Topic Editors

Department of Biological Sciences, Nicolls State University, 114 Gouaux Hall, Thibodaux, LA 70310, USA
Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, Institute of Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA

Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB)

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 November 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (28 February 2023)
Viewed by
86433

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Challenges in managing contaminants from air, water, and soil are ever increasing due to the drastic changes that have occurred in the way we live our day-to-day life over several decades. We have introduced new and emerging contaminants such as antibiotics, nanoparticles, microplastics, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) and have not prevented them from entering the environment. Their adverse effects are significant. For example, algal bloom caused by excessive release of nutrients to water environment leads to contamination by algal toxins. Although pollutant removal from various liquid streams has been studied for decades, it is essential to understand how far the biological processes have been improved and have become efficient in removing pollutants from waste streams. It is important to know the advances that have been made in utilizing/manipulating various microbial consortia responsible for the removal of pollutants. Use of algae and nature-based systems and their advantages in removing pollutants also warrant thorough investigation. New and emerging contaminants in the environment also need further study as they may not only be hard to remove but could also adversely affect the microbial consortia responsible for nutrient and pollutant removal. Thus, the interaction among nutrients, new and emerging contaminants, as well as microbial consortia should be established. Hybrid systems comprising biological treatment to recover nutrients should be compared with other removal technologies for implementation which will contribute to Sustainable Development Goals. This Topic will produce articles which will shed light on the above topics and will therefore provide a snapshot of the status in pollutant and nutrient removal and emerging contaminants. We call for articles which focus on the biodegradation of pollutants in the following areas:

1. Application of Membrane Technology and Nano-Technology in the following areas, where they enhance biodegradation of pollutants an nutrients and emerging and new contaminants:

  • Water treatment
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Hybrid treatment systems
  • Treatment of emerging pollutants
  • Water reuse
  • Concentrate management
  • Resource recovery
  • Environmental protection
  • Pollution prevention

 2. Water and Wastewater: Pollution Prevention and Treatment Emphasizing Biodegradation

  • Advances in water and wastewater treatment
  • Potable water treatment
  • Industrial, pure, and ultrapure water production
  • Municipal and industrial effluent treatment
  • Sludge processing and disposal

3. Resources and Wastes: Management and Recovery of Materials and Energy Emphasizing the Application of Biodegradation

  • Recovery and recycling of materials and products
  • Energy from waste and alternative resources (microbially assisted)
  • Waste minimization
  • Waste management: systems and processes for energy and material recovery and waste treatment; disposal
  • Solid and hazardous waste management
  • Landfill leachate
  • Land bioremediation and recovery
4. Air Pollution: Prevention and Treatment Utilizing Biodegradation - Conversion of gaseous pollutants to biofuels
  • Biofiltration of odor causing compounds (e.g., from wastewater treatment plants)
  • Hybrid bioreactor configurations for waste gas treatment
  • Modelling and process control of gas phase bioreactors
5. Sustainable Catchments and Renewable Energy
  • Application of biotreatment in storm water harvesting
  • Microbial ecosystems and bioprocess in wetland systems
  • Smart biotechnologies for sustainable water management
6. Soil Sustainability and Contaminated Soils and Sediments
  • Bioremediation of contaminated lands
  • Impacts of sedimentation microbial ecosystems
  • Management of dredging through biological processes

Prof. Dr. Ramaraj Boopathy
Dr. Eldon R. Rene
Prof. Dr. Mark Zappi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • biotechnology
  • bioremediation
  • biofuel
  • emerging organic contaminants (EOC)
  • microplastics
  • nanoparticles

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Biology
biology
4.2 4.0 2012 18.7 Days CHF 2700
BioTech
biotech
- 4.4 2012 19.6 Days CHF 1600
Environments
environments
3.7 5.9 2014 23.7 Days CHF 1800
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (29 papers)

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15 pages, 2836 KiB  
Article
Phytoremediation of Wastewater Containing Lead and Manganese Ions Using Algae
by Loredana Ioana Diaconu, Cristina Ileana Covaliu-Mierlă, Oana Păunescu, Leon Dumitru Covaliu, Horia Iovu and Gigel Paraschiv
Biology 2023, 12(6), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12060773 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2306
Abstract
Heavy metal pollution of water from industrial discharge is a major problem worldwide. Thus, the quality of the environment and human health are severely affected. Various conventional technologies have been applied for water treatment, but these can be expensive, especially for industrial water [...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution of water from industrial discharge is a major problem worldwide. Thus, the quality of the environment and human health are severely affected. Various conventional technologies have been applied for water treatment, but these can be expensive, especially for industrial water treatment, and may have limited treatment efficiencies. Phytoremediation is a method that is successfully applied to remove metal ions from wastewater. In addition to the high efficiency of the depollution treatment, this method has the advantages of a low cost of the operation and the existence of many plants that can be used. This article presents the results of using algae (Sargassum fusiforme and Enteromorpha prolifera) to treat water containing manganese and lead ions. It was observed that maximum efficiencies for wastewater treatment were obtained when was used the algae Enteromorpha prolifera for a 600 min contact time period. The highest wastewater treatment efficiency obtained using Sargassum fusiforme was 99.46%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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15 pages, 790 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Microalgae–Bacteria Consortia to Restore Degraded Soils
by Lina M. Gonzalez-Gonzalez and Luz E. de-Bashan
Biology 2023, 12(5), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12050693 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Soil restoration is one of the biggest challenges of this century. Besides the negative impacts of climate change, the current increase in food demands has put severe pressure on soil resources, resulting in a significant area of degraded land worldwide. However, beneficial microorganisms, [...] Read more.
Soil restoration is one of the biggest challenges of this century. Besides the negative impacts of climate change, the current increase in food demands has put severe pressure on soil resources, resulting in a significant area of degraded land worldwide. However, beneficial microorganisms, such as microalgae and plant growth-promoting bacteria, have an outstanding ability to restore soil health and fertility. In this mini-review, we summarize state-of-the-art knowledge on these microorganisms as amendments that are used to restore degraded and contaminated soils. Furthermore, the potential of microbial consortia to maximize beneficial effects on soil health and boost the production of plant-growth-promoting compounds within a mutualistic interaction is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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15 pages, 2109 KiB  
Review
Current State of Rare and Endangered Barbels of the Genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 in the Aral–Syrdarya Basin (Kazakhstan) and Prospects for Their Conservation (A Review)
by Kamila Adyrbekova, Kuanysh B. Isbekov, Tynysbek T. Barakbayev and Galymzhan Zh. Iskhakhov
Biology 2023, 12(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12040489 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
The current status of the barbels inhabiting the Kazakhstan section of the Syrdarya River needs special study, as has been noted since the second half of the 20th century. Stocks of commercial fish valuable in the past as barbels in the Aral–Syrdarya basin [...] Read more.
