoelastic properties of tissue as well as its time–voltage response and, thus, may be used in a broad spectrum of future studies to uncover factors influencing piezoelectric phenomena in tendons. This, in turn, will help to optimize current methods used in physiotherapy and postoperative treatment for effective tendon recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 29975 KiB  
Article
Electrospinning-Generated Nanofiber Scaffolds Suitable for Integration of Primary Human Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells
by Miguel A. Jiménez-Beltrán, Alan J. Gómez-Calderón, Rafael E. Quintanar-Zúñiga, Daniel Santillán-Cortez, Mario A. Téllez-González, Juan A. Suárez-Cuenca, Silvia García and Paul Mondragón-Terán
Polymers 2022, 14(12), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14122448 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
The extracellular matrix is fundamental in order to maintain normal function in many organs such as the blood vessels, heart, liver, or bones. When organs fail or experience injury, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine elicit the production of constructs resembling the native extracellular [...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix is fundamental in order to maintain normal function in many organs such as the blood vessels, heart, liver, or bones. When organs fail or experience injury, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine elicit the production of constructs resembling the native extracellular matrix, supporting organ restoration and function. In this regard, is it possible to optimize structural characteristics of nanofiber scaffolds obtained by the electrospinning technique? This study aimed to produce partially degraded collagen (gelatin) nanofiber scaffolds, using the electrospinning technique, with optimized parameters rendering different morphological characteristics of nanofibers, as well as assessing whether the resulting scaffolds are suitable to integrate primary human endothelial progenitor cells, obtained from peripheral blood with further in vitro cell expansion. After different assay conditions, the best nanofiber morphology was obtained with the following electrospinning parameters: 15 kV, 0.06 mL/h, 1000 rpm and 12 cm needle-to-collector distance, yielding an average nanofiber thickness of 333 ± 130 nm. Nanofiber scaffolds rendered through such electrospinning conditions were suitable for the integration and proliferation of human endothelial progenitor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
Bonding of Clear Aligner Composite Attachments to Ceramic Materials: An In Vitro Study
by Bashair A. Alsaud, Maher S. Hajjaj, Ahmad I. Masoud, Ensanya A. Abou Neel, Dalia A. Abuelenain and Amal I. Linjawi
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124145 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Background: We aim to evaluate the effect of surface conditioning, bonding agents and composite types on surface roughness (SR) and shear bond strength (SBS) of clear aligner composite attachments bonded to ceramics. Methods: One hundred and eighty IPS e.max CAD specimens were prepared. [...] Read more.
Background: We aim to evaluate the effect of surface conditioning, bonding agents and composite types on surface roughness (SR) and shear bond strength (SBS) of clear aligner composite attachments bonded to ceramics. Methods: One hundred and eighty IPS e.max CAD specimens were prepared. For SR, 60 specimens were divided according to surface conditioning (n = 15) into four groups: control, 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HFA), 37% phosphoric acid (PhA), air abrasion (AA). SR was measured using a Profilometer and Atomic Force Microscopy. For SBS, 120 specimens were divided according to conditioning methods (n = 40) (9.6% HFA and 37% PhA or AA), then according to bonding agents (n = 20) (Assure universal bond (AUB) or Single bond universal (SBU)) and then according to composite type (n = 10): Filtek™ Z350 and Filtek™ Z350 XT flowable composite. SBS was measured using Instron testing machine. Descriptive and group comparison were calculated (p < 0.05). Results: AA had the highest SR, while the control had the lowest SR (p < 0.05). HFA had the highest, but insignificant SBS, followed by AA (p > 0.05). AUB had higher SBS than SBU (p < 0.001). Filtek™ Z350 produced higher SBS than Filtek™ Z350 XT flowable composite (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of AA, AUB, and Filtek Z350 produced the highest SBS, followed by HFA, AUB, and Filtek Z350. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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10 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
Shear Bond Strength of Ah26 to Human Dentin Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide (Dmso)
by Fotis Dimopoulos, Konstantinos Kodonas and Christos Gogos
Dent. J. 2022, 10(6), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10060100 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1642
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the bond strength of AH26 to human coronal dentin exposed to DMSO. A total of 70 dentin specimens were equally divided into two groups. Each dentin surface was pre-treated with 2 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the bond strength of AH26 to human coronal dentin exposed to DMSO. A total of 70 dentin specimens were equally divided into two groups. Each dentin surface was pre-treated with 2 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, 3 mL of EDTA 17%, and distilled water. One group was finally rinsed with 50% DMSO. Following the AH26 application, the bond strength was tested by subjecting the samples to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min using universal testing equipment. The results according to paired samples t-test indicated that there was a statistically insignificant difference between the two groups. Therefore, DMSO had no effect on the bond strength of AH26 root sealer to dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Effects of Reed Biochar Mass Fraction on the Properties of Polypropylene/Reed Char Composites
by Yunpeng Ye, Dongfang Zou, Shuang Si and Xingong Li
Polymers 2022, 14(11), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112212 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Reed charcoal/polypropylene (RC/PP) composites were prepared by melt-blending and molding processes. The effects of RC addition (by mass fraction) on its mechanical properties were investigated and the mechanism characterized. The results showed that RC and PP were physically bonded and formed a mechanical [...] Read more.
Reed charcoal/polypropylene (RC/PP) composites were prepared by melt-blending and molding processes. The effects of RC addition (by mass fraction) on its mechanical properties were investigated and the mechanism characterized. The results showed that RC and PP were physically bonded and formed a mechanical interlocking matrix. The water absorption rate of these composites was <1% at 168 h. As the RC mass fraction increased, the tensile modulus, crystallinity, and energy storage modulus of the composites increased and then decreased, with the tensile modulus reaching a maximum of 679.4 MPa. The thermal decomposition rate peak and starting melt temperature increased by 14.8 and 2.5 °C, respectively, compared to pure PP, and the energy storage modulus reached a maximum of 3752.8 MPa at 40 wt% RC. The addition of RC in appropriate amounts improved the rigidity and thermal stability of these composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Ceramic Based Hip Implant Composites Using Hybrid AHP-MOORA Approach
by Tej Singh, Chandramani Goswami, Amar Patnaik and László Lendvai
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113800 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
Designing excellent hip implant composite material with optimal physical, mechanical and wear properties is challenging. Improper hip implant composite design may result in a premature component and product failure. Therefore, a hybrid decision-making tool was proposed to select the optimal hip implant composite [...] Read more.
