Topic Editors

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
Whole-Genome Research Core Laboratory of Human Diseases, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 402, Taiwan

Advances in Genetics and Precision Medicine in Human Diseases

Abstract submission deadline
20 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
20 December 2024
Viewed by
33284

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment using genetics and genomics information. The majority of genetic variants are probably functionally neutral and can exert variant-specific effects on the regulation of gene expression. Such genetic variants are vital because they can be used as biomarkers that indicate the prognosis of potentially malignant and malignant lesions and may thus be involved in early intervention and diagnosis in patients at high risk. We are pleased to invite you to our Special Issue “Advances in Genetics and Precision Medicine in Human Diseases”. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Shun-Fa Yang
Dr. Shih-Chi Su
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • genetics polymorphism
  • gene variant
  • genome-wide association studies
  • precision medicine
  • pharmacogenetics
  • mutation
  • epigenetics
  • cancer
  • biomarkers
  • single nucleotide polymorphism

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Cancers
cancers
5.2 7.4 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Genes
genes
3.5 5.1 2010 16.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500 Submit
Journal of Personalized Medicine
jpm
3.4 2.6 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Pathogens
pathogens
3.7 5.1 2012 16.4 Days CHF 2700 Submit
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (31 papers)

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13 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Host-Pathogen Interactions in K. pneumoniae Urinary Tract Infections: Investigating Genetic Risk Factors in the Taiwanese Population
Diagnostics 2024, 14(4), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14040415 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) urinary tract infections pose a significant challenge in Taiwan. The significance of this issue arises because of the growing concerns about the antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae. Therefore, this study aimed to uncover potential genomic [...] Read more.
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) urinary tract infections pose a significant challenge in Taiwan. The significance of this issue arises because of the growing concerns about the antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae. Therefore, this study aimed to uncover potential genomic risk factors in Taiwanese patients with K. pneumoniae urinary tract infections through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Methods: Genotyping data are obtained from participants with a history of urinary tract infections enrolled at the Tri-Service General Hospital as part of the Taiwan Precision Medicine Initiative (TPMI). A case-control study employing GWAS is designed to detect potential susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with K. pneumoniae-related urinary tract infections. The associated genes are determined using a genome browser, and their expression profiles are validated via the GTEx database. The GO, Reactome, DisGeNET, and MalaCards databases are also consulted to determine further connections between biological functions, molecular pathways, and associated diseases between these genes. Results: The results identified 11 genetic variants with higher odds ratios compared to controls. These variants are implicated in processes such as adhesion, protein depolymerization, Ca2+-activated potassium channels, SUMOylation, and protein ubiquitination, which could potentially influence the host immune response. Conclusions: This study implies that certain risk variants may be linked to K. pneumoniae infections by affecting diverse molecular functions that can potentially impact host immunity. Additional research and follow-up studies are necessary to elucidate the influence of these risk variants on infectious diseases and develop targeted interventions for mitigating the spread of K. pneumoniae urinary tract infections. Full article
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13 pages, 2130 KiB  
Review
Advances in the Study of Common and Rare CFTR Complex Alleles Using Intestinal Organoids
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14020129 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Complex alleles (CAs) arise when two or more nucleotide variants are present on a single allele. CAs of the CFTR gene complicate the cystic fibrosis diagnosis process, classification of pathogenic variants, and determination of the clinical picture of the disease and increase the [...] Read more.
Complex alleles (CAs) arise when two or more nucleotide variants are present on a single allele. CAs of the CFTR gene complicate the cystic fibrosis diagnosis process, classification of pathogenic variants, and determination of the clinical picture of the disease and increase the need for additional studies to determine their pathogenicity and modulatory effect in response to targeted therapy. For several different populations around the world, characteristic CAs of the CFTR gene have been discovered, although in general the prevalence and pathogenicity of CAs have not been sufficiently studied. This review presents examples of using intestinal organoid models for assessments of the two most common and two rare CFTR CAs in individuals with cystic fibrosis in Russia. Full article
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31 pages, 1782 KiB  
Review
The Implication of a Polymorphism in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene in Homocysteine Metabolism and Related Civilisation Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010193 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme in the one-carbon cycle. This enzyme is essential for the metabolism of methionine, folate, and RNA, as well as for the production of proteins, DNA, and RNA. MTHFR catalyses the irreversible conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to [...] Read more.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme in the one-carbon cycle. This enzyme is essential for the metabolism of methionine, folate, and RNA, as well as for the production of proteins, DNA, and RNA. MTHFR catalyses the irreversible conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to its active form, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Numerous variants of the MTHFR gene have been recognised, among which the C677T variant is the most extensively studied. The C677T polymorphism, which results in the conversion of valine to alanine at codon 222, is associated with reduced activity and an increased thermolability of the enzyme. Impaired MTHFR efficiency is associated with increased levels of homocysteine, which can contribute to increased production of reactive oxygen species and the development of oxidative stress. Homocysteine is acknowledged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while chronic inflammation serves as the common underlying factor among these issues. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether there is an association between the C677T polymorphism and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity. There is substantial evidence supporting this association, although several studies have concluded that the polymorphism cannot be reliably used for prediction. This review examines the latest research on MTHFR polymorphisms and their correlation with cardiovascular disease, obesity, and epigenetic regulation. Full article
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19 pages, 5191 KiB  
Article
Ezetimibe Induces Paraptosis through Niemann–Pick C1-like 1 Inhibition of Mammalian-Target-of-Rapamycin Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Genes 2024, 15(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15010004 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Currently, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by its unfavorable prognosis and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Drug repositioning, an approach aimed at identifying novel therapeutic applications for existing drugs, presents a cost-effective strategy for developing new anticancer agents. We explored the anticancer [...] Read more.
Currently, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by its unfavorable prognosis and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Drug repositioning, an approach aimed at identifying novel therapeutic applications for existing drugs, presents a cost-effective strategy for developing new anticancer agents. We explored the anticancer properties of Ezetimibe, a widely used oral lipid-lowering drug, in the context of HCC. Our findings demonstrate that Ezetimibe effectively suppresses HCC cell proliferation through paraptosis, an apoptotic-independent cell death pathway. The examination of HCC cells lines treated with Ezetimibe using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed cytoplasmic vacuolation in the perinuclear region. Notably, the nuclear membrane remained intact in both Ezetimibe-treated and untreated HCC cell lines. Probe staining assays confirmed that the cytoplasmic vacuoles originated from dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartments rather than mitochondria. Furthermore, a dose-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in Ezetimibe-treated HCC cell lines. Co-treatment with the general antioxidant NAC attenuated vacuolation and improved cell viability in Ezetimibe-treated HCC cells. Moreover, Ezetimibe induced paraptosis through proteasome activity inhibition and initiation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in HCC cell lines. In our in vivo experiment, Ezetimibe significantly impeded the growth of HCC tumors. Furthermore, when combined with Sorafenib, Ezetimibe exhibited a synergistic antitumor effect on HCC cell lines. Mechanistically, Ezetimibe induced paraptosis by targeting NPC1L1 to inhibit the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, our study highlights the potential of Ezetimibe as an anticancer agent by triggering paraptosis in HCC cells. Full article
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14 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
Molecular Analysis of Dihydropteroate Synthase Gene Mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii Isolates among Bulgarian Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316927 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised people. The widespread use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for the treatment and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections (including PCP) has led to an increased selection of TMP-SMZ-resistant microorganisms. Sulfa/sulfone resistance has [...] Read more.