The current status of the barbels inhabiting the Kazakhstan section of the Syrdarya River needs special study, as has been noted since the second half of the 20th century. Stocks of commercial fish valuable in the past as barbels in the Aral–Syrdarya basin are now catastrophically reduced as a result of anthropogenic impact on the ichthyofauna and natural environment of the Aral Sea region. The study of the condition; abundance and distribution range is necessary to determine measures for their restoration in natural habitats and their breeding in fish farms. Research on the biotechnology of barbel breeding with subsequent acclimatization and reacclimatization of these fish species will not only improve the composition of the ichthyofauna of the Aral–Syrdarya basin, but also preserve the genetic potential of natural populations. At present, the only way to restore the population of the Aral barbel is stocking hatchery reared juveniles in natural environments. Under the current situation, a way forward is seen in the creation of domesticated replacement-broodstocks of barbels. As a result of the influence of anthropogenic factors, the populations of this species have come to almost complete degradation and depletion and require the development and adoption of urgent measures for their conservation and restoration through reintroduction, which is a priority and urgent task for the fisheries of the republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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15 pages, 2099 KiB  
Article
Effects of Probiotics on the Water Quality, Growth Performance, Immunity, Digestion, and Intestinal Flora of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in the Biofloc Culture System
by Zongsheng Qiu, Qiyou Xu, Shenghao Li, Dakua Zheng, Rongfei Zhang, Jianhua Zhao and Ting Wang
Water 2023, 15(6), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061211 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3879
Abstract
In order to explore the effects of probiotics on the water quality, growth performance, nonspecific immunity, digestion, and intestinal flora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the biofloc culture system, three groups (six replicates in each group) were set up and divided into no bacteria [...] Read more.
In order to explore the effects of probiotics on the water quality, growth performance, nonspecific immunity, digestion, and intestinal flora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the biofloc culture system, three groups (six replicates in each group) were set up and divided into no bacteria (control group, Con), Bacillus subtilis (BS), and effective microorganisms (EM) in the current experiment. After dissolution of the water, the carbon source (glucose) was evenly sprayed in the aquaculture tank to construct a biofloc with a C/N of 15. A total of 1260 giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) with an initial body weight of (2.09 ± 0.03) g were randomly assigned to 18 tanks (70 per tank). BS group and EM group significantly reduced total nitrogen concentration. Both BS and EM groups significantly increased final mean body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate, but significantly decreased feed conversion rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. BS group significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase, lysozyme, and acid phosphatase contents, but significantly decreased plasma malonaldehyde content. EM group significantly increased serum acid phosphatase content and intestinal trypsin activity but significantly decreased the Chao and ACE index of species richness. BS group and EM group significantly decreased the abundance of Chloroflexi and Verrucomicrobiota. BS group significantly increased the abundance of Bacillus. Overall, adding probiotics affected water quality, Macrobrachium rosenbergii performance, and microbial community. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis is a good biofloc probiotic additive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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13 pages, 3983 KiB  
Article
Roles of Floating Islands in Aqueous Environment Remediation: Water Purification and Urban Aesthetics
by Song Qin, Min Zhong, Bing Lin and Qian Zhang
Water 2023, 15(6), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061134 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Floating islands have been commonly utilized for the ecological remediation of urban waters; meanwhile, they are beneficial to landscape decoration and beauty improvement. Therefore, this work was conducted to analyze the roles of floating islands in water purification, urban aesthetics, and the potential [...] Read more.
Floating islands have been commonly utilized for the ecological remediation of urban waters; meanwhile, they are beneficial to landscape decoration and beauty improvement. Therefore, this work was conducted to analyze the roles of floating islands in water purification, urban aesthetics, and the potential association. Based on this, different plant-based floating islands were constructed and employed for the treatment of lake water, and biochar was utilized as fillers for the coordination and the capacity enhancement, which fulfilled the synergism of plants, biochar, and the attached microbes. Furthermore, specific effects of floating islands on the improvement of urban aesthetics were analyzed from different perspectives, and the corresponding thinking was proposed for the designing and the optimization, including plants collocation, spatial layout, cultural background, and contact with nature. This work offers a new insight into the construction of floating islands to realize the water purification and strengthen the beauty of urban landscapes, and thus improving the living environment quality of human beings on the whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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14 pages, 3000 KiB  
Article
A Proteomic Analysis for the Red Seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis
by Zubaida P. Patwary, Min Zhao, Tianfang Wang, Nicholas A. Paul and Scott F. Cummins
Biology 2023, 12(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020167 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3243
Abstract
The red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis is a promising ruminant feed additive with anti-methanogenic properties that could contribute to global climate change solutions. Genomics has provided a strong foundation for in-depth molecular investigations, including proteomics. Here, we investigated the proteome of A. taxiformis (Lineage [...] Read more.
The red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis is a promising ruminant feed additive with anti-methanogenic properties that could contribute to global climate change solutions. Genomics has provided a strong foundation for in-depth molecular investigations, including proteomics. Here, we investigated the proteome of A. taxiformis (Lineage 6) in both sporophyte and gametophyte stages, using soluble and insoluble extraction methods. We identified 741 unique non-redundant proteins using a genome-derived database and 2007 using a transcriptome-derived database, which included numerous proteins predicted to be of fungal origin. We further investigated the genome-derived proteins to focus on seaweed-specific proteins. Ontology analysis indicated a relatively large proportion of ion-binding proteins (i.e., iron, zinc, manganese, potassium and copper), which may play a role in seaweed heavy metal tolerance. In addition, we identified 58 stress-related proteins (e.g., heat shock and vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases) and 44 photosynthesis-related proteins (e.g., phycobilisomes, photosystem I, photosystem II and ATPase), which were in general more abundantly identified from female gametophytes. Forty proteins were predicted to be secreted, including ten rhodophyte collagen-alpha-like proteins (RCAPs), which displayed overall high gene expression levels. These findings provide a comprehensive overview of expressed proteins in A. taxiformis, highlighting the potential for targeted protein extraction and functional characterisation for future biodiscovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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13 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Formulation of a Simulated Wastewater Influent Composition for Use in the Research of Technologies for Managing Wastewaters Generated during Manned Long-Term Space Exploration and Other Similar Situations—Literature-Based Composition Development
by Bimi Shrestha, Rafael Hernandez, Dhan Lord B. Fortela, Wayne Sharp, Andrei Chistoserdov, Daniel Gang, Emmanuel Revellame, William E. Holmes and Mark E. Zappi
BioTech 2023, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech12010008 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2336
Abstract
The prospect of humans inhabiting planetary bodies is gaining interest among research and development communities, with the moon being considered as a transitory base camp and Mars the next planet humans will inhabit. NASA’s Mission to Mars program is set to have humans [...] Read more.