Designing excellent hip implant composite material with optimal physical, mechanical and wear properties is challenging. Improper hip implant composite design may result in a premature component and product failure. Therefore, a hybrid decision-making tool was proposed to select the optimal hip implant composite according to several criteria that are probably conflicting. In varying weight proportions, a series of hip implant composite materials containing different ceramics (magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, chromium oxide, silicon nitride and aluminium oxide) were fabricated and evaluated for wear and physicomechanical properties. The density, void content, hardness, indentation depth, elastic modulus, compressive strength, wear, and fracture toughness values were used to rank the hip implant composites. It was found that the density and void content of the biocomposites remain in the range of 3.920–4.307 g/cm3 and 0.0021–0.0089%, respectively. The composite without zirconium oxide exhibits the lowest density (3.920 g/cm3), while the void content remains lowest for the composite having no chromium oxide content. The highest values of hardness (28.81 GPa), elastic modulus (291 GPa) and fracture toughness (11.97 MPa.m1/2) with the lowest wear (0.0071 mm3/million cycles) were exhibited by the composites having 83 wt.% of aluminium oxide and 10 wt.% of zirconium oxide. The experimental results are compositional dependent and without any visible trend. As a result, selecting the best composites among a group of composite alternatives becomes challenging. Therefore, a hybrid AHP-MOORA based multi-criteria decision-making approach was adopted to choose the best composite alternative. The AHP (analytic hierarchy process) was used to calculate the criteria weight, and MOORA (multiple objective optimisation on the basis of ratio analysis) was used to rank the composites. The outcomes revealed that the hip implant composite with 83 wt.% aluminium oxide, 10 wt.% zirconium oxide, 5 wt.% silicon nitride, 3 wt.% magnesium oxide, and 1.5 wt.% chromium oxide had the best qualities. Finally, sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the ranking’s robustness and stability concerning the criterion weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 3260 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Osteoinduction and Vascularization: Comparing the Ectopic Bone Formation of Five Different Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials
by Yun He, Yu Peng, Lishuang Liu, Sha Hou, Junyu Mu, Liang Lan, Lijia Cheng and Zheng Shi
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103440 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the bone induction of five kinds of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) biomaterials implanted in mice and explore the vascularization and particle-size-related osteoinductive mechanism. Methods: The following five kinds of Ca-P biomaterials including hydroxyapatite (HA) [...] Read more.
Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the bone induction of five kinds of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) biomaterials implanted in mice and explore the vascularization and particle-size-related osteoinductive mechanism. Methods: The following five kinds of Ca-P biomaterials including hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were implanted in the muscle of 30 BALB/c mice (n = 6): 20 nm HA (20HA), 60 nm HA (60HA), 12 µm HA (12HA), 100 nm TCP (100TCP) and 12 µm HA + 100 nm TCP (HATCP). Then, all animals were put on a treadmill to run 30 min at a 6 m/h speed each day. Five and ten weeks later, three mice of each group were killed, and the samples were harvested to assess the osteoinductive effects by hematoxylin eosin (HE), Masson’s trichrome and safranine–fast green stainings, and the immunohistochemistry of the angiogenesis and osteogenesis markers CD31 and type I collagen (ColI). Results: The numbers of blood vessels were 139 ± 29, 118 ± 25, 78 ± 15, 65 ± 14 in groups HATCP, 100TCP, 60HA and 20HA, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of group 12HA (12 ± 5) in week 5 (p < 0.05). The area percentages of new bone tissue were (7.33 ± 1.26)% and (8.49 ± 1.38)% in groups 100TCP and HATCP, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in groups 20HA (3.27 ± 0.38)% and 60HA (3.43 ± 0.27)% (p < 0.05); however, no bone tissue was found in group 12HA 10 weeks after transplantation. The expression of CD31 was positive in new blood vessels, and the expression of ColI was positive in new bone tissue. Conclusions: Nanoscale Ca-P biomaterials could induce osteogenesis in mice muscle, and the osteoinductive effects of TCP were about 124% higher than those of 20HA and 114% higher than those of 60HA. The particle size of the biomaterials affected angiogenesis and osteogenesis. There was a positive correlation between the number of blood vessels and the area percentage of new bone tissue; therefore, osteoinduction is closely related to vascularization. Our results provide an experimental basis for the synthesis of calcium–phosphorus matrix composites and for further exploration of the osteoinductive mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
Marine Plankton-Derived Whitlockite Powder-Based 3D-Printed Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Ji-Won Baek, Ho Park, Ki-Su Kim, Sung-Kun Chun and Beom-Su Kim
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103413 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Powder-based 3D printing is an excellent technique for the fabrication of complex structural shapes. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of calcium phosphate bioceramics is a desirable characteristic for such fabrication. Whitlockite (WH) is a calcium phosphate-based ceramic that contains Mg ions and possesses [...] Read more.