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised people. The widespread use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for the treatment and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections (including PCP) has led to an increased selection of TMP-SMZ-resistant microorganisms. Sulfa/sulfone resistance has been demonstrated to result from specific point mutations in the DHPS gene. This study aims to investigate the presence of DHPS gene mutations among P. jirovecii isolates from Bulgarian patients with PCP. A total of 326 patients were examined via real-time PCR targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene and further at the DHPS locus. P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 50 (15.34%) specimens. A 370 bp DHPS locus fragment was successfully amplified in 21 samples from 19 PCP-positive patients, which was then purified, sequenced, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Based on the sequencing analysis, all (n = 21) P. jirovecii isolates showed DHPS genotype 1 (the wild type, with the nucleotide sequence ACA CGG CCT at codons 55, 56, and 57, respectively). In conclusion, infections caused by P. jirovecii mutants potentially resistant to sulfonamides are still rare events in Bulgaria. DHPS genotype 1 at codons 55 and 57 is the predominant P. jirovecii strain in the country. Full article
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31 pages, 6839 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Extremely Damaging IRAK4 Variants and Their Potential Implications for IRAK4 Inhibitor Efficacy
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(12), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13121648 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Interleukin-1-receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) possesses a crucial function in the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, and the dysfunction of this molecule could lead to various infectious and immune-related diseases in addition to cancers. IRAK4 genetic variants have been linked to various types of [...] Read more.
Interleukin-1-receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) possesses a crucial function in the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, and the dysfunction of this molecule could lead to various infectious and immune-related diseases in addition to cancers. IRAK4 genetic variants have been linked to various types of diseases. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive analysis to recognize the missense variants with the most damaging impacts on IRAK4 with the employment of diverse bioinformatics tools to study single-nucleotide polymorphisms’ effects on function, stability, secondary structures, and 3D structure. The residues’ location on the protein domain and their conservation status were investigated as well. Moreover, docking tools along with structural biology were engaged in analyzing the SNPs’ effects on one of the developed IRAK4 inhibitors. By analyzing IRAK4 gene SNPs, the analysis distinguished ten variants as the most detrimental missense variants. All variants were situated in highly conserved positions on an important protein domain. L318S and L318F mutations were linked to changes in IRAK4 secondary structures. Eight SNPs were revealed to have a decreasing effect on the stability of IRAK4 via both I-Mutant 2.0 and Mu-Pro tools, while Mu-Pro tool identified a decreasing effect for the G198E SNP. In addition, detrimental effects on the 3D structure of IRAK4 were also discovered for the selected variants. Molecular modeling studies highlighted the detrimental impact of these identified SNP mutant residues on the druggability of the IRAK4 ATP-binding site towards the known target inhibitor, HG-12-6, as compared to the native protein. The loss of important ligand residue-wise contacts, altered protein global flexibility, increased steric clashes, and even electronic penalties at the ligand–binding site interfaces were all suggested to be associated with SNP models for hampering the HG-12-6 affinity towards IRAK4 target protein. This given model lays the foundation for the better prediction of various disorders relevant to IRAK4 malfunction and sheds light on the impact of deleterious IRAK4 variants on IRAK4 inhibitor efficacy. Full article
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19 pages, 372 KiB  
Review
Pharmacogenomics of Cardiovascular Drugs for Atherothrombotic, Thromboembolic and Atherosclerotic Risk
Genes 2023, 14(11), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14112057 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Purpose of Review: Advances in pharmacogenomics have paved the way for personalized medicine. Cardiovascular diseases still represent the leading cause of mortality in the world. The aim of this review is to summarize the background, rationale, and evidence of pharmacogenomics in cardiovascular medicine, [...] Read more.
Purpose of Review: Advances in pharmacogenomics have paved the way for personalized medicine. Cardiovascular diseases still represent the leading cause of mortality in the world. The aim of this review is to summarize the background, rationale, and evidence of pharmacogenomics in cardiovascular medicine, in particular, the use of antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, and drugs used for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Recent findings: Randomized clinical trials have supported the role of a genotype-guided approach for antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Numerous studies demonstrate how the risk of ineffectiveness of new oral anticoagulants and vitamin K anticoagulants is linked to various genetic polymorphisms. Furthermore, there is growing evidence to support the association of some genetic variants and poor adherence to statin therapy, for example, due to the appearance of muscular symptoms. There is evidence for resistance to some drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia, such as anti-PCSK9. Summary: Pharmacogenomics has the potential to improve patient care by providing the right drug to the right patient and could guide the identification of new drug therapies for cardiovascular disease. This is very important in cardiovascular diseases, which have high morbidity and mortality. The improvement in therapy could be reflected in the reduction of healthcare costs and patient mortality. Full article
13 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies of GJB2 Variants and Features of Hearing Phenotypes in the Chinese Population of the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort
Genes 2023, 14(11), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14112007 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to describe the distribution of the genotype and allele frequencies of GJB2 variants in the Chinese population of the Dongfeng Tongji cohort and to analyze the features of the hearing phenotype. Methods: We used data from 9910 participants in [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to describe the distribution of the genotype and allele frequencies of GJB2 variants in the Chinese population of the Dongfeng Tongji cohort and to analyze the features of the hearing phenotype. Methods: We used data from 9910 participants in the Dongfeng Tongji cohort in 2013 and selected nine GJB2 variants. Pure tone audiometry was employed to measure hearing. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed via chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test. Results: Of the 9910 participants, 5742 had hearing loss. The genotype frequency of the GJB2 variant c.109G>A was statistically significantly distributed between the normal and impaired hearing groups, but not for the variant c.235delC. A higher frequency of the c.109G>A homozygous genotype was found in the hearing loss group (0.5%) than in the normal hearing group (0.1%). Patients with c.109G>A and c.235delC homozygous mutations exhibited varying degrees of hearing loss, mainly presenting sloping and flat audiogram shapes. Conclusions: A significant difference was found in the genotype frequency of the GJB2 variant c.109G>A between the case and control groups, but not in that of the variant c.235delC. Different degrees of hearing loss and various audiogram shapes were observed in patients with c.109G>A and c.235delC homozygous mutations. Full article
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16 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
Impact of Genetic Variations on Thromboembolic Risk in Saudis with Sickle Cell Disease
Genes 2023, 14(10), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14101919 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a Mendelian disease characterized by multigenic phenotypes. Previous reports indicated a higher rate of thromboembolic events (TEEs) in SCD patients. A number of candidate polymorphisms in certain genes (e.g., FVL, PRT, and MTHFR) were previously reported as [...] Read more.
