Temperature Field, Electromagnetic Field, and Operation Control of Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicles

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 11454

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Intelligence Manufacturing, Huanghuai University, Zhumadian 463000, China
Interests: permanent magnet synchronous motors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Efficiency plays an important role in mileage increase in electric vehicles, especially in the current period of rapid development of electric vehicles. Therefore, this Special Issue will deal with the structural design and operation control of permanent magnet motors, which can be better applied in the drive unit of electric vehicles. Firstly, based on the structural optimal design, permanent magnet motors’ temperature rise will be reduced, and their magnetic field can be utilized efficiently. Then, with the proper operation control technology, permanent magnet motors’ operational performance, such as starting, constant speed, speed regulation, and braking, can be improved.

Dr. Zhongxian Chen
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • temperature rise
  • magnetic field
  • permanent magnet motor
  • operation control
  • electric vehicles

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 11175 KiB  
Article
Online Inductance Identification of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Independent of Rotor Position Information
by Jilei Xing, Junzhi Zhang, Xingming Zhuang and Yao Xu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010035 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors is preferable in some applications due to cost and mounting space concerns. The performance of most existing position estimation methods greatly depends on the accuracy of the motor inductance. As the estimated position should not be [...] Read more.
Sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors is preferable in some applications due to cost and mounting space concerns. The performance of most existing position estimation methods greatly depends on the accuracy of the motor inductance. As the estimated position should not be involved in the parameter identification process in a sensorless control system, an online inductance identification method independent of the rotor position information is developed in this paper. The proposed method utilizes the recursive least square algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm to realize real-time identification of the inductance along the direct axis and the quadrature axis, respectively, based on the deduced parametric equations without position information. The proposed method is efficient enough to be implemented within 0.2 ms and does not introduce any additional signal injection. A test bench is built to validate the characteristics of the method, and the experimental results show that the identified inductance can converge to the actual value rapidly and is robust to changes in the initial values and stator current. With the proposed method, accurate estimation of the rotor position and speed can be obtained using traditional model-based position estimators, and the stability of the sensorless control system can be improved significantly. Full article
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16 pages, 6399 KiB  
Article
Combined Electromagnetic and Mechanical Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Rotors for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains
by Guanhua Zhang and Geraint Wyn Jewell
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010004 (registering DOI) - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
In many high-speed electrical machines, centrifugal forces within the rotor can be first-order constraints on electromagnetic optimization. This can be particularly acute in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines in which magnets are usually retained entirely by the rotor core with no additional mechanical [...] Read more.
In many high-speed electrical machines, centrifugal forces within the rotor can be first-order constraints on electromagnetic optimization. This can be particularly acute in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines in which magnets are usually retained entirely by the rotor core with no additional mechanical containment. This study investigates the nature of the trade-off between mechanical and electromagnetic requirements within the context of an eight-pole, 100 kW IPM machine with a base speed of 4000 rpm and an extended speed range up to 12,000 rpm. A series of mechanical and electromagnetic models are used to estimate the level of shaft interference, mechanical stress in critical regions of the rotor and the impact of various features and dimensions within the machine on electromagnetic torque. A systematic exploration of the design space is undertaken for rotor diameters from 120 mm to 180 mm, with optimal designs in terms of torque per unit length established at each diameter while meeting the constraints imposed on mechanical stress. The final preferred design has a rotor of 165 mm and an axial length of 103 mm long with a fractional slot winding in a 30-slot stator. The overall machine has an active mass of 42.3 kg, which corresponds to ~2.4 kW/kg. This paper describes the optimization study in detail and draws on the results to explore the nature of the design trade-offs in such rotors and the impact of core properties. Full article
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15 pages, 4385 KiB  
Article
Speed Stability and Anti-Disturbance Performance Improvement of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles
by Zhongxian Chen, Xianglin Dai and Munawar Faizan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110311 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
To enhance the speed stability and anti-interference performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, a composite control strategy, incorporating sliding mode control (SMC) and extended state observer (ESO), was implemented to regulate the IPMSM’s speed. Firstly, three simulation [...] Read more.
To enhance the speed stability and anti-interference performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, a composite control strategy, incorporating sliding mode control (SMC) and extended state observer (ESO), was implemented to regulate the IPMSM’s speed. Firstly, three simulation analysis models of the IPMSM were established based on its electrical parameters. The current-loop regulator was a PI regulator, while the speed-loop regulators consisted of a basic SMC regulator, a linear SMC–ESO regulator, and a nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator. The simulation analysis results demonstrated that all three speed-loop regulators effectively ensured the speed stability of the IPMSM. However, the nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator exhibited superior performance in terms of enhancing the IPMSM’s resistance to disturbances. Secondly, a hardware testing platform was constructed to validate the simulation analysis findings. The hardware testing results, when compared to the simulation analysis results, revealed the need for optimization of the PI regulator’s control parameters to maintain the speed stability of the IPMSM. Moreover, contrary to the simulation analysis results, the hardware testing results indicated minimal difference in the anti-disturbance performance of the IPMSM between the linear SMC–ESO regulator and the nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator. Finally, the differences between the simulation analysis results and the hardware testing results are thoroughly discussed and analyzed, providing valuable insights for the practical implementation of IPMSM in electric vehicle drive systems. Full article