Powder-based 3D printing is an excellent technique for the fabrication of complex structural shapes. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of calcium phosphate bioceramics is a desirable characteristic for such fabrication. Whitlockite (WH) is a calcium phosphate-based ceramic that contains Mg ions and possesses good mechanical properties, rapid resorbability, and promotes osteogenesis. The aim of this study was to fabricate 3D-printed scaffolds using marine plankton-derived WH (MP-WH) powder. The surface morphology and composition of the fabricated scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The biocompatibility and osteogenic effects were evaluated using human mesenchymal stem cells. We successfully obtained a 3D porous scaffold using MP-WH. The MP-WH 3D scaffold showed improved compressive strength compared to the tricalcium phosphate (TCP) 3D scaffold. The in vitro results showed that compared with TCP 3D scaffolds, MP-WH 3D scaffolds were biocompatible and enhanced cell proliferation and adhesion. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that osteoblast differentiation was improved on the MP-WH scaffold. These results suggest that marine plankton-derived WH is useful for fabricating 3D-printed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 954 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Two Different Light-Curing Units and Curing Times on Bulk-Fill Restorative Materials
by Gokcen Deniz Bayrak, Elif Yaman-Dosdogru and Senem Selvi-Kuvvetli
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091885 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two different light-curing units and curing times on the surface microhardness (SMH), compressive strength (CS), and volumetric shrinkage (VS) of four restorative materials (FiltekTM Z250, FiltekTM Bulk Fill Posterior, Beautifil® Bulk Restorative, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two different light-curing units and curing times on the surface microhardness (SMH), compressive strength (CS), and volumetric shrinkage (VS) of four restorative materials (FiltekTM Z250, FiltekTM Bulk Fill Posterior, Beautifil® Bulk Restorative, ACTIVATM BioACTIVE). For all tests, each material was divided into two groups depending on the curing unit (Woodpecker LED-E and CarboLED), and each curing unit group was further divided into two subgroups according to curing time (10 s and 20 s). SMH was evaluated using a Vickers hardness tester, CS was tested using a universal testing machine, and VS was measured using video imaging. In all the restorative materials cured with Woodpecker LED-E, the 20 s subgroup demonstrated significantly higher SMH values than the 10 s subgroup. In both light-curing time subgroups, the CarboLED group showed significantly higher CS values than the Woodpecker LED-E group for all restorative materials except FiltekTM Bulk Fill Posterior cured for 20 s. ACTIVATM BioACTIVE showed significantly greater volumetric change than the other restorative materials. A higher curing light intensity and longer curing time had a positive effect on the SMH and CS of the restorative materials tested in this study. On the other hand, curing unit and time did not show a significant effect on the VS values of restorative materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 5435 KiB  
Article
Structural Conformation Comparison of Different Clear Aligner Systems: An In Vitro Study
by Aseel Alhendi, Rita Khounganian, Raisuddin Ali, Saeed Ali Syed and Abdullazez Almudhi
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050073 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural conformations of three clear aligner systems, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity®, and compare them with the most commonly used system, Invisalign®. Clear aligner samples from Invisalign [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural conformations of three clear aligner systems, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity®, and compare them with the most commonly used system, Invisalign®. Clear aligner samples from Invisalign®, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity® were cut into 5 × 5 mm squares and exposed to artificial saliva for 2 weeks. The specimens were then subjected to a Vickers hardness test by applying three separate indentations with a 25 gf load for 15 s. Hardness was calculated using the following formula: Vickers hardness number = 1.854 (F/D2). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed, with a diamond hemisphere and infrared beam being allowed to pass through each specimen. A mid-infrared range from 4000 to 375 cm−1 was recorded. The samples were also evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis spectroscopy at different magnifications. No statistically significant differences were observed between the included systems with regard to hardness. All systems showed a polyurethane-based material, as illustrated by the FTIR analysis. Some structural variations were noted in the Invisalign® system, which had a more homogeneous architecture. Statistically significant differences in the carbon weights were found among the systems. The four systems presented comparable hardness levels. Mild molecular composition differences were found, but all systems had the similarity of being composed of a polyurethane-based material. Carbon and oxygen were the main elements, as they were located in all studied clear aligners. The SEM analysis revealed that Invisalign® had a smoother surface than the other three systems. All included clear aligners had similar characteristics with minimal differences, providing a wide variety of options for clinical orthodontic treatment according to patients’ demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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23 pages, 3766 KiB  
Article
Degradation Behavior and Mechanical Integrity of a Mg-0.7Zn-0.6Ca (wt.%) Alloy: Effect of Grain Sizes and Crystallographic Texture
by Benjamin Millán-Ramos, Daniela Morquecho-Marín, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, David Ramírez-Ortega, Osmary Depablos-Rivera, Julieta García-López, Mariana Fernández-Lizárraga, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, José Victoria-Hernández, Dietmar Letzig and Sandra E. Rodil
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093142 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
The microstructural characteristics of biodegradable Mg alloys determine their performance and appropriateness for orthopedic fixation applications. In this work, the effect of the annealing treatment of a Mg-0.7Zn-0.6Ca (ZX11) alloy on the mechanical integrity, corrosive behavior, and biocompatibility-osteoinduction was studied considering two annealing [...] Read more.
The microstructural characteristics of biodegradable Mg alloys determine their performance and appropriateness for orthopedic fixation applications. In this work, the effect of the annealing treatment of a Mg-0.7Zn-0.6Ca (ZX11) alloy on the mechanical integrity, corrosive behavior, and biocompatibility-osteoinduction was studied considering two annealing temperatures, 350 and 450 °C. The microstructure showed a recrystallized structure, with a lower number of precipitates, grain size, and stronger basal texture for the ZX11-350 condition than the ZX11-450. The characteristics mentioned above induce a higher long-term degradation rate for the ZX11-450 than the ZX11-350 on days 7th and 15th of immersion. In consequence, the mechanical integrity changes within this period. The increased degradation rate of the ZX11-450 condition reduces 40% the elongation at failure, in contrast with the 16% reduction for the ZX11-350 condition. After that period, the mechanical integrity remained unchanged. No cytotoxic effects were observed for both treatments and significant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast phenotype was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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25 pages, 6045 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Formation Activities of Novel Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Crosslinked Chitosan and Silver Nano-Particles
by Reem T. Alfuraydi, Fahad M. Alminderej and Nadia A. Mohamed
Polymers 2022, 14(8), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14081619 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2647
Abstract
Novel hydrogels were prepared by blending chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, then crosslinking the resulting blends using trimellitic anhydride isothiocyanate at a concentration based on chitosan content in the blends. The weight ratios of chitosan: PVA in the blends were 1:3, 1:1, and [...] Read more.