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a Mendelian disease characterized by multigenic phenotypes. Previous reports indicated a higher rate of thromboembolic events (TEEs) in SCD patients. A number of candidate polymorphisms in certain genes (e.g., FVL, PRT, and MTHFR) were previously reported as risk factors for TEEs in different clinical conditions. This study aimed to genotype these genes and other loci predicted to underlie TEEs in SCD patients. Methodology: A multi-center genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving Saudi SCD adult patients with a history of TEEs (n = 65) and control patients without TEE history (n = 285) was performed. Genotyping used the 10× Affymetrix Axiom array, which includes 683,030 markers. Fisher’s exact test was used to generate p-values of TEE associations with each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The haplotype analysis software tool version 1.05, designed by the University of Göttingen, Germany, was used to identify the common inherited haplotypes. Results: No association was identified between the targeted single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1801133 in MTHFR and TEEs in SCD (p = 0.79). The allele frequency of rs6025 in FVL and rs1799963 in PRT in our cohort was extremely low (<0.01); thus, both variants were excluded from the analysis as no meaningful comparison was possible. In contrast, the GWAS analysis showed novel genome-wide associations (p < 5 × 10−8) with seven signals; five of them were located on Chr 11 (rs35390334, rs331532, rs317777, rs147062602, and rs372091), one SNP on Chr 20 (rs139341092), and another on Chr 9 (rs76076035). The other 34 SNPs located on known genes were also detected at a signal threshold of p < 5 × 10−6. Seven of the identified variants are located in olfactory receptor family 51 genes (OR51B5, OR51V1, OR51A1P, and OR51E2), and five variants were related to family 52 genes (OR52A5, OR52K1, OR52K2, and OR52T1P). The previously reported association between rs5006884-A in OR51B5 and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels was confirmed in our study, which showed significantly lower levels of HbF (p = 0.002) and less allele frequency (p = 0.003) in the TEE cases than in the controls. The assessment of the haplotype inheritance pattern involved the top ten significant markers with no LD (rs353988334, rs317777, rs14788626882, rs49188823, rs139349992, rs76076035, rs73395847, rs1368823, rs8888834548, and rs1455957). A haplotype analysis revealed significant associations between two haplotypes (a risk, TT-AA-del-AA-ins-CT-TT-CC-CC-AA, and a reverse protective, CC-GG-ins-GG-del-TT-CC-TT-GG-GG) and TEEs in SCD (p = 0.024, OR = 6.16, CI = 1.34–28.24, and p = 0.019, OR = 0.33, CI = 0.13–0.85, respectively). Conclusions: Seven markers showed novel genome-wide associations; two of them were exonic variants (rs317777 in OLFM5P and rs147062602 in OR51B5), and less significant associations (p < 5 × 10−6) were identified for 34 other variants in known genes with TEEs in SCD. Moreover, two 10-SNP common haplotypes were determined with contradictory effects. Further replication of these findings is needed. Full article
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14 pages, 7595 KiB  
Article
Bioengineered Hybrid Rep 2/6 Gene Improves Encapsulation of a Single-Stranded Expression Cassette into AAV6 Vectors
Genes 2023, 14(10), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14101866 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
The production of clinical-grade recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene therapy trials remains a major hurdle in the further advancement of the gene therapy field. During the past decades, AAV research has been predominantly focused on the development of new capsid modifications, [...] Read more.
The production of clinical-grade recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene therapy trials remains a major hurdle in the further advancement of the gene therapy field. During the past decades, AAV research has been predominantly focused on the development of new capsid modifications, vector-associated immunogenicity, and the scale-up vector production. However, limited studies have examined the possibility to manipulate non-structural components of AAV such as the Rep genes. Historically, naturally isolated, or recombinant library-derived AAV capsids have been produced using the AAV serotype 2 Rep gene to package ITR2-flanked vector genomes. In the current study, we mutated four variable amino acids in the conservative part of the binding domain in AAV serotype 6 Rep to generate a Rep2/6 hybrid gene. This newly generated Rep2/6 hybrid had improved packaging ability over wild-type Rep6. AAV vectors produced with Rep2/6 exhibited similar in vivo activity as standard AAV6 vectors. Furthermore, we show that this Rep2/6 hybrid also improves full/empty capsid ratios, suggesting that Rep bioengineering can be used to improve the ratio of fully encapsulated AAV vectors during upstream manufacturing processes. Full article
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10 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Clinical Factors Predicting Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and Type 4 in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors
Genes 2023, 14(9), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14091782 - 10 Sep 2023
Viewed by 925
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive role of specific clinical factors for the diagnosis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type-1 (MEN1) and type-4 (MEN4) in patients with an initial diagnosis of gastrointestinal, bronchial, or thymic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Methods: Patients [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive role of specific clinical factors for the diagnosis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type-1 (MEN1) and type-4 (MEN4) in patients with an initial diagnosis of gastrointestinal, bronchial, or thymic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Methods: Patients referred to the NET Unit between June 2021 and December 2022 with a diagnosis of NET and at least one clinical criterion of suspicion for MEN1 and MEN4 underwent molecular analysis of the MEN1 and CDKN1B genes. Phenotypic criteria were: (1) age ≤ 40 years; (2) NET multifocality; (3) MEN1/4-associated manifestations other than NETs; and (4) endocrine syndrome related to NETs or pituitary/adrenal tumors. Results: A total of 22 patients were studied. In 18 patients (81.8%), the first-level genetic test was negative (Group A), while four patients (25%) were positive for MEN1 (Group B). No patient was positive for MEN4. In Group A, 10 cases had only one clinical criterion, and three patients met three criteria. In Group B, three patients had three criteria, and one met all criteria. Conclusion: These preliminary data show that a diagnosis of NET in patients with a negative family history is suggestive of MEN1 in the presence of ≥three positive phenotypic criteria, including early age, multifocality, multiple MEN-associated manifestations, and endocrine syndromes. This indication may allow optimization of the diagnosis of MEN in patients with NET. Full article
16 pages, 1451 KiB  
Article
Expanding the Clinical Utility of Targeted RNA Sequencing Panels beyond Gene Fusions to Complex, Intragenic Structural Rearrangements
Cancers 2023, 15(17), 4394; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15174394 - 02 Sep 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Gene fusions are a form of structural rearrangement well established as driver events in pediatric and adult cancers. The identification of such events holds clinical significance in the refinement, prognostication, and provision of treatment in cancer. Structural rearrangements also extend beyond fusions to [...] Read more.
