Topic Editors

School of Management, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
College of Computer Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, China
Department of Hotel Management and Culinary Creativity, Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology Taiwan, Xinfeng, Hsinchu 30401, Taiwan
Department of Labor and Human Resource, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
Dr. Datian Bi
School of Management, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China

The Promotion and Development of Community Health for Personal Health: Theories and Applications

Abstract submission deadline
31 May 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 August 2024
Viewed by
17012

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Improving people's health by providing practical, fundamental health care was emphasized in the “Health City Project” of the World Health Organization (WHO). Through this, citizens can achieve good health. Moreover, health care scholars and practitioners around the world were engaged in reaching this goal. The term “Community Health Construction” describes the integration of civil power and the existing foundational health care system to construct a basic health care network with many functions. Further, it will inspire people to employ self-determination, autonomy, and self-help. Hence, the top-down policy of community development will motivate people to discover, analyze, and solve the issues with community health. Thus, we will build healthy communities with healthy citizens.

The “Health City Project” is based on a community development model that shows the action of community health promotion. It means that people collaborating will excite professional specialists and citizens to solve community health issues together by conjoining community resources. In the past, health information was not made accessible to citizens by experts and scholars in health care. However, the provided health information could not satisfy people's real demands. Therefore, the dimension of health care should construct the community health norm, a healthy environment, and methods of performing autonomic, practical, healthy behavior and sustainable development, etc. Indeed, community health construction is the core objective of sustainability operations. This consensus will be achieved by individuals who participate in related activities continuously. In general, this topic will focus on community health to promote people’s health and development. It involves theories, practices, methods, and applications.

Dr. Yang Gao
Prof. Dr. Lianyong Qi
Prof. Dr. Chia-Huei Wu
Dr. Yu-Hsi Yuan
Dr. Datian Bi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • community health
  • individual health
  • sustainable healthy environment
  • big data

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Pharmacy
pharmacy
2.2 - 2013 24.6 Days CHF 1800 Submit

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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11 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Status and Barriers of Physical Activity and Exercise in Community-Dwelling Stroke Patients in South Korea: A Survey-Based Study
by Jung-Lim Lee, Yuna Kim, Sungchul Huh, Yong-Il Shin and Sung-Hwa Ko
Healthcare 2024, 12(6), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12060697 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the physical activity and exercise status of stroke patients in the community after discharge and the need for community-based exercises. This study included 100 community-dwelling patients with stroke in South Korea. The survey investigated the self-assessment of health [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the physical activity and exercise status of stroke patients in the community after discharge and the need for community-based exercises. This study included 100 community-dwelling patients with stroke in South Korea. The survey investigated the self-assessment of health status and physical activity, demand for community-based exercise after discharge, quality of life, and social participation. Overall, 96% of the respondents recognized the need to exercise, and two-thirds exercised. The third who did not exercise cited disability (29%), lack of facilities (22%), and health concerns (13%); only 21% of participants had ever used a community exercise facility, and their satisfaction with the facility was low. The main reasons for not using community exercise facilities were concerns about accidents during exercise and accessibility issues. Among real-world community stroke patients, those who exercised regularly had higher EuroQol-5D and reintegration to normal living indices than those who did not exercise (p < 0.05). Although community-dwelling stroke patients were highly aware of the need for physical activity and exercise, few engaged in adequate exercise. This lack of engagement is directly linked to identifiable personal and socio-structural barriers. Addressing these barriers will improve the quality of life and social participation of patients with stroke. Full article
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8 pages, 219 KiB  
Brief Report
Effect of a Multicomponent Food Pantry Intervention in Client Subgroups
by Jenny Jia, Maria F. Gombi-Vaca, Christina Bliss Barsness, Hikaru Peterson, Rebekah Pratt, Julian Wolfson and Caitlin E. Caspi
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060805 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Nutrition promotion programs may have varying effects and influence health disparities. SuperShelf promotes healthy choices in food pantries through inventory changes and nudge implementation (e.g., choice architecture). This secondary analysis of the SuperShelf cluster-randomized trial assessed whether the effect of SuperShelf on client [...] Read more.