Novel hydrogels were prepared by blending chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, then crosslinking the resulting blends using trimellitic anhydride isothiocyanate at a concentration based on chitosan content in the blends. The weight ratios of chitosan: PVA in the blends were 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 to produce three hydrogels symbolized as H13, H11, and H31, respectively. For a comparison, H10 was also prepared by crosslinking pure chitosan with trimellitic anhydride isothiocyanate. For further modification, three H31/silver nanocomposites (AgNPs) were synthesized using three different concentrations of silver nitrate to obtain H31/AgNPs1%, H31/AgNPs3% and H31/AgNPs5%. The structures of the prepared samples were emphasized using various analytical techniques. PVA has no inhibition activity against the tested microbes and biofilms. The antimicrobial and anti-biofilm formation activities of the investigated samples was arranged as: H31/AgNPs5% ≥ H31/AgNPs3% > H31/AgNPs1% > H10 > H31 > H11 > H13 > chitosan. H31/AgNPs5% and H31/AgNPs3% were more potent than Vancomycin and Amphotericin B against most of the tested microbes. Interestingly, H31 and H31/AgNPs3% were safe on the normal human cells. Consequently, hydrogels resulting from crosslinked blends of chitosan and PVA loaded with AgNPs in the same structure have significantly reinforced the antimicrobial and inhibition activity against the biofilms of PVA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
Biological Responses in the Blood and Organs of Rats to Intraperitoneal Inoculation of Graphene and Graphene Oxide
by Soledad Aguado-Henche, María Lorenza Escudero, María Cristina García-Alonso, Rosa María Lozano-Puerto and Celia Clemente de Arriba
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082898 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Background: The discrepancy among the in vivo results found in the literature regarding graphene’s side effects led us to conduct an in vivo study with graphene. Methods: In vivo tests involving intraperitoneal inoculation of graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets in rats were carried [...] Read more.
Background: The discrepancy among the in vivo results found in the literature regarding graphene’s side effects led us to conduct an in vivo study with graphene. Methods: In vivo tests involving intraperitoneal inoculation of graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets in rats were carried out to assess potential changes in the blood and organs after 15 and 30 days. Graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets at a concentration of 4 mg per kilogram were suspended in an aqueous solution of 0.9% NaCl at a 1:1 proportion (graphene or graphene oxide), i.e., 1 mg/mL. Results: Optical microscopy of liver, kidney, spleen, and lung tissues revealed no visible histological changes. However, particle traces were found in the peritoneal cavity. Thirty days after inoculation, blood samples were collected for hematological analysis. The blood analysis showed changes indicating a hepatic inflammatory process. Hematological changes after 30 days consisted of alterations to the red series, including microcytosis or higher mean hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, changes in prothrombin and thromboplastin caused longer coagulation times. Conclusion: This study contributes to further clarifying the possible toxicity of graphene and its potential biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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10 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Material Type and Hardness on the Number of Embedded Abrasive Particles during Airborne-Particle Abrasion
by Beata Smielak and Leszek Klimek
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082794 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
(1) Background: This paper aims to determine the influence of hardness on the number of abrasive material grains (SiC) embedded on the surface metal alloys and ZrO2 during abrasion. (2) Methods: Cylindrical samples were created: 315 made of Cr/Co, Ni/Cr or Ti, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This paper aims to determine the influence of hardness on the number of abrasive material grains (SiC) embedded on the surface metal alloys and ZrO2 during abrasion. (2) Methods: Cylindrical samples were created: 315 made of Cr/Co, Ni/Cr or Ti, and 315 made of sintered ZrO2- 3TPZ-Y. These were divided into four groups (each n = 35 samples), and were treated with SiC grain sizes 50, 110, and 250 µm at pressures 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 MPa. The samples were then observed in SEM to study SE and BSE. The surface coverage of abrasive material particles was determined by quantitative metallography. Five samples from each group were subjected to hardness measurements. The results were compared with three-factor variance analysis with using the post hoc Tukey test. (3) Results: The highest amount (40.06) of embedded abrasive was obtained for Ti alloy with a gradation of 250µm at a pressure of 0.6 MPa. The smallest amount of embedded grain (2.66) was obtained for ZrO2 for the same treatment parameters. (4) Conclusions: The amount of embedded abrasive particles depends on the type of treated material, gradation particles, and the amount of applied pressure. Harder treated materials are more resistant to grains of abrasive becoming embedded on surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Fracture Resistance and Modes of Failure in Different Types of CAD/CAM Zirconia Abutments with Internal Hexagonal Implants: An In Vitro Study
by Yu-Tsen Chang, Yu-Ling Wu, Hung-Shyong Chen, Ming-Hsu Tsai, Chia-Chen Chang and Aaron Yu-Jen Wu
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072656 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Three groups of zirconia abutments (n = 5) consisting of different connection designs or manufacturers were investigated (All-Zr, ASC-Zr, and AM-Zr groups). All-electric dynamic test instruments were used to place static loading on a specimen with a crosshead speed set at 1 [...] Read more.
Three groups of zirconia abutments (n = 5) consisting of different connection designs or manufacturers were investigated (All-Zr, ASC-Zr, and AM-Zr groups). All-electric dynamic test instruments were used to place static loading on a specimen with a crosshead speed set at 1 mm/min. A Kruskal–Wallis test and a post hoc Mann–Whitney U test were used for statistical evaluation. The mean fracture resistance was 252.37 ± 82.79 N for the All-Zr group, 384.62 ± 45.24 N for ASC-Zr group, and 361.83 ± 90.31 N for the AM-Zr group. The difference of fracture resistance between the three groups was marginally significant (Kruskal–Wallis test, p = 0.054), with the ASC zirconia abutment tending to have higher fracture resistance than the full zirconia abutment. The modes of failure among the three types of abutments are different. The All-Zr group showed an oblique fracture line starting from the buccal aspect at the region of the implant platform. While the ASC-Zr and AM-Zr groups showed a relatively horizontal fracture line with a greater distance from the implant platform. The titanium inserts cannot significantly improve the fracture resistance of the zirconia abutment. However, they may alter the modes of failure, allowing buccal fracture surfaces of the zirconia abutments to be placed away from the implant platform, thereby protecting the implant–abutment connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 3535 KiB  
Article
In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles on Flame-Retardant Cotton Textiles Treated with Biological Phytic Acid and Antibacterial Activity
by Qingqing Zhou, Jiayi Chen, Zhenqian Lu, Qiang Tian and Jianzhong Shao
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072537 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Fabrics were flame-retardant finished using phytic acid, a cost-effective, ecologically acceptable, and easily available flame-retardant finishing chemical. Then, on the surface of the completed fabric, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were grown in situ to minimize Ag NPs aggregation and heterogeneous post-finishing and to [...] Read more.