Gene fusions are a form of structural rearrangement well established as driver events in pediatric and adult cancers. The identification of such events holds clinical significance in the refinement, prognostication, and provision of treatment in cancer. Structural rearrangements also extend beyond fusions to include intragenic rearrangements, such as internal tandem duplications (ITDs) or exon-level deletions. These intragenic events have been increasingly implicated as cancer-promoting events. However, the detection of intragenic rearrangements may be challenging to resolve bioinformatically with short-read sequencing technologies and therefore may not be routinely assessed in panel-based testing. Within an academic clinical laboratory, over three years, a total of 608 disease-involved samples (522 hematologic malignancy, 86 solid tumors) underwent clinical testing using Anchored Multiplex PCR (AMP)-based RNA sequencing. Hematologic malignancies were evaluated using a custom Pan-Heme 154 gene panel, while solid tumors were assessed using a custom Pan-Solid 115 gene panel. Gene fusions, ITDs, and intragenic deletions were assessed for diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic significance. When considering gene fusions alone, we report an overall diagnostic yield of 36% (37% hematologic malignancy, 41% solid tumors). When including intragenic structural rearrangements, the overall diagnostic yield increased to 48% (48% hematologic malignancy, 45% solid tumor). We demonstrate the clinical utility of reporting structural rearrangements, including gene fusions and intragenic structural rearrangements, using an AMP-based RNA sequencing panel. Full article
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15 pages, 3615 KiB  
Article
Novel HSPG2 Gene Mutation Causing Schwartz–Jampel Syndrome in a Moroccan Family: A Literature Review
Genes 2023, 14(9), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14091753 - 02 Sep 2023
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Schwartz–Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1) is a rare autosomal recessive musculoskeletal disorder caused by various mutations in the HSPG2 gene encoding the protein perlecan, a major component of basement membranes. We report a novel splice mutation HSPG2(NM_005529.7):c.3888 + 1G > A and [...] Read more.
Schwartz–Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1) is a rare autosomal recessive musculoskeletal disorder caused by various mutations in the HSPG2 gene encoding the protein perlecan, a major component of basement membranes. We report a novel splice mutation HSPG2(NM_005529.7):c.3888 + 1G > A and a known point mutation HSPG2(NM_005529.7):c.8464G > A, leading to the skipping of exon 31 and 64 in mRNA, respectively, in a Moroccan child with clinical features suggestive of SJS1 and carrying two compound heterozygous mutations in the HSPG2 gene detected by next-generation sequencing. Both parents harboured one mutation. Real-time and immunostaining analysis revealed down-regulation of the HSPG2 gene and a mild reduction in the protein in the muscle, respectively. We reviewed all genetically characterized SJS1 cases reported in literature, confirming the clinical hallmarks and unspecific instrumental data in our case. The genotype–phenotype correlation is very challenging in SJS1. Therapy is mainly focused on symptom management and several drugs have been administered with different efficacy.Here, we report the second case with spontaneous improvement. Full article
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11 pages, 1263 KiB  
Article
Gene Polymorphisms of Epithelial Cell-Derived Alarmins and Their Effects on Protein Levels and Disease Severity in Patients with COVID-19
Genes 2023, 14(9), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14091721 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Background: The immune response in COVID-19 is characterized by the release of alarmin cytokines, which play crucial roles in immune activation and inflammation. The interplay between these cytokines and genetic variations may influence disease severity and outcomes, while sex differences might further contribute [...] Read more.
Background: The immune response in COVID-19 is characterized by the release of alarmin cytokines, which play crucial roles in immune activation and inflammation. The interplay between these cytokines and genetic variations may influence disease severity and outcomes, while sex differences might further contribute to variations in the immune response. Methods: We measured the levels of alarmin cytokines in a cohort of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients using a sensitive Meso Scale Discovery system. Additionally, we conducted an SNP analysis to identify genetic variations within the IL-33 and TSLP genes. The association between these genetic variations, cytokine production, and COVID-19 severity was examined. Results: Our findings revealed elevated levels of IL-33 and IL-25 in COVID-19-positive patients compared to COVID-19-negative patients (p < 0.05), indicating their potential as therapeutic targets for disease modulation. Moreover, a minor allele within the IL-33 gene (rs3939286) was found to be associated with a protective effect against severe COVID-19 (p < 0.05), and minor alleles of the TSLP gene (rs2289276 and rs13806933) were found to significantly reduce TSLP protein levels in serum (p < 0.05). Sex-specific effects of TSLP and IL-33 SNPs were observed, suggesting a potential influence of sex hormones and genetic variations on the regulation of cytokine production. Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of alarmin cytokines and genetic variations in COVID-19 severity, providing valuable insights into personalized treatment approaches. Our results suggest that targeting alarmin cytokines may offer potential therapeutic benefits in managing COVID-19. Furthermore, the sex-specific effects of genetic variations emphasize the need to consider individual genetic profiles and sex differences when designing targeted interventions. Full article
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14 pages, 990 KiB  
Article
The Prediction Analysis of Microarray 50 (PAM50) Gene Expression Classifier Utilized in Indeterminate-Risk Breast Cancer Patients in Hungary: A Consecutive 5-Year Experience
Genes 2023, 14(9), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14091708 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Background: Breast cancer has been categorized into molecular subtypes using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) since the early 2000s. However, recent research suggests that gene expression testing, specifically Prosigna® Prediction Analysis of Microarray 50 (PAM50), provides more accurate [...] Read more.