Nutrition promotion programs may have varying effects and influence health disparities. SuperShelf promotes healthy choices in food pantries through inventory changes and nudge implementation (e.g., choice architecture). This secondary analysis of the SuperShelf cluster-randomized trial assessed whether the effect of SuperShelf on client diet quality differed by equity characteristics. English-, Spanish-, or Somali-speaking adult clients from 11 food pantries in Minnesota were included (N = 193). We measured change in diet quality by the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015; maximum score 100) using up to two 24 h dietary recalls from pre-intervention and post-intervention periods. We used linear mixed-effects models to determine whether the effect of SuperShelf on diet quality varied by self-reported gender, race/ethnicity, education, and employment status. In separate adjusted models, the interactions of SuperShelf and gender, education, or employment status were not significant. The interaction of SuperShelf and race/ethnicity was significant (p-interaction = 0.008), but pairwise comparisons in diet quality were non-significant in all racial/ethnic subgroups. SuperShelf did not have differential effects on diet quality by gender, race/ethnicity, education, or employment status, suggesting it does not worsen dietary disparities among food pantry clients, though more subgroup analyses are needed to explore potential racial/ethnic disparities in this context. Full article
12 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Use of Antidepressants by Young Adults in the ASL TO4 Regione Piemonte (Italy)
by Lucrezia Greta Armando, Raffaella Baroetto Parisi, Cristina Rolando, Mariangela Esiliato, Valeria Vinciguerra, Cecilia Bertiond, Abdoulaye Diarassouba, Clara Cena and Gianluca Miglio
Pharmacy 2024, 12(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12010021 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The association between younger age and poorer mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic has been documented. Whether these changes were associated with a change in antidepressant (AD) use is not well understood. This study aimed to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Read more.
The association between younger age and poorer mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic has been documented. Whether these changes were associated with a change in antidepressant (AD) use is not well understood. This study aimed to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AD use by young adults in the ASL TO4 Regione Piemonte (Italy). The impact of the pandemic on the weekly prevalence of AD users was assessed using interrupted time-series analysis with autoregressive integrated moving average models. A total of 1071 subjects (18–22 years with ≥1 AD dispensation) were included in the study. The observed prevalence was lower than the predicted value for several weeks after the introduction of the lockdown. However, it was consistently higher than the predicted values from week 134. The maximum difference between observed and predicted values (25 subjects per 10,000 young adults) was found at week 170. Changes in AD use were observed in both genders and were more pronounced for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In conclusion, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young adults is likely to be significant in the coming years, which may place a future burden on pharmaceutical public health and community health. Full article
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11 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Self-Rated Health Disparities among Independent Community-Dwelling Older Adults: An Age-Stratified Analysis
by Yuka Iwata, Ayuka Yokoyama, Nanami Oe, Eriko Ito, Azusa Arimoto, Yuko Tanaka and Etsuko Tadaka
Healthcare 2023, 11(23), 3070; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11233070 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 774
Abstract
In response to the distinctive healthcare requirements of independent, healthy, community-dwelling older adults in Japan and other developed countries with aging populations, the current study examined the differences in factors associated with self-rated health (SRH) between the following two age groups: young–old (65–74) [...] Read more.
In response to the distinctive healthcare requirements of independent, healthy, community-dwelling older adults in Japan and other developed countries with aging populations, the current study examined the differences in factors associated with self-rated health (SRH) between the following two age groups: young–old (65–74) and old–old (75 and above). Age-stratified analysis was used to provide a comprehensive understanding of the unique health challenges faced by these demographic segments and to inform the development of targeted interventions and health policies to improve their well-being. The results of a cross-sectional study of 846 older adults in Yokohama, Japan, who completed self-administered questionnaires, revealed that high SRH was consistently linked with the low prevalence of concurrent medical issues in both age groups (<75 and ≥75) (β: −0.323, p < 0.001 in the <75 group; β: −0.232, p < 0.001 in the ≥75 group) and increased subjective well-being (β: 0.357, p < 0.001 in the <75 group; β: 0.244, p < 0.001 in the ≥75 group). Within the ≥75 age group, higher SRH was associated with more favorable economic status (β: 0.164, p < 0.001) and increased engagement in social activities (β: 0.117, p = 0.008), even after adjusting for age, sex, and economic status. These findings may inform the development of targeted interventions and policies to enhance the well-being of this growing population in Japan and other developed countries. Full article
20 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Impact of Prescribed Exercise on the Physical and Cognitive Health of Adults with Down Syndrome: The MinDSets Study
by Viviane Merzbach, Michael Ferrandino, Marie Gernigon, Jorge Marques Pinto, Adrian Scruton and Dan Gordon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(23), 7121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20237121 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3543
Abstract
The duplication of chromosome 21, as evidenced in Down Syndrome (DS), has been linked to contraindications to health, such as chronotropic and respiratory incompetence, neuromuscular conditions, and impaired cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight weeks [...] Read more.
