Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Cycle and Water Resources Management

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 33210

Special Issue Editors

School of Climate Change and Adaptation, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
Interests: regional climate modeling and downscaling; integrated hydroclimate modeling and impact assessment; urban flood modeling and risk assessment; GIS applications and remote sensing; environmental systems modeling and analysis; big data analytics and decision-support systems; geospatial data analysis and visualization tools
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Center for Environment and Sustainability, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: clean technology; policy development; computable general equilibrium model development and application; inpu–output/supply chain/ecological network/ material flow analysis; system optimization/partial equilibrium models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global warming can alter the hydrological cycle in various forms such as increased cloudiness and latent heat fluxes, leading to more intensive and frequent precipitation extreme events (e.g., droughts, storms, and floods). These extreme events have received increased attention in the past few decades because of the associated economic loss, deaths, and many other severe consequences for human society. Climate change can also cause significant shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation, bringing many unprecedented challenges for water resources management at regional and local scales. In addition to these common hydrological challenges, coastal communities are further threatened by rising sea level and increasing storm surge and erosion. Adapting to these challenges requires a thorough understanding of the potential impacts of climate change from a long-term and systematic perspective.

This Special Issue focuses on the latest research advances in hydroclimate, coastal hydrology, hydrological extremes, and sustainable water resources management. Research topics may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Climate change modeling;
  • Climate downscaling;
  • Hydroclimate modeling;
  • Flood modeling;
  • Hydrological cycle;
  • Hydrological extremes (e.g., droughts, storms, and floods);
  • Coastal hydrological challenges (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, and storm surge);
  • Water resources monitoring and management;
  • Sustainable irrigation.

Dr. Xander Wang
Dr. Lirong Liu
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
The Impacts of Climate Change on the Hydrological Cycle and Water Resource Management
Water 2023, 15(13), 2342; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132342 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
Global warming can alter the hydrological cycle in various forms such as increased cloudiness and latent heat fluxes, leading to more intensive and frequent precipitation extreme events (e.g., droughts, storms, and floods). [...] Full article

Research

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21 pages, 8219 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effect of Climate Change on the Characteristics of Rainfall in Igeldo-Gipuzkoa (Spain)
Water 2023, 15(8), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081529 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
In recent years, numerous studies have been carried out on changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes and in the frequency of the extreme events that are a result of climate change. While there is evidence of an increase in temperature at a [...] Read more.
In recent years, numerous studies have been carried out on changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes and in the frequency of the extreme events that are a result of climate change. While there is evidence of an increase in temperature at a global level, this globality does not seem to occur with precipitation. The Igeldo weather station (San Sebastian) has one of the longest recorded rainfall intensity series in Spain and can be considered as representative of the Cantabrian coast. This circumstance makes it the ideal place to analyse the trend of the pluviometric regime of this area, and this was precisely the objective of this study. A total of 165 series of pluviometric parameters were obtained to characterise the pluviometric regime. The Mann–Kendall and Spearman tests were applied to evaluate the trends of the different parameters, and the Pettitt test was applied to detect the existence of change points. In all the series, it was proven that there were no significant trends or change points. Significant increasing trends were only detected in the series of maximum winter precipitation. In general terms, it can be concluded that the precipitation regime in Igeldo is quite stationary in the context of climate change. Full article
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20 pages, 8942 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Present and Future Water Security under Anthropogenic and Climate Changes Using WEAP Model in the Vilcanota-Urubamba Catchment, Cusco, Perú
Water 2023, 15(7), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071439 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4074
Abstract
Water is an essential resource for social and economic development. The availability of this resource is constantly threatened by the rapid increase in its demand. This research assesses current (2010–2016), short- (2017–2040), middle- (2041–2070), and long-term (2071–2099) levels of water security considering socio-economic [...] Read more.