The prospect of humans inhabiting planetary bodies is gaining interest among research and development communities, with the moon being considered as a transitory base camp and Mars the next planet humans will inhabit. NASA’s Mission to Mars program is set to have humans inhabiting Mars within on-planet space camps by the Year 2030, which has tremendously increased research and development for space exploration—including research oriented toward human life support in long-term planetary lodging camps. The sustenance of human life on Mars will not be trivial due to the unavailability of an appropriate atmosphere and usable water. This situation requires a self-sustaining human life support system that can provide the basic needs such are breathable air, potable water, food, and energy. The feasibility of sending a payload with resources adequate to support long-term human inhabitation is not reasonable, which means every resource within a Mars space camp is valuable, including human-produced wastes. A biorefinery system that treats wastewater and can also produce valuable products such as oxygen, food, and energy offers a form of circular utilization of valuable resources. To conduct research for such systems requires a wastewater influent that is representative of the wastewater to be generated by the space crew within this isolated, confined environment, which is different from what is generated on Earth due to limited variability in diet, human activity, and lifestyle in this confined area. Collection of actual wastewater influent from an isolated environment supporting humans is challenging. Additionally, to ensure a safe working environment in the laboratory and avoid the imposed threat of handling actual human feces, the proposed synthetic, non-human feces containing wastewater influent formulation offers an easy-to-produce and safer-to-handle option. This paper reviews several synthetic wastewater compositions that have been formulated for space exploration purposes. None of the formulations were found to be realistic nor adequate for a space-camp-type scenario. Thus, the formulation of a synthetic wastewater for simulating a wastewater influent from a human space-based camp is proposed in this paper. In addition, the physical, chemical, and biodegradation characteristics of the final formulation designed are presented to illustrate the value of the proposed influent formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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23 pages, 1892 KiB  
Review
Potential Utilization of Bacterial Consortium of Symbionts Marine Sponges in Removing Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals, Review
by Ismail Marzuki, Rosmiati Rosmiati, Akhmad Mustafa, Sahabuddin Sahabuddin, Tarunamulia Tarunamulia, Endang Susianingsih, Erfan Andi Hendrajat, Andi Sahrijanna, Muslimin Muslimin, Erna Ratnawati, Kamariah Kamariah, Khairun Nisaa, Susila Herlambang, Sri Gunawan, Idum Satia Santi, Bambang Heri Isnawan, Ernawati Syahruddin Kaseng, Early Septiningsih, Ruzkiah Asaf, Admi Athirah and Basri Basriadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biology 2023, 12(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010086 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
Toxic materials in waste generally contain several components of the global trending pollutant category, especially PAHs and heavy metals. Bioremediation technology for waste management that utilizes microorganisms (bacteria) has not been fully capable of breaking down these toxic materials into simple and environmentally [...] Read more.
Toxic materials in waste generally contain several components of the global trending pollutant category, especially PAHs and heavy metals. Bioremediation technology for waste management that utilizes microorganisms (bacteria) has not been fully capable of breaking down these toxic materials into simple and environmentally friendly chemical products. This review paper examines the potential application of a consortium of marine sponge symbionts with high performance and efficiency in removing PAHs and heavy metal contaminants. The method was carried out through a review of several related research articles by the author and published by other researchers. The results of the study conclude that the development of global trending pollutant (GTP) bioremediation technology could be carried out to increase the efficiency of remediation. Several types of marine sponge symbiont bacteria, hydrocarbonoclastic (R-1), metalloclastic (R-2), and metallo-hydro-carbonoclastic (R-3), have the potential to be applied to improve waste removal performance. A consortium of crystalline bacterial preparations is required to mobilize into GTP-exposed sites rapidly. Bacterial symbionts of marine sponges can be traced mainly to sea sponges, whose body surface is covered with mucus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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10 pages, 3608 KiB  
Communication
Development and Validation of a Practical Model for Transient Biofilter Performance
by Zarook Shareefdeen
BioTech 2022, 11(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech11040051 - 29 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2239
Abstract
Biofilters are biological air-phase packed-bed reactors used for the removal of industrial air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors. Because of the economic and environmental benefits, biofilter technology is preferred in applications such as wastewater treatment plants, waste recycling facilities, [...] Read more.
Biofilters are biological air-phase packed-bed reactors used for the removal of industrial air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors. Because of the economic and environmental benefits, biofilter technology is preferred in applications such as wastewater treatment plants, waste recycling facilities, and several chemical industries over conventional treatment methods such as adsorption, absorption, and thermal oxidation processes. In order to predict the performance of biofilters, mathematical models under steady-state and transient conditions are needed. The transient biofilter models for gas-phase bioreactors are highly complex, as they involve several parameters that are not easily determined for industrial applications. In this work, a practical transient biofilter model is developed and an analytical solution for the transient model is obtained. When this model is compared with the published but more complex model, this new transient model produces almost the same level of prediction with equal comparisons of experimental data for VOCs, benzene, and toluene. This simple model has fewer parameters and will be very useful and practical for industrial applications for the analysis of transient biofilter performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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14 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Stress on Some Physiological and Anatomical Characteristics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. KDML105 Callus and Seedling
by Worasitikulya Taratima, Chantima Chuanchumkan, Pitakpong Maneerattanarungroj, Attachai Trunjaruen, Piyada Theerakulpisut and Anoma Dongsansuk
Biology 2022, 11(11), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11111587 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Global warming is a serious problem, with significant negative impacts on agricultural productivity. To better understand plant anatomical adaptation mechanisms as responses to heat stress, improved basic knowledge is required. This research studied the physiological and anatomical responses of Khao Dawk Mali 105 [...] Read more.
Global warming is a serious problem, with significant negative impacts on agricultural productivity. To better understand plant anatomical adaptation mechanisms as responses to heat stress, improved basic knowledge is required. This research studied the physiological and anatomical responses of Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105) to artificial heat stress. Dehusked seeds were sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for callus induction. The cultures were maintained at 25 °C and 35 °C for 4 weeks, while the other culture was treated with heat shock at 42 °C for 1 week before further incubation at 25 °C for 3 weeks. Results revealed that elevated temperatures (35 °C and 42 °C) adversely impacted seedling growth. Plant height, root length, leaf number per plant, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content decreased after heat stress treatment, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage percentage significantly increased, compared to the control. Heat stress induced ROS accumulation, leading to lipid peroxidation and membrane instability. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) results also confirmed negative correlations between MDA, electrolyte leakage and other parameters. MDA content and electrolyte leakage are effective indicators of heat stress in rice. Surface anatomical responses of rice seedlings to heat stress were studied but significant alterations were not observed, and heat stress had no significant negative effects on KDML105 calli. Size and mass of calli increased because heat stress stimulated gene expression that induced thermotolerance. Our results provide useful information for rice breeding and heat stress tolerance programs to benefit long-term global food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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16 pages, 4737 KiB  
Article
Removal Behavior of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions via Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation Driven by Acclimatized Sporosarcina pasteurii
by Xinxin Li, Yan Wang, Jiajie Tang and Keke Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9958; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199958 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) driven by Sporosarcina pasteurii was highly efficient for heavy metal (i.e., Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+) removal in the range of 50 to 800 mg/L. Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria were sequentially inoculated in nutrient broths [...] Read more.
Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) driven by Sporosarcina pasteurii was highly efficient for heavy metal (i.e., Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+) removal in the range of 50 to 800 mg/L. Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria were sequentially inoculated in nutrient broths amended with increased concentrations of heavy metals separately to improve the resistance to heavy metal environments. In the absence of Ca2+, the increasing urea concentration was conducive to Cd2+ removal with the best removal ratio 89.9–99.7% at a urea concentration of 2.0 mol/L, but had little positive effect on Cu2+ and Pb2+ removal, with a removal ratio of 62.6–64.4% and 71.4–97.6%, respectively, at a urea concentration of 0.5 mol/L. The heavy metal coprecipitated with Ca2+, leading to much more effective heavy metal removal, and the removal efficiency of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ could reach 98.0–99.0, 78.1–82.1 and 98.0–100.0%, respectively. The Cu2+ deposit aggregated and cemented to form clusters, different from Cd2+ and Pb2+ deposits with comparatively dispersed microstructure. For all the three heavy metal precipitates, the predominant mineral was identified as calcite, the most thermodynamically stable polymorph of CaCO3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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13 pages, 4033 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) Boost Mitigation Powers of Chenopodium Quinoa (Q6 Line) Grown under In Vitro Salt-Stressing Conditions
by Rida Shibli, Ruba Mohusaien, Rund Abu-Zurayk, Tamara Qudah and Reham Tahtamouni
Water 2022, 14(19), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193099 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is of great economic importance and constitutes one of the model plants for salinity and drought tolerance in the Mediterranean climate. This study aimed to study the physiological responses of Q6 (a quinoa line developed by International Center [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is of great economic importance and constitutes one of the model plants for salinity and drought tolerance in the Mediterranean climate. This study aimed to study the physiological responses of Q6 (a quinoa line developed by International Center for Bio-saline Agriculture (ICBA) in cooperation with the National Center for Agricultural Research (NARC), Jordan) grown under in vitro salt-stressing conditions (MS Media plus either 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, or 200 mM of NaCl) and to determine the highest salt level that Q6 plantlets can tolerate. After this, different levels of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (25, 50, and 75 mg/L) were added to the growth MS media to examine if they can boost the mitigation powers of Q6 plantlets against the highest salt level that the Q6 plantlets could tolerate. Data showed that all tested growth parameters were negatively affected by adding NaCl to the media at all levels. Shoot length, proliferation, and fresh and dry weights declined to reach minimum values at 200 mM NaCl when compared to the other NaCl levels. Similarly, chlorophyll, protein, and ion content were negatively affected when exposed to NaCl at all levels, while proline increased significantly with increasing NaCl in the growth media. The addition of Ag NPs resulted in improving the mitigation powers of Q6 plantlets, especially when 75 mg/L Ag NPs were added, as this resulted in a significant improvement in microshoot growth under 200 mM NaCl when compared to the control. Adding 75 mg/L of Ag NPs to 200 mM NaCl improved shoot growth (3.56 cm) when compared to (1.04 cm) obtained plantlets that were grown in 200 mM NaCl alone. Further, other growth parameters were almost doubled by adding 75 mg/L of Ag NPs to 200 mM NaCl when compared to 200 mM NaCl alone. Additionally, adding Ag NPs (especially at the 75 mg/L level) to the media improved total chlorophyll, protein, and ion content while also reducing proline when compared to the control, which indicated an improvement in microshoot tolerance to salt-stressing conditions. These results indicate that adding specific concentrations of Ag NPs improves the growth performance and stress tolerance of Q6 grown under salt-stressing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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21 pages, 1646 KiB  
Review
A Review of Recent Advances in Microbial Fuel Cells: Preparation, Operation, and Application
by Jianfei Wang, Kexin Ren, Yan Zhu, Jiaqi Huang and Shijie Liu
BioTech 2022, 11(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech11040044 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 7021
Abstract
The microbial fuel cell has been considered a promising alternative to traditional fossil energy. It has great potential in energy production, waste management, and biomass valorization. However, it has several technical issues, such as low power generation efficiency and operational stability. These issues [...] Read more.
The microbial fuel cell has been considered a promising alternative to traditional fossil energy. It has great potential in energy production, waste management, and biomass valorization. However, it has several technical issues, such as low power generation efficiency and operational stability. These issues limit the scale-up and commercialization of MFC systems. This review presents the latest progress in microbial community selection and genetic engineering techniques for enhancing microbial electricity production. The summary of substrate selection covers defined substrates and some inexpensive complex substrates, such as wastewater and lignocellulosic biomass materials. In addition, it also includes electrode modification, electron transfer mediator selection, and optimization of operating conditions. The applications of MFC systems introduced in this review involve wastewater treatment, production of value-added products, and biosensors. This review focuses on the crucial process of microbial fuel cells from preparation to application and provides an outlook for their future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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15 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
The Role of Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio on the Performance of Denitrifying Biocathodes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment
by Cynthia J. Castro, Kamal Taha, Itzé Kenney and Daniel H. Yeh
Water 2022, 14(19), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193076 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Bioelectrochemical systems with denitrifying biocathodes have been of interest for the removal of nitrate in decentralized wastewater treatment applications. Only a few studies have directly focused on this application, but the removal rates have been very low. This study evaluated the operational parameters [...] Read more.
Bioelectrochemical systems with denitrifying biocathodes have been of interest for the removal of nitrate in decentralized wastewater treatment applications. Only a few studies have directly focused on this application, but the removal rates have been very low. This study evaluated the operational parameters that affect the nitrate removal of two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with a biocathode, particularly, the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and proton diffusivity across electrode chambers. The results show that proton diffusion across a proton exchange membrane is not a limiting step in nitrogen removal performance. At C:N ratios of 4 and 8, biocathodes with a continuously supplied carbon source at the anode were able to achieve complete nitrogen removal at a rate of 0.97 ± 0.21 and 1.15 ± 0.13 mg N L−1 d−1, respectively. However, as the C:N ratio increased from 4, 8, 16, and 32, the electrode potentials decreased accordingly. Ratio 4 C:N had a cathodic reduction potential of +66.1 ± 5.3 mV vs. SHE and dropped to −78.6 ± 9.8 mV vs. SHE at 32 C:N. The cathode electrode potential can be controlled by way of the carbon concentrations at the anode, which can have major indirect implications on the evolution of cathodic microbial communities that have preference to particular ranges of reduction potentials. The cathodic biofilms in this study were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospirae, which are known to have key denitrifying microorganisms. The genus Stenotrophomonas was found in abundance within the attached cathode biofilm and to a lesser extent in the suspended biomass. Vibrio, Acidobacteria_Gp4, Nitrosomonas, and Candidatus Competibacter were also cultivated in both the suspended and attached biomass. Nitrospira was only found in the attached biofilm. Regardless of operational scheme, nitrogen removal was improved at low C:N ratios, with 8 C:N having the best performance overall. This indicates that higher C:N ratios than were previously explored (>4 C:N) provide sufficient coulombs to facilitate denitrification at the cathode even while the anodic CEs remain low. Reactor design modifications should be considered to fully support robust denitrifying communities, enhancing the overall nitrogen removal for decentralized wastewater treatment applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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22 pages, 8797 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mineral Carriers on Biofilm Formation and Nitrogen Removal Activity by an Indigenous Anammox Community from Cold Groundwater Ecosystem Alone and Bioaugmented with Biomass from a “Warm” Anammox Reactor
by Anastasia Vishnyakova, Nadezhda Popova, Grigoriy Artemiev, Ekaterina Botchkova, Yuriy Litti and Alexey Safonov
Biology 2022, 11(10), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11101421 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
The complex pollution of aquifers by reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds is currently considered one of the urgent environmental problems that require non-standard solutions. This work was a laboratory-scale trial to show the feasibility of using various mineral carriers to create a permeable [...] Read more.