Fabrics were flame-retardant finished using phytic acid, a cost-effective, ecologically acceptable, and easily available flame-retardant finishing chemical. Then, on the surface of the completed fabric, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were grown in situ to minimize Ag NPs aggregation and heterogeneous post-finishing and to increase washing durability. Thus, flame-retardant and antibacterial qualities were added to textiles. The as-prepared textiles were evaluated for their combustion performance, thermal performance, and antibacterial capabilities. At the same time, their microstructures were studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The findings indicated that flame-retardant textiles had an excellent launderability (limiting oxygen index = 31% after 20 washing cycles). Meanwhile, Ag NPs-loaded flame-retardant textiles demonstrated self-extinguishing properties, with a limiting oxygen index (LOI) of 27%. Bacteriostatic widths of flame-retardant antibacterial textiles against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 5.28 and 4.32 mm, respectively, indicating that Ag NPs-loaded flame-retardant fabrics have certain flame-retardant and antibacterial capabilities. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed over Ag NPs-loaded flame-retardant textiles and were around 20 nm in size. When compared to flame-retardant textiles, Ag NPs-loaded flame-retardant fabrics showed varied binding energy of P and N on the surface and Ag ion emergence. Thermogravimetric analysis at various heating rates revealed that the main pyrolysis temperature range of flame-retardant fabrics decreased, while the main pyrolysis temperature range of Ag NPs-loaded flame-retardant fabrics increased; the heating rate influenced the pyrolysis range but not the fabric mass loss. In situ reduction synthesis of Ag NPs-loaded flame-retardant textiles may successfully reduce agglomeration and heterogeneous dispersion of nano-materials during post-finishing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 5594 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesised Silver Nanoparticles on Saccharomyces cerevisiae
by Yugin Kharchenko, Liudmyla Lastovetska, Valeriia Maslak, Marina Sidorenko, Volodymyr Vasylenko and Olga Shydlovska
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3466; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073466 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a widely researched and popular direction in the development of nanotechnology. It is a simple, cheap and effective method for obtaining nanoparticles with interesting biological properties. In light of the development of antibiotic resistance to important clinical strains [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a widely researched and popular direction in the development of nanotechnology. It is a simple, cheap and effective method for obtaining nanoparticles with interesting biological properties. In light of the development of antibiotic resistance to important clinical strains of bacteria, this method was used in the present study to obtain silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to synthesise silver nanoparticles with antibacterial action by yeast in a process known as “green synthesis”. We are also considering the prospect of using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial substance for drug development. The production of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV spectroscopy. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 test strains and Staphylococcus aureus 1536 and Klebsiella pneumoniae 520 clinical isolates were used to study the antibacterial effect. The effect of synthesised nanoparticles on the metabolic activity of bacterial cells and their ability to adhere, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of synthesised nanoparticles for each of the strains, were determined. Following UV spectroscopy, the nanoparticles obtained were found to have a pronounced peak in optical absorption at 400 nm, corresponding to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles, and demonstrated a high antibacterial effect against all the strains studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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21 pages, 3792 KiB  
Review
In Vitro Studies for Investigating Creep of Intervertebral Discs under Axial Compression: A Review of Testing Environment and Results
by Mengying Yang, Dingding Xiang, Song Wang and Weiqiang Liu
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072500 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
Creep responses of intervertebral discs (IVDs) are essential for spinal biomechanics clarification. Yet, there still lacks a well-recognized investigation protocol for this phenomenon. Current work aims at providing researchers with an overview of the in vitro creep tests reported by previous studies, specifically [...] Read more.
Creep responses of intervertebral discs (IVDs) are essential for spinal biomechanics clarification. Yet, there still lacks a well-recognized investigation protocol for this phenomenon. Current work aims at providing researchers with an overview of the in vitro creep tests reported by previous studies, specifically specimen species, testing environment, loading regimes and major results, based on which a preliminary consensus that may guide future creep studies is proposed. Specimens used in creep studies can be simplified as a “bone–disc–bone” structure where three mathematical models can be adopted for describing IVDs’ responses. The preload of 10–50 N for 30 min or three cycles followed by 4 h-creep under constant compression is recommended for ex vivo simulation of physiological condition of long-time sitting or lying. It is worth noticing that species of specimens, environment temperature and humidity all have influences on biomechanical behaviors, and thus are summarized and compared through the literature review. All factors should be carefully set according to a guideline before tests are conducted to urge comparable results across studies. To this end, this review also provides a guideline, as mentioned before, and specific steps that might facilitate the community of biomechanics to obtain more repeatable and comparable results from both natural specimens and novel biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 3927 KiB  
Article
Human Gingival Fibroblast and Osteoblast Behavior on Groove-Milled Zirconia Implant Surfaces
by Mariana Brito da Cruz, Joana Faria Marques, Neusa Silva, Sara Madeira, Óscar Carvalho, Filipe Samuel Silva, João Caramês and António Mata
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072481 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Two type of cells representing periodontal hard tissues (osteoblasts) and soft tissues (fibroblasts) were evaluated in response to microgroove-milled zirconia surfaces. A total of 90 zirconia discs were randomly assigned to four width-standardized milling microgroove-textured groups and a control group without grooves (UT). [...] Read more.