The duplication of chromosome 21, as evidenced in Down Syndrome (DS), has been linked to contraindications to health, such as chronotropic and respiratory incompetence, neuromuscular conditions, and impaired cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight weeks of prescribed exercise and/or cognitive training on the physical and cognitive health of adults with DS. Eighty-three participants (age 27.1 ± 8.0 years) across five continents participated. Physical fitness was assessed using a modified version of the six-minute walk test (6MWT), while cognitive and executive functions were assessed using the Corsi block test, the Sustained-Attention-To-Response Task (SART), and the Stroop task (STROOP). All were completed pre- and post-intervention. Participants were assigned to eight weeks of either exercise (EXE), 3 × 30 min of walking/jogging per week, cognitive training (COG) 6 × ~20 min per week, a combined group (COM), and a control group (CON) engaging in no intervention. 6MWT distance increased by 11.4% for EXE and 9.9% for COM (p < 0.05). For SART, there were positive significant interactions between the number of correct and incorrect responses from pre- to post-intervention when participants were asked to refrain from a response (NO-GO-trials) across all experimental groups (p < 0.05). There were positive significant interactions in the number of correct, incorrect, and timeout incompatible responses for STROOP in EXE, COG, and COM (p < 0.05). Walking generated a cognitive load attributed to heightened levels of vigilance and decision-making, suggesting that exercise should be adopted within the DS community to promote physical and cognitive well-being. Full article
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15 pages, 1971 KiB  
Article
Women Agro-Entrepreneurship Promoting Vegetables at a Family Level: A Healthcare Approach towards Non-Communicable Disease Risk Reduction
by A. K. M. Shahidullah, Anisul Islam and Lynn Kendall
Healthcare 2023, 11(15), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11152165 - 30 Jul 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
The role of women in promoting the production and consumption of vegetables at a family level towards mitigating the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is crucial. Women not only select and prepare food items consumed by their families but care about the health [...] Read more.
The role of women in promoting the production and consumption of vegetables at a family level towards mitigating the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is crucial. Women not only select and prepare food items consumed by their families but care about the health issues of family members. As research examining this critical role of women is scant, we attempted to understand how women as agro-entrepreneurs can promote vegetables to enhance healthcare situations. A field study was conducted in a northeastern district of Bangladesh from January to June 2019, adopting qualitative–participatory approaches that involved interviews, focus groups, and workshops. The study revealed that women play a vital role in taking care of the health of the family members, while their role in planning the family diet is exclusive. However, they have limited decision-making authority in the production and consumption of vegetables, and their knowledge and perception of NCDs are limited. The results imply that with enhanced capacity of vegetable production and better knowledge of nutrition and NCDs, women can improve family dietary habits by increasing the consumption of vegetables. Therefore, building the agro-entrepreneurial capacities of women in terms of knowledge, skills, access to finance, and decision-making authority at the family level would be a significant interventional approach for increased production and consumption of vegetables. We argue that public health strategies and policies addressing NCDs should incorporate this family-centric approach by promoting agro-entrepreneurship by women who would promote the production and consumption of vegetables. Full article
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11 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
The Development of a New Tool to Help Patients and Their Providers Evaluate Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Asma Obad, Ravneet Singh, Saara Nasruddin, Erin Holmes and Meagen Rosenthal
Healthcare 2023, 11(15), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11152117 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Diabetes self-management or self-care activity related to diet, physical activity, and glucose monitoring, among other things, is recognized as important to effectively managing this condition. The aim of this study was to create an assessment tool for evaluating knowledge and self-management behavior in [...] Read more.
Diabetes self-management or self-care activity related to diet, physical activity, and glucose monitoring, among other things, is recognized as important to effectively managing this condition. The aim of this study was to create an assessment tool for evaluating knowledge and self-management behavior in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) for patients and their providers. The study utilized an online survey with a cross-sectional design of adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. The survey consisted of 8 sections and a total of 56 questions, which were designed to measure the participants’ current knowledge and behavior regarding diabetes self-management. The total sample size was 306 participants, and the results revealed a significant association between performance on diabetes knowledge questions and self-management behavior (β = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.58; p < 0.001). Furthermore, education had a significant impact on diabetes self-management behavior (β = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.03; p = 0.01). Overall, the data indicated that participants who performed well on knowledge-based questions exhibited higher scores in desired diabetes management behaviors. Increasing awareness of this work in the diabetic community could facilitate the clinical encounters between diabetic patients and their healthcare providers, with an emphasis on each individual’s needs being taken into consideration. Full article
25 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Shared Decision-Making to Improve Health-Related Outcomes for Adults with Stroke Disease
by Lidia Bajenaru, Alexandru Sorici, Irina Georgiana Mocanu, Adina Magda Florea, Florina Anca Antochi and Athena Cristina Ribigan
Healthcare 2023, 11(12), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11121803 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death worldwide, a severe medical condition for which new solutions for prevention, monitoring, and adequate treatment are needed. This paper proposes a SDM framework for the development of innovative and effective solutions based [...] Read more.