The complex pollution of aquifers by reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds is currently considered one of the urgent environmental problems that require non-standard solutions. This work was a laboratory-scale trial to show the feasibility of using various mineral carriers to create a permeable in situ barrier in cold (10 °C) aquifers with extremely high nitrogen pollution and inhabited by the Candidatus Scalindua-dominated indigenous anammox community. It has been established that for the removal of ammonium and nitrite in situ due to the predominant contribution of the anammox process, quartz, kaolin clays of the Kantatsky and Kamalinsky deposits, bentonite clay of the Berezovsky deposit, and zeolite of the Kholinsky deposit can be used as components of the permeable barrier. Biofouling of natural loams from a contaminated aquifer can also occur under favorable conditions. It has been suggested that the anammox activity is determined by a number of factors, including the presence of the essential trace elements in the carrier and the surface morphology. However, one of the most important factors is competition with other microbial groups that can develop on the surface of the carrier at a faster rate. For this reason, carriers with a high specific surface area and containing the necessary microelements were overgrown with the most rapidly growing microorganisms. Bioaugmentation with a “warm” anammox community from a laboratory reactor dominated by Ca. Kuenenia improved nitrogen removal rates and biofilm formation on most of the mineral carriers, including bentonite clay of the Dinozavrovoye deposit, as well as loamy rock and zeolite-containing tripoli, in addition to carriers that perform best with the indigenous anammox community. The feasibility of coupled partial denitrification–anammox and the adaptation of a “warm” anammox community to low temperatures and hazardous components contained in polluted groundwater prior to bioaugmentation should be the scope of future research to enhance the anammox process in cold, nitrate-rich aquifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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14 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Interactions between the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE 20 and the Endoparasitoid Dolichogenidea gelechiidivoris, and Implications for Combined Biocontrol of Tuta absoluta
by Sahadatou Mama Sambo, Komivi Senyo Akutse, Hannalene du Plessis, Pascal Osa Aigbedion-Atalor, Samira Abuelgasim Mohamed and Shepard Ndlela
Biology 2022, 11(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091323 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach have been widely promoted and used for the management of native and invasive pests, while the use of various components of the IPM can have a synergetic, additive, or antagonistic effect on each other; this study evaluated [...] Read more.
The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach have been widely promoted and used for the management of native and invasive pests, while the use of various components of the IPM can have a synergetic, additive, or antagonistic effect on each other; this study evaluated the susceptibility of Dolichogenidea gelechiidivoris (Marsh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) ICIPE 20 through direct and indirect infection approaches. The effect of fungus on parasitoid longevity, survival of parasitized-larvae, preference of the parasitoid to fungal treated and untreated larvae, and percent parasitism of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under different infection scenarios were assessed. The direct application of dry conidia to the parasitoid prior to exposure to the host, reduced D. gelechiidivoris longevity, though the infected female wasps still yielded high parasitism (over 70%). Infecting the parasitized larvae at different ages led to a respective reduction of parasitoid emergence by 35% and 23% for infection at 1 and 5 days post-parasitisation. Exposure of healthy-D. gelechiidivoris adults to a plant-sprayed with fungus did not affect their longevity, and no discriminatory host selection was observed. The highest mortality (~80%) of T. absoluta was achieved when D. gelechiidivoris and M. anisopliae ICIPE 20 were used in combination, indicating an additive impact on the target pest; however, field validation can shed more light on this outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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12 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
Biological Extraction, HPLC Quantification and Medical Applications of Astaxanthin Extracted from Crawfish “Procambarus clarkii” Exoskeleton By-Product
by Salwa Hamdi, Nour Elsayed, Mohamed Algayar, Verina Ishak, Mariam Ahmed, Sara Ahmed, Mohamed Kamal and Mohamed Abd El-Ghany
Biology 2022, 11(8), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081215 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
The main challenge of astaxanthin extraction is to provide an eco-friendly method of extraction instead of chemical methods that harm human health. This study provided an eco-friendly method for astaxanthin extraction using two bacterial and fungal probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus lactis, Candida [...] Read more.
The main challenge of astaxanthin extraction is to provide an eco-friendly method of extraction instead of chemical methods that harm human health. This study provided an eco-friendly method for astaxanthin extraction using two bacterial and fungal probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus lactis, Candida utilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively) and determined the astaxanthin concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The results showed that the highest concentration was obtained by S. cerevisiae (45.69 µg/g). Several biological tests were done on the exoskeleton containing astaxanthin of crawfish. Antifungal activity was effective against C. utilis (inhibition zone is 12.3 ± 0.5 mm). The scavenging percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging percentage) was 72.1% at 1000 µg/mL concentration of exoskeleton containing astaxanthin. The Hemolysis inhibition percentage was 65% at the same concentration used previously. Furthermore, the IC50 value of human liver cancer cell line (HepG2), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCT), and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were 24 µg/mL, 11 µg/mL, and 9.5 µg/mL, respectively. The least cell viability percentage was 19% (using breast cancer cell line (MCF-7)) at 100 µg/mL of exoskeleton containing astaxanthin. Thus, using microorganisms can be an alternative and promising way of astaxanthin extraction. Furthermore, purification of extracted astaxanthin is essential for medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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14 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
A Novel Natural Active Coagulant Agent Extracted from the Sugarcane Bagasse for Wastewater Treatment
by Muhammad Burhanuddin Bahrodin, Nur Syamimi Zaidi, Abudukeremu Kadier, Norelyza Hussein, Achmad Syafiuddin and Raj Boopathy
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 7972; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12167972 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
The performance of extracted coagulant from the sugarcane bagasse was tested using synthetic wastewater for turbidity removal. Sugarcane bagasse was selected because it is available in abundance as a waste. This study was carried out to analyze the effect of the extraction process [...] Read more.