Two type of cells representing periodontal hard tissues (osteoblasts) and soft tissues (fibroblasts) were evaluated in response to microgroove-milled zirconia surfaces. A total of 90 zirconia discs were randomly assigned to four width-standardized milling microgroove-textured groups and a control group without grooves (UT). The sandblast and acid-etch protocol were applied to all samples. Both cell lines were cultured on zirconia discs from 1 day up to 14 days. Cell morphology and adhesion were evaluated after 1 day of culturing. Cell viability and proliferation of the cells were measured. Alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen I, osteopontin, interleukin 1β and interleukin 8 secretions were assessed at predefined times. The results obtained were presented in the form of bar graphs as means and standard deviations. Multi comparisons between groups were evaluated using two-away ANOVA or Mann–Whitney tests, and a p-value < 0.05 was established. Group comparisons with regard to cell viability, proliferation and secretion of collagen I, interleukin-1β and interleukin 8 revealed no statistically significant differences. The alkaline phosphatase activity and osteopontin secretion were significantly higher in the group with a large groove compared to the small one and the control group. Nevertheless, the viability of gingival and bone cells did not appear to be affected by the milled microgroove texture compared to the conventional sandblasted and acid-etched texture, but they seem to influence osteoblasts’ cellular differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 4489 KiB  
Article
Gradient Printing Alginate Herero Gel Microspheres for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture
by Youping Gong, Honghao Chen, Wenxin Li, Chuanping Zhou, Rougang Zhou, Haiming Zhao and Huifeng Shao
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062305 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Hydrogel microspheres are widely used in tissue engineering, such as 3D cell culture and injection therapy, and among which, heterogeneous microspheres are drawing much attention as a promising tool to carry multiple cell types in separated phases. However, it is still a big [...] Read more.
Hydrogel microspheres are widely used in tissue engineering, such as 3D cell culture and injection therapy, and among which, heterogeneous microspheres are drawing much attention as a promising tool to carry multiple cell types in separated phases. However, it is still a big challenge to fabricate heterogeneous gel microspheres with excellent resolution and different material components in limited sizes. Here, we developed a multi-channel dynamic micromixer, which can use active mechanical mixing to achieve rapid mixing with multi-component materials and extrude the homogenized material. By changing the flow rate ratio of the solutions of the two components and by rapidly mixing in the micromixer, real-time concentration change of the mixed material at the outlet could be monitored in a process so-called “gradient printing”. By studying the mixing efficiency of the micromixer, its size and process parameters were optimized. Using the novel dynamic gradient printing method, the composition of the hydrogel microspheres can be distributed in any proportion and alginate heterogeneous gel microspheres with adjustable cell concentration were fabricated. The effects of cell concentration on cell viability and proliferation ability under three-dimensional culture conditions were also studied. The results showed that cells have very low death rate and can exchange substances within the microspheres. Due to the micromixing ability of the micromixers, the demand for biological reagents and materials such as cells, proteins, cytokines and other materials could be greatly reduced, which helps reduce the experimental cost and improve the feasibility of the method in practical use. The heterogeneous gel microsphere can be greatly valuable for research in various fields such as analytical chemistry, microarray, drug screening, and tissue culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Selected Physiological Fluid Contaminants on the Mechanical Properties of Selected Medium-Viscosity PMMA Bone Cements
by Robert Karpiński, Jakub Szabelski, Przemysław Krakowski, Mariusz Jojczuk, Józef Jonak and Adam Nogalski
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062197 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
Revision surgeries several years after the implantation of the prosthesis are unfavorable from the patient’s point of view as they expose him to additional discomfort, to risk of complications and are expensive. One of the factors responsible for the aseptic loosening of the [...] Read more.
Revision surgeries several years after the implantation of the prosthesis are unfavorable from the patient’s point of view as they expose him to additional discomfort, to risk of complications and are expensive. One of the factors responsible for the aseptic loosening of the prosthesis is the gradual degradation of the cement material as a result of working under considerable loads, in an aggressive environment of the human body. Contaminants present in the surgical field may significantly affect the durability of the bone cement and, consequently, of the entire bone-cement-prosthesis system. The paper presents the results of an analysis of selected mechanical properties of two medium-viscosity bone cements DePuy CMW3 Gentamicin and Heraeus Palamed, for the samples contaminated with saline and blood in the range of 1–10%. The results obtained for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were subjected to statistical analysis, which estimated the nature of changes in these parameters depending on the amount and type of contamination and their statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 1254 KiB  
Review
Current Research and Applications of Starch-Based Biodegradable Films for Food Packaging
by Helen Onyeaka, KeChrist Obileke, Golden Makaka and Nwabunwanne Nwokolo
Polymers 2022, 14(6), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14061126 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 10155
Abstract
The use of biodegradable packaging material as an alternative to conventional petrochemical-based polymers is based on the environmental issues associated with conventional materials. This review aims to update the existing knowledge regarding the application of starch-based biodegradable films for food packaging. From the [...] Read more.
The use of biodegradable packaging material as an alternative to conventional petrochemical-based polymers is based on the environmental issues associated with conventional materials. This review aims to update the existing knowledge regarding the application of starch-based biodegradable films for food packaging. From the review, it was evident that starch stands out among biopolymers due to its abundance and cost effectiveness. This review is the first of its kind, having reviewed over 100 articles/publications on starch-based biodegradable films, consolidating their current state of research and their applications for food packaging; therefore, this review provides an insight into the utilization of nanomaterials to improve the shelf life of packaging of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 26561 KiB  
Article
Fe3O4@PDA@PEI Core-Shell Microspheres as a Novel Magnetic Sorbent for the Rapid and Broad-Spectrum Separation of Bacteria in Liquid Phase
by Yueqi Zhang, Bin Du, Yuting Wu, Zhiwei Liu, Jiang Wang, Jianjie Xu, Zhaoyang Tong, Xihui Mu and Bing Liu
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062039 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Bacterial infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality to humans worldwide. Thus, a method for nonspecific, sensitive, and rapid enrichment of such bacteria is essential for bacteria detection and treatment. This study demonstrates a self-made core-shell Fe3O4@Polydopamine@Polyethyleneimine [...] Read more.