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death worldwide, a severe medical condition for which new solutions for prevention, monitoring, and adequate treatment are needed. This paper proposes a SDM framework for the development of innovative and effective solutions based on artificial intelligence in the rehabilitation of stroke patients by empowering patients to make decisions about the use of devices and applications developed in the European project ALAMEDA. To develop a predictive tool for improving disability in stroke patients, key aspects of stroke patient data collection journeys, monitored health parameters, and specific variables covering motor, physical, emotional, cognitive, and sleep status are presented. The proposed SDM model involved the training and consultation of patients, medical staff, carers, and representatives under the name of the Local Community Group. Consultation with LCG members, consists of 11 representative people, physicians, nurses, patients and caregivers, which led to the definition of a methodological framework to investigate the key aspects of monitoring the patient data collection journey for the stroke pilot, and a specific questionnaire to collect stroke patient requirements and preferences. A set of general and specific guidelines specifying the principles by which patients decide to use wearable sensing devices and specific applications resulted from the analysis of the data collected using the questionnaire. The preferences and recommendations collected from LCG members have already been implemented in this stage of ALAMEDA system design and development. Full article
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14 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale in the Spanish Context (PEMS-e)
by Héctor González-de la Torre, María-Isabel Hernández-Rodríguez, Alba-María Moreno-Canino, Ana-María Portela-Lomba, Miriam Berenguer-Pérez and José Verdú-Soriano
Healthcare 2023, 11(10), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11101464 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Midwifery empowerment is an important topic. The most widely used instrument to measure the perceived empowerment of midwives is the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS), which has not been validated in Spain. The aim of this study was to translate and [...] Read more.
Midwifery empowerment is an important topic. The most widely used instrument to measure the perceived empowerment of midwives is the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS), which has not been validated in Spain. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the PEMS to the Spanish context. This research was carried out in two phases; Phase 1: Methodological study; translation, backtranslation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PEMS and pilot study on the target population (10 midwives) for evaluation of face validity. Phase 2: Cross-sectional observational study to obtain a sample for construct validation by Exploratory Factor Analysis and measurement of PEMS-e reliability. Additionally, an inferential analysis was carried out to study the possible association between several collected variables and PEMS-e subscale-scores. A total of 410 midwives from 18 Spanish regions participated in the study through an online questionnaire. An initial Spanish version of the PEMS scale was produced, demonstrating adequate face validity. A final model was produced for the PEMS-e, which included 17 items classified into two subscales (“Organizational support” and “Own skills and teamwork”) with fit indexes RMSEA = 0.062 (95%CI: 0.048–0.065) and AGFI = 0.985 (95%CI: 0.983–0.989) and Cronbach’s alpha 0.922 for the total scale. Results showed that one in four midwives had considered abandoning the profession in the last 6 months (p ≤ 0.001). This research suggests that Spanish midwives perceive their empowerment level as low. The PEMS-e is a valid tool with solid psychometric properties that can be used in future research to identify factors that contribute to increased empowerment among Spanish midwives and inform strategies to improve job satisfaction and retention in the profession. Full article
15 pages, 1691 KiB  
Article
Japanese Consumers’ Attitudes towards Obtaining and Sharing Health Information Regarding Over-the-Counter Medication: Designing an Over-the-Counter Electronic Health Record
by Guyue Tang, Kairi Izumi, Megumi Izumisawa and Shinichi Koyama
Healthcare 2023, 11(8), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11081166 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Designing an over-the-counter medication electronic health record (OTC-EHR) may help improve OTC usage. An online survey for the conceptual OTC-EHR design examined participant characteristics, attitudes towards obtaining user-shared OTC medication information, health-related application usage, and the inclination to share anonymized health information. Descriptive [...] Read more.