Background: Breast cancer has been categorized into molecular subtypes using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) since the early 2000s. However, recent research suggests that gene expression testing, specifically Prosigna® Prediction Analysis of Microarray 50 (PAM50), provides more accurate classification methods. In this retrospective study, we compared the results of IHC/FISH and PAM50 testing. We also examined the impact of various PAM50 parameters on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: We analyzed 42 unilateral breast cancer samples, with 18 classified as luminal A, 10 as luminal B, 8 as Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, and 6 as basal-like using PAM50. Interestingly, 17 out of the 42 samples (40.47%) showed discordant results between histopathological assessment and the PAM50 classifier. While routine IHC/FISH resulted in classification differences for a quarter to a third of samples within each subtype, all basal-like tumors were misclassified. Hormone receptor-positive tumors (hazard rate: 8.7803; p = 0.0085) and patients who had higher 10-year recurrence risk scores (hazard rate: 1.0539; p = 0.0201) had shorter OS and PFS. Conclusions: Our study supports the existing understanding of molecular subtypes in breast cancer and emphasizes the overlap between clinical characteristics and molecular subtyping. These findings underscore the value of gene expression profiling, such as PAM50, in improving treatment decisions for breast cancer patients. Full article
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13 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Case Series of 11 CDH1 Families (47 Carriers) Including Incidental Findings, Signet Ring Cell Colon Cancer and Review of the Literature
Genes 2023, 14(9), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14091677 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Germline pathogenic variants in E-cadherin (CDH1) confer high risk of developing lobular breast cancer and diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). The cumulative risk of DGC in CDH1 carriers has been recently reassessed (from 40–83% by age 80 to 25–42%) and varies according [...] Read more.
Germline pathogenic variants in E-cadherin (CDH1) confer high risk of developing lobular breast cancer and diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). The cumulative risk of DGC in CDH1 carriers has been recently reassessed (from 40–83% by age 80 to 25–42%) and varies according to the presence and number of gastric cancers in the family. As there is no accurate estimate of the risk of gastric cancer in families without DGC, the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium recommendation is not straightforward: prophylactic gastrectomy or endoscopic surveillance should be proposed for these families. The inclusion of CDH1 in constitutional gene panels for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and for gastrointestinal cancers, recommended by the French Genetic and Cancer Consortium in 2018 and 2020, leads to the identification of families with lobular cancer without DGC but also to incidental findings of pathogenic variants. Management of CDH1 carriers in case of incidental findings is complex and causes dilemmas for both patients and providers. We report eleven families (47 CDH1 carriers) from our oncogenetic department specialized in breast and ovarian cancer, including four incidental findings. We confirmed that six families did not have diffuse gastric cancer in their medical records. We discuss the management of the risk of diffuse gastric cancer in Hereditary Lobular Breast Cancer (HLBC) through a family of 11 CDH1 carriers where foci were identified in endoscopic surveillance. We also report a new colon signet ring cancer case in a CDH1 carrier, a rare aggressive cancer included in CDH1-related malignancies. Full article
14 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Identification of Novel Intronic SNPs in Transporter Genes Associated with Metformin Side Effects
Genes 2023, 14(8), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14081609 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Metformin is a widely used and effective medication in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to the occurrence of metformin side effects. The aim of the present study was to identify intronic [...] Read more.
Metformin is a widely used and effective medication in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to the occurrence of metformin side effects. The aim of the present study was to identify intronic genetic variants modifying the occurrence of metformin side effects and to replicate them in individuals with T2DM and in women with PCOS. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina Next Seq) of 115 SNPs in a discovery cohort of 120 metformin users and conducted a systematic literature review. Selected SNPs were analysed in two independent cohorts of individuals with either T2DM or PCOS, using 5′-3′exonucleaseassay. A total of 14 SNPs in the organic cation transporters (OCTs) showed associations with side effects in an unadjusted binary logistic regression model, with eight SNPs remaining significantly associated after appropriate adjustment in the discovery cohort. Five SNPs were confirmed in a combined analysis of both replication cohorts but showed different association patterns in subgroup analyses. In an unweighted polygenic risk score (PRS), the risk for metformin side effects increased with the number of risk alleles. Intronic SNPs in the OCT cluster contribute to the development of metformin side effects in individuals with T2DM and in women with PCOS and are therefore of interest for personalized therapy options. Full article
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14 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Genetic Association between Inflammatory-Related Polymorphism in STAT3, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and Idiopathic Recurrent Implantation Failure
Genes 2023, 14(8), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14081588 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is defined as a failure to achieve pregnancy after multiple embryo transfers. Implantation is closely related to inflammatory gradients, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a key role in maternal and trophoblast inflammation during implantation. [...] Read more.
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is defined as a failure to achieve pregnancy after multiple embryo transfers. Implantation is closely related to inflammatory gradients, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a key role in maternal and trophoblast inflammation during implantation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) interacts with cytokines and plays a critical role in implantation through involvement in the inflammation of the embryo and placenta. Therefore, we investigated 151 RIF patients and 321 healthy controls in Korea and analyzed the association between the polymorphisms (STAT3 rs1053004, IL-1β rs16944, IL-6 rs1800796, and TNF-α rs1800629, 1800630) and RIF prevalence. In this paper, we identified that STAT3 rs1053004 (AG, adjusted odds rate [AOR] = 0.623; p = 0.027; GG, AOR = 0.513; p = 0.043; Dominant, AOR = 0.601, p = 0.011), IL-6 rs1800796 (GG, AOR = 2.472; p = 0.032; Recessive, AOR = 2.374, p = 0.037), and TNF-α rs1800629 (GA, AOR = 2.127, p = 0.010, Dominant, AOR = 2.198, p = 0.007) have a significant association with RIF prevalence. This study is the first to investigate the association of each polymorphism with RIF prevalence in Korea and to compare their effect based on their function on inflammation. Full article
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20 pages, 2964 KiB  
Article
Interplay of Impaired Cellular Bioenergetics and Autophagy in PMM2-CDG
Genes 2023, 14(8), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14081585 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) and mitochondrial disorders are multisystem disorders with overlapping symptomatology. Pathogenic variants in the PMM2 gene lead to abnormal N-linked glycosylation. This disruption in glycosylation can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, contributing to the disease pathology. Although impaired mitochondrial dysfunction [...] Read more.