Bacterial infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality to humans worldwide. Thus, a method for nonspecific, sensitive, and rapid enrichment of such bacteria is essential for bacteria detection and treatment. This study demonstrates a self-made core-shell Fe3O4@Polydopamine@Polyethyleneimine magnetic beads (Fe3O4@PDA@PEI MBs) with a high density positive charge-based magnetic separation scheme for the broad-spectrum rapid enrichment of microorganisms in the liquid phase. MBs with a high-density positive charge have a strong electrostatic attraction to most microorganisms in nature. Our scheme is as follows: (1) wrapping dopamine (DA) on the iron oxide through self-polymerization and wrapping PEI on the outermost shell layer in a mode of crosslinking with the PDA; (2) subsequently, the Fe3O4@PDA@PEI MBs were used to concentrate microorganisms from the sample solution; (3) performing magnetic separation and calculating the adsorption efficiency. The as-prepared Fe3O4@PDA@PEI MBs composite was carefully characterized by zeta potential analysis, Value stream-mapping (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). In this study, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria could be captured in three minutes through electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiency on gram-negative (>98%) is higher than that on gram-positive (>95%), allowing for a simple, rapid assay to enrich organisms in resource-limited settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 3835 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Natural Polymeric Membranes Composed of Chitosan, Green Banana Peel Extract and Andiroba Oil
by Elisângela da Silva Ferreira, Sheila Barbosa Paranhos, Simone Patrícia Aranha da Paz, Caio Augusto de Almeida Canelas, Luís Adriano Santos do Nascimento, Marcele Fonseca Passos, Alisson Clay Rios da Silva, Sergio Neves Monteiro, Marcos Vinícius da Silva Paula and Verônica Scarpini Candido
Polymers 2022, 14(6), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14061105 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3328
Abstract
Chitosan comprises polymeric macromolecules with technical and biological properties that have been used in biomedical healing applications requiring anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory capacities worldwide. In the tropical regions, green banana peel extract and andiroba oil are considered natural products with wound healing properties. The [...] Read more.
Chitosan comprises polymeric macromolecules with technical and biological properties that have been used in biomedical healing applications requiring anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory capacities worldwide. In the tropical regions, green banana peel extract and andiroba oil are considered natural products with wound healing properties. The present study, for the first time, synthesized chitosan/green banana peel extract/andiroba oil (CGA) membranes and analyzed them using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the swelling and moisture tests. The CGA membranes together with control membranes of plain chitosan and chitosan plus green banana peel extract, were characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Macroscopic analysis showed significant differences in color and transparency caused by the number of decoction days used for extract preparation and the oil content. SEM observations disclosed the formation of two phases, lipid and polymer, in the CGA. The number of decoction days and the andiroba oil content were inversely related to the swelling moisture uptake. All membranes were found to be hydrophilic with contact angles less than 90°. The incorporation of plant extract and oil promoted the appearance of related XRD peaks. DSC curves revealed a reduction in the enthalpy of the CGA membranes compared with plain chitosan, which might be attributed to the evaporation of the natural extract and oil. Based on these findings, the studied newly synthesized membranes demonstrated a potential for healing epithelial lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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34 pages, 21327 KiB  
Article
Decellularized Avian Cartilage, a Promising Alternative for Human Cartilage Tissue Regeneration
by Joseph Atia Ayariga, Hanxiao Huang and Derrick Dean
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051974 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
Articular cartilage defects, and subsequent degeneration, are prevalent and account for the poor quality of life of most elderly persons; they are also one of the main predisposing factors to osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue and, thus, has limited capacity for [...] Read more.
Articular cartilage defects, and subsequent degeneration, are prevalent and account for the poor quality of life of most elderly persons; they are also one of the main predisposing factors to osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue and, thus, has limited capacity for healing and self-repair. Damage to the articular cartilage by trauma or pathological causes is irreversible. Many approaches to repair cartilage have been attempted with some potential; however, there is no consensus on any ideal therapy. Tissue engineering holds promise as an approach to regenerate damaged cartilage. Since cell adhesion is a critical step in tissue engineering, providing a 3D microenvironment that recapitulates the cartilage tissue is vital to inducing cartilage regeneration. Decellularized materials have emerged as promising scaffolds for tissue engineering, since this procedure produces scaffolds from native tissues that possess structural and chemical natures that are mimetic of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native tissue. In this work, we present, for the first time, a study of decellularized scaffolds, produced from avian articular cartilage (extracted from Gallus Gallus domesticus), reseeded with human chondrocytes, and we demonstrate for the first time that human chondrocytes survived, proliferated and interacted with the scaffolds. Morphological studies of the decellularized scaffolds revealed an interconnected, porous architecture, ideal for cell growth. Mechanical characterization showed that the decellularized scaffolds registered stiffness comparable to the native cartilage tissues. Cell growth inhibition and immunocytochemical analyses showed that the decellularized scaffolds are suitable for cartilage regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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10 pages, 13155 KiB  
Article
Mechanically Tunable Extracellular Matrix of Genipin Crosslinked Collagen and Its Effect on Endothelial Function
by Jacob Robinson, Teal Russell, Zhigang Xu and Yeoheung Yun
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052401 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
Mechanical rigidity of a matrix, to which cells adhere, plays a significant role in regulating phenotypic cellular behaviors such as spreading and junction formation because vascular cells sense and respond to changes in their mechanical environment. Controlling mechanical properties of extracellular matrix by [...] Read more.
Mechanical rigidity of a matrix, to which cells adhere, plays a significant role in regulating phenotypic cellular behaviors such as spreading and junction formation because vascular cells sense and respond to changes in their mechanical environment. Controlling mechanical properties of extracellular matrix by using a crosslinker is important for cell and tissue mechanobiology. In this paper, we explored genipin, a natural plant extract, to crosslink collagen-I in order to enhance mechanical properties with low cytotoxicity. We characterized the effects of genipin concentration on the mechanical properties, color change, degradation, structure, cell viability, and endothelial function such as transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Through the analysis of both material properties and endothelial response, it was found that genipin-based glycation caused an increase in viscoelastic moduli in collagen hydrogels, as well as increased fiber density in their structural morphology. Endothelial cells were found to form better barriers, express higher levels of tight junction proteins, and exhibit better adhesion on stiffer matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 3391 KiB  
Article
Gold-Modified Molecularly Imprinted N-Methacryloyl-(l)-phenylalanine-containing Electrodes for Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine
by Nemah Abu Shama, Süleyman Aşır, Mehmet Ozsoz, Ilgım Göktürk, Deniz Türkmen, Fatma Yılmaz and Adil Denizli
Bioengineering 2022, 9(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9030087 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
A molecularly imprinted polymer-based pencil graphite electrode (MIP PGE) sensor, modified with gold nanoparticles, was utilized for the detection of dopamine in the presence of other biochemical compounds using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), depending on its strong electroactivity function. [...] Read more.
