(Paleo)oceanographic Dynamics, Sedimentary Processes, and Ecosystem Response to a Continuously Changing Mediterranean Hydroclimate

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 10064

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Historical Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Geology and Geo-Environment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: marine geology; climate changes; paleoceanography; geochemistry; petroleum geology; basin analysis; sapropels; coastal and open marine systems; environmental reconstruction; marine sediment dynamics
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Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK
Interests: paleoceanography; oceanography; marine carbonate chemistry; marine biomineralization; marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and isotopes; sedimentology; marine geology; coastal geomorphology; coastal engineering; architecture

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Guest Editor
Department of Historical Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Geology and Geo-Environment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: paleoclimatology; paleoceanographic proxies; micropaleontology; integrated stratigraphy; marine geology; ocean dynamics; sea-level changes; marginal seas; astronomical frequencies in paleoclimates; extreme geological events
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The tendency toward climate change has been one of the most surprising outcomes of the study of Earth history. Over the last decades, considerable interest has arisen in the role of the subtropical oceans in climate change and, in particular, oceanic sub-basins and marginal seas, which are often more responsive to paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes than the global oceans because of their smaller size and partial isolation. As an example, the small volume of the Mediterranean Sea, compared with ocean basins, causes changes in its climate that can be recorded virtually instantaneously in palaeoceanographic and sedimentological proxy data, such as stable isotopes and geochemical ratios, as well as microfossil abundances. Marine geological dynamics, such as sea-level changes, environmental parameters, sedimentary cyclicity, and climate are strongly related through a direct exchange between the oceanographic and atmospheric systems. Moreover, anthropogenic activities affect the natural evolution by changing both the seawater environmental parameters and the ratio between terrigenous and marine sediments, which is further reflected in the marine biota.

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of the interplay of all these processes across a variety of settings (coastal to open marine) and timescales (early Cenozoic to modern). Among the priorities are the hydroclimate reconstructions using integrated geochemical and/or paleontological proxies measured from different Mediterranean sub-basins. We also encourage contributions outlining the applications of novel state-of-the-art techniques that provide important information on this topic.