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) and mitochondrial disorders are multisystem disorders with overlapping symptomatology. Pathogenic variants in the PMM2 gene lead to abnormal N-linked glycosylation. This disruption in glycosylation can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, contributing to the disease pathology. Although impaired mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in some CDG, cellular bioenergetics has never been evaluated in detail in PMM2-CDG. This prompted us to evaluate mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy in vitro in PMM2 patient-derived fibroblast lines of differing genotypes from our natural history study. We found secondary mitochondrial dysfunction in PMM2-CDG. This dysfunction was evidenced by decreased mitochondrial maximal and ATP-linked respiration, as well as decreased complex I function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Our study also revealed altered autophagy in PMM2-CDG patient-derived fibroblast lines. This was marked by an increased abundance of the autophagosome marker LC3-II. Additionally, changes in the abundance and glycosylation of proteins in the autophagy and mitophagy pathways further indicated dysregulation of these cellular processes. Interestingly, serum sorbitol levels (a biomarker of disease severity) and the CDG severity score showed an inverse correlation with the abundance of the autophagosome marker LC3-II. This suggests that autophagy may act as a modulator of biochemical and clinical markers of disease severity in PMM2-CDG. Overall, our research sheds light on the complex interplay between glycosylation, mitochondrial function, and autophagy/mitophagy in PMM2-CDG. Manipulating mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in autophagy/mitophagy pathways could offer therapeutic benefits when combined with existing treatments for PMM2-CDG. Full article
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11 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Examination of Factors Affecting Site-Directed RNA Editing by the MS2-ADAR1 Deaminase System
Genes 2023, 14(8), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14081584 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) have double-stranded RNA binding domains and a deaminase domain (DD). We used the MS2 system and specific guide RNAs to direct ADAR1-DD to target adenosines in the mRNA encoding-enhanced green fluorescence protein. Using this system in transfected [...] Read more.
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) have double-stranded RNA binding domains and a deaminase domain (DD). We used the MS2 system and specific guide RNAs to direct ADAR1-DD to target adenosines in the mRNA encoding-enhanced green fluorescence protein. Using this system in transfected HEK-293 cells, we evaluated the effects of changing the length and position of the guide RNA on the efficiency of conversion of amber (TAG) and ochre (TAA) stop codons to tryptophan (TGG) in the target. Guide RNAs of 19, 21 and 23 nt were positioned upstream and downstream of the MS2-RNA, providing a total of six guide RNAs. The upstream guide RNAs were more functionally effective than the downstream guide RNAs, with the following hierarchy of efficiency: 21 nt > 23 nt > 19 nt. The highest editing efficiency was 16.6%. Off-target editing was not detected in the guide RNA complementary region but was detected 50 nt downstream of the target. The editing efficiency was proportional to the amount of transfected deaminase but inversely proportional to the amount of the transfected guide RNA. Our results suggest that specific RNA editing requires precise optimization of the ratio of enzyme, guide RNA, and target RNA. Full article
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14 pages, 2059 KiB  
Article
Impact of High-to-Moderate Penetrance Genes on Genetic Testing: Looking over Breast Cancer
Genes 2023, 14(8), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14081530 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Since the discovery of the highly penetrant susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, many other predisposition genes that confer a moderate risk of BC have [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Since the discovery of the highly penetrant susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, many other predisposition genes that confer a moderate risk of BC have been identified. Advances in multigene panel testing have allowed the simultaneous sequencing of BRCA1/2 with these genes in a cost-effective way. Germline DNA from 521 cases with BC fulfilling diagnostic criteria for hereditary BC were screened with multigene NGS testing. Pathogenic (PVs) and likely pathogenic (LPVs) variants in moderate penetrance genes were identified in 15 out of 521 patients (2.9%), including 2 missense, 7 non-sense, 1 indel, and 3 splice variants, as well as two different exon deletions, as follows: ATM (n = 4), CHEK2 (n = 5), PALB2 (n = 2), RAD51C (n = 1), and RAD51D (n = 3). Moreover, the segregation analysis of PVs and LPVs into first-degree relatives allowed the detection of CHEK2 variant carriers diagnosed with in situ melanoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), respectively. Extended testing beyond BRCA1/2 identified PVs and LPVs in a further 2.9% of BC patients. In conclusion, panel testing yields more accurate genetic information for appropriate counselling, risk management, and preventive options than assessing BRCA1/2 alone. Full article
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10 pages, 2170 KiB  
Article
Rhabdomyosarcoma Associated with Core Myopathy/Malignant Hyperthermia: Combined Effect of Germline Variants in RYR1 and ASPSCR1 May Play a Role
Genes 2023, 14(7), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14071360 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Rhabdomyosarcomas have been described in association with thyroid disease, dermatomyositis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and in muscular dystrophy models but not in patients with ryanodine receptor-1 gene (RYR1) pathogenic variants. We described here an 18-year-old male who reported a cervical nodule. Magnetic [...] Read more.
Rhabdomyosarcomas have been described in association with thyroid disease, dermatomyositis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and in muscular dystrophy models but not in patients with ryanodine receptor-1 gene (RYR1) pathogenic variants. We described here an 18-year-old male who reported a cervical nodule. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the ethmoidal sinus corresponding to rhabdomyosarcoma. As his father died from malignant hyperthermia (MH), an in vitro contracture test was conducted and was positive for MH susceptibility. Muscle histopathological analysis in the biopsy showed the presence of cores. Molecular analysis using NGS sequencing identified germline variants in the RYR1 and ASPSCR1 (alveolar soft part sarcoma) genes. This report expands the spectrum of diseases associated with rhabdomyosarcomas and a possible differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors in patients with RYR1 variants. Full article
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12 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
The Distribution of the Genotypes of ABCB1 and CES1 Polymorphisms in Kazakhstani Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with DOAC
Genes 2023, 14(6), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14061192 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Nowadays, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are the first-line anticoagulant strategy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). We aimed to identify the influence of polymorphisms of the genes encoding P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) on the variability of [...] Read more.
Nowadays, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are the first-line anticoagulant strategy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). We aimed to identify the influence of polymorphisms of the genes encoding P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) on the variability of plasma concentrations of DOACs in Kazakhstani patients with NVAF. We analyzed polymorphisms rs4148738, rs1045642, rs2032582 and rs1128503 in ABCB1 and rs8192935, rs2244613 and rs71647871 CES1 genes and measured the plasma concentrations of dabigatran/apixaban and biochemical parameters in 150 Kazakhstani NVAF patients. Polymorphism rs8192935 in the CES1 gene (p = 0.04), BMI (p = 0.01) and APTT level (p = 0.01) were statistically significant independent factors of trough plasma concentration of dabigatran. In contrast, polymorphisms rs4148738, rs1045642, rs2032582 and rs1128503 in ABCB1 and rs8192935, rs2244613 and rs71647871 CES1 genes did not show significant influence on plasma concentrations of dabigatran/apixaban drugs (p > 0.05). Patients with GG genotype (138.8 ± 100.1 ng/mL) had higher peak plasma concentration of dabigatran than with AA genotype (100.9 ± 59.6 ng/mL) and AG genotype (98.7 ± 72.3 ng/mL) (Kruskal–Wallis test, p = 0.25). Thus, CES1 rs8192935 is significantly associated with plasma concentrations of dabigatran in Kazakhstani NVAF patients (p < 0.05). The level of the plasma concentration shows that biotransformation of the dabigatran processed faster in individual carriers of GG genotype rs8192935 in the CES1 gene than with AA genotype. Full article
11 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
The Use of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Lead to Similar Rate of Following Open Angle Glaucoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Cancers 2023, 15(11), 2915; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15112915 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
This study aimed to survey the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on the development of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in prostate cancer using the data from national health insurance research database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and patients [...] Read more.