Designing an over-the-counter medication electronic health record (OTC-EHR) may help improve OTC usage. An online survey for the conceptual OTC-EHR design examined participant characteristics, attitudes towards obtaining user-shared OTC medication information, health-related application usage, and the inclination to share anonymized health information. Descriptive statistics, tests to assess statistical significance, and text mining were used to analyze the results. The findings revealed that Japanese consumers, particularly those with high eHealth literacy and women, possess relatively positive attitudes towards obtaining user-shared OTC medication information than those with low eHealth literacy (t (280.71) = −4.11, p < 0.001) and men (t (262.26) = −2.78, p = 0.006), respectively. Most consumers own smartphones but do not use health-related applications. A minority held positive attitudes about sharing anonymized health information. The perceived helpfulness of OTC-EHR was positively associated with the usage of health-related applications (χ2 (4) = 18.35, p = 0.001) and attitude towards sharing anonymized health information (χ2 (3) = 19.78, p < 0.001). The study findings contribute towards OTC-EHR’s design to enhance consumers’ self-medication and reduce risks, while the psychological barriers to sharing anonymized health information should be improved by increasing the OTC-EHR’s penetration rate and engaging in appropriate information design. Full article
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13 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Addressing HIV Misconceptions among Heterosexual Black Men and Communities in Ontario
by Egbe B. Etowa, Josephine Pui-Hing Wong, Francisca Omorodion, Josephine Etowa and Isaac Luginaah
Healthcare 2023, 11(7), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11070997 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Background. Black males accounted for 19.7% of all the new HIV diagnoses in Canada in 2020, yet Black people make up only 4.26% of the population. Persistent misconceptions about modes of HIV transmission need to be addressed to reduce the relatively high HIV [...] Read more.
Background. Black males accounted for 19.7% of all the new HIV diagnoses in Canada in 2020, yet Black people make up only 4.26% of the population. Persistent misconceptions about modes of HIV transmission need to be addressed to reduce the relatively high HIV prevalence among Black men. We described the HIV misconceptions held by some HBM in Ontario. We also identified the social determinants that are protective versus risk factors for HIV misconceptions among heterosexual Black men (HBM) in Ontario with a view to building evidence-based strategies for strengthening HIV prevention and stigma reduction among HBM and their communities in Ontario. Methods. We report quantitative findings of the weSpeak study carried out among HBM in four cities (Ottawa, Toronto, London, and Windsor) in Ontario. Sample size was 866 and sub-samples were: Ottawa (n = 210), Toronto (n = 343), London (n = 157), and Windsor (n = 156). Data were collected with survey questionnaire. The outcome variable, HIV misconception score ranging from 1 to 18, was measured by the number of statements on the HIV Knowledge Questionnaire with incorrect answers. We included three categories of independent variables in the analysis based on a stepwise and forward model selection approach. The variable categories include (i) sociodemographic background; (ii) personalised psychosocial attributes (levels of HIV misconceptions, negative condom attitude, age at sexual debut, and resilience); and (iii) socially ascribed psychosocial experiences (everyday discrimination and pro-community attitudes). After preliminary univariate and bivariate analyses, we used a hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) to predict levels of HIV misconceptions while controlling for the effect of the city of residence. Results. More than 50% of participants in all study sites were aged 20–49 years, married, and have undergone a college or university undergraduate education. Yet, a significant proportion (27.2%) held varying levels of misconceptions about HIV. In those with misconceptions, the two most common misconceptions were: (i) people are likely to get HIV by deep kissing, putting their tongue in their partner’s mouth, if their partner has HIV (40.1%); and (ii) taking a test for HIV one week after having sex will tell a person if she or he has HIV (31.6%). Discrimination (β = 0.23, p < 0.05, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.46), negative condom attitudes (β = 0.07, p < 0.05, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.12), and sexual debut at an older age (β = 0.06, p < 0.05, 95% CI = 0.01, 1) were associated with more HIV misconceptions. Being born in Canada (β = −0.96, p < 0.05, 95% CI = −1.8, −0.12), higher education (β = −0.37, p < 0.05, 95% CI = −0.52, −0.21), and being more resilient (β = −0.04, p < 0.05, 95% CI = −0.08, −0.01) were associated with fewer HIV misconceptions. Conclusion and recommendations. HIV misconceptions are still common, especially among HBM. These misconceptions are associated with structural and behavioural factors. We recommend structural and policy-driven interventions that promote more accessible and equity-driven healthcare, education, and social integration of HBM in Ontario. We also recommend building capacity for collective resilience and critical health and racial literacy as well as creating culturally safe spaces for intergenerational dialogues among HBM in their communities. Full article
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