The performance of extracted coagulant from the sugarcane bagasse was tested using synthetic wastewater for turbidity removal. Sugarcane bagasse was selected because it is available in abundance as a waste. This study was carried out to analyze the effect of the extraction process in optimizing the active coagulant agent of bagasse as a natural coagulant for optimum turbidity removal. Bagasse was characterized in terms of physical, chemical and morphological properties. The results showed bagasse has very high polysaccharide content which can act as an active coagulant agent together with hemicellulose and lignin. The extraction process for degradation of lignin and hemicellulose was run based on two different solvents (NaOH and H2SO4) with varying concentrations from 2% to 10% at different extraction temperatures varied from 60 °C to 180 °C for various extraction times (0.5 h to 3 h). The optimum polysaccharide content extracted from bagasse was 697.5 mg/mL by using 2% NaOH at 120 °C for 2 h extraction. The coagulation process using extracted bagasse showed the removal of suspended solids up to 95.9% under optimum conditions. The concentration of polysaccharides as the active coagulant agent plays a vital role where high polysaccharides content removes most turbidity at a lower dosage. Bagasse has the potential to be an alternative coagulating agent due to its efficiency, and eco-friendly properties for the treatment of wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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18 pages, 3862 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Potential Applications of Paecilomyceslilacinus 112
by Mariana Constantin, Iuliana Raut, Ana-Maria Gurban, Mihaela Doni, Nicoleta Radu, Elvira Alexandrescu and Luiza Jecu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7572; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157572 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Microorganisms are widely used to obtain biostimulants that can facilitate the assimilation of nutrients, ensuring high crop yield and quality. A particular category of biostimulants are protein hydrolyzates (PH), obtained from microbial cultures grown on a nutrient medium. In the present study, Paecilomyces [...] Read more.
Microorganisms are widely used to obtain biostimulants that can facilitate the assimilation of nutrients, ensuring high crop yield and quality. A particular category of biostimulants are protein hydrolyzates (PH), obtained from microbial cultures grown on a nutrient medium. In the present study, Paecilomyces lilacinus 112, an endophytic fungus isolated from soil, was tested to determine its effect on the growth promotion of tomato seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Additionally, other beneficial features of the P.lilacinus isolate were evaluated via several tests: antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, production of secondary useful metabolites, and solubilization of vital micronutrients. Out of the tested pathogens, P.lilacinus exhibited the highest antifungal activity against a Cladosporium isolate (inhibition of 66.3%), followed by Rhizoctonia. solani (52.53%), and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (50.23%). Paecilomyceslilacinus 112 was able to secrete hydrolytic enzymes and siderophores, and solubilize zinc and phosphorus. In the tomato treatment, the application of PH obtained from fungal cultivation on a feather medium led to the following increases in plant growth parameters: 3.54-fold in plant biomass; 3.26-fold in plant height, 1.28-fold in plant diameter; 1.5-fold in the number of branches/plant; and 1.43-fold in the number of leaves/plant, as compared to water treatment. The application of this isolate can be of benefit to bioeconomy because keratin wastes are valorized and returned, in agriculture, contributing to renewable natural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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7 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Comparison between the Biofilm Desorption Abilities of T4 and MS2 Coliphages
by Tammy R. Johnson, Taylor E. Andrzejak and Himanshu S. Raje
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 5957; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12125957 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Biofilms are a collection of microorganisms that adhere to a surface where they continue to grow. Firmly established biofilms can be hazardous to human health. Chemical and biological as well as combination methods are being tested to control biofilms. The elucidation of the [...] Read more.
Biofilms are a collection of microorganisms that adhere to a surface where they continue to grow. Firmly established biofilms can be hazardous to human health. Chemical and biological as well as combination methods are being tested to control biofilms. The elucidation of the biofilm disruption capabilities of individual bacteriophages has received limited attention. Although the treatment of biofilms with a combination of bacteriophages is effective, the extent to which DNA and RNA coliphages individually desorb biofilms is not well understood. Here, we show that both T4 and MS2 coliphages desorbed natural biofilms. Individual incubations of the equivalent viral load of T4 and MS2 coliphages with natural biofilms resulted in similar desorption of these biofilms. We also note that the nutrient deprivation significantly reduced biofilm growth. However, the biofilm desorption upon nutrient deprivation was similar to that observed with both T4 and MS2 phages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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25 pages, 4435 KiB  
Article
Identification and Characterization of a New Microalga Dysmorphococcus globosus-HI from the Himalayan Region as a Potential Source of Natural Astaxanthin
by Wafaa F. Zohir, Vikas U. Kapase and Shashi Kumar
Biology 2022, 11(6), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060884 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3387
Abstract
Synthesized astaxanthin (ASX), stereoisomers of 3S,3′R, 3R,3′R, and 3S,3′S, have over 95% market share and have relatively poor antioxidant and bioactivity properties, with persistent issues in terms of biological functions, health benefits, and biosafety if compared to natural ASX. Bioprospecting of new microalgal [...] Read more.
Synthesized astaxanthin (ASX), stereoisomers of 3S,3′R, 3R,3′R, and 3S,3′S, have over 95% market share and have relatively poor antioxidant and bioactivity properties, with persistent issues in terms of biological functions, health benefits, and biosafety if compared to natural ASX. Bioprospecting of new microalgal strains could be vital for a new source of powerful antioxidant (ASX). In this study, a new algal strain was isolated from the Indian foothills of the Himalayas. Its identity was discerned by morphological and DNA barcode studies. It is a unicellular spheroidal cell-shaped alga with 100–200 μm diameter. The isolate has 93.4% similarity to Dysmorphococcus globosus species based on 18S-rDNA phylogenetic analysis and named as D. globosus-HI (HI stands for Himalayan India). Its growth and major cellular components (carotenoids, carbohydrates, protein, lipids, fatty acid profile, and ASX) were optimized using the seven different culture media. The highest biomass (1.14 g L−1) was observed in the MBBM medium, with a specific growth rate (0.087 day−1), division/day (0.125), and cellular yield (6.16 x 106 cells/mL). The highest carotenoids (1.56 mg g−1), lipids (32.5 mg L−1), and carbohydrates (135.62 mg L−1) were recorded in the 3N-BBM medium. The maximum ω3-FAs (17.78%), ω6-FAs (23.11%), and ω9-FAs (7.06%) were observed in MBBM, JW, and BG-11 medium respectively. The highest amount of antioxidant ASX was accumulated in the 3N-BBM medium (391 mg L−1). It is more than any other known algal species used in the production of natural ASX. The optimized biochemical studies on the D. globosus-HI strain should fulfill the increasing demand for natural ASX for commercial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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9 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
Use of Eisenia fetida as a Biological Risk Marker in a Qualitative Eco Assessment Test of a Romanian Watercourse
by Romeo T. Cristina, Mihai Baroga, Eugenia Dumitrescu, Florin Muselin, Alexandru O. Doma, Dan Manea and Ioan Banatean-Dunea
Biology 2022, 11(6), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060820 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The qualitative trials were conducted by exposing earthworms to diverse contaminants sources using standard earthworms’ avoidance tests (considered useful ab initio indicators). For two years, we observed the Jiu River pollution points. We observed soil traits in 15 sampling points from two neighboring [...] Read more.