This study aimed to survey the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on the development of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in prostate cancer using the data from national health insurance research database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and patients were regarded as prostate cancer with ADT according to related diagnostic, procedure and medication codes. Each prostate subject with ADT was matched to one patient with prostate cancer, but without ADT, and two participants without both prostate cancer and ADT; 1791, 1791 and 3582 patients were recruited in each group. The primary outcome was set as the OAG development according to related diagnostic codes. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of ADT for the incidence of OAG. There were 145, 65 and 42 newly developed OAG cases in the control group, prostate cancer without ADT group and prostate cancer with ADT group. The prostate cancer with ADT group showed a significantly lower risk of OAG development compared to the control group (aHR: 0.689, 95% CI: 0.489–0.972, p = 0.0341), and the risk of OAG development in the prostate cancer without ADT group was similar compared to that in the control group (aHR: 0.825, 95% CI: 0.613–1.111, p = 0.2052). In addition, ages older than 50 years old would lead to higher incidence of OAG development, respectively. In conclusion, the use of ADT will lead to a similar or lower rate of OAG development. Full article
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15 pages, 1026 KiB  
Review
Genetic Evaluation and Screening in Cardiomyopathies: Opportunities and Challenges for Personalized Medicine
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(6), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13060887 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure caused by abnormalities of the heart muscles that make it harder for it to fill or eject blood. With technological advances, it is important for patients and families to understand that there are potential monogenic [...] Read more.
Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure caused by abnormalities of the heart muscles that make it harder for it to fill or eject blood. With technological advances, it is important for patients and families to understand that there are potential monogenic etiologies of cardiomyopathy. A multidisciplinary approach to clinical genetic screening for cardiomyopathies involving genetic counseling and clinical genetic testing is beneficial for patients and families. With early identification of inherited cardiomyopathy, patients can initiate guideline-directed medical therapies earlier, resulting in a greater likelihood of improving prognoses and health outcomes. Identifying impactful genetic variants will also allow for cascade testing to determine at-risk family members through clinical (phenotype) screening and risk stratification. Addressing genetic variants of uncertain significance and causative variants that may change in pathogenicity is also important to consider. This review will dive into the clinical genetic testing approaches for the various cardiomyopathies, the significance of early detection and treatment, the value of family screening, the personalized treatment process associated with genetic evaluation, and current strategies for clinical genetic testing outreach. Full article
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18 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
Impact of Functional Polymorphisms on Drug Survival of Biological Therapies in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108703 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Biological therapies (BTs) indicated for psoriasis are highly effective; however, not all patients obtain good results, and loss of effectiveness is the main reason for switching. Genetic factors may be involved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of single-nucleotide [...] Read more.
Biological therapies (BTs) indicated for psoriasis are highly effective; however, not all patients obtain good results, and loss of effectiveness is the main reason for switching. Genetic factors may be involved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the drug survival of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF) medications and ustekinumab (UTK) in patients diagnosed with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We conducted an ambispective observational cohort study that included 379 lines of treatment with anti-TNF (n = 247) and UTK (132) in 206 white patients from southern Spain and Italy. The genotyping of the 29 functional SNPs was carried out using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with TaqMan probes. Drug survival was evaluated with Cox regression and Kaplan–Meier curves. The multivariate analysis showed that the HLA-C rs12191877-T (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.560; 95% CI = 0.40–0.78; p = 0.0006) and TNF-1031 (rs1799964-C) (HR = 0.707; 95% CI = 0.50–0.99; p = 0.048) polymorphisms are associated with anti-TNF drug survival, while TLR5 rs5744174-G (HR = 0.589; 95% CI = 0.37–0.92; p = 0.02), CD84 rs6427528-GG (HR = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.35–0.88; p = 0.013) and PDE3A rs11045392-T together with SLCO1C1 rs3794271-T (HR = 0.508; 95% CI = 0.32–0.79; p = 0.002) are related to UTK survival. The limitations are the sample size and the clustering of anti-TNF drugs; we used a homogeneous cohort of patients from 2 hospitals only. In conclusion, SNPs in the HLA-C, TNF, TLR5, CD84, PDE3A, and SLCO1C1 genes may be useful as biomarkers of drug survival of BTs indicated for psoriasis, making it possible to implement personalized medicine that will reduce financial healthcare costs, facilitate medical decision-making and improve patient quality of life. However, further pharmacogenetic studies need to be conducted to confirm these associations. Full article
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17 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Disequilibrium between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Circular and Messenger RNAs Plays a Role in Breast Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(7), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15072176 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Breast cancer is a frequent disease for which the discovery of markers that enable early detection or prognostic assessment remains challenging. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded structures in closed loops that are produced by backsplicing. CircRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) are generated co-transcriptionally, [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is a frequent disease for which the discovery of markers that enable early detection or prognostic assessment remains challenging. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded structures in closed loops that are produced by backsplicing. CircRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) are generated co-transcriptionally, and backsplicing and linear splicing compete against each other. As mRNAs are key players in tumorigenesis, we hypothesize that a disruption of the balance between circRNAs and mRNAs could promote breast cancer. Hence, we developed an assay for a simultaneous study of circRNAs and mRNAs, which we have called splice and expression analyses by exon ligation and high-throughput sequencing (SEALigHTS). Following SEALigHTS validation for BRCA1 and BRCA2, our hypothesis was tested using an independent research set of 95 pairs from tumor and adjacent normal breast tissues. In this research set, ratios of BRCA1 and BRCA2 circRNAs/mRNAs were significantly lower in the tumor breast tissue compared to normal tissue (p = 1.6 × 10−9 and p = 4.4 × 10−5 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively). Overall, we developed an innovative method to study linear splicing and backsplicing, described the repertoire of BRCA1 and BRCA2 circRNAs, including 15 novel ones, and showed for the first time that a disequilibrium between BRCA1 and BRCA2 circRNAs and mRNAs plays a role in breast cancer. Full article
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15 pages, 4754 KiB  
Article
Stable Isotope Tracing Reveals an Altered Fate of Glucose in N-Acetyltransferase 1 Knockout Breast Cancer Cells