Water is an essential resource for social and economic development. The availability of this resource is constantly threatened by the rapid increase in its demand. This research assesses current (2010–2016), short- (2017–2040), middle- (2041–2070), and long-term (2071–2099) levels of water security considering socio-economic and climate change scenarios using the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) in Vilcanota-Urubamba (VUB) catchment. The streamflow data of the Pisac hydrometric station were used to calibrate (1987–2006) and validate (2007–2016) the WEAP Model applied to the VUB region. The Nash Sutcliffe efficiency values were 0.60 and 0.84 for calibration and validation, respectively. Different scenarios were generated for socio-economic factors (population growth and increased irrigation efficiency) and the impact of climate change to evaluate their effect on the current water supply system. The results reveal that water availability is much higher than the current demand in the VUB for the period (2010–2016). For short-, middle- and long term, two scenarios were considered, “Scenario 1” (RCP 4.5) and “Scenario 2” (RCP 8.5). Climate change scenarios show that water availability will increase. However, this increase will not cover the future demands in all the sub-basins because water availability is not evenly distributed in all of the VUB. In both scenarios, an unmet demand was detected from 2050. For the period 2071–2099, an unmet demand of 477 hm3/year for “Scenario 1” and 446 hm3/year for “Scenario 2” were estimated. Because population and agricultural demands are the highest, the effects of reducing the growth rate and improving the irrigation structure were simulated. Therefore, two more scenarios were generated “Scenario 3” (RCP 4.5 with management) and “Scenario 4” (RCP 8.5 with management). This socio-economic management proved to be effective in reducing the unmet demand up to 50% in all sub-basins for the period 2071–2099. Full article
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16 pages, 4758 KiB  
Article
The Perturbation of Mangla Watershed Ecosystem in Pakistan Due to Hydrological Alteration
Water 2023, 15(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040656 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Hydrological regimes influence an aquatic ecosystem’s biotic composition, structure, and functioning. But construction of dams or anthropogenic activities substantially alter the hydrologic regimes. In this study, we used a method named as the “Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration” to examine the degree of hydrologic [...] Read more.
Hydrological regimes influence an aquatic ecosystem’s biotic composition, structure, and functioning. But construction of dams or anthropogenic activities substantially alter the hydrologic regimes. In this study, we used a method named as the “Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration” to examine the degree of hydrologic alteration at seven flow gauge stations in the Mangla watershed. The assessment of alteration is carried out according to the Range of Variability (RVA). This method relies on analyzing hydrologic data obtained from existing measurement points (e.g., stream gauges) within an ecosystem or model-generated data. We used 33 parameters categorized into 5 groups based on magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change to characterize hydrologic variation within a year statistically. We then examine the hydrologic perturbations by comparing the measure of central tendency and dispersion for each parameter between the “pre-impact (1967–1994)” and “post-impact (1995–2014)” periods. The results show that within the Mangla watershed, the high alteration was noted in the magnitude of monthly flows and extreme flows at Azad Pattan, Gari Habibullah, Palote and at Muzafarabad stations. The flow at Domel and Kohala stations are found in low hydrological alteration among all groups of indicators. The study indicates that Neelum Basin at Muzaffarabad has significantly high alteration with maximum negative values. On the other hand, a high frequency of alteration observed in the monthly flows and extreme water conditions. Overall, a moderate alteration is observed in the whole watershed, which may produce adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystem of the Mangla watershed. Full article
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20 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
The Dynamics of Hydrological Extremes under the Highest Emission Climate Change Scenario in the Headwater Catchments of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
Water 2023, 15(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020358 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Climate change and its impact on surface runoff in the upper Blue Nile basin and sub-basins have been widely studied in future climate projections. However, the impact on extreme flow events of rivers is barely investigated discretely. In this paper, the change in [...] Read more.
Climate change and its impact on surface runoff in the upper Blue Nile basin and sub-basins have been widely studied in future climate projections. However, the impact on extreme flow events of rivers is barely investigated discretely. In this paper, the change in temperature and rainfall under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) highest emission scenario (RCP 8.5) and its impact on the high flow and low flow simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT 2012) in major watersheds of the Lake Tana Basin has been evaluated by comparing the baseline period (1971–2000) with the 2020s (2011–2040), 2050s (2041–2070), and 2080s (2071–2100). The high flows of watersheds were selected by the Annual Maximum Series (AMS) model, whereas the low-flow watersheds were selected by the 7-day sustained mean annual minimum flow method. The result showed that the highest change in maximum temperature ranged from 2.93 °C to 5.17 °C in monthly time scales in the 2080s. The increment in minimum temperature is also more prominent in the 2080s and it is expected to rise by 4.75 °C. Inter-annual variability of the change in rainfall has shown increasing and decreasing patterns. The highest increments are expected by 22.37%, 25.58%, and 29.75% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, whereas the projected highest decrease in rainfall dictates the decrease of 6.42%, 7.11%, and 9.26% in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively. Due to changes in temperature and rainfall, the low flow is likely to decrease by 8.39%, 8.33%, 6.21%, and 5.02% in Ribb, Gumara, Megech, and Gilgel Abay watersheds, respectively, whereas the high flow of Gilgel Abay, Megech, Gumara, and Ribb watersheds are expected to increase by 13.94%, 12.16%, 10.90%, and 10.24%, respectively, every 30 years. Full article
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26 pages, 7603 KiB  
Article
Future Projections and Uncertainties of CMIP6 for Hydrological Indicators and Their Discrepancies from CMIP5 over South Korea
Water 2022, 14(18), 2926; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182926 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Future climate projections and their uncertainties affect many aspects of the world, so reliable assessments are essential for policymakers who need to prepare mitigation measures in the context of climate change. In this study, we examined the projected future climate and estimated uncertainty [...] Read more.