The qualitative trials were conducted by exposing earthworms to diverse contaminants sources using standard earthworms’ avoidance tests (considered useful ab initio indicators). For two years, we observed the Jiu River pollution points. We observed soil traits in 15 sampling points from two neighboring Romanian counties where Jiu River flows, by evaluating the risk of pollution on Eisenia fetida earthworms. The ISO: 11268-2:2015 acute static test was used, following the ethological and bodily features of E. fetida earthworms for 14 days, and then the results obtained for clean soils vs. those presumed polluted were statistically analyzed. Results disclosed statistically significant values (p < 0.05) for the two-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons tests used for the soil samples thought to be polluted. The mortality percentages by location/replica/year/county find out a high statistical correlation documenting observations related to soil samples gathered from 10 m (p < 0.01) and 30 m (p < 0.001). Compared with the control, the statistical analysis of Relative Growth Rate (RGR) (p < 0.05) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) (p < 0.01) confirmed that, in the case of soil samples collected from 10 and 30 m from the Jiu River’s axis, the earthworms did not gain weight, qualitatively attesting the pollution suspicion/presence of chemical factors potentially pernicious for earthworms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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28 pages, 6541 KiB  
Article
Integrated Expression Analysis of Small RNA, Degradome and Microarray Reveals Complex Regulatory Action of miRNA during Prolonged Shade in Swarnaprabha Rice
by Madhusmita Panigrahy, Kishore Chandra Sekhar Panigrahi, Yugandhar Poli, Aman Ranga and Neelofar Majeed
Biology 2022, 11(5), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050798 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
Prolonged shade during the reproductive stage can result in significant yield losses in rice. For this study, we elucidated the role of microRNAs in prolonged-shade tolerance (~20 days of shade) in a shade-tolerant rice variety, Swarnaprabha (SP), in its reproductive stage using small [...] Read more.
Prolonged shade during the reproductive stage can result in significant yield losses in rice. For this study, we elucidated the role of microRNAs in prolonged-shade tolerance (~20 days of shade) in a shade-tolerant rice variety, Swarnaprabha (SP), in its reproductive stage using small RNA and degradome sequencing with expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR. This study demonstrates that miRNA (miR) regulation for shade-tolerance predominately comprises the deactivation of the miR itself, leading to the upregulation of their targets. Up- and downregulated differentially expressed miRs (DEms) presented drastic differences in the category of targets based on the function and pathway in which they are involved. Moreover, neutrally regulated and uniquely expressed miRs also contributed to the shade-tolerance response by altering the differential expression of their targets, probably due to their differential binding affinities. The upregulated DEms mostly targeted the cell wall, membrane, cytoskeleton, and cellulose synthesis-related transcripts, and the downregulated DEms targeted the transcripts of photosynthesis, carbon and sugar metabolism, energy metabolism, and amino acid and protein metabolism. We identified 16 miRNAs with 21 target pairs, whose actions may significantly contribute to the shade-tolerance phenotype and sustainable yield of SP. The most notable among these were found to be miR5493-OsSLAC and miR5144-OsLOG1 for enhanced panicle size, miR5493-OsBRITTLE1-1 for grain formation, miR6245-OsCsIF9 for decreased stem mechanical strength, miR5487-OsGns9 and miR168b-OsCP1 for better pollen development, and miR172b-OsbHLH153 for hyponasty under shade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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16 pages, 3244 KiB  
Article
Self-Aggregation and Denitrifying Strains Accelerate Granulation and Enhance Denitrification
by Shujia Zhang, Chunyan Wang, Yijia Xie, Rongfan Chen, Mengyuan Huang, Xiaoling Hu, Bin Wang, Wenbin Guo, Haiyun Huang, Rongrong Wang, Dao Zhou and Hongyu Wang
Water 2022, 14(9), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091482 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 1877
Abstract
A long start-up period is one of the main factors limiting the practical application of aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Bioaugmentation could be a good strategy to accelerate aerobic granulation. In this research, four denitrifying strains were isolated from mature AGS. Mycobacterium senegalense X3-1 [...] Read more.
A long start-up period is one of the main factors limiting the practical application of aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Bioaugmentation could be a good strategy to accelerate aerobic granulation. In this research, four denitrifying strains were isolated from mature AGS. Mycobacterium senegalense X3-1 exhibited the strongest self-aggregation ability and good denitrification ability. Ensifer adhaerens X1 showed the strongest denitrification ability but poor self-aggregation ability. Additionally, strain X3-1 demonstrated the highest extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) contents accompanied by relatively high N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) concentrations, which could illustrate its predominant aggregation ability—AHLs produced by bacteria regulate EPS secretion to accelerate cell aggregation. Strain X3-1 and X1 were chosen as inoculated bacterium to verify the effects of bioaugmentation on AGS granulation and denitrification. Granulation was achieved in the sequential batch reactors (SBRs) added strain X3-1 10 days earlier than the control group. The particle morphology and TIN removal rate of X3-1 were both superior to the latter. The introduction of strains reduced the richness and diversity of the microbial community, but the key functional bacteria, Candidatus_Competibacter, proliferates in the SBR inoculated with X3-1. Conclusively, it is suggested Mycobacterium senegalense X3-1 could be a prospective strain for enhancing AGS formation and denitrification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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27 pages, 4164 KiB  
Article
Optimization of White-Rot Fungi Mycelial Culture Components for Bioremediation of Pharmaceutical-Derived Pollutants
by Agata Sośnicka, Bartosz Kózka, Katerina Makarova, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Marzenna Klimaszewska and Jadwiga Turło
Water 2022, 14(9), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091374 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4363
Abstract
White-rot fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants, including pharmaceuticals, which are not efficiently removed from wastewater by conventional methods, e.g., the activated sludge method. However, the treatment of wastewater with the use of fungal cultures (mycoremediation) also has significant limitations: [...] Read more.
White-rot fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants, including pharmaceuticals, which are not efficiently removed from wastewater by conventional methods, e.g., the activated sludge method. However, the treatment of wastewater with the use of fungal cultures (mycoremediation) also has significant limitations: among others, the need to use appropriate, often-expensive culture media. We aimed to screen 18 media ingredients, including seven agrifood byproducts for Armillaria mellea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus in submerged cultures to select the low-cost medium optimal for biomass production and laccase activity. We screened nine mathematic models to describe the relation of fungal growth and the amount of the selected byproduct in media. Finally, we tested the ability of the strain with the highest mycelial growth and enzyme-producing ability in the selected medium to degrade eight drug contaminants. Three media variants composed of byproducts provided both efficient growth and laccase production: corn steep liquor + poplar, dried distillers grains with solubles + poplar and corn steep liquor 50%. Among the investigated growth models, the Han–Levenspiel equation described well the specific growth rate in function of the nominal substrate concentration in one-component media. Pleurotus ostreatus, the fungus with the highest ligninolytic enzyme activity, cultured in medium composed of corn steep liquor, removed six of eight drug contaminants with a removal degree of 20–90% in 48 h. The obtained data on the optimal culture media consisting of insoluble components provide initial data for upscaling the process and designing an appropriate type of bioreactor for the process of removing drug contaminants from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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22 pages, 4598 KiB  
Article
Diversity and Metabolism of Microbial Communities in a Hypersaline Lake along a Geochemical Gradient
by Alla V. Bryanskaya, Aleksandra A. Shipova, Alexei S. Rozanov, Oxana A. Kolpakova, Elena V. Lazareva, Yulia E. Uvarova, Vadim M. Efimov, Sergey M. Zhmodik, Oxana P. Taran, Tatyana N. Goryachkovskaya and Sergey E. Peltek
Biology 2022, 11(4), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11040605 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
In the south of western Siberia (Russia), there are many unique and unexplored soda, saline, and freshwater lakes. In this study, the results are presented on microbial diversity, its metabolic potential, and their relation with a set of geochemical parameters for a hypersaline [...] Read more.