Genes 2023, 14(4), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14040843 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. Recent studies found that arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is frequently upregulated in breast cancer, further suggesting NAT1 could be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. Previous publications have established that [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. Recent studies found that arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is frequently upregulated in breast cancer, further suggesting NAT1 could be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. Previous publications have established that NAT1 knockout (KO) in breast cancer cell lines leads to growth reduction both in vitro and in vivo and metabolic changes. These reports suggest that NAT1 contributes to the energy metabolism of breast cancer cells. Proteomic analysis and non-targeted metabolomics suggested that NAT1 KO may change the fate of glucose as it relates to the TCA/KREB cycle of the mitochondria of breast cancer cells. In this current study, we used [U-13C]-glucose stable isotope resolved metabolomics to determine the effect of NAT1 KO on the metabolic profile of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We incubated breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) and NAT1 Crispr KO cells (KO#2 and KO#5) with [U-13C]-glucose for 24 h. Tracer incubation polar metabolites from the cells were extracted and analyzed by 2DLC-MS, and metabolite differences were compared between the parental and NAT1 KO cells. Differences consistent between the two KO cells were considered changes due to the loss of NAT1. The data revealed decreases in the 13C enrichment of TCA/Krebs cycle intermediates in NAT1 KO cells compared to the MDA-MB-231 cells. Specifically, 13C-labeled citrate, isocitrate, a-ketoglutarate, fumarate, and malate were all decreased in NAT1 KO cells. We also detected increased 13C-labeled L-lactate levels in the NAT1 KO cells and decreased 13C enrichment in some nucleotides. Pathway analysis showed that arginine biosynthesis, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and the TCA cycle were most affected. These data provide additional evidence supporting the impacts of NAT1 knockout on cellular energy metabolism. The data suggest that NAT1 expression is important for the proper functioning of mitochondria and the flux of glucose through the TCA/Krebs cycle in breast cancer cells. The metabolism changes in the fate of glucose in NAT1 KO breast cancer cells offer more insight into the role of NAT1 in energy metabolism and the growth of breast cancer cells. These data provide additional evidence that NAT1 may be a useful therapeutic target for breast cancer. Full article
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20 pages, 5077 KiB  
Article
BI-D1870 Induces Mitotic Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Neuroblastoma by Regulating the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 Signal Axis
Cancers 2023, 15(7), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15072023 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Introduction: Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common extracranial solid malignant tumors in children. The 5-year survival rate of high-risk or refractory NB is less than 50%. Therefore, developing new effective therapeutics for NB remains an urgent challenge. Materials and Methods: Based [...] Read more.
Introduction: Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common extracranial solid malignant tumors in children. The 5-year survival rate of high-risk or refractory NB is less than 50%. Therefore, developing new effective therapeutics for NB remains an urgent challenge. Materials and Methods: Based on the NB dataset TARGET-NBL in the TCGA database, the prognosis-related genes were analyzed using univariate cox regression (p < 0.01). The protein network interaction of prognostic genes was analyzed using STRING to obtain 150 hub genes with HR > 1 and 150 hub genes with HR < 1. The Connectivity Map database was used to predict a therapeutic drug: BI-D1870, a ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitor. The inhibitory effect of BI-D1870 on NB was investigated through in vivo and in vitro experiments, and its inhibitory mechanism was explored. Results: Both the in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that BI-D1870 could inhibit tumor proliferation and induce tumor apoptosis. Furthermore, we proved that BI-D1870 caused G2/M phase arrest and mitosis damage in cells. RNA-seq of cells showed that BI-D1870 may inhibit the growth of NB by inhibiting the PI3K-Akt-mTOR axis. Western blot and immunofluorescence testing showed that BI-D1870 inhibited the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signal pathway to regulate the phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4E BP1 proteins, inhibit protein translation, and inhibit microtubule formation, thus preventing mitotic proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Conclusions: This study provides strong support that BI-D1870 may be a potential adjuvant therapy for NB. Full article
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17 pages, 4580 KiB  
Article
Ovarian Stimulation in Mice Resulted in Abnormal Placentation through Its Effects on Proliferation and Cytokine Production of Uterine NK Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065907 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Ovarian stimulation is associated with an increased incidence of abnormal placentation. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the major subpopulation of decidual immune cells, which are crucial for placentation. In a previous study, we found that ovarian stimulation impairs uNK cell density on [...] Read more.
Ovarian stimulation is associated with an increased incidence of abnormal placentation. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the major subpopulation of decidual immune cells, which are crucial for placentation. In a previous study, we found that ovarian stimulation impairs uNK cell density on gestation day (GD) 8.5 in mice. However, it was not clear how ovarian stimulation led to a reduction in the density of uNK cells. In this study, we constructed two mouse models, an in vitro mouse embryo transfer model and an estrogen-stimulated mouse model. We used HE and PAS glycogen staining, immunohistochemical techniques, q-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry to analyze the mouse decidua and placenta, and the results showed that SO resulted in a fetal weight reduction, abnormal placental morphology, decreased placental vascular density, and abnormal density and function of uNK cells. Our results suggest that ovarian stimulation resulted in aberrant estrogen signaling and may contribute to the disorder of uNK cells caused by ovarian stimulation. Together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms of aberrant maternal endocrine environments and abnormal placentation. Full article
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11 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Targeting of P53: A Comparative Analysis of APR-246 and COTI-2 in Human Tumor Primary Culture 3-D Explants
Genes 2023, 14(3), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14030747 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Background: TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer with loss of function mutations largely concentrated in “hotspots” affecting DNA binding. APR-246 and COTI-2 are small molecules under investigation in P53 mutated cancers. APR binds to P53 cysteine residues, altering [...] Read more.
Background: TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer with loss of function mutations largely concentrated in “hotspots” affecting DNA binding. APR-246 and COTI-2 are small molecules under investigation in P53 mutated cancers. APR binds to P53 cysteine residues, altering conformation, while COTI-2 showed activity in P53 mutant tumors by a computational platform. We compared APR-246 and COTI-2 activity in human tumor explants from 247 surgical specimens. Methods: Ex vivo analyses of programmed cell death measured drug-induced cell death by delayed-loss-of-membrane integrity and ATP content. The LC50s were compared by Z-Score. Synergy was conducted by the method of Chou and Talalay, and correlations were performed by Pearson moment. Results: APR-246 and COTI-2 activity favored hematologic neoplasms, but solid tumor activity varied by diagnosis. COTI-2 and APR-246 activity did not correlate (R = 0.1028) (NS). COTI-2 activity correlated with nitrogen mustard, cisplatin and gemcitabine, doxorubicin and selumetinib, with a trend for APR-246 with doxorubicin. For ovarian cancer, COTI-2 showed synergy with cisplatin at 25%. Conclusions: COTI-2 and APR-246 activity differ by diagnosis. A lack of correlation supports distinct modes of action. Cisplatin synergy is consistent with P53’s role in DNA damage. Different mechanisms of action may underlie disease specificity and offer better disease targeting. Full article
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