Rainfall Measurement and Its Application

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 4936

Special Issue Editor

Department of Applied Physics, University of Leon, Leon, Spain
Interests: rainfall characterization; measurements of rainfall; rainfall simulators; disdrometers; splash erosion; karstification; impacts of water on construction; fluid dynamics engineering; erosion; weather types
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The collection and reuse of rainwater around the world is seen as a solution to the supply problems suffered by increasingly populated large cities. Harnessing rainwater makes water available and prevents it from running off contaminated surfaces, thus preventing the pollution of natural watercourses and also of underground reserves. This is why in several countries of the world, measures are being taken to capture and reuse rainwater resources. In a world under climate change, unstable weather produces less rainfall events, but they are more intense and unpredictable.

Hence the importance of the study of rainfall measurements has evolved greatly, as, in addition to the classic pluviometers and rain gauges, new study techniques are being used, such as the use of rainfall simulators, the application of high-speed photography, combined 3D disdrometers, and the use of highly advanced radar or weather types.

Furthermore, it is very important the study of strategies developed for saving rainwater; for the rapid detection of acid rain; and for the control of possible effects of rainfall events, like wave interference, the cleaning of aerosols, and effects on human health, among others.

We dedicate this collection of papers to researchers specialized in the study of rainfall measurements and its applications. It is also dedicated to those working on the collection and reuse of rainwater, and control of the adverse effects of rain influenced by climate change.

Dr. María Fernández-Raga
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • rainfall characterization
  • drop size distribution
  • reuse of rainwater
  • climatic change effects
  • new technology for measure rainfall
  • disdrometers
  • applications of rainfall measurements
  • weather types
  • high speed photography
  • rainfall simulator

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5847 KiB  
Article
The Use of High-Speed Cameras as a Tool for the Characterization of Raindrops in Splash Laboratory Studies
Water 2021, 13(20), 2851; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202851 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Measuring the characteristics of raindrops is essential for different processes studies. There have been many methods used throughout history to measure raindrops. In recent years, automatic image recognition and processing systems have been used with high-speed cameras to characterize rainfall by obtaining the [...] Read more.
Measuring the characteristics of raindrops is essential for different processes studies. There have been many methods used throughout history to measure raindrops. In recent years, automatic image recognition and processing systems have been used with high-speed cameras to characterize rainfall by obtaining the spectrum of droplet sizes and their speeds and thus being able to use this technology to calibrate rainfall simulators. In this work, two phases were carried out: in the first one, individual drops with terminal speeds of different sizes were measured and processed both in speed and in shape with a high-speed camera; and in the second phase, a calibration procedure was designed but in multidrop images, determining the characteristics of the drops produced by a rain simulator. According to results, the real shape of each drop depending on the size was determined, from round to ovaloid shapes, and the terminal velocity of water drops with different sizes was measured. Based on the rain images used to calibrate a rainfall simulator, it was observed that, with a higher intensity of rain, the drops produced were smaller, which contrasts with real rain, in which just the opposite happens. This calibration evaluates their resemblance to reality, calculates the real kinetic energy of the rain they produce and see if they can be used to model events in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall Measurement and Its Application)
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15 pages, 3051 KiB  
Article
Research on the Influence of Small-Scale Terrain on Precipitation
Water 2021, 13(6), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060805 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Terrain plays an important role in the formation, development and distribution of local precipitation and is a major factor leading to locally abnormal weather in weather systems. Although small-scale topography has little influence on the spatial distribution of precipitation, it interferes with precipitation [...] Read more.
Terrain plays an important role in the formation, development and distribution of local precipitation and is a major factor leading to locally abnormal weather in weather systems. Although small-scale topography has little influence on the spatial distribution of precipitation, it interferes with precipitation fitting. Due to the arbitrary combination of small, medium and large-scale terrain, complex terrain distribution is formed, and small-scale terrain cannot be clearly defined and removed. Based on the idea of bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD), this paper extracts small-scale terrain data layer by layer to smooth the terrain and constructs a macroterrain model for different scales in Central China. Based on the precipitation distribution model using multiple regression, precipitation models (B0, B1, B2 and B3) of different scales are constructed. The 18-year monthly average precipitation data of each station are compared with the precipitation simulation results under different scales of terrain and TRMM precipitation data, and the influence of different levels of small-scale terrain on the precipitation distribution is analysed. The results show that (1) in Central China, the accuracy of model B2 is much higher than that of TRMM model A and monthly precipitation model B0. The comprehensive evaluation indexes are increased by 3.31% and 1.92%, respectively. (2) The influence of different levels of small-scale terrain on the precipitation distribution is different. The first- and second-order small-scale terrain has interference effects on precipitation fitting, and the third-order small-scale terrain has an enhancement effect on precipitation. However, the effect of small-scale topography on the precipitation distribution is generally reflected as interference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall Measurement and Its Application)
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