A molecularly imprinted polymer-based pencil graphite electrode (MIP PGE) sensor, modified with gold nanoparticles, was utilized for the detection of dopamine in the presence of other biochemical compounds using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), depending on its strong electroactivity function. The pulse voltammetry methods recorded the highest response. In addition to the high oxidation rate of DA and the other biomolecule interferences available in the sample matrix used, which cause overlapping voltammograms, we aimed to differentiate them in a highly sensitive limit of detection range. The calibration curves for DA were obtained using the CV and DPV over the concentration range of 0.395–3.96 nM in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.4 with a correlation coefficient of 0.996 and a detection limit of 0.193 nM. The electrochemical technique was employed to detect DA molecules quantitatively in human blood plasma selected as real samples without applying any pre-treatment processes. MIP electrodes proved their ability to detect DA with high selectivity, even with epinephrine and norepinephrine competitor molecules and interferences, such as ascorbic acid (AA). The high level of recognition achieved by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is essential for many biological and pharmaceutical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 41933 KiB  
Article
One-Pot Method to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticle-Modified Bamboo-Based Carbon Aerogels for Formaldehyde Removal
by Wenxiang Jing, Chai Yang, Shuang Luo, Xiaoyan Lin, Min Tang, Renhong Zheng, Dongming Lian and Xuegang Luo
Polymers 2022, 14(5), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050860 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
The present study demonstrated a freeze-drying-carbonization method to synthesize silver nanoparticle-modified bamboo-based carbon aerogels to remove formaldehyde. The bamboo-based carbon aerogel (BCA) has the advantages of controllable pore size and rich oxygen-containing groups, which can provide a good foundation for surface modification. BCA [...] Read more.
The present study demonstrated a freeze-drying-carbonization method to synthesize silver nanoparticle-modified bamboo-based carbon aerogels to remove formaldehyde. The bamboo-based carbon aerogel (BCA) has the advantages of controllable pore size and rich oxygen-containing groups, which can provide a good foundation for surface modification. BCA can greatly enhance the purification of formaldehyde by loading silver nanoparticles. The maximum adsorption capacity of 5% Ag/BCA for formaldehyde reached 42 mg/g under 25 ppm formaldehyde concentration, which is 5.25 times more than that of BCA. The relevant data were fitted by the Langmuir model and the pseudo 2nd-order model and good results were obtained, indicating that chemical absorption occurred between the carbonyl of formaldehyde and the hydroxyl of BCA. Therefore, silver nanoparticle-modified bamboo-based carbon aerogels play a positive role in the selective removal of formaldehyde. Silver nanoparticles promoted the activation of oxygen and strengthened the effect of BCA on HCHO adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Micro-Scale Shear Kneading—Gluten Network Development under Multiple Stress–Relaxation Steps and Evaluation via Multiwave Rheology
by Leonhard Maria Vidal, Andre Braun, Mario Jekle and Thomas Becker
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040846 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
To evaluate the kneading process of wheat flour dough, the state of the art is a subsequent and static measuring step on kneaded dough samples. In this study, an in-line measurement setup was set up in a rheometer based on previously validated shear [...] Read more.
To evaluate the kneading process of wheat flour dough, the state of the art is a subsequent and static measuring step on kneaded dough samples. In this study, an in-line measurement setup was set up in a rheometer based on previously validated shear kneading processes. With this approach, the challenge of sample transfer between the kneader and a measurement device was overcome. With the developed approach, an analysis of the dynamic development of the dough is possible. Through consecutive stress–relaxation steps with increasing deformation, a kneading setup in a conventional rheometer is implemented. Fitting of the shear stress curve with a linearization approach, as well as fitting of the relaxation modulus after each kneading step, is a new way to evaluate the matrix development. Subsequently, multiwave rheology is used to validate the kneading process in-line. The shear kneading setup was capable of producing an optimally developed dough matrix close to the reference kneading time of 150 ± 7.9 s (n = 3). The linearization approach as well as the power-law fit of the relaxation modulus revealed gluten network development comparable to the reference dough. With this approach, a deeper insight into gluten network development and crosslinking processes during wheat flour dough kneading is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 36747 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of Smoke Treatment on Hygroscopic Characteristics of Bamboo by FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy
by Raviduth Ramful, Thefye P. M. Sunthar, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu and Giuseppe Pezzotti
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041544 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Treatment modification to improve the durability of bamboo against biotic and abiotic factors often results in adverse effects to its mechanical properties due to changes in hygroscopic characteristics. This study aims at exploring in more detail, the effect of treatment modification, in particular [...] Read more.
Treatment modification to improve the durability of bamboo against biotic and abiotic factors often results in adverse effects to its mechanical properties due to changes in hygroscopic characteristics. This study aims at exploring in more detail, the effect of treatment modification, in particular smoke treatment, on the hygroscopic nature of bamboo. In the first part of this study, changes to its chemical structure were investigated by Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. From Raman analysis, specific bands attributed to lignin component in bamboo, namely at 1600 cm−1 and 1632 cm−1, which varied in intensities among treated and untreated specimens, could be considered to assess the extent of treatment modification. Besides, FTIR results showed that the chemical constituents of bamboo inner and outermost surfaces vary extensively with distinctive changes during treatment modification. The steam component in smoke treatment is assumed to cause a slight increase in the moisture content in the outermost surface of smoked bamboo as evidenced by FTIR results. In addition, the hydrophobic surface of smoked bamboo, which was affected during smoke treatment modification due to superior mean roughness parameter in its outermost surface, impacted its water-repelling ability. From FTIR results, an increase in lignin in bamboo was confirmed at peak 1114 cm−1, which occurred as a result of thermal effect above a temperature of 100 °C leading to poly-condensation reactions. The increase in lignin is assumed to cause an overall increase in hardness of smoked bamboo which was found to be two-fold higher when compared with the untreated ones. The approach of this research investigation, which has shown the benefit of using spectroscopic techniques to monitor and understand the changes in the hygroscopic nature of bamboo surfaces, can likewise be considered to predict the corresponding effects of treatment modification or degradation on the mechanical properties of natural materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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