Dr. George Kontakiotis
Dr. Stergios D. Zarkogiannis
Prof. Dr. Assimina Antonarakou
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • impact of climate change in open marine and coastal ecosystems
  • environmental stressors on Mediterranean (paleo)archive
  • biomonitoring advances in recent and holocene marine ecosystems
  • marine sediment cores and outcrops as evidence of climate variation over time
  • water quality and ecological aspects (species richness, diversity) of aquatic ecosystems
  • natural and human (e.g., ocean acidification, water pollution, abnormal foraminiferal types) environmental stressors in marine sedimentary basins
  • anthropogenic impacts on coastal marine environments
  • invasive alien species in the Mediterranean sea
  • orbital sedimentary cyclicity (e.g., sapropels, diatomites) and relationship with climate
  • changes in hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and biotic response to climate-induced extreme geological events (e.g., MSC, MMCO, PETM) within the Mediterranean basin
  • state-of-the-art geochemical (e.g., TEX86, Uk’37, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Na/Ca, Δ47) and paleontological (e.g., corals, foraminifera, nannofossils, otoliths, bivalves, speleothems) proxies to reconstruct environmental parameters (e.g., SST, SSS)
  • relative sea level change, coastal vulnerability, and geomorphological/paleogeographical reconstructions
  • bio-cyclostratigraphic correlations towards the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic evolution of the Mediterranean Sea
  • remote sensing applications and climate modeling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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26 pages, 9495 KiB  
Article
Cenozoic Marine Basin Evolution in the Western North Aegean trough Margin: Seismic Stratigraphic Evidence
by Alexandros Varesis and George Anastasakis
Water 2021, 13(16), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162267 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
This study investigates the interplay of evolving tectonic and submarine sedimentation processes in the northwest Aegean Sea using marine multichannel seismic profiles. We identify an extensive basin developing in the Thermaikos Gulf inner shelf, outer shelf, and slope leading to the 1500 m [...] Read more.
This study investigates the interplay of evolving tectonic and submarine sedimentation processes in the northwest Aegean Sea using marine multichannel seismic profiles. We identify an extensive basin developing in the Thermaikos Gulf inner shelf, outer shelf, and slope leading to the 1500 m deep West North Aegean Trough (NAT). We establish the unconformable extent of Eocene and Oligocene sequences on the upper shelf and trace their continuation in the deeper shelf and slope of Thermaikos Gulf. The start of the Miocene and Middle Miocene developed below the well-established Messinian bounding reflectors that are mostly erosional. Important lateral variations are observed within the Messinian sequence, which is up to 0.8 s thick. Messinian prograding clinoforms are identified on the Thermaikos Gulf shelf and southeast of Chalkidiki, and a zone of irregular reflectors is attributed to the Messinian salt layer. The transpressional deformation of the Messinian in the southwestern margin constrains the timing of westward progradation of the North Anatolian Fault during Messinian. The Pliocene-Quaternary sediments are 0.6–1.8 s thick, showing the overwhelming effect of tectonics on sedimentation plus the northwards Quaternary activation at the Thermaikos apron. Full article
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19 pages, 2852 KiB  
Article
Otolith Fingerprints and Tissue Stable Isotope Information Enable Allocation of Juvenile Fishes to Different Nursery Areas
by Dario Vrdoljak, Sanja Matić-Skoko, Melita Peharda, Hana Uvanović, Krešimir Markulin, Regina Mertz-Kraus and Peter Grønkjær
Water 2021, 13(9), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091293 - 4 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
Integrated otolith chemistry and muscle tissue stable isotope analyses were performed to allocate juvenile Diplodus puntazzo and Diplodus vulgaris to nurseries in the Adriatic Sea. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to quantify the concentrations of chemical elements in [...] Read more.
Integrated otolith chemistry and muscle tissue stable isotope analyses were performed to allocate juvenile Diplodus puntazzo and Diplodus vulgaris to nurseries in the Adriatic Sea. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to quantify the concentrations of chemical elements in the otoliths. Fish muscle samples were analysed for δ13C and δ15N. In general, Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios and isotopes varied between sites and species. Values of δ13C and δ15N were significantly different between species and sites. Multivariate analysis detected a significant difference in the element signature between species while there was no evidence for a significant interaction for sites. A clear pattern across the four groups of interest, D. puntazzo_Estuary > D. vulgaris_Estuary > D. puntazzo_Coastal > D. vulgaris_Coastal, following decreases in δ13C, and increases in δ15N were found. It seems that these species are feeding on the same local food web within more productive estuarine site while at costal site, feeding segregation among investigated species is evident. Both species were re-allocated correctly to the estuarine waters based on the otolith chemistry and stable isotopes information and higher value of δ15N. Combining otolith chemistry with tissue isotope ratios of juvenile fish provided complementary information on nursery habitat use at different spatial scales and elucidated ecological and environmental linkages. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 2271 KiB  
Review
Integrated Ecological Assessment of Heavily Polluted Sedimentary Basin within the Broader Industrialized Area of Thriassion Plain (Western Attica, Greece)
by Panayota Makri, Demetrios Hermides, George Kontakiotis, Stergios D. Zarkogiannis, Evangelia Besiou, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah and Assimina Antonarakou
Water 2022, 14(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030382 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2909
Abstract
The Thriassion Plain, the Saronikos Gulf and Eleusis Bay, Western Attica in Greece, receive pressures from the enormous industrial activity, as well as the Athens metropolitan area and the Piraeus port. Therefore, it is considered as brownfield in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The [...] Read more.
The Thriassion Plain, the Saronikos Gulf and Eleusis Bay, Western Attica in Greece, receive pressures from the enormous industrial activity, as well as the Athens metropolitan area and the Piraeus port. Therefore, it is considered as brownfield in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The multi-component industrial activity has impacted the soil, the groundwater of Thriassion Plain and the coastal marine sediments of the adjacent Eleusis Bay, part of Saronikos Gulf as well as a brackish lagoon, Koumoundourou Lake. The industrial activity is expressed by high contents of metals, and oil products. This study presents the pollution record of selected published papers that indicate the temporal evolution of legislated polluting compounds, supporting researchers to provide solutions and policy makers to focus on the whole spectrum of potential policy alternatives. Full article
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Other

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18 pages, 1577 KiB  
Perspective
The Effect of Mineral Ions Present in Tap Water on Photodegradation of Organic Pollutants: Future Perspectives
by Shujaat Ahmad, Mazen Almehmadi, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah, George Kontakiotis, Osama Abdulaziz, Khalid Saeed, Hanif Ahmad, Mamdouh Allahyani, Abdulelah Aljuaid, Ahad Amer Alsaiari, Juma Muhammad and Idrees Khan
Water 2023, 15(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010175 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3354
Abstract
Photodegradation is the chemical conversion of large, toxic, and complex molecules into non-toxic, simpler, and lower molecular weight species due to light exposure. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has sufficient potential to degrade toxic organic pollutants present in wastewater. As industries discharge their effluents containing organic [...] Read more.
Photodegradation is the chemical conversion of large, toxic, and complex molecules into non-toxic, simpler, and lower molecular weight species due to light exposure. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has sufficient potential to degrade toxic organic pollutants present in wastewater. As industries discharge their effluents containing organic pollutants into natural water bodies, which penetrate into the subsurface through connected pores it is necessary to study this process in natural or tap water. Tap water (TW) is mainly obtained from underground wells having inorganic salts in a minute quantity with a conductivity of 500 μS/cm. TW contains inorganic anions, which affect the photocatalytic activity and photocatalysis process. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of TW on the photo-degradation of organic pollutants such as dyes, pharmaceutical products, pesticides, etc., with the support of the literature. The TW had a diverse effect on the photodegradation of organic pollutants; either it may enhance or decrease the rate of pollutants’ photodegradation. Full article
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