Future climate projections and their uncertainties affect many aspects of the world, so reliable assessments are essential for policymakers who need to prepare mitigation measures in the context of climate change. In this study, we examined the projected future climate and estimated uncertainty for South Korea using results from the global climate model (GCM), updated from the sixth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP6); we then compared the differences in outcome between the fifth and sixth phases of the CMIP (CMIP5 and CMIP6). Future projections were estimated as the averaged climatological mean (denoted as CM¯) for the four proposed hydrological indicators. Model uncertainty (UEMI) and stochastic uncertainty (USTO) were quantified as the range of ensembles of the climatological mean, while the emission uncertainty (UEMI) was estimated as the difference between the CM¯ values of two emission scenarios. The following are the key findings of our study: (1) using an ensemble of multiple GCMs is recommended over using individual GCMs, and models in CMIP6 performed better for reproducing climate during the control period than models in the CMIP5; (2) the CM¯ values in the CMIP6 increased for future periods, especially toward the end of this century, increasing mean temperature (meanTa) by approximately 5 °C, total precipitation (totPr), and daily maximum precipitation (maxDa) by about 20%, and these values were higher than those of the CMIP5; (3) the UGCM, USTO, and UEMI values increased for future periods in most of the indices; (4) the UGCM (for meanTa, totPr, and maxDa) and USTO (for totPr and maxDa) magnitudes in the CMIP6 were higher than those in the CMIP5, while the UEMI values between the two CMIPs were similar for all of the indices; (5) the UGCM was the major source of the largest uncertainty for meanTa, the USTO had a significant impact on future projections of totPr and maxDa, especially in the summer, and the UEMI became the dominant source of uncertainty for projecting the future meanTa, especially in the period farthest from the present. These results should provide useful information for studies that quantify future climate-induced hydrological impacts. Full article
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23 pages, 6829 KiB  
Article
Response of Low Flows of Polish Rivers to Climate Change in 1987–1989
Water 2022, 14(18), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182780 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
The paper discusses changes in the low-flow regime of rivers in Poland, resulting from climate change that occurred between 1987 and 1989. The low-flow variability of rivers was measured with the use of the number of days with low flows (NDLF) [...] Read more.
The paper discusses changes in the low-flow regime of rivers in Poland, resulting from climate change that occurred between 1987 and 1989. The low-flow variability of rivers was measured with the use of the number of days with low flows (NDLF) below a threshold value, which was adopted as the 0.1 (10%) percentile (Q10) from the set of daily flows recorded in the multi-annual period 1951–2020 at 140 water gauges on 83 rivers. The analysis of the course of climate change over Poland showed that it was caused by macro-circulation conditions, controlled by changes in the intensity of thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic (NA THC). Climate change consisted of a sharp increase in sunshine duration and air temperature, and a decrease in relative humidity after 1988. Along with the lack of changes in precipitation totals, characterized by a strong yearly variability, and an increase in field evaporation, it led to noticeable changes in the water balance. As a result, in 1989–2020, there was a significant increase in NDFL detected in about 2/3 of the area of Poland. With the change in the NA THC phase and the macro-circulation conditions, there was also a change in the spatial distribution of areas drained by rivers with increased NDFL. In 1951–1988, these included the eastern parts of Poland, while after the climate change (1989–2020), its western and south-western parts. Full article
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21 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Different Hydroclimate Modelling Approaches Can Lead to a Large Range of Streamflow Projections under Climate Change: Implications for Water Resources Management
Water 2022, 14(17), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172730 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
The paper compares future streamflow projections for 133 catchments in the Murray–Darling Basin simulated by a hydrological model with future rainfall inputs generated from different methods informed by climate change signals from different global climate models and dynamically downscaled datasets. The results show [...] Read more.