In the south of western Siberia (Russia), there are many unique and unexplored soda, saline, and freshwater lakes. In this study, the results are presented on microbial diversity, its metabolic potential, and their relation with a set of geochemical parameters for a hypersaline lake ecosystem in the Novosibirsk region (Oblast). The metagenomic approach used in this work allowed us to determine the composition and structure of a floating microbial community, the upper layer of silt, and the strata of bottom sediments in a natural saline lake via two bioinformatic approaches, whose results are in good agreement with each other. In the floating microbial community and in the upper layers of the bottom sediment, bacteria of the Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria), Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla were found to predominate. The lower layers were dominated by Proteobacteria (mainly Deltaproteobacteria), Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, and Archaea. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed to investigate the metabolic potential of the microbial communities and other hypothetical roles of the microbial communities in the biogeochemical cycle. Relations between different taxa of microorganisms were identified, as was their potential role in biogeochemical transformations of C, N, and S in a comparative structural analysis that included various ecological niches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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15 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Efficient Inorganic/Organic Acid Leaching for the Remediation of Protogenetic Lead-Contaminated Soil
by Longheng Xiao, Xiang Cheng, Tianhua Zhang, Min Guo and Mei Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 3995; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12083995 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
In this study, inorganic acid and organic acid were used to leach and remediate superheavy, lead-contaminated protogenetic soil with a lead pollution level of 8043 mg∙kg−1. Among the compounds studied, HCl and citric acid (CA) presented the best effects, respectively. Under [...] Read more.
In this study, inorganic acid and organic acid were used to leach and remediate superheavy, lead-contaminated protogenetic soil with a lead pollution level of 8043 mg∙kg−1. Among the compounds studied, HCl and citric acid (CA) presented the best effects, respectively. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the remediation efficiency of 0.05 mol∙L−1 CA reached 53.6%, while that of 0.2 mol∙L−1 HCl was 70.3%. According to the lead morphology analysis, CA and HCl have certain removal ability to different fractions of lead. Among them, the removal rates of acid-soluble lead in soil by HCl and CA are 93% and 83%, and the soil mobility factor (MF) value decreased from 34.4% to 7.74 % and 12.3%, respectively, indicating that the harm of lead in soil was greatly reduced. Meanwhile, the leaching mechanisms of CA and HCl were studied. The pH values of the soil after leaching with HCl and CA were 3.88 and 6.97, respectively, showing that HCl leaching has caused serious acidification of the soil, while the process of CA leaching is more mild. CA has a relatively high remediation efficiency at such a low concentration, especially for the highly active acid-soluble fraction lead when maintaining the neutrality of the leached soil. Hence, CA is more suitable for the remediation of lead-contaminated soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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12 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Effects of Temperature on the Timeliness of eDNA/eRNA: A Case Study of Fenneropenaeus chinensis
by Tangyi Qian, Xiujuan Shan, Weiji Wang and Xianshi Jin
Water 2022, 14(7), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071155 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
Environmental DNA (eDNA) technology has been successfully applied to detect organisms in various aquatic ecosystems. However, eDNA has been proven to exist for a long time in environmental samples. The timeliness of eDNA detection results largely depends on the rate of molecular degradation. [...] Read more.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) technology has been successfully applied to detect organisms in various aquatic ecosystems. However, eDNA has been proven to exist for a long time in environmental samples. The timeliness of eDNA detection results largely depends on the rate of molecular degradation. Environmental RNA (eRNA) is considered an excellent complementary tool because most researchers believe that RNA degrades faster than DNA in vitro, while, to the best of our knowledge, the number of published articles related to eRNA is very limited. To address an important knowledge gap, this study focused on the response mechanism of eRNA degradation to water temperature change as compared with eDNA. Changes in the concentration of eDNA and eRNA of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene from Fenneropenaeuschinensis were detected at four temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C). The results showed that the degradation rate of eDNA increased with an increase in temperature. The degradation rate constants ranged from 0.011 to 0.486 h−1 and the degradation time ranged from 8 to 383 h for eDNA. The degradation rate of eRNA changed slightly with an increase in temperature. The degradation rate constants ranged from 0.190 to 0.379 h−1 and the degradation time ranged from 11 to 22 h for eRNA. eRNA showed better stability under temperature change and maintained a faster degradation rate at low temperatures. These results provide answers to the questions of whether eRNA and eDNA degradation rates are fast or slow. Furthermore, this study may suggest the potential superiority of eRNA over eDNA and promote further study of eRNA in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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13 pages, 2412 KiB  
Article
Study on the Algae Lysis Method of White Rot Fungi Algae Control System
by Jun Wang, Guoming Zeng, Fei Wang, Xin Huang, Yan Li, Dong Liang, Maolan Zhang and Da Sun
Water 2022, 14(6), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060903 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
At present, there are few studies on known bacterial species and even less on fungi in biological algae control technology. In this paper, the green eutrophic shallow water lake Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) was used as the research object, and white rot fungi, which [...] Read more.
At present, there are few studies on known bacterial species and even less on fungi in biological algae control technology. In this paper, the green eutrophic shallow water lake Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) was used as the research object, and white rot fungi, which has a high removal effect on water pollutants, algae and biological toxins, was used for algae control. The extent of the removal effect, physiological characteristics and the internal functional groups of the algae cells in the white rot fungi solution, the supernatant of the white rot fungi solution after centrifugation and the sterilized white rot fungi solution were investigated. The results showed that the best algae solubilization effect of the algae control system was achieved at 250 mg/L, with 8 mg/L of dissolved oxygen and a hydraulic retention time of 48 h. The average algae lysis rate was 85.48%, the average dehydrogenase activity reduction rate was 59.23%, the average soluble protein reduction rate was 65.16% and the average malondialdehyde content increased to 0.128 umol/L. After treatment with the white rot algae control system, the spatial structure of the Turpin cells was severely disrupted, and significant lysis occurred within the algal cells, forcing the release of intracellularly soluble substances, and reducing the dehydrogenase activity of the Turpin cells, thus inhibiting the growth activity of the algae cells. A further reduction in the soluble protein content reduces the nutrients required for the growth of Turpin, exacerbating the rate of reduction in the physiological metabolic activity of the Turpin cells and, ultimately, the inhibition or killing of the algal cells. The results of this research may provide theoretical guidance for the microbial control of water eutrophication; however, whether there will be secondary pollution after the algae dissolution of this process is worthy of further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Biotechnology (AEB))
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