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10 pages, 12090 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor in an Automotive Cooling System
by Kai Ren, Hongxuan Chen, Haiyang Sun, Qin Wang, Qingyun Sun and Bo Jin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(8), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14080228 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3183
Abstract
Conducting excellent thermal management of a new electric vehicle motor drive system may enhance the operational efficiency of the motor drive and minimize its pollutant emissions and energy losses. As an important part of the motor thermal management system, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
Conducting excellent thermal management of a new electric vehicle motor drive system may enhance the operational efficiency of the motor drive and minimize its pollutant emissions and energy losses. As an important part of the motor thermal management system, it is necessary to improve the design of the drive motor for the fan. This paper presents the design of a 12s-10p permanent magnet brushless DC motor with a rated speed of 2200 rpm and a rated voltage of 12 V based on finite element analysis. At this rated speed, the maximum torque the motor can output is 1.80 N·m. Then, we calculated the loading capacity of the motor by parameterizing the resistance in the circuit. We have built a prototype based on the design results and built a test bench to test the loading capacity of the prototype. A comparison revealed that the error between the experimental and calculated results was small. Accordingly, it is believed that this work is capable of serving as a theoretical guide for the design and manufacture of automotive cooling fans in the future. Full article
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15 pages, 6070 KiB  
Article
Comparison and Analysis of Electromagnetic Characteristics of Basic Structure of Wireless Power Coil for Permanent Magnet Motors in Electric Vehicles
by Junfeng Zhao, Lingyun Zhao, Yuwei Zou and Tianjin Chen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(8), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14080199 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of the basic structure of the coil in the electromagnetic coupling mechanism for the wireless power supply of permanent magnet motors in electric vehicles. The electromagnetic coupling mechanism is one [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of the basic structure of the coil in the electromagnetic coupling mechanism for the wireless power supply of permanent magnet motors in electric vehicles. The electromagnetic coupling mechanism is one of the key technologies for wireless power transmission and the coil structure plays a key role in the transmission performance of the coupling mechanism, and different structures can achieve different performances. The central objective of coil structure studies is to investigate how the coupling coefficient can be increased to achieve greater transmitted power and higher efficiency. In this paper, we investigate two basic coil configurations, circular and square, by studying their flux density variations when used as transmitting coils and their electromagnetic coupling characteristics when used as receiving coils. Three couplers consisting of circular and square coils are also analyzed in simulations and experiments are carried out on couplings containing circular and square coils of the same area. The results of the study show that the qualitative analysis, simulation analysis and experimental results are in high agreement. The results of this paper are an important reference for the design and optimization of wireless power coils for permanent magnet motors in electric vehicles. Full article
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17 pages, 5870 KiB  
Article
Research on the dq-Axis Current Reaction Time of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicle
by Anxue Huang, Zhongxian Chen and Juanjuan Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(7), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14070196 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
An interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is a kind of drive motor with high power density that is suitable for electric vehicles. In this paper, the dq-axis current reaction time of IPMSM was investigated in order to improve the reaction time of [...] Read more.
An interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is a kind of drive motor with high power density that is suitable for electric vehicles. In this paper, the dq-axis current reaction time of IPMSM was investigated in order to improve the reaction time of the electric vehicle. Firstly, the mathematical model of the current-loop decoupling of IPMSM was presented. Secondly, the controller design of dq-axis current-loop decoupling of IPMSM was investigated by the methods of proportional integral (PI) and internal model control PI (IMC-PI). Thirdly, based on the methods of PI and IMC-PI, the influence of the inverter switching frequency on the dq-axis current reaction time of IPMSM was analyzed and simulated, and it was found that the inverter switching frequency only had a significant influence on the parameters set of the PI controller. Lastly, compared with the PI method, the results of the simulation and hardware experiment demonstrate that the dq-axis current reaction time of IPMSM was improved by the IMC-PI method, and the IMC-PI method had the advantage of simple parameters setting and was not influenced by the inverter switching frequency. Full article
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17 pages, 3047 KiB  
Article
Temperature Field Calculation of the Hybrid Heat Pipe Cooled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles Based on Equivalent Thermal Network Method
by Huimin Wang, Chujie Zhang, Liyan Guo, Wei Chen and Zhen Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060141 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
A hybrid heat-pipe cooling structure for the permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicles was analyzed in this paper to effectively equalize the axial temperature rise and reduce the average temperature of each heat-generating component in the motor. A temperature field calculation method [...] Read more.
A hybrid heat-pipe cooling structure for the permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicles was analyzed in this paper to effectively equalize the axial temperature rise and reduce the average temperature of each heat-generating component in the motor. A temperature field calculation method for the hybrid heat-pipe cooling permanent magnet synchronous motor based on an equivalent thermal network method was proposed in this paper to save computing resources in temperature field analyses for hybrid heat-pipe cooling motors. The results were verified against the simulation results of the computational fluid dynamics method under three common operating conditions for electric vehicles. The error was proven to be within 5%. The calculation time of the proposed method was compared with the computational fluid dynamics method, which demonstrated that the calculation time of the proposed method was within 194 s. Full article
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