The paper compares future streamflow projections for 133 catchments in the Murray–Darling Basin simulated by a hydrological model with future rainfall inputs generated from different methods informed by climate change signals from different global climate models and dynamically downscaled datasets. The results show a large range in future projections of hydrological metrics, mainly because of the uncertainty in rainfall projections within and across the different climate projection datasets. Dynamical downscaling provides simulations at higher spatial resolutions, but projections from different datasets can be very different. The large number of approaches help provide a robust understanding of future hydroclimate conditions, but they can also be confusing. For water resources management, it may be prudent to communicate just a couple of future scenarios for impact assessments with stakeholders and policymakers, particularly when practically all of the projections indicate a drier future in the Basin. The median projection for 2046–2075 relative to 1981–2010 for a high global warming scenario is a 20% decline in streamflow across the Basin. More detailed assessments of the impact and adaptation options could then use all of the available datasets to represent the full modelled range of plausible futures. Full article
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29 pages, 4218 KiB  
Article
Prospective Climates, and Water Availabilities under Different Projections of Environmental Changes in Prince Edward Island, Canada
Water 2022, 14(5), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050740 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Climate change impacts on temperatures, precipitations, streamflows, and recharges were studied across eastern, central, and western Prince Edward Island (PEI) between climate normals in 1991–2020, 2021–2050, and 2051–2080 using observed and projected data, and SWAT modeling. Average annual temperature can significantly rise from [...] Read more.
Climate change impacts on temperatures, precipitations, streamflows, and recharges were studied across eastern, central, and western Prince Edward Island (PEI) between climate normals in 1991–2020, 2021–2050, and 2051–2080 using observed and projected data, and SWAT modeling. Average annual temperature can significantly rise from the existing 5.90–6.86 °C to 8.26–11.09 °C in different parts during the next 30–60 years under different RCP scenarios. Average annual precipitations would not significantly change except in western PEI where a 17% likely increase would offset further warming impact; therefore, current streamflows (~650 mm/year) and recharges (~320 mm/year) would not be much affected there. However, warming and increased pumping together in its Wilmot River watershed could reduce streamflows up to 9%, and 13% during 2021–2050, and 2051–2080, respectively. In the eastern forest-dominated Bear River watershed, no significant reductions in current streamflows (~692 mm/year) or recharges (~597 mm/year) are expected. Nevertheless, near constant precipitation and warming could cumulatively reduce streamflows/recharges up to 8% there, as pumping will be negligible. In the central zone, precipitation could insignificantly increase up to 5%, but current streamflows (~737 mm/year) and recharges (~446 mm/year) would not be significantly affected, except for RCP8.5 under which streamflows could reduce by ~16% during 2051–2080. Overall, more attenuated streamflows and recharges are likely with higher quantities in late winter and early spring, and somewhat lesser ones in summer, which could reduce water supplies during the growing season. Besides, precipitation uncertainty of ~300 mm/year between dry and wet years continues to be a major water management challenge. Adapting policies and regulations to the changing environment would ensure sustainable water management in PEI. Full article
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31 pages, 8872 KiB  
Article
Impact of Climate Change on Hydrometeorology and Droughts in the Bilate Watershed, Ethiopia
Water 2022, 14(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050729 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
This study aims to assess the potential impacts of climate change on hydrometeorological variables and drought characteristics in the Ethiopian Bilate watershed. Climate projections under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were obtained from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Africa for [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the potential impacts of climate change on hydrometeorological variables and drought characteristics in the Ethiopian Bilate watershed. Climate projections under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were obtained from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Africa for the near future (2021–2050) and far future (2071–2100) periods. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to assess changes in watershed hydrology with the CORDEX-Africa data. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Streamflow Drought Index (SDI), and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) were calculated to identify the characteristics of meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural droughts, respectively. Due to a significant rise in temperature, evapotranspiration will increase by up to 16.8% by the end of the 21st century. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the annual average rainfall is estimated to decrease by 38.3% in the far future period, inducing a reduction of streamflow of up to 37.5%. Projections in reduced diurnal temperature range might benefit crop growth but suggest elevated heat stress. Probabilities of drought occurrence are expected to be doubled in the far future period, with increased intensities for all three types of droughts. These projected impacts will exacerbate water scarcity and threaten food securities in the study area. The study findings provide forward-looking quantitative information for water management authorities and decision-makers to develop adaptive measures to cope with the changing climate. Full article
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14 pages, 7300 KiB  
Article
Highwater Mark Collection after Post Tropical Storm Dorian and Implications for Prince Edward Island, Canada
Water 2021, 13(22), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223201 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5848
Abstract
Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada has been experiencing the consequences of a rising sea level and intense storms on its coasts in recent years. The most recent severe event, Post Tropical Storm Dorian (Dorian), began impacting Prince Edward Island on 7 September 2019 [...] Read more.
Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada has been experiencing the consequences of a rising sea level and intense storms on its coasts in recent years. The most recent severe event, Post Tropical Storm Dorian (Dorian), began impacting Prince Edward Island on 7 September 2019 and lasted for over 20 h until the morning of 8 September 2019. The measurement of highwater marks (HWM) from the storm was conducted between 25 September and 25 October 2019 using a high precision, survey grade methodology. The HWM measured included vegetation lines, wrack lines, beach, cliff, and dune morphological features, and tide gauge data at 53 locations in the Province along coastal areas that are exposed to high tides, storm surge, high winds, and wave runup. Photos were taken to provide evidence on the nature of the HWM data locations. The data reveal that Dorian caused extensive coastal floods in many areas along the North and South Coast of Prince, Queens and Western Kings Counties of Prince Edward Island. The floods reached elevations in excess of 3.4 m at some locations, posing threats to local infrastructure and causing damage to natural features such as sand dunes in these areas. The HWM data can provide useful information for community and emergency response organizations as plans are developed to cope with the rising sea level and increased frequency of highwater events as predicted by researchers. As Dorian has caused significant damage in several coastal areas in PEI, better planning using an enhanced storm forecasting and coastal flood warning system, in conjunction with flood stage values, could possibly have reduced the impacts of the storm in the impacted areas. This could help enhance public understanding of the potential impacts in local areas and how they can prepare and adapt for these events in the future. Full article
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20 pages, 10018 KiB  
Article
Addressing Climate Internal Variability on Future Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves at Fine Scales across South Korea
Water 2021, 13(20), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202828 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Designing water infrastructure requires information about the magnitude and frequency of upcoming rainfall. A limited range of data offers just one of many realizations that occurred in the past or will occur in the future; thus, it cannot sufficiently explain climate internal variability [...] Read more.
Designing water infrastructure requires information about the magnitude and frequency of upcoming rainfall. A limited range of data offers just one of many realizations that occurred in the past or will occur in the future; thus, it cannot sufficiently explain climate internal variability (CIV). In this study, future relationships among rainfall intensity (RI), duration, and frequency (called the IDF curve) are established by addressing the CIV and tail characteristics with respect to frequency. Specifically, 100 ensembles of 30-year time series data were created to quantify that uncertainty. Then, the tail characteristics of future extreme rainfall events were investigated to determine whether they will remain similar to those in the present. From the RIs computed for control and future periods under two emission scenarios, following are the key results. Firstly, future RI will increase significantly for most locations, especially near the end of this century. Secondly, the spatial distributions and patterns indicate higher RI in coastal areas and lower RI for the central inland areas of South Korea, and those distributions are similar to those of the climatological mean (CM) and CIV. Thirdly, a straightforward way to reveal whether the tail characteristics of future extreme rainfall events are the same as those in the present is to inspect the slope value for the factor of change (FOC), mFOC. Fourthly, regionalizing with nearby values is very risky when investigating future changes in precipitation frequency estimates. Fifthly, the magnitude of uncertainty is large when the data length is short and gradually decreases as the data length increases for all return periods, but the uncertainty range becomes much greater as the return period becomes large. Lastly, inferring future changes in RI from the CM is feasible only for small return periods and at locations where mFOC is close to zero. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 1981 KiB  
Review
Review of Global Interest and Developments in the Research on Aquifer Recharge and Climate Change: A Bibliometric Approach
Water 2021, 13(21), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213001 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Groundwater represents 98% of the world’s freshwater resources. These resources have been strongly impacted by the increases in temperature and in the variation in precipitation. Despite many advances, the relationship between climate change and the dynamics of aquifer recharge is still poorly understood. [...] Read more.
Groundwater represents 98% of the world’s freshwater resources. These resources have been strongly impacted by the increases in temperature and in the variation in precipitation. Despite many advances, the relationship between climate change and the dynamics of aquifer recharge is still poorly understood. This study includes an analysis of 211 papers using the biblioshiny function in the bibliometric R Package. Additionally, specific papers were selected to identify limits, trends, and negative and positive impacts. The results indicated an average growth of 14.38% and a significant increase in research from 2009. In total, 52 countries have undertaken studies in this field, just over 26% of the total number of countries. In the papers examined, the worst projections related to reductions in recharge were identified for arid and desert areas; the highest recharges were identified in the northern regions and in areas at high altitudes, where recharge capacity is maintained or increases due to rapid snow and glacial melting resulting from temperature increases. Despite the advances achieved, more studies should be extended to analyse groundwater assessment at other latitudes to reach a complete and comprehensive understanding. This understanding should be one of the priorities for water among governments and the scientific community in order to safeguard this precious resource. Full article
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